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Drilling

Performance
Schlumberger
Anadrill

Measurements

Valt APWD MVC IWOB

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 00 0498
Anadrill
Outline

• Case histories
• MWD sensors
• Log examples
• Service implementation

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 01 0498
Anadrill
Symptoms of Poor Drilling Performance
• High or fluctuating torque
• Sticking pipe (overpulls)
• Bit balling
• Poor directional control
• Inconsistent (slow) ROP
• Intermittent MWD signal
• Poor MWD, motor or bit performance
(MTBF/broken cutters)
• Washouts, twist-offs or fatigue cracks
(frequent inspections)
• Lost circulation
• Enlarged boreholes
• Flat / eccentric wear on collars or drillpipe

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 02 0498
Anadrill
Fewer Problems and Faster Drilling

2 Cracked Boxes 34
2 Cracked Pins 5
3 Washouts 9
10
2 Twist-Offs 1
Depth (kft)

0 Jar Failures 2

14 Without drilling performance


measurements service
26 Bit Runs
With drilling performance
measurements service
16 bit runs 33 Days Saved
18
0 20 40 60 80 100
Days

„ SPE/IADC Conference 1996, Mason et al. paper #35034

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 03 0498
Anadrill
Drilling Performance Successes

• Weight Transfer/Drag Reduced lost in hole (LIH) charges

• Shocks ROP increased 50%

• Pressure Less lost circulation

• Torque Bit failure recognition

• Drillstring Vibrations 11 days saved on a 28-day infill project

• Shocks Better mean time between failures (MTBF)

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 04 0498
Anadrill
Fewer BHAs / m
Motor MTBF MWD MTBF
1200 600

1000 500

800 400
MTBF hours

MTBF hours
600 300

400 200

200 100

0 0
Wells / Time Wells / Time

Shock detection Shock detection


introduction introduction

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 05 0498
Anadrill
PowerPulse Performance Sensors
Realtime weight, torque, torque shocks,
axial shocks, lateral shocks, gamma ray
and washout detection
63/4-in., 81/4-in. and 91/2-in. collar sizes
27.6 ft
Rig Floor Alarms
Sticking pipe indicator modeling
D&I Max Temperature 175°C
13.6 ft 3 Axes Shocks Max Pressure 20,000 psi
(MVC)
Dogleg Severity: 4°/100 ft Rotating
15°/100ft Sliding
10.3 ft Alternator Flow
Flow Rate†: 225-1600 gal / min
5.2 ft Weight & Torque

Depending on tool size and configuration
(IWOB)
2.9 ft
Note: The MVC shock sensor replaces the gamma-ray sensor

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 06 0498
Anadrill
CDR Annular Pressure Sensor

• Realtime ECD
• Available with 6 3/4-in,8 1/4-in,
Gamma ray
and 9 1/2-in CDR
• No flow monitoring

Pressure port • 3 pressure ranges


15.5 ft 0 - 5,000 psi
Resistivity 0 - 10,000 psi
6.5 ft
0 - 20,000 psi
4.5 ft
• 0.1% accuracy
• 1 psi resolution

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 07 0498
Anadrill
Monitoring Drag
GAPI SWOB STOR DRAG
20 170 0 30 0 20 0 40
API Klbs Kft-lbs %
ROP*5 DWOB DTOR FRIC
250 0 0 30 0 20 0 40
ft/hr Klbs Kft-lbs %
X1800

X1900

11 Stand Short Trip, 15 lb/bbl Barafiber Pill


X2000

„ SPE/IADC Conference 1995, Burgess et al. paper #29431

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 08 0498
Anadrill
Monitoring Excess Torque
GAPI MEL FORS Bit Efficiency Excess Torque
0.0 150.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 2.0
API POROUS Kpsi Kft-lbs)
0.0 200.0
ROP*5 TITE Avg. Bit Efficiency Tooth Flat
150.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 10.0 0.0
ft/hr
X2300

• Bit pulled due to


excess torque
X2400

• One cone hanging


(no teeth), one cone
locked
X2500

Locked Cone

Locked Cone
X2600

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 09 0498
Anadrill
PDC Torque Control
GAPI SWOB STOR DRAG
0 150 0 30 0 20 0 40
API Klbs Kft-lbs %

ROP*5 DWOB DTOR FRIC


500 0 0 30 0 20 0 40
ft/hr Klbs Kft-lbs %
X000

• DS-39-H PDC Bit


X100

X200

Reduced DWOB to control DTOR in sands

X300

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 10 0498
Anadrill
Sticking Pipe Indicators (SPIN+)

Rotating
Friction %
Alarm
Reaming
Friction % Profile

Drilling

Sliding Connections
Friction % Tripping

Gamma
Ray API
X100 X200 X300 X400 X500 X600 X700 X800

Depth
SPE/IADC Conference 1995, Burgess et al. paper #29431

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 11 0498
Anadrill
Dynamic Motions

