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LAST NAME:_________________________________ MAJOR:_____________________

FIRST NAME:_________________________________ MINOR:_____________________



For 1 to 24, fill in the text below with ONE appropriate word for each gap, then
transfer your final answers under the Your answers heading below.

The origin of language

The truth is nobody really knows how language first began. Did we all start talking at
around the same time (1)_because_ of the manner in which our brains had begun to
develop? Although (2)_there_ is a lack of clear evidence, people have come up with various
theories about the origins of language.
5 One recent theory is that human beings have evolved in (3)_such_ a way that we are
programmed (4)_speaking language from the moment of birth. In (5)_other_ words,
language came about (6)_to_ a result of an evolutionary change in our brains at some stage.
Language (7)_might_ well be programmed into the brain but, (8)_despite_ this,
people still need stimulus (9)_from others around them. We know that (10)_if_ children are
10isolated from human contact and have not learnt to construct sentences before they are ten,
it is doubtful they will ever do so. This research shows, if (11)_nothing_ else, that language
is a social activity, not something invented (12)_in_ isolation.

Mobile communication

For many people, mobile email is a habit that they couldn’t give (13)_up_ even (14)_if_
15they wanted to. And (15)_why_ should they want to? (16)_After_ all, the ability to send and
receive emails from a mobile device means that they can stay in touch (17)_with_
colleagues, friends and family, whether they’re standing in a queue at the supermarket,
downing a quick cup of coffee in between meetings or killing (18)_time_ before a flight.
It’s fair to say that access (19)_to_ email while on the move (20)_has_ done much to
20whet appetites for other kinds of collaborative tools. What’s (21)_more_, there’s a whole
new way of working that has opened up in recent years and, (22)_as a result, there’s a
general expectation (23)_that_ efficiency and productivity don’t necessarily take
(24)_place_ within the four walls of an organisation’s physical offices.
For 25 to 36, supply the correct answer, then transfer your final answers under
the Your answers heading below.
25. In line 1 nobody is a(n)
a) Noun Phrase, Subject
b) Noun Phrase, Direct Object
c) Indefinite pronoun, Subject Complement
d) Indefinite pronoun, Subject

26. In line 1 how language first began is a(n)

a) Nominal Clause, Direct Object
b) Relative Clause, Defining
c) Relative Clause, Non-Defining
d) Adverbial Clause, Adverbial Modifier of Manner

27. In line 11, the word that is a

a) demonstrative pronoun
b) demonstrative adjective
c) subordinating conjunction
d) relative pronoun

28. In line 14 they couldn’t … wanted to is a

a) Defining Relative Clause
b) Non-Defining Relative Clause
c) Nominal Clause, Adjective Complement
d) Nominal Clause, Noun Complement

29. In line 16 they can stay in touch … family is a

a) Nominal Clause, Delayed Subject
b) Nominal Clause, Subject Complement
c) Noun Phrase, Subject
d) Noun Phrase, Direct Object

30. In line 20 a whole new way of working that has opened up in recent years is a
a) Noun Phrase, Direct Object
b) Noun Phrase, Subject
c) Nominal Clause, Subject
d) Nominal Clause, Subject Complement

31. In line 21 recent years is a(n)

a) Noun Phrase, Complement of Preposition
b) Noun Phrase, Adverbial Modifier of Time
c) Adjective Phrase, Complement of Preposition
d) Adverb Phrase, Adverbial Modifier of Time

32. In line 1 talking is a

a) past participle
b) present participle
c) noun
d) gerund

33. In line 6 the noun phrase from the moment of birth contains both
a) a predeterminer and a postmodifier
b) a central determiner and a premodifier
c) a central determiner and a postmodifier
d) a postdeterminer and a postmodifier
34. In line 20, whole is a(n)
a) adjective
b) adverb
c) noun
d) numeral

35. that language is a social activity in line 11 is headed by

a) noun language;
b) inflection is;
c) complementizer that;
d) noun phrase a social activity.

36 Which of the following if FALSE about the phrase Did we all start talking at around the same
time… in lines 1-2?
a) overt we occupies a spec-IP position;
b) did moves to occupy the spec-CP position;
c) start heads a verb phrase;
d) at projects a prepositional phrase.

Your answers Your answers

1. 25.

2. 26.

3. 27.

4. 28.

5. 29.

6. 30.

7. 31.

8. 32.

9. 33.

10. 34.

11. 35.

12. 36.