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Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 1

RELATION BETWEEN STRUCTURED INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES,

INNOVATION ORIENTATION, AND PERFORMANCE IN COLOMBIAN

MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATIONS

Dissertation

Submitted to the
Faculty of Argosy University Campus
in Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Business Administration

Claudia Marcela Iannini

Argosy University Tampa Campus

January 2012

Dissertation Committee Approval

______________________________________________________________________________
Dr. Carlos Tasso Aquino, PhD, Committee Chair Date

______________________________________________________________________________
Dr. William Corbett, Ed.D., Adviser Date

______________________________________________________________________________
Dr. Carol Hancock, PhD, Adviser Date

______________________________________________________________________________
Dr. Carlos Tasso Aquino, PhD, Chair of the School of Business Date
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 2

Table of Contents
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................ 2
List of Figures ................................................................................................................................. 4
List of Tables .................................................................................................................................. 5
Background ................................................................................................................................. 7
Problem Statement .................................................................................................................... 10
Topic to be Studied ................................................................................................................... 11
Hypotheses ................................................................................................................................ 12
Definitions ................................................................................................................................. 13
Literature Review.......................................................................................................................... 15
Creativity at the Individual Level ........................................................................................................ 15
Methodologies for Innovation: Development of Products, Processes and Services .......................... 20
Innovation and Market Orientation ................................................................................................... 23
Creativity and Organizational Culture ................................................................................................ 24
Innovation: Preparing Enterprises for a Globalized Economy ............................................................ 29
Methodology ................................................................................................................................. 33
Research Design ........................................................................................................................ 33
Research Questions ................................................................................................................... 35
Variables of Study and Measuring Devices .............................................................................. 36
Population.................................................................................................................................. 36
Potential Limitations .......................................................................................................................... 42
Instrumentation.......................................................................................................................... 42
Data Analysis and Procedures ................................................................................................... 48
Innovation Orientation and Market Orientation .................................................................... 51
Innovation Methodology ....................................................................................................... 56
Organizational Performance .................................................................................................. 60
Environmental Turbulence .................................................................................................... 63
Methodological Assumptions and Concerns ......................................................................... 64
Results ........................................................................................................................................... 67
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 3

H1: Relationship between Methodologies for the Development of Products and Processes
and Innovation Orientation .................................................................................................... 67
H2: Relationship between Innovation Orientation and Organizational Performance ........... 81
Impact of Environmental Conditions .................................................................................... 87
Discussion ................................................................................................................................. 91
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 96
References ................................................................................................................................... 100
APPENDIX A ............................................................................................................................. 113
APPENDIX C ............................................................................................................................. 124
APPENDIX D ............................................................................................................................. 163
APPENDIX E ............................................................................................................................. 169
APPENDIX F ............................................................................................................................. 172
APPENDIX G ............................................................................................................................. 173
APPENDIX H ............................................................................................................................. 174
APPENDIX I .............................................................................................................................. 175
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 4

List of Figures
Figure 1: Strategic Orientation Archetypes ...................................................................................24
Figure 2. Geographical Location of Respondents..........................................................................39
Figure 3. Distribution of Organizations per Number of Employees. .............................................39
Figure 4. Company distribution per gross sales for 2010. .............................................................40
Figure 5. Company distribution per net income for 2010 ..............................................................41
Figure 6. Companies per percentage growth from 2006 to 2010. .................................................41
Figure 7. Correlation Coefficient Between Archetypes and Company’s Self View in
Relation to the Competition. .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 8. Dimensions for Each One of the Archetypes in relation to Innovation and Market
Orientation. ....................................................................................................................................54
Figure 9. Establishing the Relationship between the Archetypes and the Design
Methodologies................................................................................................................................56
Figure 10. Establishing the Relationship between Innovation Orientation/Market
Orientation and the Different Aspects of the Design Methodologies ............................................59
Figure 11. Calculating the relationship between Innovation Orientation and Organizational
Performance. ..................................................................................................................................61
Figure 12. Relationship of the Archetypes and Environmental Conditions ..................................63
Figure 13. Average Coefficient for Each Archetype .....................................................................68
Figure 14. Innovation and Market Orientation of Surveyed Companies .......................................70
Figure 15: Percentage of Companies Corresponding to Each Archetype in Each of the
Self-Declared Archetypes. .............................................................................................................73
Figure 16. Average Index for Each One of the Design Methodologies.........................................75
Figure 17. Correlation Coefficients Between Innovation Orientation Index and Financial
Data. ...............................................................................................................................................82
Figure 18. Correlation Coefficients between Market Orientation Index and Financial Data. .......83
Figure 19: Correlation between the archetypes and company’s perception of the impact of
environmental turbulence in the organization................................................................................88
Figure 20. Correlation factor between the archetypes and the impact of the socio-political
environment ...................................................................................................................................89
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 5

List of Tables

Table 1. Manufacturing Sector Composition .................................................................................38


Table 2. Steps in the Design Process .............................................................................................44
Table 3. Percentage of Respondents Scoring on the Top Half of the Scale of Each Archetype ...74
Table 4. Correlation Coefficients Between the Different Design Methodologies and the
Archetypes. ....................................................................................................................................79
Table 5. Correlation Coefficients Between the Methodologies and the Index for Market
Orientation and Innovation Orientation. ........................................................................................80
Table 6. Correlations Between the Dimensions of the Methodologies and the Archetypes.80Error! Bookmark n
Table 7. Correlation Coefficients between the Existence of an Innovation Methodology and
Financial Data Collected…………………………………………………………………... .........86
Table 8. Correlation Coefficients between the Levels of Structure in Innovation
Methodologies and Financial Data Collected…………………………………………………. ...86
Table 9. Correlation Coefficients between the Dimensions of Decision Making in
Innovation Processes and Financial Data Collected.............................................................. ........87
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 6

Abstract

Given the challenges faced by today’s organizations due to globalization and the changes

in the market place, the relation between innovation and competitiveness has gained visibility.

Innovation, according to the 2006 IBM Global Innovation Outlook will remain the most

important factor in the success of organizations for years to come. A fundamental aspect of

innovation constitutes the harvesting of creativity, which deals with promoting creative

development at the individual level, and establishing methodologies within the organization that

foster efficiencies in creative processes and allow for creative output to be advantageously used.

This research project evaluated the role that well structured methodologies play in guiding

organizational success. The research evaluated Colombian manufacturing organizations, given

the perceived need to promote innovation in Colombia as a fundamental element of development

and provided that the concept of design methodologies resonates within the manufacturing

world. The results indicate that there is a significant correlation between the level of the structure

of a methodology and the orientation toward innovation of an organization, but the results are not

conclusive in terms of the relation between innovation orientation and organizational

performance. The findings indicate that design methodologies need to be analyzed under the

light of the orientation toward innovation of the enterprise.


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 7

Background

In looking to indentify successful aspects of innovation methodologies, it is important to

start with an analysis of creativity, as it is considered to be the raw power behind innovation.

Creativity at the individual level, considered as the raw power behind innovation (Florida, 2003).

An analysis of creativity at the individual level involves an examination of the characteristics of

individuals considered to be highly creative and the relationship between creativity and

intelligence (Andreasen, 2005). In this research document, creativity is considered to be the

capability of an individual to discern and examine information and materials to create

combinations that are new and useful (Andreasen, 2005; Carter, Bishop, and Kravits,

1998/2005).This analysis is done through secondary research and presented in the literature

review.

For creative raw power to be efficiently used, it is important to consider the processes

that allow for effective harvesting of ideas. But an evaluation of processes that lead to innovation

needs to be judged under the light of the industry in which the company performs, as companies

that are driven to increase their market share have a different approach to innovation than

companies that focus on developing new technologies or innovative solutions (Berthon, Mac

Hulbert, & Pitt, 2004). Thus, innovation at the level of the enterprise was evaluated as the

product of a methodology that is characterized by elements of design thinking. Design thinking

as an avenue for creation of processes, products or services presents an interesting point of

departure for the evaluation of innovation (Brown, 2009), as it promotes the examination of

problems from different perspectives while allowing work teams to engage in a process of

constant questioning, which is considered by Semler (2000, 2004) as a key element of

organizational success. And as Li-Min (2007) argued, design processes present an interesting
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 8

association to the analysis of creativity in relation to innovation. The research in this realm

involved determining, first, the use of a methodology in organizations, and second, the level of

structure in the methodology used. A third aspect of the research involved and exploration of

decision making processes as an element indicative of a corporate culture that promotes a

democratic decision making processes characterized by thorough analysis (Kelly & Littman,

2001).

When delineating the levels of structure in methodologies to test, four methodologies

were crafted for the analysis, mirroring the four innovation- marketing archetypes developed by

Berthon, Mac Hulbert, and Pitt (2004)—which constite the basis of this study. While the

literature review performed shed light into multiple different methodologies of diverse

dimensionality, they all followed a fundamental structure of identification of objectives,

presentation of proposed solutions and evaluation. The methodologies developed for this study

range from highly structured, following the precepts of the design methodology proposed by

Aspelund (2010) to no structure, reflecting an autocratic culture of low innovation. The midpoint

in the scale is a low structure methodology that embodies the analysis-synthesis framework of

Pena and Parshall (2001). The methodology presented by Aspelund (2010) was selected as the

basis of highly structured methodologies characteristic of high innovation, given that a thorough

process is deemed to be a fundamental aspect in the consistent development of innovative ideas

(Li, Li, Wang & Liu, 2010; Girard, Legardeur & Merlo, 2007). The framework presented by

Peña and Parshal (2001) was selected as the basis of low structured methodologies, given that it

identifies two key overarching mental processes that are presented by the authors as a germane to

the development of novel ideals: analysis and synthesis.


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 9

In regard to Colombia as the center of this study, the importance given nowadays to

innovation at a global level presents an interesting correlation with the structure of the

Colombian Free Trade Agreement (CFTA)—expected to be signed into law in 2012—which is

designed to “provide better access to [the Colombian] services sector” (Executive Office of the

President of the United States, 2009, p.1). If innovation is the most important success factor of

companies in today’s economy (IBM, 2006), the ability of Colombian organizations to manage

innovation methodologies will help them establish themselves as strong innovation partners of

American enterprises once the treaty goes into effect.

In regard to methodologies in Colombian organizations, little research was found on the

topic of innovation methodologies in Colombian manufacturing. Non-experimental empirical

data collected by the author of this research reflects a low level of structure in the design and

innovation process in Colombian organizations, in contrast to the well structured processes

evident in American organizations such as IDEO, and documented by Aspelund (2010), Brown

(2008), Kelly and Littman (2001), and Peña and Parshal (2001). It has been observed that

Colombian organizations tend to follow an ad-hoc process for developing ideas that is not

aligned with strategic planning practices.

Beyond the value of establishing opportunities for partnerships in a CFTA economy,

improving the ability of companies to innovate through structured methodologies can also

contribute to feed the momentum of a rising economy that has been in an ascending economic

trajectory during the past eight years. From the period of 2001to 2007 alone, Colombia saw a

fourteen fold increase in stocks coupled with doubled foreign investments (Farazad, 2007). Part

of the global market investments that were previously directed to countries such as Brazil,

Russia, India and China, are now being redirected to countries like Colombia. This can be
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 10

attributed to the high levels of confidence that constituted one of the priorities of President

Alvaro Uribe Velez (2002-2010). The continuing economic growth of the country is reflected in

a change of 4.5 percentage points in the second quarter of 2010—as compared to the second

quarter of 2009. This increase is credited in part to an 8.4% growth on the manufacturing sector,

a 3.8% increase in consumer consumption, a 20% increase in construction licenses, and a 22.5%

increase in housing credit (EIU Views Wire, 2010). Colombia is also a country that enjoys a

variety of fluvial channels suitable for large amounts of traffic, a fundamental characteristic of

strong economies that can accommodate increased amounts of trade (Sachs, 2005). Furthermore,

Haneine (2010) argues that Colombia is poised to become a connectivity hub in South America

for countries like the United States: “People don't yet understand that there is a country,

Colombia, that plays a strategic role, a sort of a swinging door between Central America and the

United States and North and South America. We have never played that role, but now we are

starting to play it” (Haneine, 2001, p.1).

Problem Statement

The strengthening of innovation in Colombian organizations is presented as one of the

areas of strategic development in the country by the Inter-American Development Bank (2011).

Given that strategies for successful development of ideas can enhance the ability of companies to

compete in global markets (IBM, 2006), the emphasis on well-defined, structured, innovation

methodologies as a characteristic of high performing innovative companies in the U.S. (Kelly &

Littman, 2001), points to the importance of determining the use of innovation methodologies in

Colombian organizations, in relation to different industry sectors and in regard to the

performance of an organization.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 11

Lastly, promoting innovation in a CFTA economy can help change the subservient

mentality that has characterized the relation with the U.S. for the past few years (Healey, 2010)

into a more proactive approach that fosters high level partnerships where conjunct evaluation of

the challenges imposed by a globalized economy takes place.

Topic to be Studied

This project looks at methodologies for innovation. Innovation has been deemed by the

Inter-American Development Bank (2011) as one of the elements of strategic development for

Colombia, and by IBM (2006) as one of the fundamental aspects of competitive advantage in a

globalized economy.

This research also looks to determine the appropriate level of structure in innovation

methodologies for the industry in which the organization performs. The analysis presented here

departs from the notion that highly structured methodologies are considered to be successful

avenues for innovation (Aspelund, 2010; Kelly and Littman, 2001). Given the relation

established by Kelly and Littman (2001) between a structured design methodology and success

in project development, it is assumed that a high level of structure in design methodologies in

Colombian organizations can contribute to strengthening innovation, thus improving the ability

of Colombian enterprises to partner with international enterprises. The use of a structured

methodology is also promoted by organizations such as NASA (NASA, 2008) and IDEO as a

tool for the development of ideal solutions that have a lasting effect in organizations (Kelly and

Littman, 2001).

Determining successful methodologies for innovation can increase the ability of

manufacturing companies to compete in a globalized economy, enabling them to become


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 12

stronger contributors to an economy that currently employs 68% of the population in the service

sector (CIA, 2011).

This analysis can also contribute to a definition of state-of-the art practices in innovation

processes in Colombian manufacturing organizations, something that has been widely

documented by Kelly and Littman (2001) concerning American enterprises but has not been

documented for Colombian companies, which can lead to successful project-based international

partnerships that provide avenues for harvesting the high levels of creativity innate in the Latin-

American culture—perhaps as a result of the low levels of uncertainty avoidance in the culture

(House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, and Gupta, 2004), a characteristic element of creative

processes (2010).

Hypotheses

The proposed study aims to identify the relationship between the degree of structure in

innovation methodologies in manufacturing and the extent of innovation orientation and in turn

organizational performance in Colombian organizations. The two main questions to be answered

are: (1) is there a relationship between a structured methodology and the extent of innovation

orientation of an organization? and (2) is there a relationship between the extent of innovation

orientation of an enterprise and performance in Colombian manufacturing organizations?

H10: There is no relationship between a structured methodology and the extent of

innovation orientation.

H11: The presence of a structured methodology comprised of a clear problem definition

phase, a well defined brainstorming phase and a careful analysis of ideas developed has a direct

impact in the extent of innovation orientation.


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 13

H20: There is no relationship between the extent of innovation orientation of an

organization and organizational performance.

H21: The extent of orientation toward innovation of an enterprise has a direct impact on

the performance of the organization.

Definitions

In testing the proposed hypothesis, the following definitions will be used:

● Creativity is defined as the capability of an individual to discern and examine information

and materials to create combinations that are new and useful (Andreasen, 2005; Carter,

Bishop, and Kravits, 1998/2005).

● Design is defined as a “plan of action created in response to a situation or problem that

needs solving” (Aspelund, 2010, p. 2)

● Design process is defined as a way to identify critical decisions, evaluate these decisions,

define information required for decisions from various project stakeholders, and identify

stakeholder competencies for process implementation (Magent, Korkmaz, Klotz & Riley,

2009).

● Design thinking is defined as a “fundamental means of inquiry” (Rowe, 1991, p.1)

● Innovation is conceptualized as the successful development, adoption or implementation

of creative ideas (Im & Workman, 2004, p.115).

● Invention is defined as “a new idea (not deducible from the current state-of-the art),

which is devised from completing a technical artifact (Eder & Hubka, 1996 as cited in

Redelinghuys, 2000, p. 270).

● Organizational performance is defined as a measure of net income. According to Younis,

Yusof and Nikbin (2010) “no one measure [of organizational success] is inherently
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 14

superior to another and the definition that a researcher adopts should be based on the

disciplinary framework adopted for the study” (p. 31). In terms of evaluating

performance in relation to creativity and innovation, multiple financial measures are used

in literature, which are presented in the methodology section.


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 15

Literature Review
Research in the area of design processes in organizations is rather scarce (Chiva &

Alegre, 2009). Across the literature review done, the following studies stand out, given their

impact in measuring creativity as a fundamental aspect of innovation, and in presenting design

methodologies as processes to harvest creativity.

Creativity at the Individual Level

Importance of a Creative Workforce

In regard to creativity in organizations, Florida (2003) and Florida and Goodnight (2005)

emphasized the importance of hiring and developing creative talent in order to succeed in a

business environment driven by innovation. The authors presented creative capital—a group of

creative thinkers whose ideas can be turned into significant innovations—as the most important

asset an organization can have. Creative brain power, according to Florida (2003), is as

important to this age as land was in the feudal era or gold in the 1800s and 1900s. Moreover,

Florida (2004) presented the importance of understanding cities as key centers for the

development of creative strategies and innovation, and provides a road map to convert successful

regions into geographical areas characterized by the development of novel strategies and

products. In his research, Florida (2004) explained how technological, economical, artistic, and

cultural creativity coexist in an environment of mutual relationship where one strengthens the

other.

In considering creative individuals as a fundamental aspect of innovation in an

organization, an analysis of creativity as a mental trait provides an understanding of the

characteristics that are important to promote in employees. Carter, Bishop, and Kravits

(1998/2005) explained how creativity is associated with certain intelligences, and not necessarily

with analytical intelligence. The authors argued that, while intelligence is commonly understood
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 16

as the capacity for association of ideas or concepts, creativity is associated with the capacity to

evaluate problems from different perspectives to achieve combinations that are new and useful.

In addition, the authors presented the importance of understanding the difference between

creative thinking and critical thinking. Through their analysis, Carter, Bishop, and Kravits

(1998/2005) sustained that critical thinking plays a key role in the development of creative

thinking, providing the opportunity to consider a wide range of options in the development of an

idea through a continuous process of questioning.

Furthermore, Gardner (2006) presented the concept of multiple intelligences, and how

individuals tend to develop some intelligences more than others. The author proposed the notion

that we all have seven intelligences: (1) linguistic, (2) logical- mathematical, (3) bodily-

kinesthetic, (4) visual- spatial, (5) musical, (6) interpersonal, and (7) intrapersonal, some of

which are more associated with creative thinking than others.

A closer understanding of the differences between creative and intelligent individuals

was presented by Andereasen (2005), who argued that the low Intelligent Quotient (IQ) scores of

two Nobel Prize winners in science in the 60s points to the existence of perhaps a high creative

index, opposite to the standard IQ measure that allows for the consideration and evaluation of

novel ideas.

With regard to factors that promote creativity, Henry’s (2003) research evaluated

influence that have a significant effect in the development of creativity, looking at the weight

that things such as social environment, motivation and work environment have on creativity. The

research placed particular emphasis on the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators on

creative development, while exploring the difference between creative nature and nurturing

creativity. More specifically, the research evaluated the impact that things like having a sense of
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 17

control, a feeling of one’s contribution being valued, receiving encouragement from others,

having a sense of respect and emotional closeness, having a sense of support and warmth, and

receiving direct feedback have on creativity levels. The research identified seven fundamental

items in defining creativity: passion, reinforcement in adulthood, mentors in adulthood, extended

involvement, work habits, self-expression, and a support system.

The research done by Joyce (2009) evaluated the effects of constraints in influencing

creativity. Joyce (2009) argued that while freedom is often associated with creativity, too much

freedom can be paralyzing as it provides individuals with an excessive range of choices. Joyce

(2009) examined the role of constraints in new product development teams, and evaluated

creativity using the Consensual Assessment Technique proposed by Amabile (1983) that looks at

creativity, originality, appropriateness, and effectiveness. Joyce’s (2009) research highlighted the

importance of a moderate degree of constraint in producing work that is considered to have a

high degree of creativity. Furthermore, Joyce’s (2009) research revealed new predictions about

how constraints affect creative teams, and concluded with the development of a framework for

conceptualizing creativity as a hypothesis-testing activity. These findings suggest that while

some amount of choice is important for encouraging creativity, too much can be

counterproductive.

In addition, McNair (2008)’s research explored the benefits of Individual Creative

Support System (ICSS) technology in promoting creative output, in relation to conventional

creativity support systems—computer based tools designed to generate thought provoking

questions and promote insightful problem-solving. McNair’s (2008) used the work of Massetti

(1996, as cited in MacNair, 2008) as theoretical framework, which identified four factors that

have an effect on an individual’s creative performance: individual creative ability, creativity


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 18

training, decision task, and ICSS technology. McNair (2008) discovered that creativity tools such

as ICSS do not improve the creative level of an individual nor reinforce existing creative

abilities. What the study did discover was an increase in levels of creativity when individuals

were exposed to a creativity tutorial. McNair’s (2008) research proved that while a person’s

natural creative potential is set early in life, individual’s creative performance can be enhanced

through training.

Furthermore, the research done by Coleman (2010) measured the impact of two different

system engineering design methods—a systematic design methodology and an intuitive design

methodology—in increasing creativity of system architectures in multidisciplinary teams. The

importance of this study lies in generating processes to increase creativity, as without creative

exploration, Coleman (2010) argues, system engineers might settle with the first solution—

which might be sub-optimized—without taking the time to analyze various options that would

allow for more suitable solutions. The methodologies evaluated incorporated key functions that

are considered by Cross (1994, as cited in Coleman, 2010) as fundamental in a systems

engineering process: gathering of information, clarification of the objectives, definition of

functions, requirement setting, generation of alternatives, and evaluation of alternatives.

The definition of the domains of creativity in Coleman’s (2010) research was based on

existing techniques used to evaluate creativity, such as creative problem solving (Osborn, 1963),

cognitive research trust program and lateral thinking (De Bono, 1970, as cited in Coleman,

2010), full spectrum creativity (Nadler, Hibino, & Farrell, 1995, as cited in Coleman, 2010) and

rich pictures (McFadzen, 2000, as cited in Coleman, 2010). Furthermore, specific procedural

aspects of creativity were evaluated to validate the importance of certain aspects of the creative

process, such as the importance of brainstorming presented by Paulus and Yang (2009, as cited
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in Coleman, 2010), the importance of structured approaches in enhancing creativity presented by

Nickerson (1999, as cited in Coleman, 2010), and the importance of encouraging individuals in

creative teams to change their mental models through association, simulation and expression,

presented by McFadzen (2000, as cited in Coleman, 2010). The evaluation of the level of

creativity in the study done by Coleman (2010) relied on two existing methods, the consensual

technique, presented by Amabile (2003, as cited in Coleman, 2010), and the creative product

semantic Scale presented by Besemer and O’Quin (1999, as cited in Coleman, 2010). Coleman

(2010) found that the more paradigm breaking techniques used, the higher the results but the

lower the level of confidence of the team in completing the final idea. His research concluded

with proof of the efficiency of a systematic design methodology in producing creative ideas over

an intuitive design methodology.

Managing Creative Individuals

The research found about managing creative talent in organizations points to the

importance of aligning human resources with strategy (Hawthorne, 2004) as a fundamental

aspect of achieving innovation. Drake (2002) argued that an effective way for small

organizations to compete with large companies lies in clearly defining organizational objectives

and employing human resources to accomplish those objectives.

In this regard, the research of Amabile (1998) identified three aspects of managing

creative individuals: (1) expertise, (2) creative thinking, and (3) motivation. The author argued

that while managers can influence the first and second, the third one is more challenging to

promote. Motivation, according to Amabile (1998) can be either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic

motivators constitute money, titles and work-place perks. Intrinsic motivators refer to the

motivation the individual has to solve a problem, which can be guided by the individual’s
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passion to contribute to society, to his/her industry, or simply by the pleasure of leaving a mark

through creating a product or a solution that makes a process more effective. Amabile (1998)

argued that intrinsic motivators are the most important aspect of managing creative individuals.

In examining the role of human resources in the development of organizations in

Colombia, Hernández, Giraldo, and Valencia (2006) argued that organizations need to

concentrate on three fundamental areas of development to encourage innovation and meet the

challenges of globalization: (1) promote risk tolerance and cooperation, (2) develop policies that

promote specific behaviors within the organization, and (3) develop a cost strategy that looks for

best practices that maximize efficiency. Hernández et al. (2006) discussed the importance of

ensuring that human resource departments in organizations take a proactive role in promoting

cultural transformations and become facilitators in meeting the strategic roles of the

organization.

Methodologies for Innovation: Development of Products, Processes and Services

From the perspective of the enterprise, the importance of developing processes that

contribute to innovation was highlighted in the 2006 IBM Global Innovation Outlook (IBM,

2006), which evaluated the perceptions of 756 CEOs from around the world, stressing the

importance of finding ways to help organizations evaluate potential strategic changes based on

today’s challenges. The study showed innovation as the most important factor in driving success

at organizations in the years to come, emphasizing the importance of creating more efficient

processes and less corporate structure while promoting independent thinking and creativity.

The precepts of design processes at the organizational level are evidenced in the research

of Collins and Porras (2004), who presented a set of traits characteristic of successful

organizations: concentrating on clock building versus time telling, developing solutions that aim
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 21

for both sides of either-or situations, concentrating on altruistic motives beyond profits,

preserving the core of the organization while stimulating progress, engaging in “Big Hairy

Audacious Goals,” (Collins & Porras, 2004, p. vii), developing strong company cultures, trying a

lot of stuff and keeping what works, growing management from within, and never settling for

good enough. Two of these characteristics present interesting parallels with design process: (1)

the “no tyranny of the or”, and (2) the idea of trying a lot of stuff and keeping what works,

reflecting on a process of questioning and evaluation of a wide range of options that Kelly and

Littman (2001), and Aspelund (2010) highlighted as a fundamental characteristic of strong

design methodologies.

In terms of processes that contribute to innovation, Aspelund (2006) presented a seven-

stage methodology that establishes a “state-of-the-art” process for development of ideas. This

methodology is comprised of the following steps: (1) inspiration, (2) identification, (3)

conceptualization, (4) exploration and refinement, (5) definition, (6) communication, and (7)

production. The inspiration phase is concerned with understanding the elements around us that

spark creative energy. The identification phase constitutes the definition of constraints and

potential unintended consequences. The conceptualization phase is where brainstorming takes

place. Exploration and refinement of ideas consists of investigating, experimenting, asking many

questions, and evaluating the ideas proposed during brainstorming. The definition phase consists

of critiques, edition, revision, and modeling of prototypes. The communication phase includes a

presentation of the finished concept along with key information regarding the process such as

who (the user), why, when and where, and basic definition of project details. In the last phase,

production, all issues concerned with manufacturing are identified. Aspelund (2006) sustained

that the conscientious application of each stage in his process ensures the analysis of a wide
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 22

arrange of options through a continuous process of exploration and refinement of ideas that has a

direct impact in the quality of ideas.

Another fundamental aspect of the design process is presented by Peña and Parshall

(2001). The authors divide the design process in two: a problem definition phase and a design

phase. The problem definition phase is characterized by analysis, while design is characterized

by synthesis. During the analysis phase, teams define the objectives, needs, concepts, and

parameters in relation to the function of the project, the form, the economy, and any time

constraints that need to be considered. On the synthesis phase, teams look to distill this

information to create the most adequate design solution possible.

In evaluating the importance of design in the global discourse, it is interesting to note that

the 2008 Davos Conference (World Economic Forum, 2008) concentrated on design thinking as

a strategic element. The 2008 Davos Conference report highlights (World Economic Forum,

2008) design—once perceived as a tool for the production of objects for consumption—as a

methodology for reshaping corporate strategies and changing organizational behavior.

In understanding how the fundamental aspects of design thinking and of the design

process can provide the key to unlocking creative talent within an organization, Nagai &

Noguchi (2003) pointed to the importance of a clear definition of objectives when looking to

integrate design and strategy. Their research provides a format for understanding the differences

in individual design processes based on the ability of each individual for generating associations.

Furthermore, the work of Kelly and Littman (2001) presented strategies for developing

successful innovative products as the basis of organizational strategy. The authors reflect on a

unique way of developing products that is footed on observation of the daily challenges that

people have, and designing around the way people do things naturally.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 23

Innovation and Market Orientation

Measures of the level of innovation of an organization across the literature vary, some

based on observation, such as that proposed by Morris (2009), others based on careful analysis of

the objectives of the organization, such as that proposed by Berthon, Mac Hulbert, and Leyland

(2004), and yet others based on number of innovations produced (Koppel, 1999).

The Innovation-Customer OrientatioN (ICON) tool designed by Berthon, Mac Hulbert,

and Leyland (2004) measures the extent of innovation or customer orientation of an organization.