Bit Bounce Stick–Slip Bending BHA Whirl

Backward
or
Fast Slow
Forward

“Axial” “Torsional” “Lateral” “Eccentered”

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 12 0498
Anadrill
Whirling
Forward

Backward

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 13 0498
Anadrill
Eliminating Backward Whirl

30 Chaotic
Whirl
Shock Counts

10
Backward
Whirl

Forward Whirl
0
RPM
Schlumberger
ASL 5043 14 0498
Anadrill
Good Shocks Don’t Exist !
Torsional shocks can
overstress tool joints
ROP
RIG
Axial shocks can move the ENERGY SHOCKS
neutral point past tool joints

Lateral shocks cause tool failures

Reducing shocks:
• Reduces drillstring fatigue
RIG ROP
ENERGY
• Reduces borehole enlargement SHOCKS

• Increases ROP

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 15 0498
Anadrill
Stick-slip vs. ROP

60 2.0

ROP
50 Stick-slip

40
ROP m / hour

Stick-Slip
30 1.0

20

10

0 0
X100 X200 X300 X400 X500 X600 X700 X800
Depth / m

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 16 0498
Anadrill
Threshold Shock Detection

Larger shocks result in more shock counts

120 3 Shocks Counted


100
80

Amplitude (g’s)
60
40 Threshold
20
0
- 20
-40
Accelerometer is -60
mounted to measure -80

lateral shocks but also


detects mode coupled
axial shocks and torque
shocks

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 17 0498
Anadrill
Shock Detection – BHA Whirl
200 ROP (m/hr) 0
0 Torque (kNm) 20 0 Shocks 1000
0 GR (API) 200

Minimum
Maximum
GR
Average

X700

ROP
Unconsoildated
sand
wash-out

Twist-off
X800
„ SPE/IADC Conference 1995, Burgess et al. paper #29431

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 18 0498
Anadrill
Vibration Mode

Anadrill

Anti-nodes
Nodes

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 19 0498
Anadrill
Shock Baselines
0 Axial Shocks 3
ROP RPM
150 (F/HR) 00 150 0 Lateral Shocks 3
(FT)
0 Sigma Torque 1500

Insert Bit
x050

PDC Bit
x100

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 20 0498
Anadrill
Shocks After Sliding
Lateral
WOB Torque Shocks

2750

2800

2850
Sliding

Schlumberger ASL 5043 21 0498


Anadrill
Interfering Pressure Pulses

MWD Surface
Shocks s Torque
2300 ft

MWD signal loss


coincides with
high surface
torque variations

2350 ft

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 22 0498
Anadrill
Back-offs and Reverse Rotation

Anadrill

High friction
area Free end of
drillstring
High friction
area

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 23 0498
Anadrill
Annular Pressure Applications
• Hole cleaning Influx / Weeping
• Borehole stability discrimination
• Well control

Leak-off test
Barite sag (gel strength)

Gel strength & viscosity Swab / Surge


Critical RPM, flow & ROP

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 24 0498
Anadrill
Monitoring ∆P
1.8
Modeling
Actual ECD Modeled ECD Limitations
• Cuttings loading

Increasing RPM & Mud Flow


1.7 • RPM/flow regime
• Pipe eccentricity
ECD

Flow • Temperature &


pressure effects
1.6
RPM

1.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Time (hrs)
Courtesy of International MWD Society

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 25 0498
Anadrill
Obstruction After a Connection
Time (min) ECD (lb/gal)
0 12 14

60

120

180

240

300
Pore Fracture
pressure gradient

Schlumberger ASL 5043 26 0498


Anadrill
RPM Suspension of Cuttings
Cuttings load kg/sec RPM
0 30
Time 0 300 ECD
Bit depth(m) Flow in (liter/min) (g/cc)
2600 2700 2800 0 3000 1.6 1.7

12:00

18:00

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 27 0498
Anadrill
Swab and Surge Pressures

Bit Depth Running speed Equivalent mud weight


(m) Time (m/min) (g/cc)
2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 -100 -50 0 50 100 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75

13:05

13:10

Schlumberger ASL 5043 28 0498


Anadrill
Gel Breakdown

RPM
Bit depth 0 300
ECD
Time (g/cc)
(m) Flow (l/min)
3400 4200 0 3K 1.5 1.8

18:00

19:00

20:00

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 29 0498
Anadrill
Leak-off Testing
11000

Downhole pressure (PSI)


10580

10160

9740

9320

8900
0 2 4 6
Time (hours)
Schlumberger ASL 5043 30 0498
Anadrill
Influx Detection
Annulus
Block Height Temperature ECD SPP
0 (Ft) 120 200 (DEGF) 300 Time 13 (PPG) 18 3000 (PSI) 5000
08:00

09:00

Rack back
stand of pipe

10:00

Temp rises,
ECD drops
11:00

Flow check
and close in
12:00

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 31 0498
Anadrill
Riserless Operations

With Riser Without Riser

r H2O
r m

r m

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 32 0498
Anadrill
Phase Caliper
Phase Caliper Applicability Range Phase Caliper versus Wireline Caliper

10 Transmitter 1 30

• Phase sum maximizes Receiver 1


borehole contribution 26

Borehole Diameter, in.


