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Growing concerns for the depletion of the

world's natural resources and our future
energy supply has increased the need and
development of solar power. The most critical
advancement in the development of solar
technology has been Photovoltaics, a solar
energy system that uses semi-conductors to
directly convert solar radiation into electricity.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are composed of a
large number of cells (typically made of
crystalline silicon) arranged in formation on a
metal frame, the entirety of which is known as
a module.

When exposed to sunlight these cells produce

a small direct current of electricity, and when
used en masse will generate a large amount of
electrical power with no moving parts, noise or
emissions. The amount of electricity generated
is dependent on several factors: the size and
arrangement of the PV system, the PV module
array, and the efficiency of the electrical

components used to covert solar energy into
electricity usable by your home or building
(called inverters).

Most electricity is distributed through an

electrical utility provider, which is the company
that produces and/or distributes electricity to
consumers in a region or state. The electricity
is distributed along the electrical grid-the
utility’s network of conductors, substations,
and equipment that distributes electricity from
its central hub to the consumer. The grid can
span hundreds of miles from the power plants
to thousands of homes and businesses. By
having a PV system, you don’t have to rely on
your utility company if there is a system
distribution break down along the grid.
Electrical outages, though rare, do still occur
under certain circumstances such as
overloaded systems or severe weather events.

Owning a PV system allows you to create your

own power to supply your entire house and
lifestyle without being tied to the issues that
can occur with utility grids. You only require
the utility company to activate the system and
only need to use the grid until your system is
actively producing the energy output your
household or business requires. Throughout
the year your energy consumption changes
and what energy you don’t use from the PV
system will be banked in the utility grid. This
can then be used during night hours or during
times of the year when the sun isn’t as intense
or if shading occurs due to weather.


The project aims to explore the potential of

solar PV system in
different regions in terms of energy saving and
The objectives of this paper are:
• Build up a life cycle inventory of Crystalline
PV system
• Investigate total energy consumption and
footprint of the PV system along its life cycle
• Estimate energy production and energy payback
of the PV system in four regions.

1876: When William Grylls Adams and his
student, Richard Evans Day, discovered that
an electrical current could be started in
selenium solely by exposing it to light, they felt
confident that they had discovered something
completely new. Werner von Siemens, a
contemporary whose reputation in the field of
electricity ranked him alongside Thomas
Edison, called the discovery “scientifically of
the most far-reaching importance.” This
pioneering work portended quantum
mechanics long before most chemists and
physicist had accepted the reality of atoms.
Although selenium solar cells failed to convert
enough sunlight to power electrical equipment,
they proved that a solid material could change

light into electricity without heat or any moving

1905: In 1905 Albert Einstein published the first

theoretical work describing the photovoltaic
effect titled “Concerning an Heuristic Point of
View Toward the Emission and Transformation
of Light.” In the paper, he showed that light
possesses an attribute that earlier scientists
had not recognized. Light, Einstein discovered,
contains packets of energy, which he called
light quanta.

Einstein’s bold and novel description of light,

combined with the [1898] discovery of the
electron, gave scientists in the second decade
of the twentieth century a better understanding
of photo electricity. They saw that the more
powerful photons carry enough energy to
knock poorly linked electrons from their atomic
orbits in materials like selenium. When wires
are attached, the liberated electrons flow
through them as electricity. By the 1920s,
scientists referred to the phenomenon as the
“photovoltaic effect.”
In it's simplest form, all that is required for a
solar power system is a panel to collect the
sun's energy and a battery to store that energy.
When the sun is shining, the panel will produce
a voltage higher than that of the battery,
causing the battery to be charged. Most panels
will include a blocking diode (an electrical
component that will only allow electricity to
pass in one direction) ensuring that the battery
does not discharge through the panel when the
sun is not shining.
A connection can be taken from the battery to
provide a low voltage direct current for use.
Simple diagram to show the connection of a
panel and battery


This system could be used to power a small
piece of equipment in a location where there is
no power.
There is however need for improvement. With
the above setup, if more power is being
produced than is used, the battery will be
charged to a voltage that is high enough to
damage the battery. Also, if more power is
being used than is being generated, the battery
voltage will drop to a level where again,
damage reducing the life of the battery will
This system needs refining by the addition of a
charge controller as shown in the circuit


The charge controller simply connects
between the panel and the battery where it
monitors and controls the current flow.
In it's simplest form, the charge controller will
stop the current flow from the panel if the
battery voltage exceeds a pre-set level.
Most controllers will also have a connection
from which current may be drawn for lighting
or powering equipment. This current flow will
be stopped by the controller if the battery
voltage drops below a pre-set level.

In many cases however, the power requirement

is for a supply that is similar to "mains"
electricity ie, 120 or 230 volts AC (alternating
To meet his requirement, an inverter is
required, which will also have a system to stop

it from draining the battery to a level that might

damage it.