The research departs from a dichotomy between market and innovation, where market driven

companies see customers as the source of knowledge that fuels new product developments, and

innovation driven companies see technology as the source of innovation, given that consumers

are unable to provide information for innovation given their lack of technical knowledge to

foresee innovative products and services. Furthermore, Berthon, Mac Hulbert, and Leyland

(2004) explained how market driven companies focus on customer service and customer

satisfaction, while innovation driven companies focus on new products and technology. The

research done by Berthon, Mac Hulbert, and Leyland (2004) departs from a model developed by

Berthon, Hulbert and Pitt (1999), in which four strategic archetypes are defined: (1) follow, (2)

Isolate, (3) Shape, (4) Interact. In the Follow archetype, organizations rely on market research to

define the parameters of products and services. In the Isolate archetype, organizations focus on

internal efficiency and profit maximization. In the Shape archetype, the organization focus is

technology based, where products developed define the market. In the Interact archetype,

organizations build strong partnerships with clients in an effort to develop unique products

through a dialogue. The relationship between these archetypes and the market or innovation

orientation of the organization is presented in Figure 1.


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 24

Figure 1: Strategic Orientation Archetypes

High

Follow Interact

Market
Orientation

Isolate Shape

Low

Low High

Innovation
Orientation

Figure 1. Archetypes for innovation-market orientation , according to Berthon, Mac Hulbert, &
Leyland (2004).

The relationship between the archetypes in Figure 1 highlight a model where customer

orientation is not exclusive of innovation orientation, but where each archetype represents a

measure of market and innovation orientation. The ICON measuring tool evaluates the evidence

of these archetypes through a set of questions that identify whether companies consider products

or services as: (1) a source of revenue, (2) a means of serving the customer, (3) an opportunity to

innovate and market-shape and, (4) as a unique, customized thing that is interactively developed

with customers (See Appendix A for complete survey). In these example, the first measure

correlates with the Isolate archetype, the second one with the Follow archetype, the third one

with the Shape archetype and the fourth one with the Interact archetype.

Creativity and Organizational Culture

Creativity and Leadership

An evaluation of leadership in Colombian organizations points to the importance of

understanding the relationship between culture and leadership. The research of House, Hanges,
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 25

Javidan, Dorfman, and Gupta (2004), demonstrated the impact that cultural differences have in

the management of issues related to performance and decision making; and how this affects

organizational behavior. This extensive study presented the cultural approaches to nine different

aspects of organizational behavior, to include assertiveness, future orientation, humane

orientation, institutional collectivism, gender egalitarianism, power distance, in-group

collectivism, and uncertainly avoidance. Looking closely for example at the leadership

differences between Latin America and the United States, similarities occur relating to

performance orientation while differences are revealed in the importance given to collectivism.

Furthermore, House, et al. (2004) discovered a significant difference in considering uncertainty

avoidance, which was found to be high in North America and low in Latin-America. Uncertainty

was presented by Aspelund (2010) as a fundamental aspect of creative processes.

Furthermore, the research done by Hofstede (1980) explores the differences in people's

behaviors according to their cultural backgrounds. The author argued that there are five

fundamental cultural dimensions that impact employee motivation, project structure and the

development of strategy, which are: (1) power distance, (2) individualism, (3) masculinity, (4)

uncertainty avoidance, and (5) long term orientation. Hofstede’s (2001) cultural dimensions

provided a strong basis for understanding the differences in the behaviors of individuals in

American and Latin- American cultures. For example, while power distance in the US is small—

subordinates consider their superiors more as equal and perform with a great degree of autonomy

when making decisions—in Latin-America it is high.

The research of Allen (2007) presents an interesting consideration concerning the

relationship between leadership style and organizational member’s readiness for change and

valuing of creativity. Allen (2007) argued that the main dimensions of transformational
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 26

leadership have a positive relation to member’s perception of readiness to deal with

organizational change and to valuing creativity. Creativity in this study was measured using the

Farmer, Tierney, and Kung-McIntyre (2003, as cited in Allen, 2007) tool, which evaluated the

level of creativity in the organization by participant’s perceptions of encouragement and support

for the development of creative ideas at the organizational level. The results of this research

indicated that a transformational leadership style had a positive correlation to creativity and

change readiness.

In addition, Goldsmith, Greenberg, Robertson, and Hu-Chan (2003) presented shared

leadership as a model that allows organizations to maximize human resources by empowering

individuals and giving them an opportunity to take leadership positions. This model also involves

forging alliances with production partners and customers, and fostering a team environment in

which leaders feel a sense of ownership for the success of the organization and can rely upon

each other’s strengths during the challenges that the organization will face. In this regard, an

evaluation of the role that Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple, has in managing a global organization—

that is recognized as one of the most innovative organizations in the world—can be of great use

in defining the fundamental aspects of design leadership. Fannin (2005) describes Jobs’

leadership style as one that inspires people, creating a sense of shared ability to change the

world. According to Fannin (2005) Jobs cultivates a leadership style that embodies the brand,

constantly looking to identify technology breakthroughs and working with teams across the

world to develop innovative products. On a global sense, Jobs creates a strong group of internal

followers that feel empowered and proud of working at Apple. Fannin (2005) explains that Jobs

constitutes a great example of trust developed across international borders, while using consumer

insight to motivate teams to break boundaries and generate innovation.


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 27

Creativity and Strategy

Concerning creativity and strategic thinking, Lieberman’s (2007) research found that

creative thinking is often discouraged in large bureaucratic organizations that fail to realize that

creativity is essential to organizational strategic thinking. Lieberman (2007) argued that strategic

decision making is often associated with careful analysis that limits creativity, and that it should

be perceived as an activity that is creative and disruptive, focused on the future and experimental

in nature. Liberman’s (2007) analysis was footed on research conducted by Nutt (2004, as cited

by Liberman, 2007), which proved that half of the decisions of an organization fail—due to rush

to judgment produced by the need to act swiftly which prevents evaluation of options, failure to

evaluate all stakeholder concerns, and poor allocation of resources to the evaluation of the

problem. This research departs from a fundamental dichotomy in strategic planning models

represented, on the one hand by an economic model that focuses on making predictions of future

demand and on the other by an innovative model that focuses on creating new avenues of

development. Lieberman’s (2007) research proved that creative processes applied to strategic

thinking increased the quality of the ideas. The author developed the Strategic Thinking Model, a

methodology for strategic planning that provides an opportunity to evaluate a variety of options

through thought provoking questions and processes, considering system-wide gap analysis.

Another interesting research on creativity and strategy is presented by Solomon (2010),

who explored the differences in creativity and the factors contributing to, or inhibiting creativity

in both startup and mature companies. Creativity, in the research done by Solomon (2010) is

considered the basic building block for innovation. Solomon (2010) pointed to the work of

Amabile and Gryskiewicz (1987, as cited in Solomon, 2010), Haner (2005, as cited in Solomon,

2010) and, Isaksen and Lauer (2002, as cited in Solomon, 2010) as examples of previous
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 28

research done on levels of workplace creativity. Solomon (2010) argued that there are three main

things that organizations can control to deliver innovation: hiring creative employees,

establishing a climate conducive for creativity, and implementing and delivering innovation.

Solomon’s (2010) analysis discovered that creativity was more prevalent in startup companies,

explaining that organizational factors conducive to creativity were higher while the

organizational factors inhibiting creativity were higher in mature companies. High levels of

creativity in start-up companies were characterized by six factors: autonomy, external

challenges, job satisfaction, big picture view, impact on the success of the company, and respect

towards the supervisor. The author also identified a set of factors that influence creativity from a

personal, organizational, and social perspective, which are: resources, team dynamics,

formalization, job satisfaction, mood and affect, challenges, pressure and support from home,

dynamism, and involvement.

The literature review performed highlighted an interesting relation between design and

strategy. Borja de Mozota (2003) argued the importance of perceiving the role of design as a

fundamental element in shaping the behavior of an organization, and explained how a policy of

innovation in small and medium enterprises is fundamental for their survival. The author

explained how design can be a powerful catalyst for change, through fueling innovation,

contributing to the development of new markets. Moreover, Montgomery (1999) presented the

design of new products, the improvement of existing ones and the realization of process

efficiencies as key elements of shaping successful corporate strategies. Furthermore, De Bono

(1993) explained the importance of moving beyond existing competitive strategies and taking

advantage of understanding the set of values that surrounds the customer’s decision to purchase a

product and use it. Lojacono and Zaccai (2004) also presented an interesting perspective of
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 29

design-focused enterprises. The authors define them as organizations that use consumer-centered

research to create intimate customer knowledge and define efficient ways to develop successful

product offerings. Lojacono and Zaccai, (2004) sustained that while design management and

design leadership have been widely presented from an academic perspective, there is little

practical discussion into what makes an organization designed-focus.

With regard to corporations following design strategy, Nussbaum (2005) presented an

interesting case study that portrays a change process at Proctor and Gamble and General Electric,

two organizations that moved from being brand strategy driven enterprises with a strong focus on

market research, to innovative organizations focused on a product development strategy footed

on exploration and trial and error. Nussbaum (2005) explained how these two organizations

incorporated budgets for innovation, promoted the integration of designers into their work teams,

and built centers for creative development.

Innovation: Preparing Enterprises for a Globalized Economy

The research done in leading innovation focuses on the importance of understanding the

components that make innovation possible (Hesselbein & Somerville, 2002) such as design

process—considered as an effective methodology to develop strong ideas (Aspelund, 2010).

In regard to internal processes that lead to innovation, Papageorge (2007) made a case for

understanding the relation between systems theory and organizations, sustaining that

organizations are living systems in which the participation of individuals in a collective view of

innovation prevents the chaos created when everyone is allowed to pursue their individual

visions of the next greatest project. Moreover, Papageorge (2007) presented the importance of

understanding that while most organizations make effective use of certain parts of innovation,

e.g. creativity, brainstorming or collaboration, their innovation efforts are usually disjointed
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 30

because they lack the approach to systems theory. The author stated that organizations need to

create repeatable processes that turn ideas into innovations, taking into account the impact that

existing processes, structures, and technologies have into the success or failure of the

organization.

Moreover, Vincent (2009) explored constraints within corporations that prevent

innovation from happening. The purpose of the research was to develop a model linking

creativity and innovation to organizational competitive excellence. Through a quantitative study,

Vincent (2009) explored the creativity style of employees of a large corporation, considering the

impact that organizational tenure, job level, and gender have on creativity. Through the use of

the Kirton Adaptation-Innovation inventory (KAI), Vincent (2009) evaluated the levels of

creativity in 226 individuals, defining their level of creativity as impacted by an extreme sense of

conforming (adaptive), or creating (innovative). Vincent’s (2009) study concluded that tenure

and gender have a weak relation with creativity, while job level was found to be positively

related to creativity.

Also, Carayannis and Coleman (2005) argued that innovation is dependent on nested

parent-child contextual relationship that start at the industry level, followed by the enterprise, the

organizational unit, the professional field, the knowledge domain, the operational process and the

content or artifact, in the order presented. Thus, for a product to be innovative, it needs to have a

relationship with each one of the domains presented.

Given the need to turn companies into innovative enterprises, an understanding of

organizational change processes can contribute to the development of a process that contributes

to turn small organizations into hubs for the production of new ideas and processes. Small family

owned businesses, which constitute the majority of manufacturing organizations in Colombia


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 31

according to Restrepo (2007), grapple with high levels of conflict that arise from the mix of

strong personal and business relations (Danes & Morgan, 2004). The authors argued that well

defined organizational structure—performance management, succession planning, leadership

development, rewards, core process improvement and information technology implementation—

can diminish the level of conflict. However, the authors highlighted the importance of perceiving

high levels of conflict as a creative mechanism that effectively managed can increase the health,

growth and success of the business.

Moreover, Binzagr and Manning (1996) explained how organizations need to foster the

development of behavior patterns in individuals that reflect a systems perspective and increase

collaborative efforts—fundamental in creative endeavors that are team based. As Binzagr and

Manning (1996) explain, change management requires an individual evaluation of personal

paradigms. Through future visioning, the authors argued, a system can allow groups to identify

the competing paradigms and propel the development of a collective paradigm.

Another fundamental aspect of understanding organizational change in favor of

developing creative enterprises lies in the principles of Management by Objectives (MBO), a

term coined by Drucker (1976). MBO emphasizes that organizations need to establish objectives

in eight key areas: market standing, innovation, productivity, physical and financial resources,

profitability, manager performance and development, worker performance and attitude, and

public responsibility. This approach can also serve as a fundamental tool to motivate change,

Drucker emphasized that weakness in the organization can be corrected through setting direction

via goal definition.

The review of literature done on globalization points to the importance of understanding

our global economy as interconnected, where the economic development of each country has a
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 32

direct impact in the global economy (Sachs, 2005). Concerning organizations, Kumar (2007)

discussed the key elements that influence the success of organizations looking to enter the global

market, presenting the ability of organizations to adapt to a global context as dependent on the

ability of top management to operate across cultures, and the strength of the corporate culture.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 33

Methodology

The proposed study aimed to identify the relationship between the degree of structure in

innovation methodologies in manufacturing and the extent of innovation orientation of an

enterprise, as well as the extent of innovation orientation and organizational performance in

Colombian manufacturing organizations. The two main questions to be answered are: (1) is there

a relationship between a structured design methodology and the extent of innovation orientation

of an organization?, and (2) is there a relation between the extent of innovation orientation of an

enterprise and performance in Colombian manufacturing organizations?

This section discusses the design of the research, the population, and the development of

the instrument used.

Research Design

To answer the two questions presented above, it is important to determine effective data

collection processes that would define each one of the variables being evaluated. To measure the

strength of the methodology used in the development of products and processes in Colombian

manufacturing companies, three questions were developed based on literature review and

empirical observations of Colombian professional engineers. These questions were added to the

ICON survey tool developed by Berthon, McHulbert and Leyland (2004), which was used as the

basis of this research to determine the innovation orientation of an enterprise. The measure of

organizational performance was defined as a mix of net sales, net income, number of employees

and growth as measured in gross sales in a five year period, from 2005 to 2010.

The three questions added to evaluate methodologies as well as the translation of the

ICON survey tool were tested through two iterations of the pilot survey. The first question added

was intended to determine the reliance of organizations in a methodology—highlighted by


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 34

Aspelund (2010) as a key element of success in innovation. The second question was intended to

determine the extent to which organizations rely on a well defined structured methodology—

proposed by Kelly and Littman (2001) as a fundamental aspect of innovation. The third question

was intended to determine the decision making process, which is considered by Pena and

Parshall (2001) as the basis of successful design processes. The proposed questions measured

global values of the decision making process (Alreck & Settle, 2004), which were identified

through empirical research done with engineers in Colombia.

In terms of innovation orientation, the ICON survey tool determines the orientation of an

organization through evaluating the relationship of the organization to clients, products and

services, the environment, competitors, self definition and employees, in regard to the degree of

interactivity that is specified by the organization for each one of these dimensions.

In terms of organizational performance, the financial measures selected—gross sales, net

income, employees and growth on a five year period—are intended to provide an overview of the

health of the organization. Through the literature review performed, Return on Capital Employed

(ROCE) per project was identified as the ideal measure of success in innovation. However, the

collection of this information requires more time than what is available for this study. For this

study, gross sales and net income are standard financial measures used across the literature for

identifying organizational health. The number of employees is of fundamental importance in this

study, given that the majority of manufacturing organizations in Colombia are small family

enterprises (Restrepo, 2007). Growth over a period of time is considered to be a highly

successful measure of organizational performance, selected by Collins and Porras (2004) as a

measure of organizational success for the seven year study that culminated in the best seller,
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 35

Built to Last. Financial data used in the analysis was collected via Internet Securities BPR

Database (2010).

The correlation analysis used in this study is the Spearman’s correlation coefficient, as it

is the recommended correlation analysis for non-parametric data where two variables are being

evaluated (Cone & Foster, 2006).

It is recommended in this research that initial inquiry into this area commence with a

quantitative study that highlights the importance of engaging national organizations in further

research. Colombia, being a country with multiple internal problems that manifest in poverty,

street crime and a low level of trust in governmental institutions, can benefit from increased

levels of competitiveness on global markets, contributing to improving the overall economy of

the country. As a subsequent approach, a qualitative research could aid in defining best practices

in organizations that demonstrate strong relationships between structured innovation

methodologies and organizational performance.

Research Questions

This research aims to answer two fundamental questions:

1. Is there a relationship between the innovation orientation index of an organization and the

structure of the design methodology used? More specifically, is there a relationship

between the orientation towards innovation of an enterprise and each one of the

dimensions of the methodology defined, these being:

a. the existence and applicability of a structured innovation methodology,

b. the level of structure of an innovation methodology,

c. the process for decision-making in innovation.

1.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 36

2. Is there a relationship between the innovation orientation index and organizational

performance?

Variables of Study and Measuring Devices

The variables used to determine the relation between the level of structure in innovation

methodologies and the financial performance of an organization were the innovation-market

orientation of an organization, the structure of the innovation methodology and the performance

of the organization as indicated by various financial measures.

The extent of innovation orientation of an organization is measured using the ICON

survey tool developed by Berthon, Mac Hulbert, and Leyland (2004), in which the evidence of

four strategic archetypes: Isolate, Follow, Shape and Interact, serve to determine the extent of

innovation orientation of an organization. The Isolate archetype represents companies that look

to maximize profits through increased sales. The Follow archetype represents companies that

follow existing market trends. The Shape archetype represents companies that aim to shape the

market through innovations. The Interact archetype represents companies that concentrate on

developing customize solutions with organizations. The survey tool used establishes a theoretical

relationship between the Shape and Interact archetypes as elements that define the innovation

orientation of an organization.

Population

For this study, organizations in the manufacturing industry in Colombia were selected

(Appendix C includes a list of international industry classifications selected), as design

processes—the fundamental aspect of the theoretical framework of this study—are an

instrumental part of the manufacturing industry (Ertas & Jones, 1993). The manufacturing sector

in Colombia is composed of 9,317 organizations (DANE, 2010), the majority of which are micro
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 37

and medium size enterprises (Restrepo, 2007)—defined by the Colombian National Association

for Micro and Medium size Organizations as enterprises with revenues of less than 45 million

pesos per year (25,000 dollars) and an employee body between 10 and 200 individuals (Business

Col, 2009). According to the National Institute of Statistics, in 2007 89% of manufacturing

companies reported to have less than 200 employees (DANE, 2009).

The industrial classification list used was taken from the Banco de la Republica de

Colombia (2010), using the United Nations list of International Industry Classifications as a

reference for the translation. While industrial classifications are similar across countries, there

are some variations from country to country. In instances where discrepancies were found, a

literal translation of the text from the Banco de la República de Colombia’s (2011) list has been

presented (see Appendix C).

In this study, 93 responses were collected, corresponding to 1% of the number of

manufacturing companies in the country. The number of responses to be collected was

conservative, given that the limited amount of scientific research in the area of innovation places

caution on investing too much time and resources on a study that has no previous reference.

Gathering the insights of 1% of the population is considered to be a conservative approach to

identify areas for further research.

For the purpose of drawing conclusions from the population, the information available in

BPR was used as a base. The total number of records available in the database—9,195

manufacturing companies— is close to the total number of manufacturing companies in the

country: 9,317 (DANE, 2010). The data available in BPR provides an interesting picture of the

sector being researched. The manufacturing sector shows 3,484 records corresponding to the
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 38

agro industrial sector and 5,711 to the industrial sector. The classifications per sector with the

numbers of companies are included in Table 2.

Table 1. Manufacturing Sector Composition (Data Source: Internet Securities, 2010)

Manufacturing Sector

Industrial (5731 companies)


Chemical 742 (12%)
Textile 632 (11%)
Printing 612 (10%)
Special Manufactures 574 (10%)
Metal 560 (9%)
Plastics and Packing 528 (9%)
Apparel Manufacturing 413 (7%)
Furniture and Wood Products 332 (5%)
Machinery and Equipment 205 (3%)
Iron and Steel 199 (3%)
Shoes 131 (2%)
Paper, Paperboard and Paperboard Boxes and Bags 125 (2%)
Hydraulic and Electric Equipment 118 (2%)
Auto Assembly 117 (2%)
Motor Vehicle Body and Autoparts 112 (1%)
Beverages, Beer, Soft Drinks 111 (1%)
Leather, Leather Goods 100 (1%)
Rubber and related products 89 (1%)
Household Appliances 66 (1%)
Glass 46 (0.8%)

Agro industrial (3494 Companies)


Agropecuary 721 (20%)
Processed Food 592 (16%)
Flowers 535 (15%)
Cattle Dealer 474 (13%)
Banana 202 (5%)
Sugar 173 (4%)
Poultry Production 149 (4%)
Mills 145 (4%)
Dairy Products 121 (3%)
Meat and Fishery 115 (3%)
Starch and Vegetable Fats and Oils Manufacturing 109 (3%)
Coffee 86 (2%)
Animal Food Manufacturing 74 (2%)

Table 1. Industrial composition of the manufacturing sector in Colombia, divided by


industrial and agro industrial. The table above reflects the number of companies and the
corresponding percentages per sector.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 39

Of the survey respondents, 11 corresponded to the agro industrial sector and 82 to the

industrial manufacturing sector. Concerning geographical location, 75% of the companies are

located in Bogota, the capital city—where only 14% of the manufacturing industry in the country

is housed—13% in Medellin, one of the driving industrial centers of the country, and the

reminder 12% in Barranquilla, Cartagena, Cali, Cucuta, Leticia and Santander (see Figure 2).

Given the high number of organizations from Bogota, it is important to note that the

manufacturing industry in Bogota, while it contributes to only 23% of the country’s gross

domestic product (Camara de Comercio de Bogota, 2004), it produces 45% of innovative ideas

introduced to the market (Camara de Comercio de Bogota, 2010).

Figure 2. Geographical Distribution of Respondents

1% 1% Bogota

3% 1% 13% Cali
3% Barranquilla
4% Cartagena
Cucuta
74%
Leticia
Medellin

Figure 2. The geographical distribution of respondents demonstrates that the majority of


companies in the population are located in Bogota, the capital city, followed by Medellin. Bogota
and Medellin are the two largest cities in Colombia.

As mentioned above, an important consideration in this study is the employee size of


organizations, given the high percentage of small enterprises in the manufacturing industry
(Restrepo, 2007). In regard to employee size, the companies surveyed ranged from 2 employees
to close to 4,000, but about 62%, have fewer than a 100 employees (see Figure 3).

Figure 3. Distribution of Respondent Organizations per Number of Employees.


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 40

500-1000 1000+ 0-5


9% 4% 5-10
2%
100-500 5%
18%

10-50
39%
50-100
23%
Figure 3. The distribution of companies per employee size highlights a large of number of
medium size enterprises in the population, with employees from zero to 100.

In terms of overall sales, companies surveyed range between small companies that make
less than 1,000 a year in overall sales to large multinational companies that make more over
500,000,000 a year in overall sales. In accordance to the sector composition, 60% of companies
make less than 10 million dollars a year (see Figure 4).

Figure 4. Distribution of respondent companies per gross sales for 2010 (In millions of dollars).

1%
12% 1-5
21%
5-10
14%
10-50
50-100
13%
100-500
39%
500 and above

Figure 4. The distribution of respondent companies per gross sales highlights a large
percentage of medium enterprises with income between five and 15 million dollars a year.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 41

In regard to net income, 87% of companies surveyed have annual income ranging from
$2,000 a year to $33,000,000 a year. A small percentage of organizations (14%) reported losses
ranging from $6,000 a year to 3,000,000 (see Figure 5).

Figure 5. Distribution of respondent companies per net income for 2010 (In thousands of dollars)

Under 0
8% 13%
4% 9% 0 - 100
100-500
500-1,000
37%
29% 1,000 - 10,000
Over 10,000

Figure 5. The distribution of companies per net income highlights a large percentage
of medium size organizations with net income under 500,000 dollars a year.

In terms of growth, companies surveyed show growth percentage on annual sales from
2006 to 2010 ranging from -50% to over 50%. Following the income trends mentioned above,
the majority of companies surveyed report growth between 0% and 20% (see Figure 6).
Figure 6. Percentage average growth from 2006 to 2010 of respondent companies

35

30

25
Number of Companies

20

15

10

0
-50% -20% 0 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%+

Percentage Growth
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 42

Figure 6. The growth of respondent organizations demonstrates a large percentage of


enterprises with average growth of less than ten percent.

Potential Limitations

Given that this study is distributed via an internet tool, it limits the population to

organizations with internet access. This is an important consideration, given that internet

penetration in Colombia is low compared to developed countries; according to the European

Travel Commission (2012), internet penetration for Colombia is 50.4%, and many organizations

fail to acknowledge the importance of technology and communications in the success of their

businesses (Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, 2009).

It was also assumed that the majority of organizations selected have some sort of

methodology for development of products or processes already in place, given the strong

connections between design methodologies and manufacturing enterprises (Ertas & Jones, 1993).

Instrumentation

This research set out to determine the relationship between innovation orientation and the

structure of the design methodology in the development of products and services in Colombian

organizations, and the relationship between the innovation orientation of an enterprise and

organizational performance.

The proposed quantitative analysis measured the relationship between the level of

structure in the methodology and the innovation orientation of an organization in relation to

organizational performance. Data was collected through a survey tool administered via Survey

Monkey. Organizations were provided with access to the survey through an e-mail invitation.

The survey tool being used, designed by Berthon, Mac Hulbert, and Pitt (2004), was

selected to identify the strategic orientation of an organization—from marketing orientation to

innovation orientation—looking at four orientation archetypes: Isolate, Follow, Shape, and


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Interact. In regard to archetypes, the authors argue that the Isolate archetype represents a low

market orientation and a low innovation orientation, the Follow archetype represents high market

orientation and a low innovation orientation, the Shape archetype represents organizations that

tend to have a high innovation orientation and a low market orientation, and the Interact

archetype represents organizations with a high market orientation and a high innovation

orientation.

Innovation orientation was measured through the ICON survey tool developed by

Berthon, Mac Hulbert and Leyland (2004), which relies on a seven point Likert scale that

captures level of agreement ranging from complete disagreement on the one (1) end of the scale

to complete agreement on the seven (7) end of the scale. The ICON survey tool includes

questions one through six and 10 to 22 of the survey tool (see Appendix A).

The methodology was measured in questions seven through nine. These questions were

developed to match the format of the ICON survey tool. Question seven explored consistency in

use overtime of a defined design methodology. Question eight evaluated the structure of the

methodology, using as a base the seven stages of the design process developed by Aspelund

(2010), which closely mirrors the design process proposed by NASA (2008) for engineering.

These seven stages were condensed into three, in order to test global values that constitute

measures of direct experience—recommended by Alreck and Settle (2004) as guides for

measuring decision making processes. Table 2 shows the condensation of the seven steps into

three global values, indentified through empirical research developed with Colombian

organizations.

Table 2. Steps in the Design Process


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Design Process Design Process Common


(Aspelund, 2010) (NASA, 2008) Global Values

Inspiration Removed as it is not a global value


Identify the Problem Problem Definition
Identify Criteria and Constrains Problem Definition
Conceptualization Generate Ideas Brainstorming
Exploration and refinement Explore Possibilities Analysis
Select an Approach Analysis
Definition Build a Model or Prototype Analysis
Refine the Design Analysis
Communication Removed as it is not a global value
Production Removed due to the variance in
complexities
Table 2. Steps evident in the design process methodology proposed by Aspelund (2010) are
identified in the left column, compared to the steps in the design methodology showcased by
NASA and explaining how they were condensed in the methodology being tested on the right
column.

The process of reduction of the seven stages defined by Aspelund (2010) to the three

tested sages started with the removal of inspiration and communication, which are not typical of

engineering processes (NASA, 2008), and production, since the complexity of the requirements

varies according to the project. The remaining four phases were condensed into three elements,

identified through empirical research as global values that constitute measures of direct

experience: (1) problem definition (identification), (2) brainstorming (conceptualization) and, (3)

analysis (exploration and refinement, and definition). The evidence of the three selected phases

in the literature review serves to validate the measuring tool: (1) problem definition is

emphasized as a fundamental phase of the creative process in the work of Brown (2008), Kelly

and Littman (2001), and Peña and Parshal (2001), who argued about the importance of this phase

as a point of clear explanation of objectives in order to define the boundaries for creative

exploration, (2) brainstorming is presented as the key to harvesting creativity in the work of

Kelly and Littman, (2001), (3) analysis constitutes a fundamental point in the work of Aspelund

(2010) and Kelly and Littman (2001), presented as a phase in which teams look to combine the
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strongest elements of each idea to formulate solutions that are customized to the environment

and that meet the objectives of the project.

Decision making, as a fundamental element of creative processes—democratic decision

making is considered by Kelly and Littman (2001) as a key aspect of successful innovation

processes—was evaluated in question nine. The survey evaluated different decision making

scenarios, ranging from an autocratic process where a specific individual makes the decision, to

an involved process of evaluation where the ideas developed during the brainstorming process

are evaluated in relation to the objectives of the project.

Organizational performance was measured using a combination of financial and

operational figures to include: net sales and net profit or loss for 2010 and number of employees.

This information was combined with an evaluation of performance over time measured through

growth in sales from 2006 to 2010, following the rational used by Collins and Porras (2004). The

measures of net sales, net profit or loss, and number of employees was collected from data

available through the Bogota Chamber of Commerce and through BPR (Internet Securities, Inc.,

2010), a database of financial information for Colombian organizations. Access to the database

was provided through the corporate account held by the Universidad de La Sabana (see Apendix

H).

Defining the right measure of performance required an evaluation of performance

measures in research done in the industry. Cameron and Whetten (1983) argued that no one

measure is inherently superior to another and the definition that a researcher adopts should be

based on the disciplinary framework adopted for the study. It is also interesting to note the

research of Narver and Slater (1990), which measured the performance of organizations in

relation to innovation as the business return on assets (ROA). Moreover, Jaworski and Kohli
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(1993) measured performance based on “two distinct approaches reflected in the literature—

judgmental as well as objective measures. The judgmental measure asked informants for their

assessment of the overall performance of the business and its overall performance relative to

major competitors, rated on a 5-point scale ranging from “poor” to “excellent.” The objective

measure was the dollar share of the served market.” (p.60). Furthermore, Diamantopoulos and

Hart (1993) measured organizational success on sales growth, profit margin and Return on

Capital Employed (ROCE). Greenley (1995) employed subjective measures of return on

investment, new product success rate and sales growth. These studies evidenced the wide range

of measures of organizational performance in this area of research.

The validity of the ICON survey tool presented in the research done by Berthon, Mac

Hulbert and Leyland (2004), was achieved through an extensive process of pre-testing that

included a series of de-briefing sessions in which comments were collected from a group of mid-

level executives regarding participant’s view of the clarity of the instructions, the

appropriateness of the scale and the relevance of the items. The validity of the questions

regarding design process was evaluated in consideration of face validity and content validity.

Face validity will be ensured through the evidence of phases of the design methodology to be

analyzed in existing literature (Aspelund, 2010; Brown, 2008; De Bono, 2005; Kelly & Littman,

2001; Peña & Parshal, 2001, Wierenga & van Bruggen, 1998). Content validity is provided

through the consideration in the literature reviewed of each one of these steps as a fundamental

part of the design process: Peña and Parshal (2001) and Aspelund (2010) argued the importance

of a well structured problem definition phase, Kelly and Littman, (2001) and Aspelund (2010)

highlighted the significance of well structured brainstorming sessions, and Brown (2008), De

Bono (2005), Kelly and Littman, (2001), and Peña and Parshal (2001) argued the importance of
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analysis of ideas developed during the brainstorming session, to ensure that all ideas are

considered against the objectives.

Reliability of the ICON tool was measured through a Cronbach’s alpha analysis. The

authors found an alpha score of 0.94 for the Isolate scale, 0.86 for the Follow scale, 0.87 for the

Shape scale, and 0.91 for the Interact scale. Reliability of the design methodology questions is

given based on the evidence of these steps in successful design process. Peña &Parshal, 2001

explained that design methodologies are difficult to standardize, as they are quickly dismissed in

the face of trouble or challenging situations, given the amount of time needed to do a complete

process. However, Aspelund (2010) explained how a thorough design process most often results

in solid solutions that are likely to withstand the test of time, while a weak design process can

present a quick band-aid type solution that might require future re-evaluation. Overall, the

elements of design methodology used as measures in this study have resonance in the work of

Aspelund (2010), Brown (2008), De Bono (2005), Kelly and Littman (2001), and Peña and

Parshal (2001), while the measure of financial success was defined following the

recommendations of Cameron and Whetten (1983) who argue that the variables of financial

success selected in a study are based on the flexibility of the researcher to access a measure that

is relevant to the industry.

The effectiveness of the questions relating to the methodology and the translation of the

survey were tested through two iterations of a pilot survey. The first pilot included 27 responses

and the second pilot included 5 responses. The comments received from each one of these

iterations were incorporated in the survey. The progression of changes from the original survey

to the final survey can be seen in Appendix D.


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Inner-reader reliability for the survey tool used in this research was determined by

establishing the relationship between the archetype index for each company and their view of

themselves against the competition (see Figure 7). Questions such as: “Relative to our

competitors our firm is more self-centered,” (Isolate, question 19), “Relative to our competitors,

our firm serves its customers better,” (Follow, question 20), “Relative to our competitors, our

firm is more innovative” (Shape, question 21), and “Relative to our competitors, our firm

provides a higher level of customization (Interact, question 22) provided the basis for the

correlation analysis.

Data Analysis and Procedures

This research was born out of the intent to indentify the importance of fostering

methodologies for innovation in Colombian manufacturing organizations, in light of the CFTA

and given the of innovation globally and as one of the strategic drivers for Colombia (Inter-

American Development Bank, 2009). After defining the fundamental aspects of the research, the

research proposal was submitted to the Institutional Review Board in May of 2011 and approved

(See Appendix I).

The ICON survey tool used in this research, designed by Berthon, McHulbert and

Leyland (2004), was selected given that it presents a methodology for determining the degree of

innovation of an organization in a continuum that spans from market orientation (low

innovation) to customization (high innovation). An interesting element of this survey tool is also

the emphasis on the connections between the archetype definitions and the different industries.

The authors argue that the place companies fall in the archetype structure is not as important as

ensuring that the strategic direction is appropriate for the industry in which a company performs
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(Berthon, McHulbert & Leyland, 2004). Approval to use the ICON tool was received from Dr.

Berthon (see Appendix G).

The ICON survey tool was used to measure the orientation toward innovation of an

organization. The methodology for development of products, processes, and services was

measured through three questions that aimed to indentify whether organizations have a

methodology and how consistent they are in using it, the level of structure of the methodology

used, and the decision making process.

The survey tool was piloted to engineers from manufacturing companies in Bogota. The

first pilot included 27 responses from managers, coordinators, directors, and executives.

Functional categories included manufacturing, finance, human resources, and strategic direction.

The respondent companies included Netting Solutions Colombia, Holcim Colombia,

Isoplasticos, AG Technologies, Sociedad Industrial de Grasas Vegetales and Gaseosas Lux, S.A.

A few technical issues were discovered in the first pilot, such as the importance of

requiring an answer to each question and providing clear instructions at the start of the survey.

There were also multiple suggestions made in regards to the language, which were incorporated

to ensure that the translation was adequate. Suggested changes in terms of language are included

in Appendix D. One of the most important considerations included a recommendation to change

the use of the term “design methodologies” in which the innovation methodologies being

developed was footed. The term was changed to “the process to create products or services.”

Many of the respondents commented on the challenges of answering the four sub-

sections, corresponding to the four archetypes, as they felt that the options were not exclusive of

each other.
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A second pilot included five respondents who were asked to evaluate the final survey

prior to being released. This included a small group of engineers and biologists with professional

experience who are engaged in post-graduate education in the area of design management. From

this second pilot, minor corrections were made.

The final survey was released in September. A total of 299 individuals accessed the

survey, out of which 148 individuals started the survey, 141 individuals agreed to participate in

the survey and seven did not agree. From the 141 surveys collected, 11 were discarded from the

analysis because the company name was not included in the responses, and 31 were discarded

because of lack of financial information available. Of the 99 respondents that included the

company name and for which there was financial information available, six were discarded

because they do not correspond to the manufacturing industry—these were a music center, and

education company, a transportation company, a pet store, an exporting company and a company

of digital solutions.

The first step in the data analysis process required determining whether data was

parametric to define the appropriate correlation analysis. Parametric data is defined as data where

“the underlying distribution of the scores in the population [being sampled] is normal” (Cone and

Foster, 2006, p. 194). Histograms of all variables indicated that innovation orientation and design

methodologies were non-parametric variables, while the four measures of financial performance

were parametric. Given that two of the variables used were non-parametric, a Spearman

Correlation Coefficient analysis was used, being one of the bivariate correlation tests

recommended for non-parametric data (Cone & Foster, 2006). Inner-reader reliability was

established by determining the correlations between archetype self description from questions

19-21 with the average archetype.


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The data collected was analyzed to answer the following questions:

2. Is there a relationship between the innovation orientation index of an organization and the

structure of the design methodology used? More specifically, is there a relationship

between the orientation towards innovation of an enterprise and each one of the

dimensions of the methodology defined, these being:

a. the existence and applicability of a structured innovation methodology

b. the level of structure of an innovation methodology,

c. the process for decision-making in innovation.

3. Is there a relationship between the innovation orientation index and organizational

performance?

Data for innovation methodologies and innovation orientation was collected through a

survey tool distributed initially via e-mail by a representative of the Bogota Chamber of

Commerce. The survey was distributed to companies that correspond to SIC D category (see

Appendix C), which is “Manufacturing for Divisions 15 to 37” (Banco de la Republica de

Colombia, 2011). This list was complemented with a list of companies in the manufacturing

sector in Colombia that have financial data reported in the BPR Benchmark database (Internet

Securities, Inc., 2010), a total of 9,195 companies. Through a combination of calls and e-mails,

an average of 7-9 responses were collected per week for a period of 12 weeks. The survey

process was carried until a total of 93 records of manufacturing companies with financial

information available were collected. As explained previously, this research set out to collect 93

records, corresponding to 1% of the total number of manufacturing companies in Colombia.

Innovation Orientation and Market Orientation


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In determining the innovation orientation of organizations, the first step involved defining

the archetype for each one of the companies being surveyed, which were identified in the sub

questions A-D of questions one through six. All sub questions identified with the letter A

determined the degree of orientation towards the Isolate archetype (IS), the sub questions

identified with the letter B determined the degree of orientation towards the Follow archetype

(FO), the sub questions identified with the letter C determined the degree of orientation towards

the Shape archetype (SH) and the sub questions identified with the letter D determined the

degree of orientation towards the Interact archetype (IN) (see Figure 7).

Figure 7. Archetypes in relation to market orientation, innovation orientation, and financial performance.
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Figure 7.Following the layout of the archetype defintions presented by Berthon, McHulbert and
Leyland (2004), this graphic demonstrates the relation of the archetypes with the methodologies
tested, in regard to innovation and market coefficient and to Financial Performance.

Given this structure, the archetypes were determined by calculating the average score for

all sub questions in each category (see Figure 8). Each one of the main category questions

evaluated the view of the organization in relation to one of six dimensions: (1) customers

(CUST) was included in questions 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, (2) output (OUTP) was included in questions

2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, (3) the environment (ENVR) was included in questions 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, (4) the

competition (COMPT) was included in questions 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D, (5) internal performance
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(INTR) was included in questions 5A, 5B, 5C, 5D, and (6) employees (EMPL) was included in

questions 6A, 6B, 6C, 6D. The Market Orientation index (MO) was determined through the

average scores of IS and FO archetypes, and the Innovation Orientation (IO) index was

calculated with the average of the SH and IN archetypes (see Figure 8).

Figure 8. Dimensions for Each One of the Archetypes in Relation to Innovation and Market Orientation.

Figure 8. The questions corresponding to each arquetype dimension (relation to customers,


output, enfironment, competitors, internal view and employees) was used to determine each one
of the archetype coeficients.

The Isolate archetype evaluated respondents’ agreement to statements such as: our

customers are primarily a source of income, our products and services constitute just the means
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to generate revenue for the company, the sociopolitical environment has an impact in our ability

to sale, our competitors are rivals that take away income from our company, our organization is a

revenue generating vehicle that allows the company to continue operating, and our employees

are individuals devoted to generate revenue for the company.

The Follow archetype evaluated respondents’ agreement to statements such as: our

customers constitute an opportunity to meet the needs and desires of our audience, our products

and services constitute an opportunity to meet an audience’s need, the sociopolitical environment

has an impact in our ability to serve consumers, our competitors are rivals that try to serve

customers better than we do, our organization is a vehicle through which we serve our clients,

and our employees are individuals dedicated to serving the customer.

The Shape archetype evaluated respondents’ agreement to statements such as: our

customers are avid consumers of our innovative products, our products and services constitute an

opportunity to innovate and define the parameters of the market, the sociopolitical environment

has an impact in our ability to develop innovative products and services that define the

parameters of the market, our competitors are rivals who compete with us in developing

innovative products and services that market shape, our organization is a vehicle to create

innovative products and services that define the parameters of the market, and our employees are

individuals dedicated to developing unique products and services that define the market.

The Interact archetype evaluated respondents’ agreement to statements such as: our

customers are partners in the development of unique and personalized products and services, our

products and services constitute an opportunity to develop unique and customized things in

partnership with each client, the sociopolitical environment has an impact our ability to develop

unique products and services that are customized, in partnership with each client, our
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competitors are rivals that interact with individual customers to develop customized products and

services better than we, our organization is vehicle for developing, in partnership with each

client, products and services tailored to them, and our employees are individuals working in

partnership with our customers to develop products and services tailored to customer.

Innovation Methodology

The methodology aspect was evaluated via four distinct methodologies corresponding to

each one of the archetypes being studied. Following the format of the questions developed by

Berthon , Hulbert and Leyland (2004), three different aspects of innovation methodology were

tested: (1) the existence of a methodology, in order to determine the company’s reliance on

structured methodologies to innovate, (2) the level of structure of said methodology, in order to

determine the ability of the organizations to replicate innovation processes, and (3) the decision

making process, which is considered to be a fundamental element of highly structured

methodologies (Kelly &Littman, 2001). These definitions were intended to test the hypothesis

that highly innovative companies have well structured design methodologies in place (Kelly &

Littman, 2001), while companies that have a low level of innovation orientation tend to have

methodologies with loose structures (see Figure 9). To validate the theory, each level of structure

was correlated with each one of the archetypes.

Figure 9. Establishing the Relationship between the Archetypes and the Design Methodologies.
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Figure 9. Design methodologies corresponding to each archetypes, in relation to innovation and


market orientation.

The No Methodology archetype, paired to the Isolate archetype, was identified for

companies that aim to sale in large quantities and that distance themselves from the market. The

questions targeting this archetype asked respondents to rate their level of agreement with three

statements: (1) our process for developing products and services does not have a specific

methodology, (2) Our process is closer to one-step process in which the team meets to define a
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solution that "makes sense,” (3) In the process of developing products and services, decisions are

made autocratically by the most authoritative member of the team.”

The Low Structure methodology archetype, paired to the Follow archetype, corresponds

to companies that follow market trends and have a very limited degree of innovation. The

questions targeting this archetype asked respondents to rate their level of agreement with three

statements: (1) In the process of developing products and services, our company follows a

methodology without defined structure, (2) Our methodology is comprised of a two step process,

characterized by a problem definition stage and a solution stage, and (3) In the process of

developing products and services, decisions are made by the team member with the highest

ranking.

The High Structure methodology, paired with the Shape archetype, corresponds to

companies that look to shape the market through innovation. The questions targeting this

archetype asked respondents to rate their level of agreement with three statements: (1) our

organization uses a structured methodology that is consistently replicated, (2) our process for

developing products and services is a three-stage process characterized by a first stage in which

the problem is defined, a second stage where brainstorming takes place, and a third stage where

the solution is identified, and (3) decisions in our process for developing products or services are

made through a democratic process in which team members vote for the idea has more potential.

The Structured and Customized Methodology, paired with the Interact archetype,

corresponds to companies that specialize in creating customized solutions. The questions

targeting this archetype asked respondents to rate their level of agreement with three statements:

(1) Our process of developing products and services is characterized by a structured

methodology that changes according to the project, (2) Our process for developing products and
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services is a four-stage process characterized by a first stage where the problem is defined, a

second stage where brainstorming takes place, a third stage where the ideas developed in

brainstorming are carefully analyzed in relation to the objectives of the project, (3) and a final

stage where the solution is identified, and (3) In the process of developing products and services,

our team makes decisions based on a careful analysis in which each of the ideas is evaluated in

relation to project objectives.

To determine the relationship between design methodology and innovation, the average

score of all the items relating to each one of the methodologies being tested was calculated, and

correlated with the index corresponding to each one of the archetypes and to the index of

innovation orientation and market orientation. In addition, the degree of innovation orientation

was tested against each one of the aspects of each one of the methodology presented, to

determine if the most commonly occurring combination of factors is different from the

combinations developed according to the theories—low level of structure represented in

questions 7A, 8A and 9A, and a flexible high level of structure presented in questions 7D, 8D

and 9D (see Figure 10).

Figure 10. Establishing the Relation between Innovation Orientation/Market Orientation and the Different
Aspects of the Design Methodologies
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Figure 10. Questions relating to each design methodology evaluate the existence, level of
structure and decision making approach for each methodology.

The questions presented above shed some light in regard to the relationship between the

structure of the design methodology and the degree of innovation orientation.

Organizational Performance

The relationship between innovation and organizational performance were evaluated

through a correlation between the score corresponding to each one of the archetypes as well as

the score corresponding to innovation orientation and market orientation with four financial
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 61

measures: gross sales for 2010, income for 2010, percentage gain or loss over a five year period

(2006 to 2010) and number of employees (see Figure 11). Data for sales and income for 2010

was collected from the BPR Database (Internet Securities, 2010) of company financial

information. The percentage gain or loss over a five year period was calculated using the growth

formula available in excel. For six of the companies in the list, percentage growth or loss was

calculated from 2009 to 2010, as there was no data available prior to 2009. It is likely that this

corresponds to a time when companies reached a size that required data to be reported. Data for

the number of employees was rarely reported for 2010, but many organizations reported number

of employees for 2009. For a small few, the most recent data available regarding the number of

employees corresponded to 2000. Being that the number of employees in most companies is

rather stable due to the stringent employment laws, the average employee data available from

2000 to 2010 was calculated and used as the data for the number of employees (see Appendix F

for data used).

Figure 11. Calculating the relationship between Innovation Orientation and Organizational Performance.
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Figure 11. The market orientation and innovation orientation coefficients were calculated based
on the archetypes and correlated to each one of the measures of financial performance collected.

Environmental Turbulence

A key element in the archetype definition developed by Berthon , McHulbert and

Leyland (2004) is the relationship between each one of the archetypes and the environmental

conditions (see Figure 12). The authors argue that environmental conditions have a direct impact

in the ability of companies to innovate, highlighting that the Isolate and Follow archetypes are

predicted to perform better under conditions of low environmental turbulence, and the Shape and

Interact archetypes are predicted to perform better under conditions of high environmental

turbulence. The two questions relating to environmental turbulence in the survey tool used

are: “Compared to other industries, our firm operates in a very turbulent environment,” (question

17) and “Our firm has been highly affected by the socio-political situation of the country.”

(question 23). This is particularly interesting for Colombia, a country characterized by high

levels of crime derived from the working relations between the narcotraffic and guerillas,

plagued with ethical issues associated with briberies and characterized by high levels of poverty

(Farazad, 2008). Being that the case, the relationship between turbulence and the degree of

orientation to innovation can shade light on the impact that the environment has in allowing the

organization to innovate.

Figure 12. Relationship of the Archetypes and Environmental Conditions


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Figure 12. The relationship between each one of the archetypes and the questions relating to the
impact of environmental conditions in the firm was evaluated to determine which archetypes are
most affected by the environmental conditions.

Methodological Assumptions and Concerns

The literature review presented here starts with an evaluation of the individual as a force

of creative power in enterprises and the use of methodologies that allow for the harvesting of
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 65

creativity. While the work of Florida (2003, 2004), Carter, Bishop, and Kravits (1998/2005),

Gardner (2006) and Andereasen (2005) presented an understanding of creative traits in

individuals that can be of great use in defining strategies to manage creative talent, these process

can be of little use without an established organizational process that allows for harvesting of

creativity. The work of Aspelund (2006), Peña and Parshall (2001) presented interesting

methodologies for managing creative processes, but there is little research beyond that onto how

to allow creativity to meet the goals of the organization. Most of the research is empirical in

nature given the subjective nature of creative tasks.

Moreover, the process of turning an enterprise into an innovative company can be

challenging for organizations that do not have the ability to engage in structured change

processes that often take years to be fully internalized. Many enterprises see changes in human

resources as a rather efficient way of infusing the organization with new ways of thinking. For

example, Proctor and Gamble and General Electric (Nussbaum, 2005) turned to replacing

engineers with designers, given their ability to apply divergent thinking to problem solving and

to absorb information from a number of different sources, organize it and present it in a clear and

concise way. Thus, research related to internal training processes that can contribute to creating a

culture of innovation is scarce. In the literature review performed, no scientific research showing

how to successfully combine management, engineering and design processes was found.

In terms of methodology, several of the studies on creativity depart from highly empirical

observations that hinder the global acceptance of the research. The research done by Borja

(2003)—which looks to evaluate the relationship between design, strategy and innovation—

starts with a selection of 33 firms in Europe chosen for “their excellence in the design of their
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products.” In terms of validity of data, excellence in design of products is a vague definition that

has no measurable data and is dependent on the researcher’s perception of excellence.

A fundamental methodological concern is the lack of structure around definitions used by

researchers in evaluating creativity, design, design process, and design thinking. The boundaries

between creativity, design and innovation are blurry throughout the literature, and the relations

between a creative activity, a design activity and an innovative activity in terms of objectives

have little mention in the work of the primary researchers.

Lastly, one other concern is the empirical nature of the work of Aspelund (2010), Pena

and Parshall (2001) and Kelly and Littman (2001)—part of the methodological framework of

this study—which provides evidence of success through examples. The importance given to the

structure of the methodology by Kelly and Littman (2001) and Aspelund (2010) is documented

from a qualitative analysis through a process of observation of innovation, but not from a

quantitative perspective.
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Results
This section evaluates the analysis done to answer the questions poised. The first step

was to define the innovation-market orientation of the enterprise. The research done showed a

similarity in the average coefficients for innovation orientation and market orientation, with a

tendency towards innovation orientation. The second step was defining the average coefficients

for each one of the methodologies being tested, to be able to determine the relationship between

the methodology and the orientation toward innovation of an enterprise. Organizational

performance was measured through net sales, net income, number of employees and percentage

growth over a five year period. This information was collected from financial information

available in the Internet Securities BPR Database (2010).

H1: Relationship between Methodologies for the Development of Products and Processes and

Innovation Orientation

In determining the relation between the archetypes developed by Berthon, Mac Hulbert

and Leyland (2004) and the corresponding methodologies, the results indicated significant

correlation, although the effect of the correlations was in average small to moderate. This finding

demonstrates that the definition of methodologies has to be evaluated under the light of the

industry in which the company performs, given that simple methodologies were found to have a

significant correlation with the follow and isolate archetypes characteristic of companies with a

market orientation, and more complex methodologies were found to have a significant

correlation with the shape and interact archetypes characteristic of companies with an innovation

orientation.

The first step in the analysis required an identification of the strategic orientation of an

organization through a definition of the average index corresponding to each one of the

orientation archetypes: Follow, Isolate, Interact, and Shape (see Figure 13). In looking at the
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 68

results, it is important to keep in mind the fact that, as Berthon, Mac Hulbert, and Pitt (2004)

explained, the objective of the tool is not necessarily to determine whether an organization is

innovative or not, but rather to look at whether or not the corresponding archetype is appropriate

for the industry in which the company operates and for the country in which the company

operates.

Figure 13. Average Coefficient for Each Archetype (On a scale of 1-7)
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Figure 13. Coefficient for each archetype, calculated based on average numerical Likert
responses to the questions corresponding to each archetype.

The average per archetype (see Figure 14) shows an inclination towards innovation in

general, with 90% of companies scoring in the top half of innovation orientation index (over 3.5)

and 79% scoring in the top half of the market orientation index. The balance of market

orientation and innovation orientation with a focus on innovation is indicative of the low level of
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emphasis on innovation that is characteristic of undeveloped markets (Arocena & Sutz, n.d.).

The high index for innovation makes echo to the importance of the connections between

innovation and manufacturing in Colombia (Acosta & Sanchez, 2001).

Figure 14. Innovation and Market Orientation of Surveyed Companies.


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Figure 14. Average market and innovation coefficients calculated based on the averages of each
of the corresponding archetypes (Isolate and Follow were used to calculate the market orientation
coefficient and Shape and Innovate were used to calculate the innovation orientation archetype.
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The correlation analysis between the archetypes and the questions 19-22, where respondents

specified how they compared with the competition in regard to being self centered, serving

customers, being innovative and providing a higher level of customization, showed a small to

moderate correlation coefficient for the Isolate and Shape archetypes (r (91)= +.391 p>.005 and

r(91)= +.379, p>.005 respectively). The Interact archetype showed a moderately strong effect

(r=.492 p>.005), while the Follow archetype shows no effect (r (91) = +.164). These results

indicate that the internal organizational constructs are perceived to be consistent with how they

see themselves in relation to the competition (See Appendix B). Looking at the data in detail, it

is interesting to note the dimensions where the archetype coefficient has the highest correlation

coefficient with the self-evaluating questions mentioned above. In regard to the Isolate

archetype, the relationship of the organization to the environmental conditions has the highest

correlation coefficient (r(91)= +.434, p=.000). This makes sense for companies in the Isolate

archetype that operate with the main objective of increasing sales. In regard to the Follow

archetype the highest correlation coefficient is on the organization’s approach to the competition

(r(91)=+.379, p=.065), which can be indicative of the orientation to follow market trends. In

regard to the Shape archetype, the highest correlation coefficient is on the internal view of the

company (r(91)=+.445, p=.000), which can reflect the emphasis on developing processes that

allow the company to innovate and market shape. In regard to the Interact archetype, the highest

correlation coefficient is also on the internal view of the organization (r(91)=+.570, p=.000),

indicating the emphasis to create team dynamics that allow for customized product development.

The percentage of companies in each one of the self described archetype categories (question 10)

that corresponds to each archetype presents an interesting correlation with the average archetype

coefficients. This calculation was performed by taking the data and dividing into four groups,
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according to the answers to the self declared archetypes in question 10. From each set of data,

the percentage of companies corresponding to each one of the archetypes was calculated (see

Figure 15).

Figure 15: Percentage of Companies Corresponding to Each Archetype in Each of the Self-Declared
Archetypes.

Figure 15. These pie charts demonstrate the relation between the archetype classifications
resulting from the analysis of the survey tool used and the self-declared archetype definitions.
Each pie chart presents the total number of companies each archetype and the percentage of
respondents that self-define as corresponding to each specific archetype. For example, of the
respondents that fall under the Isolate archetype category, only 32% self-define as falling under
the Isolate archetype.
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As demonstrated in Figure 15, it is interesting to see that in each set of self-declared

archetype organizations the highest percentage was for companies with a tendency toward the

corresponding archetype. The only exception is the Shape archetype, where Shape and Interact

are tied at 27%.

Regarding the dimensions being tested, the data showed that, concerning customers,

employees and products and services, a high percentage of companies surveyed have a tendency

toward developing customized solutions in conjunction with customers (see Table 3). In

relationship to competitors, there is a tendency toward defining the market. In regard to internal

view, there is a tendency to following existing trends. This actually correlates with the existing

trend to follow global trends in terms of both product and processes in low innovation

environments. As Arocena and Sutz (n.d.) explain, national spending in Latin-American

countries is quite low, in most countries under 1% of GDP.

Table 3. Percentage of Respondents Scoring on the Top Half of the Likert Scale (4 – 7) of Each
Archetype

Archetypes

ISOLATE FOLLOW SHAPE INTERACT


No relation Follow Trendsetting Customized
Dimensions
with the existing solutions
market market trends

Customers 65% 79% 62% 83%


Products and Services 76% 82% 81% 86%
Sociopolitical environment 79% 62% 73% 76%
Competitors 36% 59% 82% 59%
Internal View 77% 92% 86% 83%
Employees 47% 83% 80% 84%
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Table 3. The above percentages reflect the number of companies that scored on the high end of
the scale on each one of the dimensions measured per each archetype. The data facilitates an
understanding of the areas that predominate in each one of the archetypes.

The findings regarding design methodologies reflect a relationship between a strong

methodology and high innovation, which is consistent with the empirical arguments made by

Kelly and Littman (2001) and Aspelund (2010) for North American companies. Overall, the

study showed a clear tendency toward a highly structured methodology, which compared with

the high tendency toward innovation, presents an interesting argument in favor of the

relationship between structured methodologies and innovation (see Figure 16).

Figure 16. Average Index for Each One of the Design Methodologies (On a Scale of 1-7).
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Figure 16. Coefficient for each one of the methodologies being tested, calculated based on
average numerical Likert responses to the questions corresponding to each methodology.

The relationship between design methodologies and innovation indicates a small to

strong effect between the methodologies as established in this study and the archetypes (see

Figure 17). The correlation between the Isolate archetype and the lack of structure in design

methodologies and the Shape archetype and a high level of structure in design methodology

showed a moderately strong effect (r (91) = +.414, p=.000 and r (91) = +.306, p=.003

respectively). The correlation between the Follow Archetype and a low level of structure in

design methodologies, and between the Interact archetype and the structured and customized

methodologies showed a small to moderate effect (r (91) = +.265, p =.010 and r (91) = +.266,

p=.010 respectively).

Figure 17. Correlation coefficient between design methodologies and archetypes


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Moreover, when looking at the correlation coefficients of each one of the archetypes and

the methodologies, the design methodology corresponding to each archetype shows the highest

level of correlation to the corresponding archetypes than to any other of the archetypes (see

Table 4).
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Table 4. Correlation Coefficients between the Different Design Methodologies and the
Archetypes.

Design Methodologies Isolate Follow Shape Interact

No Structure .439* .285* .079 -.056

Low Structure .297* .266* .136 .033


Highly Structured .084 .302* .340* .291*
Structured and Customized -.058 .089 .289* .265**

**.Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).


*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Table 4. The correlation between each one of the levels of structure of the design methodologies tested and
the different archetypes confirms the hypothesis that the level of structure of the methodology is related to
the innovation orientation of the enterprise.

In looking at the relationship between each one of the methodologies developed and the

orientation towards innovation or market, the highest correlation factors exist between a low

level of structure and market orientation (r (91)= +.412, p=.000) and between a high structure

and innovation orientation (r(91)= +.347 p=.001). The correlation between structured and

customized design methodologies and innovation orientation and between low structure and

market orientation shows a small to moderate effect (r (91) =.284 p=.006 and r (91) = +.326,

p=.001 respectively) indicating that the different design methodologies are indeed related to the

corresponding archetypes (see Table 5).

Table 5. Correlation Coefficient Between the Design Methodologies and the Index for Market
Orientation and Innovation Orientation.

Innovation Market
Orientation Orientation

Not Structured .012 .412*


Low Level of Structure .093 .326*
Highly Structured .347* .202
Structured and Customized .284* .001
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**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).


*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Table 5. The correlation between the level of structure of the methodology used and the orientation toward
innovation or market indicates that the low structure methodologies are most associated with market
orientation and the high level methodologies are most associated with innovation orientation.

Furthermore, an evaluation of the different aspects of each methodology being tested and

the archetypes being evaluated demonstrated the highest correlations between the lack of

methodology and the Isolate archetype (r(91)= +.325, p>.05), between low structure and the

Isolate archetype, and between structured and the Follow archetype and between customized

methodology and the Interact archetype (see Table 6).

Table 6. Correlations Between the Dimensions of the Methodologies and the Archetypes.

Dimensions of the Design Methodologies IS FO SH IN

Existence of a Design Methodology


No methodology .325* .190 -.002 -.028
Low structure methodology .271* .213** .077 .048
Structured methodology .111 .334* .366* .302*
Methodology adapted to each project -.007 .115 .249** .335*
Level of Structure of the Methodology
No Structure (solution that “makes sense”) .371* .276* .038 -.091
Problem definition and solution .043 .183 .104 .062
Problem def, brainstorming and solution .095 .159 .106 .198
Problem definition, brainstorming, analysis and
-.003 .154 .349** .268*
solution.
Decision Making in Design Processes
Autocratic – By the most authoritative team member .275* .187 .052 -.079
Autocratic—By hierarchy .334* .138 .091 -.033
Voting .012 .223** .288** .153
Analysis -.148 -.015 .161 .106

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).


*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Table 6. The correlation between the different aspects of the methodologies measured and the
archetypes serves to indentify the importance the dimensions of each methodology evaluated for
each one of the archetypes evaluated.
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It is also interesting to note that responses with the highest ranking value were the ones

associated with a customized methodology. These included: Our organization relies on

”structured methodologies that change according to the project (average score of 4.8 on a 7 pt.

scale); the process of developing products and services at our organization includes four stages,

characterized by “a first stage that is a clear problem definition, a second stage of brainstorming,

a third stage in which a the ideas developed in brainstorming are analyzed, and a final stage in

which a solution is identified” (average score of 4.9 on a 7 pt scale); the decision making process

in the development of products and services “follows a process of careful analysis in which each

of the ideas are evaluated in relation to project objectives “(average score of 5.2 on a 7 pt scale).

The reminder of the questions ranged in overall scores from 2.5to 4.0, with scores clearly

ascending in relation to the levels of structure of the methodologies.

H2: Relationship between Innovation Orientation and Organizational Performance

The companies surveyed range in size from organizations with reported annual gross

sales of $170,000 a year to 375 million dollars a year and reported annual income from a loss of

3 million dollars to gains of 30 million dollars. In calculating the percentage growth per year

over a 5 year period, most of the companies showed a percentage growth between 0 and 20%

with a few companies showing a percentage growth of over 50% and other few showing negative

growth.

The relationship between innovation orientation and organizational performance

demonstrates no effect. The relationship between the innovation coefficient and sales for 2010,

average number of employees in a 5 year time line, net income for 2010 and 5 increase in gross

sales in 5 years demonstrate no effect to small effect (see Figure 17).


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Figure 17. Correlation Coefficients between Innovation Orientation Index and Financial Data.
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Figure 17. Correlation between the innovation coefficient and sales for 2010, average number of
employees in the past five years, net income for 2010 and percentage increase in gross sales in
the past five years.

The correlation between the market orientation index and the measures of financial

success selected is also not significant (see Figure 17). The correlation between the market

orientation coefficient and sales for 2010, average number of employees in a 5 year time line, net

income for 2010 and 5 increase in gross sales in 5 years demonstrate no effect to small effect

(see Figure 18).

Figure 18. Correlation Coefficients between Market Orientation Index and Financial Data.
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Figure 18. Correlation between the market coefficient and sales for 2010, average number of
employees in the past five years, net income for 2010 and percentage increase in gross sales in
the past five years.

The relationship between the different aspects of the methodologies tested and

organizational performance shows overall no significant correlations. In looking at whether or

not companies have a methodology in place (see Table 7), the correlation coefficients overall

showed a no to small effect, with the highest correlation coefficients being in the use f a

structured and customized methodology and the five year growth (r(91)= + .172, p= .098).

Table 7. Correlation Coefficients between the Existence of an Innovation Methodology and


Financial Data Collected.

Financial Data
Percentage
growth from
Employees in Income 2006 to Sales
Existence of a Methodology Average 2010 2010 2010

No Methodology -.059 .036 -.114 -.104


Methodology with No Structure -.194 -.046 -.043 -.184
Structured Methodology .125 .012 .024 .133
Structured and Customized -.028 .032 .172 .021

Table 7. Correlation coefficients between each one of the elements tested relevant to the
existence of a methodology and the financial data collected.

In regard to the relationship between the structure of the methodology and the financial

data collected, the correlation coefficients overall show no to small effect (see Table 8) except

for the relationship between the use of a high structured methodology and income, which showed

a small to moderate effect (r(91)= +.253, p= 0.014).

Table 8. Correlation Coefficients between the Levels of Structure in Innovation Methodologies


and Financial Data Collected.
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Financial Data
Percentage
growth from
Employees in Income 2006 to Sales
Structure of the Methodology Average 2010 2010 2010

No Structure - Adhoc -.034 -.009 -.019 -.026


Low Structure .093 .120 .111 .081
*
High Structure .070 .253 .167 .109
Structured and Customized -.024 -.045 .061 .079

Table 8. Correlation coefficients between the different levels of structure in methodology and the
financial data collected.

In regard to the relationship between decision making in the development of products,

processes and services and the financial data collected, the correlation coefficients overall show

no effect to small effect (see Table 9). The highest correlation exists between the use of a

democratic process where organizations vote for the decision that has the most potential and the

percentage growth over a five year time line (r(91)= +.189, p= .069), showing also no to small

effect.

Table 9. Correlation Coefficients between the Dimensions of Decision Making in Innovation


Processes and Financial Data Collected.
Financial Data
Percentage
growth
Employees Income from 2006 Sales
Decision Making in Average 2010 to 2010 2010

Autocratic by Seniority -.101 -.051 -.032 -.112


Autocratic by Authority -.116 .051 -.073 -.123
Democratic- Voting -.035 .007 .189 -.104
Careful Analysis .118 -.023 .109 .153

Table 9. Correlation coefficients between the different levels of decision making and the financial
data collected.
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The no to small effect found overall in the relationship between the different aspects of

the innovation methodologies tested and the financial information collected points to the need to

approach the question posed here with a different research design to better establish any potential

relationships.

Impact of Environmental Conditions

A key part of the theory developed by Berthon, Hulbert and Leyland (2004) constitutes

evaluating the impact that the environmental conditions have in defining the orientation of the

organization. A correlation factor between the answers to the question: “Our firm has been

highly affected by the socio-political situation of the country” and “Compared to other industries,

our firm operates in a very turbulent environment” helps determine the ability of enterprises in

each one of the archetypes to deal with strong environmental turbulence. This is particular

interesting in Colombia, a country that is plagued with insecurity and violence (Farazad, 2007).

In looking at the relationship between the archetypes and the impact of the turbulence in

the environment, it is interesting to see that the Isolate and Follow archetypes showed a small to

moderate effect (r (91) = +.260, p.012 and r (91) = +.283 p=.006 respectively) which indicates

that the companies that are more oriented towards the market are more impacted by the

turbulence in the environment. In contrast, companies that are oriented towards innovation

showed no effect, the correlation coefficient with the Interact archetype was r (91) = +.171,

p=.101 and the correlation coefficient with the Shape was r (91) = +. 140, p=.180. This means

that there is no correlation between the environmental turbulence and the level of innovation

orientation of an organization, opposite to the findings for market orientation discussed above

(see Figure 19).


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Figure 19: Correlation between the archetypes and company’s perception of the impact of environmental
turbulence in the organization.

Figure 19. Correlation between each one of the archetypes and the self-declared degree of
environmental turbulence that the company has experimented.
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Similarly, the correlation between the impact of the socio-political environment and the

different archetypes indicated a low to moderate effect for each one of the archetypes with small

variations (see Figure 20). The answer the following question: “Our firm has been highly

affected by the socio-political situation of the country.” In accordance with the results indicated

above for the relationship between the archetypes and environmental turbulence, the firms

indicate that the highest correlation coefficient is between the Isolate archetype and the socio-

political environment (indicating that firms corresponding to the Isolate archetype are more

impacted by the socio-political environment (r (91) = +.271, p=.009), while firms in the Interact

archetype are less impacted (r (91) = +.213, p=.040).

Figure 20. Correlation factor between the archetypes and the impact of the socio-political environment.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 90

Figure 20. Correlation between each one of the archetypes and the self-declared degree of
environmental turbulence that the company has experimented.
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Discussion

The objective of this study was to determine if the use of a structured methodology has

any impact on the ability of an organization to innovate and thus on organizational health. The

study looked to indentify methodologies that promote effective innovation, increasing an

organization’s competitiveness in the global field and improving the economy of the country.

The connections between structured methodologies and innovation, which are the

premise of this study, have been documented by Aspelund (2010) and Kelly and Littman (2001),

and have been made evident in the growth of companies such as IDEO and Apple. Innovation

methodologies are widely discussed in the literature (Buchen, 2003; Webb, 2011; US Fed News

Service, 2011; Thomas, 2011; Aspelund, 2010; NASA, 2008; Kelly and Litman, 2001), but there

is little scientific research done in this area given the subjective nature of creative endevours.

The information collected from this research reflects an interesting framework under

which companies define their innovative processes. The results reflect a tendency toward

elements characteristic of highly structured methodologies. In evaluating the existence of a

methodology, 75% of organizations reported to have a tendency toward reliance on a structured

innovation methodology that changes according to the needs of the project, which relates to the

Interact archetype, representing the highest level of innovation in the structure developed by

Berthon, Hubert and Leyland (2004).

In regard to the level of the structure used in design methodologies, 68% of companies

surveyed reported to have a tendency toward reliance on a four-stage process characterized by

problem definition, brainstorming, analysis of the ideas, and a final stage where the solution is

identified and a pilot test is designed, corresponding to the highly structured process defined by

Aspelund (2010).
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In terms of decision making, 79% of companies reported to have a tendency toward a

careful process of analysis where each one of the ideas proposed during the brainstorming

session is evaluated in relationship to the objectives of the project, presented by Kelly and

Littman (2004) as a fundamental element of innovation.

Given the small to moderate effect of the correlation coefficients between innovation

orientation and highly structured innovation methodologies, the results presented above could

indicate that innovation in Colombian manufacturing organizations is a slow process of careful

analysis, opposite to the fast paced innovation processes of American organizations–IDEO,

deemed the most influential company in the world in terms of innovation, has reported to

produce over 80 innovations a year (Koppel, 1999), while a non-scientific survey of Colombian

organizations done in 2009 by this researcher discovered that 80% of companies produced less

than 20 innovations on that previous year. This can also be a sign of the need to follow

customized innovation processes characterized by careful decision making given that small

organizations in Colombia—surveyed companies have 215 employees in average, with 62%

having fewer than 100 employees—constantly struggle economically as a result the impact of the

economic turmoil on their survival (International Alert, n.d.). An analysis of the companies

surveyed reflected a small to moderate effect in the relationship between market orientation and

innovation orientation, and environmental turbulence. This is not surprising, since the effect of

environmental turbulence in consumer confidence has been recognized throughout the literature

(Wong & Citrin, 2003).

The no effect to small effect of the correlation with financial data can be representative of

the need to consider other factors associated with organizational health that are not presented

here, such as operations and marketing. However, the moderately strong effect in the relationship
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 93

between innovation and the percentage increase in gross sales over a period of 5 years indicate

that innovation processes could contribute to improving the health of an organization on the long

run.

In terms of defining methodologies that are successful for Colombian companies, it is

important to understand that the analysis performed in this research did not intend to define an

ideal methodology, but rather to determine methodologies that are appropriate for the industry in

which the organization performs. This is an important consideration, as it ensures alignment of

the methodologies proposed with the archetypes orientation theory used as the theoretical

framework of this study. The premise of the innovation orientation theory developed by Berthon,

McHurbeth and Leyland (2004) is not to establish whether an organization is innovative, but to

determine if the archetype orientation of the organization is appropriate for the industry in which

the company performs. The correlations between the methodologies evaluated show in average a

small to moderate effect, suggesting that that further research relying on a higher percentage of

statistical significance, with 5% OR 10% of the population, could help determine with more

clarity if low structured methodologies are effective for companies that are sales driven while

highly structured methodologies are ideal for companies that are looking to develop customized

solutions for clients. This analysis would present a significant contribution to the body of

knowledge by highlighting the importance of understanding innovation methodologies as

industry specific. The small to moderate effecter of the correlation between a high level of

structure in design methodologies and innovation orientation, and between the lack of structure

in design methodologies and market orientation indicates that there is a possibility that

methodologies could be related to industry orientation.


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In looking to understand the why behind the low correlation coefficients between

innovation orientation and methodologies, it is possible that the innovation methodologies

reported by Kelly and Littman (2004) and Pena and Parshall (2001) could be effective for

markets that manage economies of scale such as that of the U.S, where there is a need to

standardize processes in order to create effective team dynamics. Under this consideration, it

could be argued that Colombian enterprises have developed methodologies that are closely

related to the existing structure of the company, with the intention of making effective use of the

human, natural, and financial resources locally available. In this study, 78% of companies

reported to have a tendency toward the development of customized per-project methodologies,

which could be reflective of the ability of small companies to build strong client relations that

promote effective team dynamics where high levels of creativity flourish (Florida, 2005; Kelly

and Littman, 2001). If this concept were confirmed through further research, it could be assumed

that that is the case for the manufacturing industry in Colombia, since the majority of

manufacturing companies in Colombia are small family owned businesses, (Restrepo, 2007).

Given the importance that creativity at the individual level has on innovation, it is also

key to consider employee management. The high emphasis placed in the literature on the

relationship between creativity and innovation promote the notion that a creative workforce is of

paramount importance (Florida & Goodnight, 2005). Berthon, McHurbeth and Leyland (2004)

define highly innovative enterprises as organizations where employees are dedicated to finding

ways to develop products and services tailored to the needs of the customer. The research

performed here indicated that surveyed companies do have an inclination to see employees as

partners in the development of products and services. In the literature review performed,

promoting relations between employees and clients was found to be a fundamental element of
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innovation, as presented by Hertog (2000) and Kelly and Littman (2004). Moreover, the

consideration of the alignment of human resources with organizational objectives presented by

Drake (2002) as the most effective way for small organizations to compete with large companies

highlights the importance of the results found in this research.

In regard to the relationship between innovation orientation and performance, as

discussed earlier, the measures of performance selected here are not ideal for measuring the

financial impact on innovation. The no effect to small effect evidenced in the correlations

performed could be indicative of the need to take into account other considerations that are part

of the innovation discourse, such as leadership styles and corporate cultures (Friedrich,

Mumford, Vessey, Beeler & Eubanks, 2010). Furthermore, an analysis of the relationship

between highly structured methodologies and selected measures of organizational performance

showed no effect to small effect overall, highlighting the need to rely on a more accurate

measure of financial performance in further research.

In terms of promoting innovation in Colombian enterprises, the use of the tool developed

by Berthon, McHurbeth and Leyland (2004) can constitute a great point of departure for

evaluating the innovation orientation of an enterprise. Companies that are looking to build a

strategy around innovation can concentrate on the main aspects that characterize the Interact

archetype. For example, Berthon, McHurbeth and Leyland (2004) define highly innovative

organizations as enterprises that concentrate on developing strong relationship with customers

promoting a partnerships in the development of customized solutions. An analysis of where the

company falls on the archetype scale can help consultants guide organizations to develop

innovative cultures.
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Conclusion

In this analysis, the relationship between the level of structure in design methodologies

and the degree of innovation orientation of an enterprise was evaluated, looking to determine if

these factors have an impact on the health of an organization. This research stems from the

importance of finding opportunities for Colombian organizations to partner with American

organizations under the CFTA stipulations, which focuses on the service sector—opposite to

existing trade agreements that prioritize the agricultural and technology sectors. Given the

importance that innovation has in our globalized economy and in American organizations (IBM,

2006); it is of paramount importance that Colombian companies find ways to partner with

American organizations in a CFTA economy engaging in developing effective dynamics

between service providers and project initiators. In evaluating innovation, methodologies appear

throughout the literature review done in this project to be a fundamental aspect of successful

innovation, and an area where little research has been done.

In regard to innovation orientation, the closeness in the indexes between market

orientation and innovation orientation indicates that while the majority of respondent companies

are market oriented, there is a clear focus on innovation. The market orientation index indicates a

tendency towards increasing sales, which is characteristic of underdeveloped economies

comprised of small enterprises that struggle constantly to survive. However, it is interesting to

note the high emphasis on innovation is perhaps more due to the intrinsic cultural characteristics

than to the importance given to innovation globally. The Colombian culture is characterized by

resourcefulness, resilience and a high degree of tolerance toward uncertainty—key elements of

creative processes—derivatives of a socio-political environment that has endured a state of

violence for over 50 years.


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Lastly, the fact that companies like IDEO are able to produce a high number of

innovations through the use of highly structured methodologies makes a good argument for the

evaluation of national innovation policies that encourage the definition of industry-specific

innovation methodologies. The low levels of uncertainty avoidance in the culture (House, et al.,

2001)—a fundamental element of creative processes according to Aspelund (2010)—makes this

culture ideal for promoting innovation.

In summary, this study points to the importance of understanding innovation

methodologies as industry specific, highlighting the relationship between low-structured

methodologies and market orientation and between highly structured methodologies and

innovation orientation. Further research evaluating methodologies for organizations in each

archetype with a stronger measure of per-project financial success could help solidify the

concept of innovation methodologies being industry specific, as presented here.

Considerations for Further Research

A fundamental aspect of the finding of this research is the understanding of innovation

methodologies as industry specific. The research of Giuliani, Pietrobelli and Rabelloti (2005)

points to the importance of clusters in developed countries, arguing that small firms in clusters

“are able to overcome some of the major constraints they usually face: lack of specialized skills,

difficult access to technology, inputs, market, information, credit, and external services” (p.550).

From this perspective, it would be beneficial to gain a greater understanding of the

methodologies that are ideal for each company given the archetype category in which they fall.

The use of action research could prove to be a model tool to identify the areas in each

methodology that require the most emphasis given the cultural framework. For example, given

that Latin-American professionals are recognized for being resourceful and creative (Larroulet &
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 98

Couyomdjian, 2009), it is probable that the brainstorming aspect of the methodology needs little

emphasis while the analysis part might need greater emphasis. This understanding can contribute

to the formulation of proposed methodologies for innovation by COLCIENCIAS, the National

Institute of Science, and Innovation, contributing to promoting innovation at the level of industry

clusters.

The broad findings reflected here of the emphasis placed on each of the dimensions

evaluated (customers, products and services, socio-political environment, competitors, internal

view and employees) for each archetype helps identify the areas of priority for each industry. A

detailed analysis of each one of these dimensions can help better identify its value and best

practices in each industry sector. For example, the importance given to employees is rated high

in the interact archetype and low in the isolate archetype. Gathering more information in regard

to the different approaches to managing employees in relation to creativity can contribute to

develop an understanding of best practices in employee management that foster innovation.

Furthermore, evaluating the impact of innovation at the macroeconomic level can help

determine the importance of investing time and resources in promoting avenues for innovation.

While Colombia has traditionally relied on an economy that is footed in the exploitation of

natural resources, innovation can contribute to the development of extensions of existing

products, improving organizational performance. But while the current economic envirnoment in

Latinamerica fails to promote innovatoin, succesful innovation strategies are considered by the

World Bank as a fundamental as pect of the development of the region. Giugale(2010) argues:

”they [innovation strategies] are priorities of the state (they do not change from government to

government); they are not based solely on markets; all relevant stakeholders are engaged (big

and small, public and private); somebody is accountable for results; they are part of a broader
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 99

effort of integration; they are well funded; they are continuously evaluated and adjusted; they

begin with quick wins (usually in the area of quality standards); they include reforms in tertiary

education; and they operate within a reliable legal framework” (p. 2).

Lastly, following the premise of the work done by Berthon, Mac Hulbert, and Pitt (2004),

it will be important to determine the industrial composition of Colombian organizations,

specifying which industrial sectors correspond to each one of the archeytpes developed by

Berthon, Mac Hulbert, and Pitt (2004). This analysis will faciliate the identfication of the right

methodology for each company through the use of the tool developed by Berthon, Mac Hulbert,

and Pitt (2004).


Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 100

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APPENDIX A

Proposed Survey Instrument – English (Berthon, Mac Hulbert, & Leyland, 2004)

ORGANIZATION ORIENTATION

1. Our organization views customers:

A. Primarily as a source of revenue for the


firm

B. Primarily as providing an opportunity to


serve needs and wants

C. Primarily as enthusiastic consumers of our


innovative, market-shaping products and
services

D. Primarily as individual co-partners in the


development of unique, customized,
products and services.
2. Our organization views products and services:

A. Primarily as a means of generating revenue


for the firm

B. Primarily as a means of serving the


customer

C. Primarily as an opportunity to innovate and


market- shape

D. Primarily as unique, customized things


which are interactively co-developed with
individual customers
3. Our organization views the business environment (e.g. the political and legal situation, the economy,
socio-cultural change ) as of importance:

A. Primarily because of its impact on revenue


for the firm

B. Primarily because of its impact on our


ability to serve the customer
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 114

C. Primarily because of its impact on our


ability to develop innovative, market-
shaping, products and services
D. Primarily because of its impact on our
ability to interactively develop unique,
customized products and services with
individual customers
4. Our organization views competitors:

A. Primarily as rivals who attempt to take


away from the revenue of the firm

B. Primarily as rivals who attempt to serve


the customer better than we do

C. Primarily as rivals who attempt to develop


innovative, market-shaping products and
services better than we do
D. Primarily as rivals who attempt to interact
with individual customers to develop
unique, customized products and services
better than we do
5. Our organization views itself:

A. Primarily as generating revenue so that the


firm can perpetuate itself

B. Primarily as a vehicle for serving the


customer

C. Primarily as a vehicle for creating


innovative, market-shaping products and
services
D. Primarily as a vehicle for interacting with
individual customers to co-develop unique,
customized products and services
6. Our organization views employees:

A. Primarily as dedicated to generating


revenue for the firm

B. Primarily as dedicated to serving the


customer
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 115

C. Primarily as dedicated to the development


of innovative, market shaping products and
services
D. Primarily as dedicated to interacting with
individual customers to co-develop unique,
customized products and services

DESIGN (INNOVATION) PROCESS

7. Regarding the development of products, services and processes our company:

A. Does not have a specific methodology

B. Has a methodology without defined


structure

C. Uses a structured methodology that is


consistently replicated

D. Uses a structured methodology that


changes according to the project

E. Other (please specify):


8. Regarding the development of products, services our company relies on:

A. A one-step process in which the team


meets to define a solution that "makes
sense."

B. A two-stage process characterized by a


clear problem definition and solution
identification
C. A three-stage process characterized by a
first stage that is a clear definition of the
problem, a second stage of brainstorming,
and a third stage in identifying a solution.
D. A four-stage process characterized by
problem definition, brainstorming, idea
analysis and solution identification

E. Other (please describe):


9. Regarding the process of developing products, services and processes, decisions in our firm reflect:
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 116

A. An autocratic process in which the highest


ranking team member proposes a solution
and the team implements it.

B. An autocratic process in which a the most


authoritative team member proposes a
solution and guides the team to implement

C. A democratic process in which team


members vote for the idea that have the
most potential

D. The team follows a process of careful


analysis in which each idea proposed is
evaluated in relation to project objectives

E. Other (please describe):

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS

10. Overall, which type would you say your firm is? (Check one)
a. Isolate (little communication between innovation and the market)
b. Follow (the firm relies on market research to establish the parameters of products and
services)
c. Shape (Our firm is technologically-oriented and looks to shape the market)
d. Interact (Firm relies on extensive dialog between the market and innovation)

11. What is the primary business of your firm?


12. How many years has your firm been operating in its present form?
13. What is the name of your company?
14. What were your firm’s net profits in 2005?
15. What is your formal job title?
16. What is your primary functional specification?

17. Relative to other industries, our firm operates


in an exceptionally turbulent environment

18. Relative to our competitors, our firm has


consistently performed well in terms of ROI,
market share and overall competitive position
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 117

19. Relative to our competitors our firm is more


self-centered

20. Relative to our competitors our firm serves its


customers better

21. Relative to our competitors our firm is more


innovative

22. Relative to our competitors our firm provides a


higher level of customization

23. Our firm is highly impacted by the socio-


political conditions of the country

24. If you are interested in participating in the raffle of an iPod Shuffle, please enter your e-mail below.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 118

Proposed Survey Instrument – Spanish (Berthon, Mac Hulbert, & Leyland, 2004)

ORIENTACION DE LA ORGANIZACION

1. Nuestra organización ve a los clientes:

A. Principalmente como una fuente de ingresos

B. Como una oportunidad para satisfacer


sus necesidades y deseos

C. Como ávidos consumidores de nuestros


productos innovadores

Como socios en el desarrollo de


D.
productos y servicios únicos y
personalizados.
2. Nuestra organización considera los productos y servicios esencialmente como:

A. Un medio para generar ingresos para la


empresa

B. Una oportunidad para suplir una


necesidad de nuestra audiencia

C. Una oportunidad para innovar y definir


los parámetros del mercado

D.Una oportunidad para desarrollar


productos, servicios y procesos únicos
y personalizados en sociedad con cada
cliente
3. La situación política, judicial, económica, y socio-cultural en la que se desempeñan las
actividades de nuestra empresa tiene un impacto primordial en:

A. La capacidad de ventas de la
organización

B. Nuestra habilidad para servir al


consumidor
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 119

C. Nuestra habilidad para desarrollar


productos y servicios innovadores que
definen los parámetros del mercado
D. Nuestra habilidad para desarrollar
productos y servicios únicos y
personalizados, en sociedad con cada
cliente
4. Nuestra organización ve a la competencia como:

A. Rivales que le quitan parte de los


ingresos a nuestra compañía

B. Rivales que tratan de servir a los


clientes mejor que nosotros

C. Rivales que compiten con nosotros en


el desarrollo de productos y servicios
innovadores que definen el mercado
D. Rivales que interactúan con clientes de
manera individual para desarrollar
productos y servicios personalizados
mejor que nosotros
5. Nuestra organización se ve a si misma como:
A. Un vehículo generador de ingresos que
permite que la empresa continúe
funcionando

B. Un vehículo a través del cual servimos


a nuestros clientes

C. Un vehículo para crear productos y


servicios innovadores que definen los
parámetros del mercado
Un vehículo para crear productos y
D.
servicios a la medida, desarrollados en
sociedad con cada cliente
6. Nuestra organización ve a los empleados esencialmente como:

A. Individuos dedicados a generar


ingresos para la empresa
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 120

B. Individuos dedicados a servir al cliente

C. Individuos dedicados al desarrollo de


productos y servicios únicos que
definen el mercado
D. Individuos que trabajan en sociedad
con nuestros clientes desarrollando
productos y servicios hechos a la
medida del cliente
PROCESOS DE DISENO (INNOVACION)

7. En relación a procesos de diseño, nuestra empresa:

A. No tiene una metodología especifica

B. Usa metodologías sin estructura


definida, las cuales cambian de acuerdo
con el proyecto

C. Usa una metodología estructurada que


es replicada de manera consistente

D. Usa metodologías estructuradas que


cambian de acuerdo con el proyecto
F. Otro (favor especificar):

8. En relación al desarrollo de productos, servicios y procesos, nuestro proceso es más


parecido a:
A. Un proceso de una etapa, en la que el equipo
se reúne a definir una solución que “tiene
sentido.”

B. Un proceso de dos etapas caracterizado


por una primera etapa en la que se hace
una clara definición del problema y una
segunda etapa en la que se identifica
una solución.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 121

C. Un proceso de tres etapas caracterizado


por una primera etapa en la que se hace
una clara definición el problema, una
segunda etapa de tormenta de ideas, y
una tercera etapa en la que se identifica
una solución adecuada.
D. Un proceso de cuatro etapas
caracterizado por una primera etapa en
la que se hace una clara definición del
problema, una segunda etapa de
tormenta de ideas, una tercera etapa en
la que se analizan las ideas
desarrolladas en la tormenta de ideas, y
una última etapa en la que se define la
solución y se planea una prueba piloto.

F. Otro (favor especificar):

9. En relación al desarrollo de productos, servicios y procesos, las decisiones en nuestra


firma, en cuanto a definir la solución idónea, reflejan:
A. Un proceso autocrático en el que el integrante
del equipo con mejor cargo propone una
solución y el equipo la implementa.

B. Un proceso autocrático en el que el


integrante del equipo con más
autoridad propone una solución y guía
al equipo a implementarla
C. Un proceso democrático en el que los
integrantes del equipo votan por la idea
que tiene mas potencial
D. El equipo sigue un proceso de análisis
cuidadoso en el cual cada una de las
ideas desarrolladas se evalúan en
relación a los objetivos del proyecto.

F. Otro (favor especificar):

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS
10. ¿En general, cómo definiría el tipo de empresa en la que trabaja? (Seleccione una)
a. Aislada (hay poca comunicación entre innovaciones y el mercado)
b. Seguidora (nuestra empresa se basa en investigación de mercados para establecer los parámetros de
los productos y servicios)
c. Formadora (nuestra firma tiene una orientación tecnológica y busca definir los parámetros del
mercado)
d. Interactiva (nuestra empresa se basa en diálogos extensos entre mercado e innovación)
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 122

11. ¿Cuál es el principal negocio de su firma?


12. ¿Cuántos años lleva su organización operando bajo la estructura existente?
13. ¿Cuál es el nombre de su empresa?
14. ¿Cuál fue el ingreso neto de su empresa en el 2005?
15. ¿Cuál es su titulo?
16. ¿Cuál es su función principal?
En las preguntas a continuación, por favor defina el grado de interacción de su empresa en
relación al ambiente operacional.

17. Con relación a otras industrias, nuestra firma opera


en un ambiente bastante turbulento

18. Con relación a nuestra competencia,


nuestra firma se ha desempeñado
exitosamente en los últimos cinco años en
términos de ROI, participación en el
mercado y posición competitiva en genera

19. Con relación a nuestros competidores, nuestra firma


esta más centrada en sí misma.

20. Con relación a nuestros competidores, nuestra firma


sirve mejor a sus clientes

21. Con relación a nuestra competencia, nuestra firma


es más innovadora

22. Con relación a nuestra competencia, nuestra firma


provee un nivel de personalización más alto

23. Nuestra firma se ha visto altamente


afectada por las condiciones políticas,
sociales y económicas de Colombia
24. Si está interesado en participar en el sorteo, por favor escriba su correo electrónico en la casilla a
continuación.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 123

APPENDIX B
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 124

APPENDIX C
International Industrial Code Standards - Revision 3
(United Nations Statistics Division, 2011)

A Agriculture, hunting and forestry (Division 01 and 02) •


§ 01 Agriculture, hunting and related service activities •
§ 011 Specific agricultural production •
§ 0111Specialized production of coffee •
§ 0112 Specialized production of low cut flower in a covered environment and outdoors •
§ 0113 Specialized production of banana •
§ 0114 Specialized production of sugar cane •
§ 0115 Specialized production of cereal and oleaginous fruit •
§ 0116 Specialized production of horticultural vegetables and leguminous vegetables •
§ 0117 Specialized production of fruits, nuts, beverage crops and spices •
§ 0118 Agricultural production NEC in specialized units •
§ 0119 Agricultural production in non-specialized units •
§ 012 Breeding of livestock •
§ 0121 Specialized cattle breeding •
§ 0122 Specialized pig breeding •
§ 0123 Specialized breeding of poultry •
§ 0124 Specialized breeding of sheep, goats, horses, asses, mules and hinnies •
§ 0125 Specialized breeding of other animals n.e.c. and obtaining of their products •
§ 0129 Livestock activity not specialized •
§ 013 Mixed activities (agriculture and livestock) •
§ 0130 Mixed activities (agriculture and livestock) •
§ 014 Service activities related to agriculture and livestock, except veterinary activities •
§ 0140 Service activities related to agriculture and livestock, except veterinary activities •
015 Non specialized hunting, trapping and restocking of hunting animals, including related service activities

0150 Non specialized hunting, trapping and restocking of hunting animals, including related service activities

§ 02 Forestry, logging and related service activities •
§ 020 Forestry, logging and related service activities •
§ 0201 Forestry and exploitation of wood •
§ 0202 Activities related to the forestry and timber extraction. •
B Fishing (Division 05) •
§ 05 Fishing, fish farming in hatcheries and fish farms; service activities related to Fishing •
§ 050 Fishing, fish farming in hatcheries and fish farms, service activities related to Fishing •
§ 0501 Fishing and fish farming in hatcheries and fish farms •
§ 0502 Service activities related to fishing •
C Mining and quarrying (Division 10 to 14) •
§ 10 Mining of coal, lignite and peat •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 125

§ 101 Extraction and agglomeration of hard coal •


§ 1010 Extraction and agglomeration of coal •
§ 102 Extraction and agglomeration of lignite coal •
§ 1020 Extraction and agglomeration of lignite coal •
§ 103 Extraction and agglomeration of peat •
§ 1030 Extraction and agglomeration of peat •
11 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas; service activities incidental to oil and gas Extraction excluding surveying
(Division 10 to 14) •
§ 111 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas •
§ 1110 Extraction of crude oil and natural gas •
§ 112 Service activities incidental to oil and gas extraction excluding surveying •
§ 1120 Service activities incidental to oil and gas extraction excluding surveying •
§ 12 Mining of uranium and thorium ores •
§ 120 Mining of uranium and thorium ores •
§ 1200 Mining of uranium and thorium ores •
§ 13 Mining of metal ores •
§ 131 Mining of iron ores •
§ 1310 Mining of iron ores •
§ 132 Mining of precious metals •
§ 1320 Mining of precious metals •
§ 133 Mining of non-ferrous metal ores, except for uranium and thorium ores •
§ 1331 Mining of minerals of nickel •
§ 1339 Mining of other non-ferrous metal, except nickel •
§ 14 Quarrying of non-metallic minerals •
§ 141 Quarrying of stone, sand, clay, lime, gypsum, kaolin and bentonite •
§ 1411 Quarrying of stone, sand and clay common •
§ 1412 Quarrying of gypsum and anhydrite •
§ 1413 Quarrying of kaolin, clays of industrial use and bentonite •
§ 1414 Quarrying of sand and gravel siliceous •
§ 1415 Quarrying of limestone and dolomite •
§ 142 Quarrying of minerals for the manufacture of fertilizers and chemicals, mining of salt •
§ 1421 Extraction of minerals for the manufacture of fertilizers and chemicals •
§ 1422 Extraction of salt •
§ 143 Mining of precious stones •
§ 1431 Mining of emeralds •
§ 1432 Mining of other precious stones and gemstones •
§ 149 Extraction of other non-metallic minerals n.e.c. •
§ 1490 Mining of other non-metallic minerals n.e.c. •
D Manufacturing (Divisions 15 to 37) •
§ 15 Manufacture of food products and beverages •
§ 151 Production, processing and preservation of meat and fish • Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 126

1511 Production, processing and preservation of meat and meat derivatives • Ö


1512 Information and conservation of fish and fish derivatives • Ö
152 Production of fruits and vegetables, vegetables, oils and fats • Ö
1521 Manufacture of food compounds consisting mainly of fruits and vegetables • Ö
1522 Manufacture of vegetable and animal oils and fats • Ö
153 Manufacture of dairy products • Ö
1530 Manufacture of dairy products • Ö
154 Manufacture of grain mill products, starches and starch products, and prepared animal feeds • Ö
§ 1541 Manufacture of grain mill products • Ö
§ 1542 Manufacture of starches and starch products • Ö
§ 1543 Manufacture of prepared animal feeds • Ö
155 Manufacturing of bakery products, macaroni, noodles, couscous and similar farinaceous products
• Ö
§ 1551 Manufacturing of bakery products • Ö
§ 1552 Manufacture of macaroni, noodles, couscous and similar farinaceous products • Ö
§ 156 Manufacturing of coffee products • Ö
§ 1561 threshing of coffee • Ö
§ 1562 decaffeinated • Ö
§ 1563 cafe roasting and grinding • Ö
§ 1564 Manufacturing of coffee derivatives • Ö
§ 157 mills, sugar refineries and sugar mills • Ö
§ 1571 Production and refining of sugar • Ö
§ 1572 Manufacturing of brown sugarloaf • Ö
§ 158 Manufacturing of other food products • Ö
§ 1581 Manufacturing of cocoa, chocolate and sugar confectionery • Ö
§ 1589 Manufacture of other food products, n.e.c. • Ö
§ 159 Manufacture of beverages • Ö
1591 Distilling, rectifying and blending of spirits; ethyl alcohol production from fermented materials
• Ö
1592 Manufacturing of non-distilled fermented beverages • Ö
1593 Manufacturing of malta, brewing of beers and Manufacturing of other malted drinks • Ö
1594 Manufacturing of non-alcoholic beverages, production of mineral waters • Ö
• 16 Manufacture of tobacco products • Ö
§ 160 Manufacture of tobacco products • Ö
§ 1600 Manufacture of tobacco products • Ö
• 17 Textile manufacturing • Ö
§ 171 Preparation and spinning of textile fibers • Ö
§ 1710 Preparation and spinning of textile fibers • Ö
§ 172 Weaving of textiles • Ö
§ 1720 Weaving of textiles • Ö
§ 173 Finishing of textiles not produced in the same production unit • Ö
§ 1730 Finishing of textiles not produced in the same production unit • Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 127

§ 174 Manufacturing of other textile products • Ö


1741 Manufacturing of articles with textile products not produced in the same unit, except apparel
• Ö
1742 Manufacture of carpets and rugs • Ö
1743 Manufacture of rope, twine, cable, and netting • Ö
1749 Manufacture of other textiles n.e.c. • Ö
§ 175 manufacture of fabrics and articles of point and crochet • Ö
§ 1750 Manufacture of fabrics knitted and crocheted • Ö
§ 18 Manufacture of wearing apparel; dressing and dyeing of fur • Ö
§ 181 Manufacture of wearing apparel, except fur apparel • Ö
§ 1810 Manufacture of wearing apparel, except fur apparel • Ö
§ 182 Dressing and dyeing of fur; manufacture of articles of fur • Ö
§ 1820 Dressing and dyeing of fur; manufacture of articles of fur • Ö
19 Tanning and dressing of leather; manufacture of luggage, handbags, saddlery, harness and footwear • Ö
§ 191 Leather tanning and preparation • Ö
§ 1910 Leather tanning and preparation • Ö
§ 192 Shoe manufacturing • Ö
§ 1921 Manufacture of leather and leather shoes, with any type of sole, except sports footwear • Ö
1922 Manufacture of footwear with textile materials, with any type of sole, except sports footwear
• Ö
§ 1923 Manufacture of rubber footwear, other than sports footwear. • Ö
§ 1924 Manufacture of plastic footwear, other than sports footwear • Ö
§ 1925 Manufacture of sports footwear, including molded shoes • Ö
§ 1926 Manufacture of footwear parts • Ö
§ 1929 shoe manufacturing n.e.c. • Ö
193 Manufacture of travel articles, handbags and similar articles, Manufacture of saddlery and harness • Ö
1931 Manufacturing of travel articles, handbags, and the like in leather, Manufacturing of saddlery and harness
• Ö
1932 Manufacturing of travel articles, handbags and similar articles, made in synthetic materials, plastic and
imitations of leather • Ö
1939 Manufacturing of travel articles, handbags and similar materials made with materials n.e.c. • Ö
20 Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; Manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting
materials • Ö
§ 201 Sawmilling, planning and impregnation of wood • Ö
§ 2010 Sawmilling, planning and impregnation of wood • Ö
202 Manufacture of veneer sheets, plywood, laminated boards, particle board, and other boards and panels.
• Ö
2020 Manufacture of veneer sheets, plywood, laminated boards, particle board, and other boards and panels.
• Ö
203 Manufacturing of parts and components for carpentry for building and construction • Ö
2030 Manufacturing of parts and components for carpentry for building and construction • Ö
§ 204 Manufacturing of wooden containers • Ö
§ 2040 Manufacture of wooden containers • Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 128

209 Manufacturing of other wood products, Manufacture of cork products, straw, and plaiting articles. • Ö
2090 Manufacturing of other wood products, Manufacture of cork products, straw and plaiting articles.
• Ö
§ 21 Manufacture of paper, cardboard and cardboard and paper products • Ö
§ 210 Manufacture of paper, cardboard and cardboard and paper products • Ö
2101 Manufacture of cellulose pulp, paper and paperboard • Ö
2102 Manufacture of corrugated paper and paperboard, Manufacture of containers, packaging and packing paper
and cardboard • Ö
2109 Manufacture of other articles of paper and cardboard • Ö
§ 22 Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media • Ö
§ 221 Edition • Ö
§ 2211 Editing of books, brochures, scores and other publications • Ö
§ 2212 Editing of newspapers, magazines and periodicals • Ö
§ 2213 Editing of recorded material • Ö
§ 2219 Other editing activities • Ö
§ 222 Printing activities • Ö
§ 2220 Printing activities • Ö
§ 223 Service activities related to printing • Ö
§ 2231 Design and composition • Ö
§ 2232 Photomechanic and similar activities • Ö
§ 2233 Binding • Ö
§ 2234 Finish and coating • Ö
§ 2239 Other related services n.e.c. • Ö
§ 224 Reproduction of recorded media • Ö
§ 2240 Reproduction of recorded media • Ö
§ 23 Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel • Ö
§ 231 Manufacture of coke oven products • Ö
§ 2310 Manufacture of coke oven products • Ö
§ 232 Manufacture of refined petroleum products • Ö
§ 2321 Manufacture of refined petroleum products, made in a refinery • Ö
§ 2322 Manufacture of refined petroleum products, outside of a refinery • Ö
§ 233 Processing of nuclear fuel • Ö
§ 2330 Processing of nuclear fuel • Ö
§ 24 Manufacturing of chemical substances • Ö
§ 241 Manufacturing of basic chemical substances • Ö
§ 2411 Manufacture of basic chemical substances, except fertilizers and nitrogen compounds • Ö
§ 2412 Manufacture of fertilizers and nitrogen compounds • Ö
§ 2413 Manufacture of plastics in primary forms • Ö
§ 2414 Manufacture of synthetic rubber in primary forms • Ö
§ 242 Manufacturing of other chemical substances • Ö
§ 2421 Manufacture of pesticides and other agro-chemicals • Ö
§ 2422 Manufacture of paints, varnishes and similar coatings, printing inks and mastics • Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 129

§ 2423 Manufacture of pharmaceuticals, medicinal chemicals and botanical products • Ö


2424 Manufacturing of soap and detergents, cleaning and polishing preparations, perfumes and toilet preparations
• Ö
§ 2429 Manufacture of other chemical products, n.e.c. • Ö
§ 243 Manufacture of synthetic and artificial fibers • Ö
§ 2430 Manufacture of man-made fibers • Ö
§ 25 Manufacture of rubber and plastic • Ö
§ 251 Manufacturing of rubber products • Ö
§ 2511 Manufacturing of rubber tires and tubes • Ö
§ 2512 Retreading and rebuilding of rubber tires • Ö
§ 2513 Manufacturing of basic forms of rubber • Ö
§ 2519 Manufacture of other rubber products, n.e.c. • Ö
§ 252 Manufacturing of plastics products • Ö
§ 2521 Manufacture of basic forms of plastic • Ö
§ 2529 Manufacture of plastics, n.e.c. • Ö
§ 26 Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products • Ö
§ 261 Manufacture of glass and glass products • Ö
§ 2610 Manufacture of glass and glass products • Ö
§ 269 Manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products, n.e.c. • Ö
§ 2691 Manufacture of non-structural non-refractory ceramic ware • Ö
§ 2692 Manufacture of refractory ceramic products • Ö
§ 2693 Manufacture of structural non-refractory clay and ceramic products • Ö
§ 2694 Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster • Ö
§ 2695 Manufacture of articles of concrete, cement and plaster • Ö
§ 2696 Cutting, shaping and finishing of stone • Ö
§ 2699 Manufacture of other non metallic mineral products, n.e.c. • Ö
§ 27 Manufacture of basic metals • Ö
§ 271 Manufacture of basic iron and steel • Ö
§ 2710 Manufacture of basic iron and steel • Ö
§ 272 Manufacture of basic precious and non-ferrous metals • Ö
§ 2721 Basic industries of precious metals • Ö
§ 2729 Basic industries of other nonferrous metals • Ö
§ 273 Casting of metals • Ö
§ 2731 Casting of iron and steel • Ö
§ 2732 Casting of non-ferrous metals • Ö
§ 28 Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment • Ö
§ 281 Manufacture of structural metal products, tanks, reservoirs and steam generators • Ö
§ 2811 Manufacture of structural metal products • Ö
§ 2812 Manufacture of tanks, reservoirs and containers of metal • Ö
§ 2813 Manufacture of steam generators, except central heating hot water boilers • Ö
§ 289 Manufacture of other fabricated metal products; metal working service activities • Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 130

§ 2891 Forging, pressing, stamping and rolling of metal, powder metallurgy • Ö


2892 Treatment and coating of metals, mechanical engineering jobs in general made a change of a fee or contract
basis • Ö
§ 2893 Manufacture of cutlery, hand tools and hardware items • Ö
§ 2899 Manufacture of other fabricated metal products n.e.c. • Ö
§ 29 Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c. • Ö
§ 291 Manufacture of general purpose machinery • Ö
§ 2911 Manufacture of engines and turbines, except aircraft, vehicle and cycle engines • Ö
§ 2912 Manufacture of pumps, compressors, taps and valves • Ö
§ 2913 Manufacture of bearings, gears, gearing and transmission parts • Ö
§ 2914 Manufacture of ovens, furnaces and industrial burners • Ö
§ 2915 Manufacture of lifting and handling equipment • Ö
§ 2919 manufacture of other general purpose machinery, n.e.c. • Ö
§ 292 Manufacture of special purpose machinery • Ö
§ 2921 Manufacture of agricultural and forestry machinery • Ö
§ 2922 Manufacture of machine tools • Ö
§ 2923 Manufacture of machinery for metallurgy • Ö
§ 2924 Manufacture of machinery for mining, quarrying and construction • Ö
§ 2925 Manufacture of machinery for food processing, beverage and tobacco processing • Ö
§ 2926 Manufacture of machinery for textile, apparel and leather production • Ö
§ 2927 Manufacture of weapons and ammunition • Ö
§ 2929 Manufacture of other special purpose machinery n.e.c. • Ö
§ 293 Manufacture of domestic appliances n.e.c. • Ö
§ 2930 Manufacture of domestic appliances n.e.c. • Ö
§ 30 Manufacturing of office, accounting and computing machinery • Ö
§ 300 Manufacture of office, accounting and computing machinery • Ö
§ 3000 Manufacture of office, accounting and computing machinery • Ö
§ 31 Manufacture of electrical machinery and apparatus n.e.c. • Ö
§ 311 Manufacture of electric motors, generators and transformers • Ö
§ 3110 Manufacture of electric motors, generators and transformers • Ö
§ 312 Manufacture of electricity distribution and control apparatus • Ö
§ 3120 Manufacture of electricity distribution and control apparatus • Ö
§ 313 Manufacture of insulated wire and cable • Ö
§ 3130 Manufacture of insulated wire and cable • Ö
§ 314 Manufacture of accumulators and electric batteries • Ö
§ 3140 Manufacture of accumulators and electric batteries • Ö
§ 315 Manufacturing of electric lamp and lighting equipment • Ö
§ 3150 Manufacture of electric lamps and lighting equipment • Ö
§ 319 Manufacture of electrical equipment n.e.c. • Ö
§ 3190 Manufacture of other electrical equipment n.e.c. • Ö
§ 32 Manufacture of radio, television and communication equipment and apparatus • Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 131

§ 321 Manufacture of electronic valves and tubes and other electronic components • Ö
§ 3210 Manufacture of electronic valves and tubes and other electronic components • Ö
322 Manufacture of television and radio transmitters and apparatus for line telephony and line telegraphy
• Ö
3220 Manufacture of television and radio transmitters and apparatus for line telephony and line telegraphy
• Ö
323 Manufacture of television and radio receivers, sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus, and associated
goods • Ö
3230 Manufacture of television and radio receivers, recording devices and devices for reproduction of sound or
image, and related products • Ö
§ 33 Manufacture of medical, precision and optical instruments, watches and clocks • Ö
331 Manufacture of medical appliances and instruments and appliances for measuring, checking, testing, navigating and
other purposes, except optical instruments • Ö
3311 Manufacture of medical and surgical equipment and orthopedic appliances • Ö
3312 Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, checking, testing, navigating and other purposes,
except industrial process control equipment • Ö
3313 Manufacture of industrial process control equipment • Ö
§ 332 Manufacturing of optical instruments and photographic equipment • Ö
§ 3320 Manufacture of optical instruments and photographic equipment • Ö
§ 333 Manufacture of watches and clocks • Ö
§ 3330 Manufacture of watches and clocks • Ö
§ 34 Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers • Ö
§ 341 Manufacture of motor vehicles and engines • Ö
§ 3410 Manufacture of motor vehicles and engines • Ö
§ 342 Manufacture of bodies (coachwork) for motor vehicles; Manufacture of trailers and semi-trailers • Ö
3420 Manufacture of bodies (coachwork) for motor vehicles; Manufacture of trailers and semi-trailers
• Ö
§ 343 Manufacture of parts and accessories for motor vehicles and their engines • Ö
3430. Manufacture of parts and accessories for motor vehicles and their engines • Ö
§ 35 Manufacture of other transport equipment • Ö
§ 351 Building and repairing of ships, boats and vessels • Ö
§ 3511 Building and repairing of ships • Ö
§ 3512 Building and repairing of pleasure and sporting boats • Ö
§ 352 Manufacture of railway and tramway locomotives and rolling stock • Ö
§ 3520 Manufacture of railway and tramway locomotives and rolling stock • Ö
§ 353 Manufacturing of aircraft and spacecraft • Ö
§ 3530 Manufacture of aircraft and spacecraft • Ö
§ 359 Manufacture of other transport equipment n.e.c. • Ö
§ 3591 Manufacture of motorcycles • Ö
§ 3592 Manufacture of bicycles and wheelchairs for disabled • Ö
§ 3599 Manufacture of other transport equipment n.e.c. • Ö
§ 36 Manufacture of furniture; manufacturing n.e.c. • Ö
§ 361 Manufacture of furniture • Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 132

§ 3611 Manufacture of household furniture • Ö


§ 3612 Manufacture of office furniture • Ö
§ 3613 Manufacture of furniture for retail and services • Ö
§ 3614 Manufacture of mattresses and mattress boxes • Ö
§ 3619 Manufacture of other furniture n.e.c. • Ö
§ 369 Manufacturing industries n.e.c. • Ö
§ 3691 Manufacture of jewelry and related articles • Ö
§ 3692 Manufacture of musical instruments • Ö
§ 3693 Manufacture of sports goods • Ö
§ 3694 Manufacture of games and toys • Ö
§ 3699 Other manufacturing n.e.c. • Ö
§ 37 Recycling • Ö
§ 371 Recycling of metal waste and scrap • Ö
§ 3710 Recycling of metal waste and scrap • Ö
§ 372 Recycling of non-metal waste and scrap • Ö
§ 3720 Recycling of non-metal waste and scrap • Ö
E Electricity, gas and water supply (Divisions 40 and 41) •
§ 40 Electricity, gas, steam and hot water supply •
§ 401 Production, collection and distribution of electricity •
§ 4010 Production, collection and distribution of electricity •
§ 402 Manufacture of gas; distribution of gaseous fuels through mains` •
§ 4020 Manufacture of gas; distribution of gaseous fuels through mains •
§ 403 Steam and hot water supply •
§ 4030 Steam and hot water supply •
§ 41 Collection, purification and distribution of water •
§ 410 Collection, purification and distribution of water •
§ 4100 Collection, purification and distribution of water •
F Construction (Division 45) •
§ 45 Construction •
§ 451 Site preparation •
4511 Demolition or wrecking of buildings and other structures, clearing of building sites and sale of materials from
demolished structures in preparation for building construction. •
§ 4512 Preparation of properties and sites for civil works •
§ 452 Building of complete constructions or parts thereof •
§ 4521 Construction of buildings for residential use •
§ 4522 Construction of buildings for non-residential use •
§ 453 Construction civil engineering works •
§ 4530 Construction of civil engineering works •
§ 454 Conditioning of buildings and civil works •
§ 4541 Installation of hydraulic systems and related work •
§ 4542 Electrical work •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 133

§ 4543 Installation of equipment •


§ 4549 Other works related to conditioning of buildings •
§ 455 Termination and finishing of buildings and civil works •
§ 4551 Installation of glass and windows •
§ 4552 Painting and finish of walls and floors •
§ 4559 Other works related to completion and finishing of buildings and civil works •
§ 456 Rental of equipment for construction and demolition, with operating personnel •
§ 4560 Rental of equipment for construction and demolition, with operating personnel •
G Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods (Division 50 to 52)

50 Sale, maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles and their parts and accessories; retail sale of automotive
fuel and oils •
§ 501 Sale of motor vehicles •
§ 5011 Sale of new motor vehicles •
§ 5012 Sale of used motor vehicles •
§ 502 Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles •
§ 5020 maintenance and repair of motor vehicles •
503 Sale of motor vehicle parts and accessories parts (auto parts) and accessories (deluxe) for motor vehicles

5030 Sale of motor vehicle parts and accessories parts (auto parts) and accessories (deluxe) for motor vehicles

§ 504 Trade, maintenance and repair of motorcycles and parts, parts and accessories •
§ 5040 Sale, maintenance and repair of motorcycles and related parts and accessories •
§ 505 Retail sale of automotive fuel, lubricants, additives and cleaning •
§ 5051 Retail sale of automotive fuel •
5052 Retail sale of lubricating products (liquid and solid), additives and cleaning products for motor vehicles

51 Wholesale trade and commission trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles, maintenance and repair of machinery
and equipment •
§ 511 Wholesale on a fee or contract basis •
5111 Wholesale on a fee or contract basis of agricultural products (except coffee), forestry and live animals and
products •
§ 5112 Wholesale on a fee or contract basis of parchment •
§ 5113 Wholesale on a fee or contract basis of manufactured products •
§ 5119 Wholesale on a fee or contract basis of goods n.e.c. •
§ 512 Wholesale of agricultural raw materials, live animals, food, beverages and tobacco •
§ 5121 Wholesale of agricultural raw materials and live animals, except coffee and flowers •
§ 5122 Wholesale of green coffee •
§ 5123 Wholesale of flowers and ornamentals •
§ 5124 Wholesale of animal raw materials, live animals and their products •
§ 5125 Wholesale of processed food products, except green coffee •
§ 5126 Wholesale of threshed coffee •
§ 5127 Wholesale of beverages and tobacco products •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 134

§ 513 Wholesale of household goods •


§ 5131 Wholesale of textiles and manufactured products for domestic use. •
§ 5132 Wholesale of clothing, clothing accessories and skin products •
§ 5133 Wholesale of shoes •
§ 5134 Wholesale of household appliances, equipment, and supplies •
§ 5135 Wholesale of pharmaceutical, medical, and cosmetics •
§ 5136 Wholesale of medical and surgical appliances and orthortist and prosthetist appliances •
§ 5137 Wholesale of paper and cardboard, paper and cardboard products •
§ 5139 Wholesale trade of other consumer goods n.e.c. •
§ 514 Wholesale of construction materials, glass and plumbing equipment and materials •
§ 5141 Wholesale of construction materials, hardware and glass •
§ 5142 Wholesale of paints and related products •
§ 515 Wholesale of non-agricultural intermediate products, waste and scrap •
§ 5151 Wholesale of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and related products •
§ 5152 Wholesale of metals and metal ores in primary forms •
5153 Wholesale of basic chemicals, plastics and rubber in primary forms and chemical products of agricultural use

§ 5154 Wholesale of textile fibers •
§ 5155 Wholesale of waste, industrial and non-industrial; and recycling materials •
§ 5159 Wholesale of other intermediate products n.e.c. •
§ 516 Wholesale of all types of machinery and equipment, except of motor vehicles •
§ 5161 Wholesale of machines and equipment for agriculture, mining, construction and industry •
§ 5162 Wholesale of transport equipment, except motor vehicles and motorcycles •
§ 5163 Wholesale of office machines, accounting and computing •
§ 5169 Wholesale of machinery and equipment n.e.c. •
§ 517 Maintenance and repair of machinery and equipment •
§ 5170 Maintenance and repair of machinery and equipment. •
§ 519 Wholesale miscellaneous n.e.c. •
§ 5190 Wholesale miscellaneous n.e.c. •
§ 52 Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles, repair of personal and household goods •
§ 521 Non-specialized retail trade in stores •
§ 5211 Retail sale in non-specialized stores with food, beverages or tobacco predominating •
§ 5219 Other retail sale in non-specialized stores •
§ 522 Retail sale of food, beverages and tobacco in specialized stores •
§ 5221 Retail sale of fruits and vegetables, in specialized stores •
§ 5222 Retail sale of milk, dairy products and eggs in specialized establishments •
5223 Retail sale of meat (including poultry), meat products, fish and seafood, in specialized stores

§ 5224 Retail sale of confectionery in specialized stores •
§ 5225 Retail sale of beverage and tobacco products in specialized establishments •
§ 5229 Retail other food n.e.c., in specialized stores •
§ 523 Other retail trade of new goods of household consumption, in specialized stores •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 135

5231 Retail sale of pharmaceutical and medical goods, cosmetic and toilet articles, in specialized stores

§ 5232 Retail sale of textiles in specialized establishments •
§ 5233 Retail sale of apparel and accessories (including leather) •
5234 Retail sale of all kinds of shoes, leather goods and leather substitutes, in specialized stores

§ 5235 Retail sale of appliances in specialized establishments •
§ 5236 Retail sale of furniture for the home in specialized establishments •
5237 Retail sale of equipment and articles for home use, different from appliances and furniture for home use

§ 5239 Retail sale of miscellaneous products, n.e.c., in specialized stores •
§ 524 Retail sale of other consumer products new in specialized establishments •
§ 5241 Retail sale of hardware, locks and glass products, except paints, in specialized stores •
§ 5242 Retail sale of paint in specialized establishments •
5243 Retail sale of office furniture, office machinery and equipment, computers and computer programs in
specialized establishments •
5244 Retail sale of books, newspapers, materials and articles for desk and stationary, in specialized stores

§ 5245 Retail sale of photographic equipment, in specialized establishments •
§ 5246 Retail sale of optical equipment in specialized establishments •
§ 5249 Retail sale of other new consumer products n.e.c., in specialized stores •
§ 525 Retail sale of second-hand goods in specialized stores •
§ 5251 Retail sale of second-hand goods in specialized stores •
§ 5252 commercial activities of pawn shops •
§ 526 Retail sale not done in establishments •
§ 5261 Retail sale through mail order •
§ 5262 Retail sale in mobile stalls •
§ 5269 Other retail sale not done in establishments •
§ 527 Repair of personal and household goods •
§ 5271 Repair of personal goods •
§ 5272 Repair of household goods •
H Hotels and restaurants (Division 55) •
§ 55 Hotels, restaurants, bars and similar •
§ 551 Hotels; camping sites and other provision of short-stay accommodation •
§ 5511 Accommodation in "hotel[ii]", "hostel" and "aparthotel" •
§ 5512 Accommodation in "residence", "motel" and "amoblados" •
§ 5513 Accommodation in "resort" and "camping areas" •
§ 5519 Alternative accommodation n.e.c. •
§ 552 Dispensing of food prepared on site for sale •
§ 5521 Sale of prepared foods and drinks for immediate consumption on restaurants •
5522 Sale of prepared foods and drinks for immediate consumption on restaurants in coffee shops

§ 5523 Sale of prepared foods and drinks for self-service, in restaurants •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 136

§ 5524 Sale of prepared foods and drinks for self-service, in restaurants in coffee shops •
§ 5529 Sale of other food preparations. n.e.c. •
§ 553 Sale of alcoholic beverages for consumption in the establishment •
§ 5530 Sale of alcoholic beverages for consumption in the establishment •
I Transport, storage and communications (Division 60 a 64) •
§ 60 Land transport, transport via pipelines •
§ 601 Transport via railways •
§ 6010 Transport via railways •
§ 602 Regular (scheduled public transport of passengers by land) •
§ 6021 Urban collective transport of passengers •
§ 6022 Intermunicipal collective transport of passengers •
§ 6023 International collective transport of passengers •
§ 603 Non standard [non-scheduled] transport of passengers by land •
§ 6031 Non standard [non-scheduled] transport of individual passengers •
§ 6032 Non standard [non-scheduled] collective transport of passengers •
§ 6039 Other non-standard [non-scheduled] transport of passenger, n.e.c. •
§ 604 Freight transport by road •
§ 6041 Municipal freight transport by road •
§ 6042 Intermunicipal freight transportation by road •
§ 6043 International freight transport by road •
§ 6044 Rental of cargo vehicles with driver •
§ 605 Transport via pipelines •
§ 6050 Transport via pipelines •
§ 61 Water transport •
§ 611 Sea and coastal water transport •
§ 6111 International maritime transport •
§ 6112 Coastal maritime transport •
§ 612 River transport •
§ 6120 River transport •
§ 62 Air transport •
§ 621 Regular [scheduled] air transport •
§ 6211 Regular [scheduled] air transport of passengers •
§ 6212 Regular [scheduled] national freight transport by airway •
§ 6213 Regular [scheduled] international transport of passengers, by air •
§ 6214 regular [scheduled] international freight transport by airway •
§ 622 Non-standard [not scheduled] carriage by air •
§ 6220 Non-standard transport by air •
§ 63 Supporting and auxiliary transport activities; activities of travel agencies •
§ 631 Cargo handling •
§ 6310 Cargo handling •
§ 632 Storage and warehousing •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 137

§ 6320 Storage and warehousing •


§ 633 Other activities of transport stations •
§ 6331 Activities of inland stations •
§ 6332 Activities of water transport stations •
§ 6333 Airport activities •
§ 6339 Other transport activities •
§ 634 Activities of travel agencies and travel organizers, activities n.e.c. •
§ 6340 Activities of travel agencies and travel organizers, activities of touristic assistance n.e.c. •
§ 639 Activities of other transport agencies •
§ 6390 Activities of other transport agencies •
§ 64 Post and telecommunications •
§ 641 Post and courier activities •
§ 6411 National post activities •
§ 6412 Courier activities other than national post activities •
§ 642 Telecommunications •
§ 6421 Telephone services •
§ 6422 Services related to data transmission via network •
§ 6423 Service of transmission of radio and television programming •
§ 6424 Services of transmission via cable •
§ 6425 Other telecommunications services •
§ 6426 Services related to telecommunications •
J Financial intermediation (Division 65 to 67) •
§ 65 Financial intermediation, except insurance and pension funding •
§ 651 Monetary intermediation •
§ 6511 Central banking •
§ 6512 Banking activities different from the central banking •
§ 6513 Activities of savings and housing loan corporations •
§ 6514 Activities of financial corporations •
§ 6515 Activities of commercial financing corporations •
§ 6516 Activities of second-level cooperatives, of financial nature •
§ 6519 Other monetary intermediation n.e.c. •
§ 659 Other financial brokerage •
§ 6591 Financial leasing (leasing) •
§ 6592 Other credit granting •
§ 6593 Activities and financial cooperatives and employee funds. •
§ 6594 Activities of capitalization societies •
§ 6595 Activities of portfolio purchasing (factoring) •
§ 6596 Other credit related activities •
§ 6599 Other financial brokerage n.e.c. •
§ 66 Insurance and pension funding, except compulsory social security •
§ 660 Insurance and pension funding, except compulsory social security •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 138

§ 6601 General insurance plans •


§ 6602 Life insurance plans •
§ 6603 Plans of reinsurance •
§ 6604 Pension and unemployment •
§ 67 Activities auxiliary to financial intermediation •
671 Activities auxiliary to financial intermediation, except insurance and pension funds and unemployment

§ 6711 Administration of financial markets •
§ 6712 Activities of the stock exchange •
§ 6713 Activities of securities commissions and brokers •
§ 6714 Other activities related to the stock market •
§ 6715 Activities of the exchange •
§ 6719 Activities auxiliary to financial administration n.e.c. •
§ 672 Activities auxiliary to insurance, pension funds and unemployment funds •
§ 6721 Activities auxiliary to insurance •
§ 6722 Activities auxiliary of the pension funds and unemployment •
K Real estate, renting and business activities (Division 70 a 74) •
§ 70 Real Estate activities •
§ 701 Real Estate activities carried with own or leased property •
§ 7010 Real Estate activities with own or leased property •
§ 702 Real Estate activities on a fee or contract basis •
§ 7020 Real Estate activities on a fee or contract •
§ 71 Renting of machinery and equipment without operator and of personal and household goods •
§ 711 Renting of transport equipment •
§ 7111 Renting of land transport equipment •
§ 7112 Renting of water transport equipment •
§ 7113 Renting of air transport equipment •
§ 712 Rental of other machinery and equipment •
§ 7121 Renting of agricultural machinery and equipment •
§ 7122 Renting of construction and civil engineering machinery and equipment •
§ 7123 Renting of office machinery and equipment (including computers) •
§ 7129 Renting of other machinery and equipment n.e.c. •
§ 713 Renting of personal and household goods n.e.c. •
§ 7130 Renting of personal and household goods n.e.c. •
§ 72 computer and related activities •
§ 721 hardware consultancy •
§ 7210 hardware consultancy •
§ 722 software consultancy and supply •
§ 7220 software consultancy and supply •
§ 723 data processing •
§ 7230 data processing •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 139

§ 724 Data base activities •


§ 7240 Data base activities •
§ 725 Maintenance and repair of office, accounting and computing machinery •
§ 7250 Maintenance and repair of office, accounting and computing machinery •
§ 729 Other computer related activities •
§ 7290 Other computer related activities •
§ 73 Research and development •
§ 731 Research and experimental development on natural sciences and engineering (nse) •
§ 7310 Research and experimental development on natural sciences and engineering (nse) •
§ 732 Research and experimental development on social sciences and humanities (SSH) •
§ 7320 Research and experimental development on social sciences and humanities (SSH) •
§ 74 Other business activities •
741 Legal, accounting, book-keeping and auditing activities; tax consultancy; market research and public opinion polling;
business and management consultancy •
§ 7411 legal activities •
§ 7412 accounting, book-keeping and auditing activities; tax consultancy •
§ 7413 market research and public opinion polling •
§ 7414 business and management consultancy activities •
§ 742 Architectural, engineering and other technical activities •
§ 7421 Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy •
§ 7422 Technical testing and analysis •
§ 743 Advertising •
§ 7430 Advertising •
§ 749 Business activities n.e.c. •
§ 7491 Labor recruitment and provision of personnel •
§ 7492 Investigation and security activities •
§ 7493 Building-cleaning activities •
§ 7494 Photographic activities •
§ 7495 Packaging activities •
§ 7499 Other business activities n.e.c. •
l Public administration and defense, compulsory social security (div. 75) •
§ 75 Public administration and defense; compulsory social security •
§ 751 Administration of the state and the economic and social policy of the community •
§ 7511 General (over-all) public service administration activities •
§ 7512 Executive activities relating to general (over-all) public administration •
7513 Regulation of the activities of agencies that provide health care, education, cultural services and other social
services excluding social security •
§ 7514 Regulation of and contribution to more efficient operation of business •
§ 7515 Auxiliary service activities for general public administration •
§ 752 Provision of services to the community as a whole •
§ 7521 Foreign affairs •
§ 7522 Defense activities •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 140

§ 7523 Justice activities •


§ 7524 Public order and safety activities •
§ 753 Compulsory social security activities •
§ 7530 Compulsory social security activities •
M Education (Division 80) •
o 80 Education •
§ 801 Preschool and elementary education •
§ 8011 Preschool •
§ 8012 Elementary education •
§ 802 Secondary education •
§ 8021 General secondary education •
§ 8022 Technical and vocational secondary education •
§ 803 Education services relating to specialized labor •
§ 8030 education services relating to specialized labor •
§ 804 Establishments that combine different levels of education •
§ 8041 Institutions providing preschool and basic elementary education •
§ 8042 Institutions providing preschool and basic (basic primary and secondary education •
§ 8043 Institutions providing basic education (primary and secondary) and intermediate. •
§ 8044 Operations that provide basic education services (basic primary and secondary). •
8045 Institutions providing basic education services (basic primary and secondary) and intermediate.

§ 8046 Institutions providing basic secondary and intermediate education •
§ 805 Higher education •
§ 8050 Higher education •
§ 806 Informal education •
§ 8060 Informal education •
N Health and social services (Division 85) •
o 85 Health and social services •
§ 851 Activities related to human health •
§ 8511 Activities of institutions providing health care, inpatient •
§ 8512 Activities of medical practice •
§ 8513 Activities of dental practice •
§ 8514 Diagnostic activities •
§ 8515 Therapeutic support activities •
§ 8519 Other activities related to human health •
§ 852 Veterinary activities •
§ 8520 Veterinary activities •
§ 853 Social service activities •
§ 8531 Social services with accommodation •
§ 8532 Social work without accommodation •
O Other community, social and personal service activities (div. 90 a 93) •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 141

o 90 Sewage and refuse disposal, sanitation and similar activities •


§ 900 Sewage and refuse disposal, sanitation and similar activities •
§ 9000 Sewage and refuse disposal, sanitation and similar activities •
o 91 Activities of membership organizations n.e.c. •
§ 911 Activities of business, employers and professional organizations •
§ 9111 Activities of business and employers organizations •
§ 9112 Activities of professional organizations •
§ 912 Activities of trade unions •
§ 9120 Activities of trade unions •
§ 919 Activities of other membership organizations •
§ 9191 Activities of religious organizations •
§ 9192 Activities of political organizations •
§ 9199 Activities of other membership organizations n.e.c. •
o 92 Recreational, cultural and sporting activities •
§ 921 Motion picture, radio, television and other entertainment activities •
§ 9211 Motion picture and video production and distribution •
§ 9212 Motion picture and video projection •
§ 9213 Radio and television activities •
§ 9214 Dramatic arts, music and other arts activities •
§ 9219 Other entertainment activities n.e.c. •
§ 922 News agency activities •
§ 9220 News agency activities •
§ 923 Library, archives, museums and other cultural activities •
§ 9231 Library and archives activities •
§ 9232 Museums activities and preservation of historical sites and buildings •
§ 9233 Botanical and zoological gardens and nature reserves activities •
§ 924 Sporting and other recreational activities •
§ 9241 Sporting activities •
§ 9242 Gambling activities •
§ 9249 Other recreational activities •
o 93 Other service activities •
§ 930 Other services •
§ 9301 Washing and cleaning of textile and fur products, dry cleaning •
§ 9302 Hairdressing and other beauty treatments •
§ 9303 Funeral and related activities •
§ 9309 Other service activities n.e.c. •
P Households with domestic service (Division 95) •
o 95 Private homes with domestic service •
§ 950 Households with domestic service •
§ 9500 Private homes with domestic service •
Q Extra-territorial organizations and bodies (Division 99) •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 142

o 99 Extra-territorial organizations and bodies •


§ 990 Extra-territorial organizations and bodies •
§ 9900 Extra-territorial organizations and bodies •
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 143

Código Industrial Internacional Uniforme - Revisión 3 (Spanish)


(Banco de la Republica de Colombia, 2011)
A Agricultura, Ganadería, Caza y Silvicultura (División 01 y 02)

§ 01 Agricultura, ganadería, caza y actividades de servicios conexas


§ 011 Producción específicamente agrícola
§ 0111 Producción especializada del café
§ 0112 Producción especializada de flor de corte bajo cubierta y al aire libre
§ 0113 Producción especializada de banano
§ 0114 Producción especializada de caña de azúcar
§ 0115 Producción especializada de cereales y oleaginosas
§ 0116 Producción especializada de hortalizas y legumbres
§ 0117 Producción especializada de frutas, nueces, plantas bebestibles y especias
§ 0118 Producción agrícola n.c.p. en unidades especializadas
§ 0119 Producción agrícola en unidades no especializadas
§ 012 Producción específicamente pecuaria
§ 0121 Cría especializada de ganado vacuno
§ 0122 Cría especializada de ganado porcino
§ 0123 Cría especializada de aves de corral
§ 0124 Cría especializada de ovejas, cabras, caballos, asnos, mulas y burdeganos
§ 0125 Cría especializada de otros animales n.c.p. y la obtención de sus productos
§ 0129 Actividad pecuaria no especializada
§ 013 Actividad mixta (agrícola y pecuaria)
§ 0130 Actividad mixta (agrícola y pecuaria)
§ 014 Actividades de servicios, agrícolas y ganaderos, excepto las Actividades veterinarias
§ 0140 Actividades de servicios, agrícolas y ganaderos, excepto las Actividades veterinarias

015 Caza ordinaria y mediante trampas y repoblación de animales de caza, incluso actividades de servicios conexas

0150 Caza ordinaria y mediante trampas y repoblación de animales de caza, incluso actividades de servicios conexas

§ 02 Silvicultura, extracción de madera y actividades de servicios conexas


§ 020 Silvicultura, extracción de madera y actividades de servicios conexas
§ 0201 Silvicultura y explotación de la madera
§ 0202 Actividades de servicios relacionadas con la silvicultura y la extracción de la madera.
B Pesca (División 05)

05 Pesca, producción de peces en criaderos y granjas piscícolas; actividades de servicio relacionadas con la Pesca

§ 050 Pesca, cultivo de peces en criaderos piscícolas, actividades de servicios relacionadas con la Pesca
§ 0501 Pesca y cultivo de peces en criaderos y granjas piscícolas
§ 0502 Actividades de servicios relacionados con la pesca
C Explotación de minas y canteras (división 10 a 14)

§ 10 Extracción de carbón, carbón lignitico y turba


§ 101 Extracción y aglomeración de hulla (carbón de piedra)
§ 1010 Extracción y aglomeración de hulla (carbón de piedra)
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 144

§ 102 Extracción y aglomeración de carbón lignitico


§ 1020 Extracción y aglomeración de carbón lignitico
§ 103 Extracción y aglomeración de turba
§ 1030 Extracción y aglomeración de turba
11 Extracción de petróleo crudo y de gas natural, actividades de servicios relacionadas con la extracción de petróleo y de gas,
excepto las actividades de prospección

§ 111 Extracción de petróleo crudo y de gas natural


§ 1110 Extracción de petróleo crudo y de gas natural
§ 112 Actividades de serv. relacionadas con extracción de petróleo y gas, excepto las actividades de prospección

1120 Actividades de serv. relacionadas con extracción de petróleo y gas, excepto las actividades de prospección

§ 12 Extracción de minerales de uranio y de torio


§ 120 Extracción de minerales de uranio y de torio
§ 1200 Extracción de minerales de uranio y de torio
§ 13 Extracción de minerales metalíferos
§ 131 Extracción del mineral de hierro
§ 1310 Extracción del mineral de hierro
§ 132 Extracción de metales preciosos
§ 1320 Extracción de metales preciosos
§ 133 Extracción de minerales metalíferos no ferrosos, excepto los minerales de uranio y torio y metales preciosos
§ 1331 Extracción de minerales de níquel
§ 1339 Extracción de otros minerales metalíferos no ferrosos, excepto níquel
§ 14 Explotación de minerales no metálicos
§ 141 Extracción de piedra, arena, arcillas, cal, yeso, caolín y bentonitas
§ 1411 Extracción de piedra, arena y arcillas comunes
§ 1412 Extracción de yeso y anhidrita
§ 1413 Extracción de caolín, arcillas de uso industrial y bentonitas
§ 1414 Extracción de arenas y gravas silíceas
§ 1415 Extracción de caliza y dolomita
§ 142 Explotación de minerales para la fabricación de abonos y productos químicos; Explotación de sal
§ 1421 Extracción de minerales para la fabricación de abonos y productos químicos
§ 1422 Extracción de halita (sal)
§ 143 Extracción de piedras preciosas
§ 1431 Extracción de esmeraldas
§ 1432 Extracción de otras piedras preciosas y semipreciosas
§ 149 Extracción de otros minerales no metálicos n.c.p.
§ 1490 Extracción de otros minerales no metálicos n.c.p.
D Industrias Manufactureras (Divisiones 15 a 37)

§ 15 Elaboración de productos alimenticios y de bebidas


§ 151 Producción, transformación y conservación de carne y pescado Ö
§ 1511 Producción, transformación y conservación de carne y de derivados cárnicos Ö
§ 1512 transformación y conservación de pescado y de derivados del pescado Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 145

§ 152 Elaboración de frutas, legumbres, hortalizas, aceites y grasas Ö


§ 1521 Elaboración de alimentos compuestos principalmente de frutas, legumbres y hortalizas Ö
§ 1522 Elaboración de aceites y grasas de origen vegetal y animal Ö
§ 153 Elaboración de productos lácteos Ö
§ 1530 Elaboración de productos lácteos Ö
154 Elaboración de productos de molinería, de almidones y productos derivados del almidón y alimentos preparados para
animales Ö
§ 1541 Elaboración de productos de molinería Ö
§ 1542 Elaboración de almidones y de productos derivados del almidón Ö
§ 1543 Elaboración de alimentos preparados para animales Ö
§ 155 Elaboración de productos de panadería, macarrones, fideos, alcuzcuz y productos farináceos similares Ö
§ 1551 Elaboración de productos de panadería Ö
§ 1552 Elaboración de macarrones, fideos, alcuzcuz y productos farináceos similares Ö
§ 156 Elaboración de productos de café Ö
§ 1561 Trilla de café Ö
§ 1562 Descafeinado Ö
§ 1563 Tostion y molienda del café Ö
§ 1564 Elaboración de otros derivados del café Ö
§ 157 ingenios, refinerías de azúcar y trapiches Ö
§ 1571 Fabricación y refinación de azúcar Ö
§ 1572 Fabricación de panela Ö
§ 158 Elaboración de otros productos alimenticios Ö
§ 1581 Elaboración de cacao, chocolate y productos de confitería Ö
§ 1589 Elaboración de otros productos alimenticios n.c.p. Ö
§ 159 Elaboración de bebidas Ö
1591 destilación, rectificación y mezcla de bebidas alcohólicas; producción de alcohol etílico a partir de sustancias
fermentadas Ö
§ 1592 Elaboración de bebidas fermentadas no destiladas Ö
§ 1593 Producción de malta, elaboración de cervezas y otras bebidas malteadas Ö
§ 1594 Elaboración de bebidas no alcohólicas; producción de aguas minerales Ö
16 Fabricación de productos de tabaco Ö
§ 160 Fabricación de productos de tabaco Ö
§ 1600 Fabricación de productos de tabaco Ö
17 Fabricación de productos textiles Ö
§ 171 Preparación e hilatura de fibras textiles Ö
§ 1710 Preparación e hilatura de fibras textiles Ö
§ 172 Tejedura de productos textiles Ö
§ 1720 Tejedura de productos textiles Ö
§ 173 Acabado de productos textiles no producidos en la misma unidad de producción Ö
§ 1730 Acabado de productos textiles no producidos en la misma unidad de producción Ö
§ 174 Fabricación de otros productos textiles Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 146

§ 1741 Confección de art. con materiales textiles no producidos en la misma unidad, excepto prendas de vestir
Ö
§ 1742 Fabricación de tapices y alfombras para pisos Ö
§ 1743 Fabricación de cuerdas, cordeles, cables, bramantes y redes Ö
§ 1749 Fabricación de otros artículos textiles n.c.p. Ö
§ 175 Fabricación de tejidos y artículos de punto y ganchillo Ö
§ 1750 Fabricación de tejidos y artículos de punto y ganchillo Ö
18 Fabricación de prendas de vestir; preparado y tejido de pieles Ö
§ 181 Fabricación de prendas de vestir, excepto prendas de piel. Ö
§ 1810 Fabricación de prendas de vestir, excepto prendas de piel Ö
§ 182 Preparado y tejido de pieles; fabricación de artículos de piel. Ö
§ 1820 Preparado y tejido de pieles; fabricación de artículos de piel Ö
19 Curtido y preparado de cueros; fabricación de calzado; fabricación de artículos de viaje, maletas, bolsos de mano y similares;
artículos de talabartería y guarnicioneria Ö
§ 191 Curtido y preparado de cueros Ö
§ 1910 Curtido y preparado de cueros Ö
§ 192 Fabricación de calzado Ö
§ 1921 Fabricación de calzado de cuero y piel; con cualquier tipo de suela, excepto el calzado deportivo Ö
§ 1922 Fabricación de calzado de materiales textiles; con cualquier tipo de suela, excepto calzado deportivo Ö
§ 1923 Fabricación de calzado de caucho, excepto el calzado deportivo. Ö
§ 1924 Fabricación de calzado de plástico, excepto el calzado deportivo Ö
§ 1925 Fabricación de calzado deportivo, incluso el moldeado Ö
§ 1926 Fabricación de partes del calzado Ö
§ 1929 Fabricación de calzado n.c.p. Ö
193 Fabricación de artículos de viaje, bolsos de mano, y artículos similares; fabricación de artículos de talabartería y
guarnicioneria Ö
1931 Fabricación de artículos de viaje, bolsos de mano, y artículos similares elaborados en cuero; Fabricación de
artículos de talabartería y guarnicioneria Ö
1932 Fabricación de artículos de viaje, bolsos de mano y artículos similares, elaborados en materiales sintéticos,
plástico e imitaciones de cuero Ö
1939 Fabricación de artículos de viaje, bolsos de mano, y artículos similares elaborados con materiales n.c.p.
Ö
20 Transformación de la madera y fabricación de productos de madera y de corcho, excepto muebles; fabricación de artículos
de cestería y espartería Ö
§ 201 Aserrado, acepillado e impregnación de la madera Ö
§ 2010 Aserrado, acepillado e impregnación de la madera Ö
202 Fabricación de hojas de madera para enchapado; Fabricación de tableros contrachapados, tableros laminados, tableros
de partículas y otros tableros y paneles Ö
2020 Fabricación de hojas de madera para enchapado; Fabricación de tableros contrachapados, tableros laminados,
tableros de partículas y otros tableros y paneles Ö
§ 203 Fabricación de partes y piezas de carpintería para edificios y construcciones Ö
§ 2030 Fabricación de partes y piezas de carpintería para edificios y construcciones Ö
§ 204 Fabricación de recipientes de madera Ö
§ 2040 Fabricación de recipientes de madera Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 147

§ 209 Fabricación de otros productos de madera; Fabricación de artículos de corcho, cestería y espartería
Ö
§ 2090 Fabricación de otros productos de madera; Fabricación de artículos de corcho, cestería y espartería Ö
§ 21 Fabricación de papel, cartón y productos de papel y cartón Ö
§ 210 Fabricación de papel, cartón y productos de papel y cartón Ö
§ 2101 Fabricación de pastas celulósicas; papel y cartón Ö
2102 Fabr. de papel y cartón ondulado, fabricación de envases, empaques y de embalajes de papel y cartón
Ö
§ 2109 Fabricación de otros artículos de papel y cartón Ö
§ 22 Actividades de edición e impresión y de reproducción de grabaciones Ö
§ 221 Actividades de edición Ö
§ 2211 Edición de libros, folletos, partituras y otras publicaciones Ö
§ 2212 Edición de periódicos, revistas y publicaciones periódicas Ö
§ 2213 Edición de materiales grabados Ö
§ 2219 Otros trabajos de edición Ö
§ 222 Actividades de impresión Ö
§ 2220 Actividades de impresión Ö
§ 223 Actividades de servicios relacionadas con las de impresión Ö
§ 2231 Arte, diseño y composición Ö
§ 2232 Fotomecánica y análogos Ö
§ 2233 Encuadernación Ö
§ 2234 Acabado o recubrimiento Ö
§ 2239 Otros servicios conexos n.c.p. Ö
§ 224 Reproducción de materiales grabados Ö
§ 2240 Reproducción de materiales grabados Ö
§ 23 Coquización, fabricación de productos de la refinación del petróleo y combustible nuclear Ö
§ 231 Fabricación de productos de hornos de coque Ö
§ 2310 Fabricación de productos de hornos de coque Ö
§ 232 Fabricación de productos de la refinación del petróleo Ö
§ 2321 Fabricación de productos de la refinación del petróleo, elaborados en refinería Ö
§ 2322 Elaboración de productos derivados del petróleo, fuera de refinería Ö
§ 233 Elaboración de combustible nuclear Ö
§ 2330 Elaboración de combustible nuclear Ö
§ 24 Fabricación de sustancias y productos químicos Ö
§ 241 Fabricación de sustancias químicas básicas Ö
§ 2411 Fabricación de sustancias químicas básicas, excepto abonos y compuestos inorgánicos nitrogenados Ö
§ 2412 Fabricación de abonos y compuestos inorgánicos nitrogenados Ö
§ 2413 Fabricación de plásticos en formas primarias Ö
§ 2414 Fabricación de caucho sintético en formas primarias Ö
§ 242 Fabricación de otros productos químicos Ö
§ 2421 Fabricación de plaguicidas y otros productos químicos de uso agropecuario Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 148

§ 2422 Fabricación de pinturas, barnices y revestimientos similares, tintas para impresión y masillas Ö
§ 2423 Fabricación de productos farmacéuticos, sustancias químicas medicinales y productos botánicos Ö
§ 2424 Fabr. de jabones y detergentes, preparados para limpiar y pulir; perfumes y preparados de tocador Ö
§ 2429 Fabricación de otros productos químicos n.c.p. Ö
§ 243 Fabricación de fibras sintéticas y artificiales Ö
§ 2430 Fabricación de fibras sintéticas y artificiales Ö
§ 25 Fabricación de productos de caucho y de plástico Ö
§ 251 Fabricación de productos de caucho Ö
§ 2511 Fabricación de llantas y neumáticos de caucho Ö
§ 2512 Reencauche de llantas usadas Ö
§ 2513 Fabricación de formas básicas de caucho Ö
§ 2519 Fabricación de otros productos de caucho n.c.p. Ö
§ 252 Fabricación de productos de plástico Ö
§ 2521 Fabricación de formas básicas de plástico Ö
§ 2529 Fabricación de artículos de plástico n.c.p. Ö
§ 26 Fabricación de otros productos minerales no metálicos Ö
§ 261 Fabricación de vidrio y de productos de vidrio Ö
§ 2610 Fabricación de vidrio y de productos de vidrio Ö
§ 269 Fabricación de productos minerales no metálicos n.c.p. Ö
§ 2691 Fabricación de productos de cerámica no refractaria, para uso no estructural Ö
§ 2692 Fabricación de productos de cerámica refractaria Ö
§ 2693 Fabricación de productos de arcilla y cerámica no refractarias, para uso estructural Ö
§ 2694 Fabricación de cemento, cal y yeso Ö
§ 2695 Fabricación de artículos de hormigón, cemento y yeso Ö
§ 2696 corte, tallado y acabado de la piedra Ö
§ 2699 Fabricación de otros productos minerales no metálicos n.c.p. Ö
§ 27 Fabricación de productos metalúrgicos básicos Ö
§ 271 Industrias básicas de hierro y de acero Ö
§ 2710 Industrias básicas de hierro y de acero Ö
§ 272 Industrias básicas de metales preciosos y de metales no ferrosos Ö
§ 2721 Industrias básicas de metales preciosos Ö
§ 2729 Industrias básicas de otros metales no ferrosos Ö
§ 273 Fundición de metales Ö
§ 2731 fundición de hierro y de acero Ö
§ 2732 fundición de metales no ferrosos Ö
§ 28 Fabricación de productos elaborados de metal, excepto maquinaria y equipo Ö
§ 281 Fabricación de productos metálicos para uso estructural, tanques, depósitos y generadores de vapor Ö
§ 2811 Fabricación de productos metálicos para uso estructural Ö
§ 2812 Fabricación de tanques, depósitos y recipientes de metal Ö
§ 2813 Fabricación de generadores de vapor, excepto calderas de agua caliente para calefacción central Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 149

§ 289 Fabr. de otros productos elaborados de metal y actividades de serv. relacionados con el trabajo de metales
Ö
§ 2891 Forja, prensado, estampado y laminado de metal; pulvimetalurgia Ö
2892 Tratamiento y revestimiento de metales; trabajos de ingeniería mecánica en general realizados a cambio de una
retribución o por contrata Ö
§ 2893 Fabricación de artículos de cuchillería, herramientas de mano y artículos de ferretería Ö
§ 2899 Fabricación de otros productos elaborados de metal n.c.p. Ö
§ 29 Fabricación de maquinaria y equipo n.c.p. Ö
§ 291 Fabricación de maquinaria de uso general Ö
§ 2911 Fabr. de motores y turbinas, excepto motores para aeronaves, vehículos automotores y motocicletas Ö
§ 2912 Fabricación de bombas, compresores, grifos y válvulas Ö
§ 2913 Fabricación de cojinetes, engranajes, trenes de engranajes y piezas de transmisión Ö
§ 2914 Fabricación de hornos, hogares y quemadores industriales Ö
§ 2915 Fabricación de equipo de elevación y manipulación Ö
§ 2919 Fabricación de otros tipos de maquinaria de uso general n.c.p. Ö
§ 292 Fabricación de maquinaria de uso especial Ö
§ 2921 Fabricación de maquinaria agropecuaria y forestal Ö
§ 2922 Fabricación de maquinas herramienta Ö
§ 2923 Fabricación de maquinaria para la metalurgia Ö
§ 2924 Fabricación de maquinaria para la explotación de minas y canteras y para la construcción Ö
§ 2925 Fabricación de maquinaria para la elaboración de alimentos, bebidas y tabaco Ö
§ 2926 Fabricación de maquinaria para la elaboración de productos textiles, prendas de vestir y cueros Ö
§ 2927 Fabricación de armas y municiones Ö
§ 2929 Fabricación de otros tipos de maquinaria de uso especial n.c.p. Ö
§ 293 Fabricación de aparatos de uso domestico n.c.p. Ö
§ 2930 Fabricación de aparatos de uso domestico n.c.p. Ö
§ 30 Fabricación de maquinaria de oficina, contabilidad e informática Ö
§ 300 Fabricación de maquinaria de oficina, contabilidad e informática Ö
§ 3000 Fabricación de maquinaria de oficina, contabilidad e informática Ö
§ 31 Fabricación de maquinaria y aparatos eléctricos n.c.p. Ö
§ 311 Fabricación de motores, generadores y transformadores eléctricos Ö
§ 3110 Fabricación de motores, generadores y transformadores eléctricos Ö
§ 312 Fabricación de aparatos de distribución y control de la energía eléctrica Ö
§ 3120 Fabricación de aparatos de distribución y control de la energía eléctrica Ö
§ 313 Fabricación de hilos y cables aislados Ö
§ 3130 Fabricación de hilos y cables aislados Ö
§ 314 Fabricación de acumuladores y de pilas eléctricas Ö
§ 3140 Fabricación de acumuladores y de pilas eléctricas Ö
§ 315 Fabricación de lámparas eléctricas y equipo de iluminación Ö
§ 3150 Fabricación de lámparas eléctricas y equipo de iluminación Ö
§ 319 Fabricación de otros tipos de equipo eléctrico n.c.p. Ö
§ 3190 Fabricación de otros tipos de equipo eléctrico n.c.p. Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 150

§ 32 Fabricación de equipo y aparatos de radio, televisión y comunicaciones Ö


§ 321 Fabricación de tubos y válvulas electrónicas y de otros componentes electrónicos Ö
§ 3210 Fabricación de tubos y válvulas electrónicas y de otros componentes electrónicos Ö
§ 322 Fabricación de transmisores de radio y televisión y de aparatos para telefonía y telegrafía Ö
§ 3220 Fabricación de transmisores de radio y televisión y de aparatos para telefonía y telegrafía Ö
323 Fabricación de receptores de radio y televisión, de aparatos de grabación y de reproducción del sonido o de la imagen,
y de productos conexos Ö
3230 Fabricación de receptores de radio y televisión, de aparatos de grabación y de reproducción del sonido o de la
imagen, y de productos conexos Ö
§ 33 Fabricación de instrumentos médicos, ópticos y de precisión y Fabricación de relojes Ö
331 Fabricación de aparatos e instrumentos médicos y de aparatos para medir, verificar, ensayar, navegar y otros fines,
excepto instrumentos de ópticas Ö
§ 3311 Fabricación de equipo medico y quirúrgico y de aparatos ortesicos y protésicos Ö
3312 Fabricación de instrumentos y aparatos para medir, verificar, ensayar, navegar y otros fines, excepto equipo de
control de procesos industriales Ö
§ 3313 Fabricación de equipo de control de procesos industriales Ö
§ 332 Fabricación de instrumentos ópticos y de equipo fotográfico Ö
§ 3320 Fabricación de instrumentos ópticos y de equipo fotográfico Ö
§ 333 Fabricación de relojes Ö
§ 3330 Fabricación de relojes Ö
§ 34 Fabricación de vehículos automotores, remolques y semirremolques Ö
§ 341 Fabricación de vehículos automotores y sus motores Ö
§ 3410 Fabricación de vehículos automotores y sus motores Ö
§ 342 Fabricación de carrocerías para vehículos automotores; Fabricación de remolques y semirremolques Ö
§ 3420 Fabricación de carrocerías para vehículos automotores; Fabricación de remolques y semirremolques Ö
§ 343 Fabricación de partes, piezas y accesorios (autopartes) para vehículos automotores y para sus motores Ö
§ 3430 Fabr. de partes, piezas y accesorios (autopartes) para vehículos automotores y para sus motores Ö
§ 35 Fabricación de otros tipos de equipo de transporte Ö
§ 351 construcción y reparación de buques y de otras embarcaciones Ö
§ 3511 construcción y reparación de buques Ö
§ 3512 construcción y reparación de embarcaciones de recreo y de deporte Ö
§ 352 Fabricación de locomotoras y de material rodante para ferrocarriles y tranvías Ö
§ 3520 Fabricación de locomotoras y de material rodante para ferrocarriles y tranvías Ö
§ 353 Fabricación de aeronaves y de naves espaciales Ö
§ 3530 Fabricación de aeronaves y de naves espaciales Ö
§ 359 Fabricación de otros tipos de equipo de transporte n.c.p. Ö
§ 3591 Fabricación de motocicletas Ö
§ 3592 Fabricación de bicicletas y de sillones de ruedas para discapacitados Ö
§ 3599 Fabricación de otros tipos de equipo de transporte n.c.p. Ö
§ 36 Fabricación de muebles; industrias manufactureras n.c.p. Ö
§ 361 Fabricación de muebles Ö
§ 3611 Fabricación de muebles para el hogar Ö
§ 3612 Fabricación de muebles para oficina Ö
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 151

§ 3613 Fabricación de muebles para comercio y servicios Ö


§ 3614 Fabricación de colchones y somieres Ö
§ 3619 Fabricación de otros muebles n.c.p. Ö
§ 369 industrias manufactureras n.c.p. Ö
§ 3691 Fabricación de joyas y de artículos conexos Ö
§ 3692 Fabricación de instrumentos musicales Ö
§ 3693 Fabricación de artículos deportivos Ö
§ 3694 Fabricación de juegos y juguetes Ö
§ 3699 Otras industrias manufactureras n.c.p. Ö
§ 37 Reciclaje Ö
§ 371 Reciclaje de desperdicios y de desechos metálicos Ö
§ 3710 Reciclaje de desperdicios y de desechos metálicos Ö
§ 372 Reciclaje de desperdicios y desechos no metálicos Ö
§ 3720 Reciclaje de desperdicios y desechos no metálicos Ö
E Suministro de electricidad, gas y agua (Divisiones 40 y 41)

§ 40 Suministro de electricidad, gas, vapor y agua caliente


§ 401 Generación, captación y distribución de energía eléctrica
§ 4010 Generación, captación y distribución de energía eléctrica
§ 402 Fabricación de gas; distribución de combustibles gaseosos por tuberías
§ 4020 Fabricación de gas; distribución de combustibles gaseosos por tuberías
§ 403 Suministro de vapor y agua caliente
§ 4030 Suministro de vapor y agua caliente
§ 41 Captación, depuración y distribución de agua
§ 410 Captación, depuración y distribución de agua
§ 4100 Captación, depuración y distribución de agua
F Construcción (división 45)

§ 45 Construcción
§ 451 Preparación del terreno
§ 4511 Trabajos de demolición y preparación de terrenos para la construcción de edificaciones
§ 4512 Trabajos de preparación de terrenos para obras civiles
§ 452 Construcción de edificaciones completas y de partes de edificaciones
§ 4521 Construcción de edificaciones para uso residencial
§ 4522 Construcción de edificaciones para uso no residencial
§ 453 Construcción de obras de ingeniería civil
§ 4530 Construcción de obras de ingeniería civil
§ 454 acondicionamiento de edificaciones y de obras civiles
§ 4541 Instalaciones hidráulicas y trabajos conexos
§ 4542 Trabajos de electricidad
§ 4543 Trabajos de instalación de equipos
§ 4549 Otros trabajos de acondicionamiento
§ 455 terminación y acabado de edificaciones y obras civiles
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 152

§ 4551 Instalación de vidrios y ventanas


§ 4552 Trabajos de pintura y terminación de muros y pisos
§ 4559 Otros trabajos de terminación y acabado
§ 456 Alquiler de equipo para construcción y demolición dotado de operarios
§ 4560 Alquiler de equipo para construcción y demolición dotado de operarios
G Comercio al por mayor y al por menor; reparación de vehículos automotores, motocicletas, efectos personales y enseres
domésticos (Divisiones 50 a 52)
50 Comercio, mantenimiento y reparación de vehículos automotores y motocicletas, sus partes, piezas y accesorios; Comercio
al por menor de combustibles y lubricantes para vehículos automotores
§ 501 Comercio de vehículos automotores
§ 5011 Comercio de vehículos automotores nuevos
§ 5012 Comercio de vehículos automotores usados
§ 502 Mantenimiento y reparación de vehículos automotores
§ 5020 mantenimiento y reparación de vehículos automotores
§ 503 Comercio de partes, piezas (autopartes) y accesorios (lujos) para vehículos automotores
§ 5030 Comercio de partes, piezas (autopartes) y accesorios (lujos) para vehículos automotores
§ 504 Comercio, mantenimiento y reparación de motocicletas y de sus partes, piezas y accesorios
§ 5040 Comercio, mantenimiento y reparación de motocicletas y de sus partes, piezas y accesorios
§ 505 Comercio al por menor de combustible, lubricantes, aditivos y productos de limpieza para automotores
§ 5051 Comercio al por menor de combustible para automotores
5052 Comercio al por menor de lubricantes (aceites, grasas), aditivos y productos de limpieza para vehículos
automotores
51 Comercio al por mayor y en comisión o por contrata, excepto el Comercio de vehículos automotores y motocicletas;
mantenimiento y reparación de maquinaria y equipo
§ 511 Comercio al por mayor a cambio de una retribución o por contrata
5111 Comercio al por mayor a cambio de una retribución o por contrata de productos agrícolas (excepto café),
silvícolas y de animales vivos y sus productos
5112 Comercio al por mayor a cambio de una retribución o por contrata de café pergamino

5113 Comercio al por mayor a cambio de una retribución o por contrata de productos manufacturados

5119 Comercio al por mayor a cambio de una retribución o por contrata de productos n.c.p.

§ 512 Comercio al por mayor de materias primas agropecuarias; animales vivos; alimentos, bebidas y tabaco
§ 5121 Comercio al por mayor de materias primas productos agrícolas, excepto café y flores
§ 5122 Comercio al por mayor de café pergamino
§ 5123 Comercio al por mayor de flores y plantas ornamentales
§ 5124 Comercio al por mayor de materias primas pecuarias, animales vivos y sus productos
§ 5125 Comercio al por mayor de productos alimenticios procesados, excepto café trillado
§ 5126 Comercio al por mayor de café trillado
§ 5127 Comercio al por mayor de bebidas y productos del tabaco
§ 513 Comercio al por mayor de productos de uso domestico
§ 5131 Comercio al por mayor de productos textiles y productos confeccionados para uso domestico.
§ 5132 Comercio al por mayor de prendas de vestir, accesorios de prendas de vestir y art. elaborados en piel
§ 5133 Comercio al por mayor de calzado
§ 5134 Comercio al por mayor de aparatos, artículos y equipo de uso domestico
§ 5135 Comercio al por mayor de productos farmacéuticos, medicinales, cosméticos y de tocador
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 153

§ 5136 Comercio al por mayor de equipos médicos y quirúrgicos y de aparatos ortesicos y protésicos

§ 5137 Comercio al por mayor de papel y cartón; productos de papel y cartón


§ 5139 Comercio al por mayor de otros productos de consumo n.c.p.
§ 514 Comercio al por mayor de materiales de construcción, vidrio, equipo y materiales de fontanería
§ 5141 Comercio al por mayor de materiales de construcción, ferretería y vidrio
§ 5142 Comercio al por mayor de pinturas y productos conexos
§ 515 Comercio al por mayor de productos intermedios no agropecuarios, desperdicios y desechos
§ 5151 Comercio al por mayor de combustibles sólidos, líquidos, gaseosos y productos conexos
§ 5152 Comercio al por mayor de metales y minerales metalíferos en formas primarias
5153 Comercio al por mayor de productos químicos básicos, plásticos y caucho en formas primarias y productos
químicos de uso agropecuario
§ 5154 Comercio al por mayor de fibras textiles
§ 5155 Comercio al por mayor de desperdicios o desechos industriales y material para reciclaje
§ 5159 Comercio al por mayor de otros productos intermedios n.c.p.

§ 516 Comercio al por mayor de todo tipo de maquinaria y equipo, excepto Comercio de vehículos automotores
§ 5161 Comercio al por mayor de maquinaria y equipo para la agricultura, minería, construcción y la industria
§ 5162 Comercio al por mayor de equipo de transporte, excepto vehículos automotores y motocicletas
§ 5163 Comercio al por mayor de maquinaria para oficina, contabilidad e informática
§ 5169 Comercio al por mayor de maquinaria y equipo n.c.p.
§ 517 Mantenimiento y reparación de maquinaria y equipo
§ 5170 mantenimiento y reparación de maquinaria y equipo.
§ 519 Comercio al por mayor de productos diversos n.c.p.
§ 5190 Comercio al por mayor de productos diversos n.c.p.
52 Comercio al por menor, excepto el Comercio de vehículos automotores y motocicletas; reparación de efectos personales y
enseres domésticos
§ 521 Comercio al por menor en establecimientos no especializados
5211 Comercio al por menor, en establecimientos no especializados, con surtido compuesto principalmente de
alimentos (víveres en general), bebidas y tabaco
5219 Comercio al por menor en establecimientos no especializados con surtido compuesto principalmente por
productos diferentes de alimentos (víveres en general), bebidas y tabacos

522 Comercio al por menor de alimentos (víveres en general), bebidas y tabaco, en establecimientos especializados

§ 5221 Comercio al por menor de frutas y verduras, en establecimientos especializados


§ 5222 Comercio al por menor de leche, productos lácteos y huevos en establecimientos especializados
5223 Comercio al por menor de carnes (incluye aves de corral), productos cárnicos, pescados y productos de mar, en
establecimientos especializados
§ 5224 Comercio al por menor de productos de confitería en establecimientos especializados
§ 5225 Comercio al por menor de bebidas y productos del tabaco en establecimientos especializados
§ 5229 Comercio al por menor de otros productos alimenticios n.c.p., en establecimientos especializados
§ 523 Comercio al por menor de productos nuevos de consumo domestico, en establecimientos especializados
5231 Comercio al por menor de productos farmacéuticos, medicinales, y odontológicos; artículos de perfumería,
cosméticos y de tocador en establecimientos especializados
§ 5232 Comercio al por menor de productos textiles en establecimientos especializados

§ 5233 Comercio al por menor de prendas de vestir y sus accesorios (incluye artículos de piel)
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 154

5234 Comercio al por menor de todo tipo de calzado, artículos de cuero y sucedáneos del cuero, en establecimientos
especializados
§ 5235 Comercio al por menor de electrodomésticos en establecimientos especializados
§ 5236 Comercio al por menor de muebles para el hogar en establecimientos especializados
5237 Comercio al por menor de equipo y artículos de uso domestico diferentes de electrodomésticos y muebles para el
hogar
§ 5239 Comercio al por menor de productos diversos n.c.p., en establecimientos especializados
§ 524 Comercio al por menor de otros nuevos productos de consumo, en establecimientos especializados
5241 Comercio al por menor de artículos de ferretería, cerrajería y productos de vidrio, excepto pinturas en
establecimientos especializados
5242 Comercio al por menor de pinturas en establecimientos especializados
5243 Comercio al por menor de muebles para oficina, maquinaria y equipo de oficina, computadores y programas de
computador, en establecimientos especializados
5244 Comercio al por menor de libros, periódicos, materiales y artículos de papelería y escritorio, en establecimientos
especializados
5245 Comercio al por menor de equipo fotográfico en establecimientos especializados
5246 Comercio al por menor de equipo óptico y de precisión en establecimientos especializados

5249 Comercio al por menor de otros nuevos productos de consumo n.c.p. en establecimientos especializados

525 Comercio al por menor de artículos usados y actividades de compra venta, en establecimientos especializados

§ 5251 Comercio al por menor de artículos usados en establecimientos especializados


§ 5252 Actividades comerciales de las casas de empeño o compraventas
§ 526 Comercio al por menor no realizado en establecimientos
§ 5261 Comercio al por menor a través de casas de venta por correo
§ 5262 Comercio al por menor en puestos móviles
§ 5269 Otros tipos de comercio al por menor no realizado en establecimientos
§ 527 reparación de efectos personales y enseres domésticos
§ 5271 Reparación de efectos personales
§ 5272 Reparación de enseres domésticos
H Hoteles y Restaurantes (división 55)

§ 55 Hoteles, restaurantes, bares y similares


§ 551 Alojamiento en hoteles, campamentos y otros tipos de hospedaje no permanente
§ 5511 Alojamiento en "hoteles", "hostales" y "aparta hoteles"
§ 5512 Alojamiento en "residencias", "moteles" y " amoblados"
§ 5513 Alojamiento en "centros vacacionales" y "zonas de camping"
§ 5519 Otros tipos de alojamiento n.c.p.
§ 552 Expendio de alimentos preparados en el sitio de venta
§ 5521 Expendio a la mesa de comidas preparadas, en restaurantes
§ 5522 Expendio, a la mesa, de comidas preparadas en cafeterías
§ 5523 Expendio, por autoservicio, de comidas preparadas en restaurantes
§ 5524 Expendio, por autoservicio, de comidas preparadas en cafeterías
§ 5529 otros tipos de expendio n.c.p. de alimentos preparados
§ 553 Expendio de bebidas alcohólicas para el consumo dentro del establecimiento
§ 5530 Expendio de bebidas alcohólicas para el consumo dentro del establecimiento
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 155

I Transporte, almacenamiento y comunicaciones (Divisiones 60 a 64)

§ 60 Transporte por vía terrestre; Transporte por tuberías


§ 601 Transporte por vía férrea
§ 6010 Transporte por vía férrea
§ 602 Transporte colectivo regular de pasajeros por vía terrestre
§ 6021 Transporte urbano colectivo regular de pasajeros
§ 6022 Transporte intermunicipal colectivo regular de pasajeros
§ 6023 Transporte internacional colectivo regular de pasajeros
§ 603 Transporte no regular de pasajeros por vía terrestre
§ 6031 Transporte no regular individual de pasajeros
§ 6032 Transporte colectivo no regular de pasajeros
§ 6039 Otros tipos de transporte no regular de pasajeros n.c.p.
§ 604 Transporte de carga por carretera
§ 6041 Transporte municipal de carga por carretera
§ 6042 Transporte intermunicipal de carga por carretera
§ 6043 Transporte internacional de carga por carretera
§ 6044 Alquiler de vehículos de carga con conductor
§ 605 Transporte por tuberías
§ 6050 Transporte por tuberías
§ 61 Transporte por vía acuática
§ 611 Transporte marítimo y de cabotaje
§ 6111 Transporte marítimo internacional
§ 6112 Transporte marítimo de cabotaje
§ 612 Transporte fluvial
§ 6120 Transporte fluvial
§ 62 Transporte por vía aérea
§ 621 Transporte regular por vía aérea
§ 6211 Transporte regular nacional de pasajeros, por vía aérea
§ 6212 Transporte regular nacional de carga, por vía aérea
§ 6213 Transporte regular internacional de pasajeros, por vía aérea
§ 6214 Transporte regular internacional de carga, por vía aérea
§ 622 Transporte no regular por vía aérea
§ 6220 Transporte no regular por vía aérea
§ 63 Actividades complementarias y auxiliares al transporte; actividades de agencias de viajes
§ 631 Manipulación de carga
§ 6310 Manipulación de carga
§ 632 Almacenamiento y deposito
§ 6320 Almacenamiento y deposito
§ 633 Actividades de las estaciones de transporte
§ 6331 Actividades de estaciones de transporte terrestre
§ 6332 Actividades de estaciones de transporte acuático
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 156

§ 6333 Actividades de aeropuertos


§ 6339 Otras actividades complementarias del transporte
§ 634 Actividades de agencias de viajes y organizadores de viajes; actividades de asistencia a turistas n.c.p.

6340 Actividades de agencias de viajes y organizadores de viajes; actividades de asistencia a turistas n.c.p.

§ 639 Actividades de otras agencias de transporte


§ 6390 Actividades de Otras agencias de transporte
§ 64 Correo y telecomunicaciones
§ 641 Actividades postales y de correo
§ 6411 Actividades postales nacionales
§ 6412 Actividades de correo distintas de las Actividades postales nacionales
§ 642 telecomunicaciones
§ 6421 Servicios telefónicos
§ 6422 servicio de transmisión de datos a través de redes
§ 6423 Servicios de transmisión de programas de radio y televisión
§ 6424 Servicios de transmisión por cable
§ 6425 Otros servicios de telecomunicaciones
§ 6426 Servicios relacionados con las telecomunicaciones
J Intermediación financiera (Divisiones 65 a 67)

§ 65 Intermediación financiera, excepto los seguros y los fondos de pensiones y cesantías


§ 651 Intermediación monetaria
§ 6511 Banca central
§ 6512 Actividades de los bancos diferentes del banco central
§ 6513 Actividades de las corporaciones de ahorro y vivienda
§ 6514 Actividades de las corporaciones financieras
§ 6515 Actividades de las compañías de financiamiento comercial
§ 6516 Actividades de las cooperativas de grado superior de carácter financiero
§ 6519 Otros tipos de intermediación monetaria n.c.p.
§ 659 Otros tipos de intermediación financiera
§ 6591 arrendamiento financiero (leasing)
§ 6592 Actividades de las sociedades de fiducia
§ 6593 Actividades de las cooperativas financieras y fondos de empleados
§ 6594 Actividades de las sociedades de capitalización
§ 6595 Actividades de compra de cartera (factoring)
§ 6596 Otros tipos de crédito
§ 6599 Otros tipos de intermediación financiera n.c.p.
§ 66 Financiación de planes de seguros y pensiones, excepto la seguridad social de afiliación obligatoria
§ 660Sseguros y fondos de pensiones y cesantías, excepto la seguridad social de afiliación obligatoria
§ 6601 Planes de seguros generales
§ 6602 Planes de seguros de vida
§ 6603 Planes de reaseguros
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 157

§ 6604 Planes de pensiones y cesantías


§ 67 Actividades auxiliares de la intermediación financiera
671 Actividades auxiliares de la intermediación financiera, excepto los seguros y los fondos de pensiones y cesantías

§ 6711 administración de mercados financieros


§ 6712 Actividades de las bolsas de valores
§ 6713 actividades de comisionistas y corredores de valores
§ 6714 Otras actividades relacionadas con el mercado de valores
§ 6715 Actividades de las casas de cambio
§ 6719 Actividades auxiliares de la administración financiera n.c.p.
§ 672 Actividades auxiliares de los seguros y de los fondos de pensiones y cesantías
§ 6721 Actividades auxiliares de los seguros
§ 6722 Actividades auxiliares de los fondos de pensiones y cesantías
K Actividades inmobiliarias, empresariales y de alquiler (Divisiones 70 a 74)

§ 70 Actividades inmobiliarias
§ 701 Actividades inmobiliarias realizadas con bienes propios o arrendados
§ 7010 Actividades inmobiliarias realizadas con bienes propios o arrendados
§ 702 Actividades inmobiliarias realizadas a cambio de una retribución o por contrata
§ 7020 Actividades inmobiliarias realizadas a cambio de una retribución o por contrata
§ 71 Alquiler de maquinaria y equipo sin operarios y de efectos personales y enseres domésticos
§ 711 Alquiler de equipo de transporte
§ 7111 Alquiler de equipo de transporte terrestre
§ 7112 Alquiler de equipo de transporte acuático
§ 7113 Alquiler de equipo de transporte aéreo
§ 712 Alquiler de otros tipos de maquinaria y equipo
§ 7121 Alquiler de maquinaria y equipo agropecuario
§ 7122 Alquiler de maquinaria y equipo de construcción y de ingeniería civil
§ 7123 Alquiler de maquinaria y equipo de oficina (incluso computadoras)
§ 7129 Alquiler de otros tipos de maquinaria y equipo n.c.p.
§ 713 Alquiler de efectos personales y enseres domésticos n.c.p.
§ 7130 Alquiler de efectos personales y enseres domésticos n.c.p.
§ 72 Informática y actividades conexas
§ 721 Consultores en equipo de informática
§ 7210 Consultores en equipo de informática
§ 722 Consultores en programas de informática y suministro de programas de informática
§ 7220 Consultores en programas de informática y suministro de programas de informática
§ 723 Procesamiento de datos
§ 7230 Procesamiento de datos
§ 724 Actividades relacionadas con bases de datos
§ 7240 Actividades relacionadas con bases de datos
§ 725 Mantenimiento y reparación de maquinaria de oficina, contabilidad e informática
§ 7250 Mantenimiento y reparación de maquinaria de oficina, contabilidad e informática
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 158

§ 729 Otras actividades de informática


§ 7290 Otras actividades de informática
§ 73 Investigación y desarrollo
§ 731 Investigación y desarrollo experimental en el campo de las ciencias naturales y la ingeniería
7310 investigación y desarrollo experimental en el campo de las ciencias naturales y la ingeniería
§ 732 investigación y desarrollo experimental en el campo de las ciencias sociales y las humanidades
§ 7320 investigación y desarrollo experimental en el campo de las ciencias sociales y las humanidades
§ 74 Otras actividades empresariales
741 Actividades jurídicas y de contabilidad, teneduría de libros y auditoria; asesoramiento en materia de impuestos; estudio
de mercados y realización encuestas de opinión publica; asesoramiento empresarial y en materia de gestión

§ 7411 Actividades jurídicas


§ 7412 Actividades de contabilidad, teneduría de libros y auditoria; asesoramiento en materia de impuestos
§ 7413 investigación de mercados y realización de encuestas de opinión publica
§ 7414 Actividades de asesoramiento empresarial y en materia de gestión
§ 742 Actividades de arquitectura e ingeniería y otras actividades técnicas
§ 7421 Actividades de arquitectura e ingeniería y Actividades conexas de asesoramiento técnico
§ 7422 Ensayos y análisis técnicos
§ 743 Publicidad
§ 7430 Publicidad
§ 749 Actividades empresariales n.c.p.
§ 7491 obtención y suministro de personal
§ 7492 Actividades de investigación y seguridad
§ 7493 Actividades de limpieza de edificios
§ 7494 Actividades de fotografía
§ 7495 Actividades de envase y empaque Ö
§ 7499 Otras actividades empresariales n.c.p.
I Administración publica y defensa; seguridad social de afiliación obligatoria (div. 75)

§ 75 administración publica y defensa; seguridad social de afiliación obligatoria


§ 751 administración del estado y aplicación de la política económica y social de la comunidad
§ 7511 Actividades legislativas de la administración publica en general
§ 7512 Actividades ejecutivas de la administración publica en general
7513 Regulación de las actividades de organismos que prestan servicios de salud, educativos, culturales y otros
servicios sociales, excepto servicios de seguridad social
§ 7514 Actividades reguladoras y facilitadoras de la actividad económica
§ 7515 Actividades auxiliares de servicios para la administración publica en general
§ 752 Prestación de servicios a la comunidad en general
§ 7521 Relaciones exteriores
§ 7522 Actividades de defensa
§ 7523 Actividades de la justicia
§ 7524 Actividades de la policía y protección civil
§ 753 Actividades de seguridad social de afiliación obligatoria
§ 7530 Actividades de seguridad social de afiliación obligatoria
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 159

M Educación (división 80)

§ 80 Educación
§ 801 Educación preescolar y primaria
§ 8011 Educación preescolar
§ 8012 Educación básica primaria
§ 802 Educación secundaria
§ 8021 Educación básica secundaria
§ 8022 Educación media
§ 803 Servicio de educación laboral especial
§ 8030 Servicio de educación laboral especial
§ 804 Establecimientos que combinan diferentes niveles de educación
§ 8041 Establecimientos que prestan el servicio de educación preescolar y básica primaria.

8042 Establecimientos que prestan el servicio de educ. preescolar y básica (básica primaria y básica secundaria

8043 Establecimientos que prestan el servicio de educ. preescolar, básica (básica primaria y secundaria) y media.

8044 Establecimientos que prestan el servicio de educación básica (básica primaria y básica secundaria).

8045 Establecimientos que prestan el servicio de educación básica (básica primaria y básica secundaria) y media.

8046 Establecimientos que prestan el servicio de educación básica secundaria y media.

§ 805 Educación superior


§ 8050 Educación superior
§ 806 Educación no formal
§ 8060 Educación no formal
N Servicios sociales y de salud (división 85)

§ 85 Servicios sociales y de salud


§ 851 Actividades relacionadas con la salud humana
§ 8511 Actividades de las instituciones prestadoras de servicios de salud, con internación
§ 8512 Actividades de la practica medica
§ 8513 Actividades de la practica odontológica
§ 8514 Actividades de apoyo diagnostico
§ 8515 Actividades de apoyo terapéutico
§ 8519 Otras actividades relacionadas con la salud humana
§ 852 Actividades veterinarias
§ 8520 Actividades veterinarias
§ 853 Actividades de servicios sociales
§ 8531 Servicios sociales con alojamiento
§ 8532 Servicios sociales sin alojamiento
O Otras actividades de servicios comunitarios, sociales y personales (div. 90 a 93)

§ 90 Eliminación de desperdicios y aguas residuales, saneamiento y actividades similares


§ 900 Eliminación de desperdicios y aguas residuales, saneamiento y actividades similares.
§ 9000 Eliminación de desperdicios y aguas residuales, saneamiento y actividades similares.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 160

§ 91 Actividades de asociaciones n.c.p.


§ 911 Actividades de organizaciones empresariales, profesionales y de empleadores
§ 9111 Actividades de organizaciones empresariales y de empleadores
§ 9112 Actividades de organizaciones profesionales
§ 912 Actividades de sindicatos
§ 9120 Actividades de sindicatos
§ 919 Actividades de otras asociaciones
§ 9191 Actividades de organizaciones religiosas
§ 9192 Actividades de organizaciones políticas
§ 9199 Actividades de otras organizaciones n.c.p.
§ 92 Actividades de esparcimiento y actividades culturales y deportivas
§ 921 Actividades de cinematografía, radio y televisión y otras actividades de entretenimiento
§ 9211 Producción y distribución de filmes y videocintas
§ 9212 exhibición de filmes y videocintas
§ 9213 Actividades de radio y televisión
§ 9214 Actividades teatrales y musicales y otras actividades artísticas
§ 9219 Otras actividades de entretenimiento n.c.p.
§ 922 Actividades de agencias de noticias
§ 9220 Actividades de agencias de noticias
§ 923 Actividades de bibliotecas, archivos y museos y otras actividades culturales
§ 9231 Actividades de bibliotecas y archivos
§ 9232 Actividades de museos y preservación de lugares y edificios históricos
§ 9233 Actividades de jardines botánicos y zoológicos y de parques nacionales
§ 924 Actividades deportivas y otras actividades de esparcimiento
§ 9241 Actividades deportivas
§ 9242 Actividades de juegos de azar
§ 9249 Otras actividades de esparcimiento
§ 93 Otras actividades de servicios
§ 930 Otras actividades de servicios
§ 9301 Lavado y limpieza de prendas de tela y de piel, incluso la limpieza en seco
§ 9302 Peluquería y otros tratamientos de belleza
§ 9303 Pompas fúnebres y actividades conexas
§ 9309 Otras actividades de servicios n.c.p.
P Hogares privados con servicio domestico (División 95)
§ 95 Hogares privados con servicio domestico
§ 950 Hogares privados con servicio domestico
§ 9500 Hogares privados con servicio domestico
Q Organizaciones y órganos extraterritoriales (División 99)

§ 99 Organizaciones y órganos extraterritoriales


§ 990 Organizaciones y órganos extraterritoriales
§ 9900 Organizaciones y órganos extraterritoriales
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 161
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 162
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 163

APPENDIX D
Changes to the Survey through Two Iterations of Pilot

Spanish Revised Spanish Original English Revised English Original

ORGANIZATION ORIENTATION - INNOVATION OR


MARKET ORIENTATION

1. Nuestra organización 1. Nuestra organización considera a 1. Our organization sees 1. Our organization views
ve a los clientes: los clientes: customers: customers:

A. Principalmente como una A. Principalmente como una fuente A. Primarily as a source of A. Primarily as a source of
fuente de ingresos de ingresos income revenue for the firm
B. Como oportunidades para B. Principalmente como una B. As opportunities to meet B. Primarily as providing an
satisfacer sus necesidades y oportunidad para satisfacer their needs and desires opportunity to serve needs and
deseos necesidades y deseos wants

C. Como ávidos C. Principalmente como ávidos C. As avid consumers of C. Primarily as enthusiastic


consumidores de nuestros consumidores de nuestros productos y our innovative products consumers of our innovative,
innovadores productos servicios, los cuales son innovadores y market sharing products and
definen los parámetros del mercado services

D. Como socios en el D. Principalmente como socios en el D. As partners in the D. Primarily as individual co-
desarrollo de productos y desarrollo de productos y servicios development of unique and partners in the development of
servicios únicos y únicos y personalizados. personalized products and unique, customized, products and
personalizados. services. services.

2. Nuestra organización 2. Nuestra organización considera 2. Our organization 2. Our organization views
considera los productos y productos y servicios: believes the products and products and services:
servicios esencialmente services fundamentally as a:
como:

A. Un medio para generar A. Principalmente como un medio A. Means to generate A. Primarily as a means of
ingresos para la empresa para generar ingresos para la empresa revenue for the company generating revenue for the firm

B. Una oportunidad para B. Principalmente como un medio B. An opportunity to meet B. Primarily as a means of
suplir una necesidad de para servir a los clientes an audience’s need serving the customer
nuestra audiencia
C. Una oportunidad para C. Principalmente como una C. An opportunity to C. Primarily as an opportunity
innovar y definir los oportunidad para innovar y definir los innovate and define the to innovate and market- shape
parámetros del mercado parámetros del mercado parameters of the market

D. Una oportunidad para D. Principalmente como cosas D. An opportunity to D. Primarily as unique,


desarrollar productos, únicas y personalizadas que son develop unique and customized things which are
servicios y procesos únicos y desarrollados en sociedad con cada customized things in interactively co-developed with
personalizados en sociedad cliente partnership with each client individual customers
con cada cliente

3. La situación política, 3. Nuestra organización ve el 3. The political, judicial, 3. Our organization views the
judicial, económica, y socio- ambiente de negocios (e.g. situación economic, and socio-cultural business environment (e.g. the
cultural en la que se política y judicial, económica, socio- environment in which the political and legal situation, the
desempeñan las actividades cultural) como de importancia: activities of our company are economy, socio-cultural change )
de nuestra empresa tiene un performed has a major impact as of importance:
impacto primordial en: on:

A. La capacidad de ventas A. Principalmente por su impacto A. The ability of the A. Primarily because of its
de la organización en las ventas de la organización organization to sale impact on revenue for the firm
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 164

B. Nuestra habilidad para B. Principalmente por su impacto B. Our ability to serve B. Primarily because of its
servir al consumidor en nuestra habilidad para servir al consumers impact on our ability to serve the
consumidor customer

C. Nuestra habilidad para C. Principalmente por su impacto C. Our ability to develop C. Primarily because of its
desarrollar productos y en nuestra habilidad para desarrollar innovative products and impact on our ability to develop
servicios innovadores que productos y servicios innovadores que services that define the innovative, market-shaping,
definen los parámetros del definen los parámetros del mercado parameters of the market products and services
mercado

D. Nuestra habilidad para D. Principalmente por su impacto D. Our ability to develop D. Primarily because of its
desarrollar productos y en nuestra habilidad para desarrollar unique products and services impact on our ability to
servicios únicos y productos y servicios únicos y and customized, in interactively develop unique,
personalizados, en sociedad personalizados, en sociedad con cada partnership with each client customized products and services
con cada cliente cliente with individual customers

4. Nuestra organización 4. Nuestra organización ve a la 4. Our organization sees the 4. Our organization views
ve a la competencia: competencia como: competition: competitors:
A. Esencialmente como A. Como rivales que intentan tomar A. Essentially as rivals that A. Primarily as rivals who
rivales que le quitan parte de parte de los ingresos de nuestra take away income from our attempt to take away from the
los ingresos a nuestra compañía company revenue of the firm
compañía

B. Como rivales que tratan B. Principalmente como rivales que B. As rivals that try to serve B. Primarily as rivals who
de servir a los clientes mejor tratan de servir a los clientes mejor customers better than we do attempt to serve the customer
que nosotros que nosotros better than we do

C. Como rivales que C. Principalmente como rivales que C. As rivals who compete C. Primarily as rivals who
compiten con nosotros en el tratan de desarrollar productos y with us in developing attempt to develop innovative,
desarrollo de productos y servicios innovadores, que definen los innovative products and market-shaping products and
servicios innovadores que parámetros mercado mejor que services that market shape services better than we do
definen el mercado nosotros

D. Como rivales que D. Principalmente como rivales que D. As rivals that interact D. Primarily as rivals who
interactúan con clientes de interactúan con clientes de manera with individual customers to attempt to interact with individual
manera individual para individual para desarrollar productos y develop customized products customers to develop unique,
desarrollar productos y servicios personalizados mejor que and services better than we customized products and services
servicios personalizados nosotros better than we do
mejor que nosotros

5. Nuestra organización se 5. Nuestra organización se ve a si 5. Our organization sees 5. Our organization views
ve a si misma como: misma como: itself as: itself:
A. Un vehículo generador A. Principalmente como un A. A revenue generating A. Primarily as generating
de ingresos que permite que vehículo generador de ingresos que le vehicle that allows the revenue so that the firm can
la empresa continúe permita a la compañía perpetuar company to continue perpetuate itself
funcionando operating

B. Un vehículo a través B. Principalmente como un vehículo B. A vehicle through which B. Primarily as a vehicle for
del cual servimos a nuestros para servir a nuestros clientes we serve our clients serving the customer
clientes

C. Un vehículo para crear C. Principalmente como un vehículo C. A vehicle to create C. Primarily as a vehicle for
productos y servicios para crear productos y servicios innovative products and creating innovative, market-
innovadores que definen los innovadores que definen los services that define the shaping products and services
parámetros del mercado parámetros del mercado parameters of the market
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 165

D. Un vehículo para crear D. Principalmente como un D. A vehicle for D. Primarily as a vehicle for
productos y servicios hechos vehículo para interactuar con clientes developing, in partnership interacting with individual
a la medida de cada cliente, a nivel individual para desarrollar en with each client, products and customers to co-develop unique,
desarrollados en sociedad con conjunto productos y servicios hechos services tailored to them. customized products and services
cada cliente a la medida.

6. Nuestra organización 6. Nuestra organización ve a los 6. Our organization sees 6. Our organization views
ve a los empleados empleados como: employees essentially as: employees:
esencialmente como:

A. Individuos dedicados a A. Principalmente como dedicados A. Individuals devoted to A. Primarily as dedicated to


generar ingresos para la a generar ingresos para la empresa generate revenue for the generating revenue for the firm
empresa company

B. Individuos dedicados a B. Principalmente como dedicados a B. Individuals dedicated to B. Primarily as dedicated to


servir al cliente servir al cliente serving the customer serving the customer

C. Individuos dedicados al C. Principalmente como dedicados C. Individuals dedicated to C. Primarily as dedicated to the
desarrollo de productos y al desarrollo de productos y servicios developing unique products development of innovative,
servicios únicos que definen únicos que definen el mercado and services that define the market shaping products and
el mercado market services

D. Individuos que trabajan D. Principalmente como dedicados D. Individuals working in D. Primarily as dedicated to
en sociedad con nuestros a interactuar con clientes a nivel partnership with our interacting with individual
clientes desarrollando individual para desarrollar en conjunto customers to develop customers to co-develop unique,
productos y servicios hechos productos y servicios hechos a la products and services tailored customized products and services
a la medida del cliente medida to customer

METODOLOGIAS PROCESOS DE DISENIO DESIGN PROCESSES METHODOLOGIES USED IN


USADAS EN EL (INOVACION) THE DEVELOPMENT OF
DESARROLLO DE PRODUCTS, SERVICES AND
PRODUCTOS SERVICIOS PROCESSES
Y PROCESOS
7. En relación al 7. En relación a procesos de 7. Regarding the 7. In terms of design process,
desarrollo de productos, diseño, nuestra empresa: development of products, our firm tends to:
servicios y procesos nuestra services and processes our
empresa: company:

A. No tiene una A. Sigue una metodología definida A. Does not have a specific A. Follow a well defined
metodología especifica que es replicada de manera consistente methodology methodology that is consistently
replicated

B. Usa metodologías sin B. Sigue una metodología que B. Relies on a methodology B. Follow a methodology,
estructura definida, la cual cambia de acuerdo con el proyecto without defined structure, which changes on a project-per
cambia de acuerdo con el which changes according to project basis
proyecto the project

C. Usa una metodología C. Improvisa, usamos procesos C. Uses a structured C. Follow an ad-hoc process,
estructurada que se replica de varios sin estructura methodology that is with no structure
manera consistente consistently replicated

D. Usa metodologías D. Toma decisiones en el momento, D. Use structured D. Make decisions on the spot
estructuradas que cambian de sin una metodología predefinida methodologies that changes without a predefined
acuerdo con el proyecto according to the project methodology

A. Otro (favor especificar): E. Otro (favor especificar) E. Other (please specify): E. Other (please specify):
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 166

8. En relación al 8. Nuestro proceso de diseño es 8. Regarding the 8. Our design process


desarrollo de productos, más parecido a: development of products, resembles:
servicios y procesos, nuestro services and processes, our
proceso es más parecido a: process is more like:

A. Un proceso de una A. Un proceso de una etapa, en la A. A one-step process in A. A one step process in which
etapa, en la que el equipo se que el equipo se reúne a definir una which the team meets to the team identifies a problem and
reúne a definir una solución solución que “tiene sentido.” define a solution that "makes talks about potential solutions,
que “tiene sentido.” sense." settling on one that “makes
sense”

B. Un proceso de dos B. Un proceso de dos etapas B. A two-stage process B. A two step process defined
etapas caracterizado por una identificado por una primera etapa de characterized by a clear by a problem/project definition
primera etapa en la que se definición del problema seguida por problem definition and phase and followed by a solution
hace una clara definición del una etapa de definición de la solución. solution identification identification phase
problema y una segunda etapa
en la que se identifica una la
solución.

C. Un proceso de tres C. Un proceso de tres etapas C. A three-stage process C. A three step process defined
etapas caracterizado por una identificado por una primera etapa de characterized by a first stage by a problem/project definition
primera etapa en la que se definición del problema seguida por that is a clear definition of the phase, followed by a
hace una clara definición el una etapa de tormenta de ideas y problem, a second stage of brainstorming phase ending in a
problema, una segunda etapa terminando en una etapa de definición brainstorming, and a third solution identification phase
de tormenta de ideas, y una de una solución stage in identifying a solution.
tercera etapa en la que se
identifica una solución
adecuada.

D. Un proceso de cuatro D. Un proceso de tres etapas D. A four-stage process D. A four step process defined
etapas caracterizado por una identificado por una primera etapa de characterized by problem by a problem/project definition
primera etapa en la que se definición del problema seguida por definition, brainstorming, phase, a brainstorming phase, an
hace una clara definición del una etapa de tormenta de ideas y idea analysis and solution analysis of ideas phase and a
problema, una segunda etapa terminando en una etapa de definición identification development of the final product
de tormenta de ideas, una de una solución después de un análisis or service phase.
tercera etapa en la que se de las ideas desarrolladas
analizan las ideas
desarrolladas en la tormenta
de ideas, y una última etapa
en la que se define una
solución y se hace una prueba
piloto.

E. Otro (favor especificar): E. Otro (favor especificar): E. Other (please specify): E. Other (please describe):

9. En relación al proceso 9. Decisiones en nuestra firma 9. Regarding the process of 9. Decisions in our firm
de desarrollo de productos, reflejan: developing products, services resemble:
servicios y procesos, las and processes, decisions
decisiones en nuestra firma, reflected in our firm:
en cuanto a definir la solución
idónea, reflejan:

A. Un proceso autocrático A. Un proceso autocrático en el que A. An autocratic process in A. An autocratic process where
en el que el integrante del el integrante del equipo con mejor which the highest ranking the team member with the most
equipo con el mejor cargo cargo propone una solución y el team member proposes a seniority makes the decision
propone una solución y el equipo la implementa. solution and the team
equipo la implementa. implements it.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 167

B. Un proceso autocrático B. Un proceso autocrático en el que B. An autocratic process in B. An autocratic process where
en el que un integrante del el integrante más fuerte del equipo which a the most authoritative the strongest team member
equipo con más autoridad propone una solución y guía al equipo team member proposes a identifies a solution and leads the
propone una solución y guía a implementarla solution and guides the team team to implement it
al equipo a implementarla to implement

C. Un proceso C. Un proceso democrático en el C. A democratic process in C. A democratic process in


democrático en el que los que integrantes del equipo votan por which team members vote for which the team votes on ideas
integrantes del equipo votan la idea que tiene mas potencial the idea that have the most with the most potential
por la idea que tiene mas potential
potencial

D. El equipo sigue un D. El equipo sigue un proceso de D. The team follows a D. A process of careful
proceso de análisis cuidadoso análisis cuidadoso en el cual cada una process of careful analysis in analysis, in which each idea is
en el cual cada una de las de las ideas desarrolladas se analizan which each idea proposed is analyzed in relation to the
ideas desarrolladas se evalúan en relación a los objetivos del evaluated in relation to objectives of the project and the
en relación a los objetivos del proyecto. project objectives. most effective elements of each
proyecto. idea are combined into one.

A. Otro (favor especificar): E. Otro (favor especificar): E. Other (please specify): E. Other (please describe):

PREGUNTAS PREGUNTAS ADICIONALES ADITIONAL QUESTIONS ADITIONAL QUESTIONS


ADICIONALES
10. ¿En general, cómo 10. En general, cómo definiría el tipo 10. In general, how you 10. Overall, which type would
definiría el tipo de empresa en de empresa en la que trabaja? define the type of company you say your firm is? (Check
la que trabaja? (Seleccione (Seleccione una) you work for? (Select one) one)
una)

a. Aislada (existe muy poca a. Aislada (hay poca comunicación a. Isolate (there is little a. Isolate (there is little
comunicación con nuestros entre innovaciones y el mercado) communication with our communication between
clientes) clients innovation and the market)
b. Seguidora (nuestro b. Seguidora (nuestra empresa se b. Follow (our business b. Follow (our firm relies on
modelo de negocios está basa en investigación de mercados model is based replication market research to establish the
basado en la réplica de para establecer los parámetros de los products, services and parameters of products and
productos, servicios y productos y servicios) processes developed by services)
procesos desarrollados por companies in other parts of
empresas en otras partes del the country or the world)
país o del mundo)

c. Formadora (nuestra firma c. Formadora (nuestra firma tiene c. Shape (our firm has a c. Shape (our firm is
tiene una orientación una orientación tecnológica y busca technology-oriented and technologically-oriented and
tecnológica y busca definir definir los parámetros del mercado) seeks to define the parameters looks to shape the market)
los parámetros del mercado) of the market)

d. Interactiva (nuestra d. Interactiva (nuestra empresa se d. Interactive (our company d. Interactive (our firm relies
empresa busca desarrollar basa en diálogos extensos entre seeks to develop products and on extensive dialog between the
productos y servicios en mercado e innovación) services in partnership with market and innovation)
sociedad con cada cliente) each client)

11. ¿Cuál es el principal 11. ¿Cuál es el principal negocio de 11. What is the main 11. What is the primary
negocio de su firma? su firma? business of your firm? business of your firm?
12. ¿Cuántos años lleva su 12. ¿Cuantos años lleva su 12. How many years has 12. How many years has your
organización operando bajo la organización operando bajo la your organization operating firm been operating in its present
estructura existente? estructura existente? under the existing structure? form?

13. ¿Para que empresa 13. ¿Cual es el nombre de su 13. What is the name of your 13. What is the name of your
trabaja? empresa? company? company?
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 168

14. ¿Cuál fue el ingreso 14. ¿Cual fue el ingreso neto de su 14. What was your 14. What was your company's
neto de su empresa en el empresa el ano pasado? company's net income in net income in 2005?
2005? Si no tiene acceso a 2005? If you do not have
esta información, cual diría access to this information,
usted que ha sido el what would you say has been
porcentaje de incremento de the percentage increase in
las ventas brutas de la gross sales of the organization
organización en los últimos over the past five years?
cinco años?

15. ¿Cuál es su cargo? 15. ¿Cual es su titulo? 15. What is your title? 15. What is your title?
16. ¿Cuál es su funcion 16. Cual es su funcionalidad 16. What is your core 16. What is your primary
principal? principal? functionality? functional specification?
17. Con relación a otras 17. Con relación a otras industrias, 17. Compared to other 17. Relative to other industries,
industrias, nuestra firma nuestra firma opera en un ambiente industries, our firm operates our firm operates in an
opera en un ambiente bastante bastante turbulento in a very turbulent exceptionally turbulent
turbulento environment environment

18. Con relación a nuestra 18. Con relación a nuestra 18. In relation to our 18. Relative to our competitors,
competencia, nuestra firma se competencia, nuestra firma se ha competitors, our firm has our firm has consistently
ha desempeñado desempeño exitosamente de manera been successful in the past performed well in terms of ROI,
exitosamente en los últimos constante en términos de ROI, five years in terms of ROI, market share and overall
cinco años en términos de participación en el mercado y market share and competitive competitive position
ROI, participación en el posición competitiva en general position in general
mercado y posición
competitiva en general

19. Con relación a nuestra 19. Con relación a nuestros 19. In relation to our 19. Relative to our competitors
competencia, nuestra firma es competidores, nuestra firma es más competitors, our firm is rather our firm is more self-centered
más bien centrada en sí centrada en sí misma. self-centered.
misma.

20. Con relación a nuestra 20. Con relación a nuestros 20. In relation to our 20. Relative to our competitors
competencia, nuestra firma competidores, nuestra firma sirve competitors, our firm serves our firm serves its customers
sirve mejor a los clientes mejor a sus clientes clients better better

21. Con relación a nuestra 21. Con relación a nuestra 21. In relation to our 21. Relative to our competitors
competencia, nuestra firma es competencia, nuestra firma es más competitors, our firm is more our firm is more innovative
más innovadora innovadora innovative
22. Con relación a nuestra 22. Con relación a nuestra 22. In relation to our 22. Relative to our competitors
competencia, nuestra firma competencia, nuestra firma provee un competitors, our firm our firm provides a higher level
provee un nivel de nivel de personalización más alto provides a higher level of of customization
personalización más alto customization

23. Nuestra firma ha sido 23. Nuestra firma ha sido altamente 23. Our firm has been highly 23. Our firm is highly impacted
altamente afectada por las afectada por las condición socio- affected by the socio-political by the socio-political conditions
condición socio-política del política del país situation of the country of the country
país

24. Si está interesado en 24. Si está interesado en participar en 24. If you are interested in 24. If you are interested in
participar en el sorteo de un el sorteo de un iPod, por favor escriba participating in an iPod raffle, participating in an iPod raffle,
iPod, por favor escriba su su correo electrónico en el espacio a please enter your email please enter your email address in
correo electrónico en el continuación. address in the space below. the space below.
espacio a continuación.
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 169

APPENDIX E
Data Available Corresponding to Number of Employees per Company per Year

Company 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2000


3M Colombia 287 372 372 348
A G P de Colombia 276 252 252 246
A.R Tecno plásticos 56 27
Abonos Colombianos 336 276 276
Acerías Paz del Rio 2,395
Acermetalicas 61 61 43
Aditivos y Químicos 50 61 61 34
Aeroprofiles Felot 44
Agrifim de Colombia 43
Agrofercol 8
Aireflex de Colombia 50
Aislapor 58 60 60 58
Albron 20
Alcoplast 60
Ampaca 55 74 74 91
ArcelorMittal Stainless Service Andino 9
Arte en Piel Arpiel 12 18 18 19
Asenvases Limitada 0 38 43
Asesores Impresores 25 25 25
Astecnia 49
AWA Ingeniería Ltda 44 44 44 38
Azulk 825
Barval 99 105 105 103
Bayer 914 643 643
Beiersdorf 87 424 424 218
Bio Bacter 16 18 18
Bio D 19
Bioquimat 13
Bohler Uddeholm. 137 115 115 150
Bombas Hydral 42 40 40 41
Brus Refrigeration of Colombia Ltda 185
C. I. Curtiembres Matteucci 51 69 69 75
C.I. AP Footwear & Lingerie, ea Lingerie 66
C.I. Ellipse. 78 102 102 101
C.I. Energía Solar – ES Windows 601 506 506 511
C.I. Sealco 96 98 98 95
C.I. Tequendama / Acepalma 24 25 25 25
Calderas Continental 32 32 32 24
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 170

Carbone Lorraine de Colombia / Mersen 44 49 49 49


Carbotintas 3 3 25
Cartonería Industrial, Inducarton 128 101 101 91
Carvajal Empaques 804 886 886 737
Cererías Españolas Forner & Barbera 33 33 33
Chaim Peisach & Cia. Hilandería Fontibón 457 743 743 673
Ciel ingeniería 82 74 74 70
Cintas Textiles Cintatex 93 96 96 84
Ciplas 518 550 550 500
Codimarket / Codiprint 22 24 24 24
Colmallas 99 85 85 85
Colombiana de Frenos Cofres 181 247 247 216
Colpan 39 44 44 47
Compañía Colombiana Automotriz 678 1,396 1,396 975
Compañía General de Plásticos G Plast 68 64 64 48
Compañía Iberoamericana de Plásticos
(Iberplas) Iberplast 452 245 245 78
Compañía Manufacturera Onix 38 36 36 36
Confecciones Bettel 61 109 109
Confecciones MC 151 116 116 120
Consultante Panamericana 8 20 20 37
Didemas 40 32 32 30
DSM Nutritional Products 26 117 117 21
Ediciones Antropos 20 20
Editora del Caribe 2
Editorial Educativa Kingkolor 37 31 31 21
Equipos & Cimentaciones 142
ETEC 76 97 97 64
Fábrica de Cables y Enchufes EU 59 59 28
Fábrica de Hielo Barranquillita 49 49 652
Fábrica de Textiles Textrama 505 247 247 253
Fenocol 30 30 30 33
Festo 88 85 85 99
Gaseosas Rio 23 20
Grupo Nova 89 89 102
Health Food 537 568 568 560
Helman 40 35 35 47
Holcim 1,052
Importadora Fabricante de Textiles 27 22 22 22
Impresiones y Marcas 26
Impresores Litográficos Imprelit 3 12 12 11
Induboton 150
Indupuertas 80
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 171

Industria de Aluminio India 174 174


Línea de Calzado Barbarella 45
Macalzado Mercantil 5 7 7 3
Merck 568 540 540 588
Oxxe Petroleum Corporation 8
Productos de Antaño 43
Productos Familia 3,963
Tromoplas 63 74 74 73
Valrex s.a 30 40 40 37
Vicar Farmacéutica S.A. 123 123 97
Vidrio Técnico de Colombia - Viteco 38 60 60 67
Yamaki 46 46
Zams Aditivos y Nutrientes 2
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 172

APPENDIX F
Respondents’ Functional Categories
Accountant
Accounting Assistant
Administrative and Sales Manager
Administrative Assistant
Administrative Director
Administrative Engineer
Administrator
Area Director
Assistant Manager
CFO
Commercial Coordinator
Communication Coordinator
Construction Coordinator
Director of Finance
Director of Innovation and Development
Director of Logistics
Director of Manufacturing
Director of Operations
Director of Production
Director of the Technical Department and Production
General Manager
Head of Design and Production
Head of Innovation and Quality
Head of Integrated Management
Head of Planning
Head of Portfolio Management
Head of Production
Head of Selection and Human Development
Human Resource Manager
Manager
Nutrition and Human Health Manager
Planning Coordinator
Plant Director/Manager
Production Engineer/Production Manager
Project Assistant
Quality Control
Technical Assistant
Technical Support Engineer
Treasurer
Vice-president
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 173

APPENDIX G
Authorization for Use of Survey
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 174

APPENDIX H
Authorization to use the BPR Database (Internet Securities, 2010)
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 175

APPENDIX I
Approval from Institutional Review Board
Running head: INNOVATION METHODOLOGIES IN COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS 176

Research Amendment