Receiver 2
Mud Resistivity

• Phase shift cancels Transmitter 2


borehole contribution 22

1
18

14

10
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
0.1
Depth, ft
0.1 1 10 100 1000
Formation Resistivity
Wireline 2-axis caliper
Phase caliper

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 34 1098
Anadrill
The Drilling Team
Driller
Mud & Crew Mud
Engineer Logger

• Motors
Production
Engineer
Rig D irectional • Bits
Supervisor D riller • Tools

Geologist MWD / LWD


Specialist Ana
t
Clien Engin drill
e eer
Offic Cente ing
r

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 35 1098
Anadrill
Correlation Screen
Offset Well Current Well X700
X719 X750

Top of Silt Zone


X769
Sticking Problems Tight X800

X819 X850
Tight
Gamma Ray
Sticking Problems Resisitivity
X868 X900

X918 X950

Marker Bed
X000
Correlation
point
Bit depth

SPE/IADC Conference 1995, Burgess et al. paper #29431


X018 X050

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 36 1098
Anadrill
Contingency Planning
High Low
Diagnostic
Threshold Threshold
Action/Possible Problem/Solution Responsibility

Drag (weight loss) – Short trip; Stop and circulate;


Increase mud flow, viscosity or weight; Increase RPM;
Surface torque – Control drilling; Stop and circulate
Check for downhole torque variation - if NO: clean hole;
Surface TQ variation – Ream doglegs
Downhole weight Adjust surface weight; Possible poor hole cleaning

Downhole torque Adjust weight-on-bit for lithology change: Low: motor failure
if torque less after weight increased;: possible bit failure or balling
Decrease weight-on-bit; Increase RPM; Clean hole; Ream
Downhole TQ variation – doglegs; Possible bit or drilling tool failure
ECD High: Increase mud flow, viscosity, weight or RPM; Control drilling;
Stop and circulate. Low: Circulate influx; Increase mud weight
ROP High: Possible cuttings overload - Control drilling Low: Possible
lithology change/bit failure/motor failure/poor cleaning
Block speed Possible swabbing influx or surging fluid loss

– Change RPM and weight-on-bit; Stop drilling and restart the bit;
Lateral vibration Possible bitor drilling tool failure
Axial vibration – Change RPM and weight-on-bit

Washout detection – Check mud pumps; Trip out

Current Well Concerns:

Schlumberger
ASL 5043 37 1098
Anadrill
Communication Network
Drag STOR ECD
### ### ###

DWOB STOR Var Blk Speed


### ### ### Drag
###
STOR
###
ECD
###

DWOB STOR Var Blk Speed


### ### ###

Axial Vib DTOR ROP Axial Vib DTOR ROP


### ### ###
### ### ###
Lat. Vib DTOR Var Washout
### ### ###

Lat. Vib
###
DTOR Var Washout
### ###
Drilling
Department
Rig Floor
Drag STOR ECD Drag STOR ECD
### ### ### ### ### ###

DWOB STOR Var Blk Speed DWOB STOR Var Blk Speed
### ### ### ### ### ###

Axial Vib DTOR ROP Axial Vib DTOR ROP


### ### ### ### ### ###

Lat. Vib DTOR Var Washout Lat. Vib DTOR Var Washout
### ### ### ### ### ###

Mudlogger Company Man

Schlumberger ASL 5043 38 1098


Anadrill
Diagnostic Plot
Depth Weight Time Torque Rotation Flow Pressure

Bit Depth Hookload TVD Surface RPM Flow Standpipe


ROP Downhole Downhole Lateral D Flow ECD / ESD
Shock
Block Surface Excess Total Gas Annular
Speed Surface s RPM Temperature
Axial Shock Pit Level
Caliper s Surface Cuttings Swab / Surge
Excess Washout
Doglegs Drag s Downhole Pore / Fracture
Inclination Mud Weight In

On Bottom
Rig Heave
Annotations

Schlumberger ASL 5043 39 1098


Anadrill
End-of-Well Reporting
• Summary of service benefits
Plan • Planned vs. actual procedures
Depth

Actual
• Recommendations

Plan Actual $ Value


Time
ROP
% Stuck / Fishing

% Tripping
Depth

Plan
% Lost Circulation

Actual # Bits

NPV Production
Cost

Total $

Schlumberger ASL 5043 40 1098


Anadrill
Conclusions

• Most of the value in Drilling Performance Measurements


services is derived from realtime decisions. Awareness and
contingency planning by the drilling team are paramount.

• The implementation process includes the integration of


surface and downhole measurements, and setting up data
links between drilling team members.

• Drilling Performance Measurements services have


demonstrated significant value, and in some cases are
critical to being able to drill a well.

Schlumberger ASL 5043 41 0498


Anadrill