Photovoltaic involves the direct generation of
electricity from light by using a semi-conductor
material which can be adapted to release

The most important parts of a PV system are

the cells which form the basic building blocks,
the modules, which bring together large
numbers of cells into a unit, and, in some
situations, the inverters used to convert the
electricity generated into a form suitable for
everyday use.

All PV cells have at least two layers of semi-

conductors, one positively charged and one
negatively charged. When light shines on the
semi-conductor, the electric field across the
junction between these two layers causes
electricity to flow, generating DC current. The
greater the intensity of the light, the greater the
flow of electricity.

A photovoltaic system does not need bright

sunlight in order to operate. It also generates
electricity on cloudy days, with its energy
output proportionate to the density of the



This type of solar panels (made of
monocrystalline silicon) is the purest one. You
can easily recognise them from the uniform
dark look and the rounded edges. The silicon’s
high purity causes this type of solar panel has
one of the highest efficiency rates, with the
newest ones reaching above 20%.

Monocrystalline panels have a high power

output, occupy less space, and last the
longest. Of course, that also means they are
the most expensive of the bunch. Another
advantage to consider is that they tend to be
slightly less affected by high temperatures
compared to polycrystalline panels.


You can quickly distinguish these panels
because this type of solar panels has squares,
its angles are not cut, and it has a blue,
speckled look. They are made by melting raw
silicon, which is a faster and cheaper process
than that used for monocrystalline panels.

This leads to a lower final price but also lower

efficiency (around 15%), lower space
efficiency, and a shorter lifespan since they are
affected by hot temperatures to a greater
degree. However, the differences between
mono- and polycrystalline types of solar
panels are not so significant and the choice
will strongly depend on your specific situation.
The first option offers a slightly higher space
efficiency at a slightly higher price but power
outputs are basically the same.


If you are looking for a less expensive option,
you might want to look into thin-film. Thin-film
solar panels are manufactured by placing one
or more films of photovoltaic material (such as
silicon, cadmium or copper) onto a substrate.
These types of solar panels are the easiest to
produce and economies of scale make them
cheaper than the alternatives due to less
material being needed for its production.

They are also flexible—which opens a lot of

opportunities for alternative applications—and
is less affected by high temperatures. The main
issue is that they take up a lot of space,
generally making them unsuitable for
residential installations. Moreover, they carry
the shortest warranties because their lifespan
is shorter than the mono- and polycrystalline
types of solar panels. However, they can be a
good option to choose among the different
types of solar panels where a lot of space is


Have you ever used a solar powered pocket
calculator? Yes? Then you have definitely seen
these types of solar panels before. The
amorphous silicon solar cell is among the
different types of solar panels, the one that is
used mainly in such pocket calculators. This
type of solar panel uses a triple layered
technology, which is the best of the thin film

Just to give a brief impression of what “thin”

means, in this case, we’re talking about a
thickness of 1 micrometre (one millionth of a
metre). With only 7% efficiency rate, these cells
are less effective than crystalline silicon
ones—that have an efficiency rate of circa

18%—but the advantage is the fact that the A-
Si-Cells are relatively low in cost.


The Biohybrid solar cell is one of the types of
solar panels, that is still in the research phase.
It has been discovered by an expert team at
Vanderbilt University. The idea behind the new
technology is to take advantage of the
photosystem 1 and thus emulate the natural
process of photosynthesis. In case you want to
learn more about how the biohybrid solar cell
works in detail, read more about it in the
American Journal of Optics and Photonics. It
explains more detailed how these cells work.
Many of the materials being used in this cell
are similar to the traditional methods, but only
by combining the multiple layers of
photosystem 1, the conversion from chemical
to electrical energy becomes much more
effective (up to 1000 times more efficient than
1st generation types of solar panels).


Among the collection of different types of solar
panels, this photovoltaic technique uses
Cadmium Telluride, which enables the
production of solar cells at relatively low cost
and thus a shorter payback time (less than a
year). Of all solar energy technologies, this is
the one requiring the least amount of water for
production. Keeping the short energy payback
time in mind, CdTe solar cells will keep your
carbon footprint as low as possible. The only
disadvantage of using Cadmium Telluride is its
characteristic of being toxic, if ingested or
inhaled. In Europe especially, this is one of the
greatest barriers to overcome, as many people
are very concerned about using the technology
behind this type of solar panel.

Pure Sine Wave Output Back-up is safest
combination of UPS, Inverter and Voltage
Stabilizer as it provides Pure Sine Wave
Output. It is powered by micro controller digital
technology. You can run all appliances

altogether including Tube lights, Fans &
Computer which eliminates the need of two
equipments for similar applications, at your
home or office. Solar Preference Solar Charge
Controller is needed to be connected for solar
powering the batteries. There is a mains to
battery charger inbuilt in Solar Inverter but it
starts charging batteries only when the
batteries get exhausted due to absence of
solar power or anything else. When the
batteries get exhausted, Solar Inverter shifts to
mains mode and starts charging the batteries
through mains while giving stabilized mains
AC to the load at output. When the battery is
fully charged through mains charger, the unit
shifts back to battery, thus giving top
preference to Solar Power

Refers to an electric voltage caused by
light. Solar electricity is a method of
turning sunlight into electrical energy. This
is achieved through the use of solar cells
or solar panels to power home appliances
such as TV’s, radios, and any other
appliances commonly used. There are two
types of electrical currents. A is alternating
current, the standard electrical current in
the ".S. , in which the flow of electrons is
reversed times& second' i.e. (% cycles per
second. is direct current, which is the type
of current supplied by batteries. This is the
electrical current that cars use and solar
electric panels produce


V module -solar panel' transforms light energy

into electrical energy and mainly consists of
cells made mainly of silicon. Voltage Regulator
-charge controller ' regulates the voltage
coming from the solar panel to the battery by
keeping it from overcharging. batteries store
the energy produced by the panel for use at

night or days when the sun is not available. In
photovoltaic systems deep cycle batteries are
commonly used because the depth of
discharge is 2% percent or more before being
charged back up. Shallow cycle is the opposite
where the battery is discharged only a few
percent before being charged back up.inverter
This converts the current produced by the
solar panel into A current, so you can power
household appliances .A disconnect' Allows
you to manually shut off the power going into
your household appliances. This is an outlet so
you can plug in your TV, radio or any other
household appliance you want to power with a
photovoltaic system.
This paper intends to gather facts and information
which will prove the solar panels can be practical
source of energy .this paper also seeks answers for
the following questions:

1) How does solar panels work?

2) What are the environmental benefits of solar

3) What are the economical benefits of solar


This paper discussed about facts on how
solar panels work, its mechanisms, and its
environmental and economic advantages.

Solar panels are otherwise

called photovoltaic cells or simply “PV
cells” are devices which collects solar
energy which is one of the promising
alternative energy source. Solar panels
utilize both heat and electricity coming
from the source of solar energy, the sun.
Electric generation and water heating are
the two outcomes of solar energy

Photovoltaic cells are made

from silicon which is the most abundant
solid element on earth. It is composed of
small, square-shaped semi-conductor solar
cells which directly converts light to
electricity and heat. These semi-
conductors absorb photons which in turn
release atoms and flow of these atoms
facilitates electrical charge production.
Movement of these atoms causes
excitement of electrons that will generate
direct current electricity which can be
stores in batteries for future use.

Solar panels provide

abundant environmental and economical
advantages. Environmentally, solar panels
are considered the cleanest energy
producing contraption. It is a zero-emitting
device meaning it does not contribute to
pollution and produce no harmful
substances to humans or to the
environment. Economically, even though it
is noted to be expensive in terms of
installation, it is proven to be economical
in the long run of its functioning. It is a
reliable source of energy for the reason
that its source, the sunlight, does not
diminish. Also, it contains no movable
parts thus it requires minimum
maintenance. Lastly, its most advantage is
seen in remote and distant places in which
electric cables are not yet available.

Today, homes and office

buildings are encouraged to generate their
own electricity by including solar cells into
the construction of such structures. Many
advanced countries are initiating projects
that will encourage residents and builders
by providing tax incentives, low-cost
financing, and other subsidies from the
government. Many countries believe that
solar panels are the future source of
energy that will replace fossil fuels and
other depleting resources that were once
used to generate electricity.


Based on the gathered facts

shown and discussed in the research
paper, the following conclusions were

Solar cells are things that do the actual
work of turning sunlight into electricity.
Solar panels are advantageous not only
environmentally but economically as well.
Solar panels are expensive and its
installation costs a lot but in the long run, it
is proven to be economically
The researchers recommend concerned
readers to conduct further studies as
regards to solar panels. Current findings
about the topic can help people in
conserving electricity.
Seminars and conventions about solar
panels to discuss further their functions,
advantages and disadvantages are also
To extend the understanding regarding the
topic, the writers strongly suggest to
conduct surveys, interviews to special
people (environmentalists) also, DENR
about the unclear information.


Cowan, H.J., & Smith P.R. (1983).
Environmental System. New York: Van
Nostrand Reinold Company Inc.


Ostkreuz, J. (2000). Heroes Herman Scheer
Solar Crusader. Time, 68-69.

Maseko, G. Why Solar Panels Important.
Retrieved August 3, 2008, from the web site: