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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
UNIT I ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Part – A

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Problem 1 Solve the equation  D 2  D  1 y  0
Solution:
1  1  4 1  3i
The A.E is m2  m  1  0  m   .

lus
2 2
1  3i 1 3
m and   ;  
2 2 2
G.S : y  e  A cos  x  B sin  x 
x

 1
3x
x 3x 
G.S : y  e  A cos  B sin  where A, B are arbitrary constants.

2
2 2 
hip
Problem 2 Find the particular integral of  D 2  a 2  y  b cos ax  c sin ax.
Solution:
Given  D 2  a 2  y  b cos ax  c sin ax.
art
1 1
P.I  b cos ax  c. 2 sin ax.
D a2 2
D  a2
bx sin ax cx cos ax
 
2a 2a
dy

x
 b sin ax  c cos ax .
2a

Problem 3 Find the particular integral of  D  1 y  e  x cos x .


2

Solution:
Vi

1
P.I  e  x cos x
 D  1
2

e x
 cos x
 D  1  1
2
w.

1
 e x cos x
D2
1
 e x sin x
ww

D
x
 e cos x.

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

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Problem 4 Find the particular integral of  D 2  4  y  x 4 .
Solution:
1
P.I  x4

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D 42

1
 x4
 D  2
4 1  
 4 
1
1  D2  4

lus
 1   x
4 4 
1  D2 D4  4
 1   x
4 4 16 
1 4.3x 2 4.3.2.1 
  x4   
4
1
4
3
  x 4  3x2   .
4 2
16 
hip
Problem 5 Solve  D 2  6 D  9  y  e 2 x x3 .
art
Solution:
The A.E is m 2  6m  9  0
  m  3  0
2

m  3, 3
C.F:  A  Bx  e 3x
dy

1
 e 2 x x 3
 D  3
2

e 2 x
 x3
Vi

 D  2  3
2

e 2 x
x 3  e2 x 1  D  x3
2

1  D 
2

P.I  e 2 x 1  2 D  3D 2  4 D 3  x 3
w.


 e 2 x x3  2  3 x 2   3  3.2 x   4  3.2.1 
 e 2 x  x 3  6 x 2  18 x  24 
G.S. y   A  Bx  e 3 x   x 3  6 x 2  18 x  24  e 2 x .
ww

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
Problem 6 Solve  D 2  2 D  1 y  x
Solution:
2  4  4
The A.E is m 2  2m  1  0  m 

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y
2
 m  1  2
 1 2  x  1 2  x
C.F: Ae  Be  Ae  x e 2x
 Be  x e  2x

1
P.I  2 x
 D  2D  1

lus
1
 x
 1  2 D  D 2 

  1   2D  D 2   x
1

P.I   1  2 D  D 2  x   x  2

G.S: y  e x Ae  2x
 Be 2x
hip
   x  2.
Problem 7 Find the particular integral  D 2  4 D  5  y  e2 x cos x
Solution:
art
1
P.I  e2 x cos x
D  4D  5
2


1
 e2 x cos x 
 D  2  1
2
dy

1
 e 2 x cos x
 D  2  2 1
2

1
 e 2 x cos x
D 1
2

xe 2 x
Vi

P.I  sin x.
2

Problem 8 Solve for x from the equations x  y  t and x  y  1 .


Solution:
w.

x  y  t  (1)  x  y  1  x  1  y 


x  y  1  (2)  x  x  1  1
Thus x  x  2 (or)  D 2  1 x  2
m2  1  0  m   i
ww

C.F. A cos t  B sin t

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
1
 
1
P.I   2   D 2
 1  2  2
 D 2  1
G.S: x  A cos t  B sin t  2.

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Problem 9 Solve  D3  3D 2  6 D  8 y  x .
Solution:
The A.E is m3  3m 2  6m  8  0
 m  1 m  2  m  4   0

lus
m  1,  2, 4
 C.F is C1e x  C2e 2 x  C3e 4 x
1
P.I  3 x
D  3D  6 D  8
2

1

 D  3D 2  6 D 
8 1 

3

8
1  D3  3D 2  6 D 
 1   x


x

1
hip
8 8 
1   D 3  3D 2  6 D  
art
 1     .. x
8  8  
1 6 1  3
 x    x  .
8 8 8  4
Complete solution is y  C.F  P.I
dy

1 3
y  C1 e x  C2 e 2 x  C3e 4 x   x   .
8 4

Problem 10 Solve the equation  D 2  4 D  13 y  e 2 x


Vi

Solution:
Given  D 2  4 D  13 y  e 2 x
The A.E is m 2  4m  13  0
4  16  52
w.

m
2
4  36

2
4  6i
ww

  2  3i
2
C.F y  e2 x  A cos 3x  B sin 3x 

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
1
P.I.  e2 x
D  4 D  13
2

1 1
 e2 x  e2 x
4  8  13

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9
G.S: y  C.F  P.I
e2 x
y  e 2 x  A cos 3 x  B sin 3x   .
9

Problem 11 Solve the equation  D5  D  y  12e x

lus
Solution:
Given  D 5  D  y  12e x
The A.E is m5  m  0
m  m 4  1  0
m4  1  0
m  0  or  m 4  1  0
m 2
 1 m 2  1  0
hip
m  0, m  1, m  i
C.F  C1 e0 x  C2 e x  C3e  x  C4 cos x  C5 sin x 
art
1
P.I  12e x
D D 5

1
 12e x  Replacing D by 1
1 1
dy

x
 12e x  Replacing D by 1
5D 4  1
x x
 12e x  12e x  3xe x
5 1 4
G.S. y  C.F  P.I
Vi

 C1  C2 e x  C3e  x  C4 cos x  C5 sin x   3xe x .

Problem 12 Solve the equation  D 2  5D  6  y  e 7 x sinh 3x


Solution:
w.

The A.E is m5  5m  6  0
 m  2  m  3  0
m  2, 3
C.F. is C1 e 2 x  C2 e 3 x
ww

1
P.I  2 e 7 x sinh 3x
D  5D  6

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
7 x  e  e 3 x 
3x
1
 e  
D 2  5D  6  2 
1 1 1 
  2 e 4 x  2 e10 x 

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2  D  5D  6 D  5D  6 
1 e 4 x
e 10 x

  
2 16  20  6 10  50  6 
1  e4 x e10 x 
 
2  2 34 

lus
e 4 x e 10 x
 G.S. y  C1e 2 x  C2 e 3 x   .
4 68

Problem 13 Solve the equation  D3  3D 2  4 D  2  y  e x


Solution:
Given m3  3m 2  4m  2  0
 m  1  m 2  2m  2   0
m  1 (or ) m  1  i
hip
Complementary function  Ae x  e x  B cos x  C sin x 
art
1
P.I  ex
D  3D  4 D  2
3 2

1
 3 ex  Replacing D by 1
  
  
2
1 3 1 4 1 2
dy

1 1
 ex  ex
1 3  4  2 0
x
 ex
3D  6 D  4
2

1
 e x  Replacing D by 1
Vi

36 4
 xe x
G.S: y  C.F .  P.I
 Ae x  e x  B cos x  C sin x   xe x .
w.

d2y dy
Problem 14 Solve the equation 2
 4  4 y  e 2 x
dx dx
Solution:
Given  D 2  4 D  4  y  e 2 x
ww

The A.E is m 2  4m  4  0
 m2  2   m  2   0
7

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
m  2, 2
C.F.:  Ax  B  e2 x
1
P.I  e 2 x

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D  4D  4
2

1
 e 2 x  Replacing D by - 2 
 2   4  2   4
2

1
 e2 x  Dr is 0 
4 8 4

lus
x
 e2 x  Replacing D by -2 
2D  4
x
 e 2 x
2  2   4
x 2 2 x
 e  Dr is 0 
2
G.S is y   Ax  B  e 2 x 
x 2 2 x
2
e .
hip
Problem 15 Solve the equation  D 2  2 D  1 y  e  x  3
art
Solution:
Given  D 2  2 D  1 y  e  x  3
The A.E is m 2  2m  1  0
 m  1 m  1  0
m  1, 1
dy

C.F.:  Ax  B  e x
P.I = P.I1  P.I 2
1
P.I1  2 e x
D  2D  1
Vi

1
 e x  Replacing D by -1
 1  2  1  1
2

1
 e x
1 2 1
w.

x
 e x  Dr is 0 
2D  2
x
 e x  Replacing D by -1
2  1  2
ww

1
PI 2  3e0 x
D  2D  1
2

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
1
 3e0 x  Replacing D by 0 
 0  2 0 1
2

x2  x
G.S is y   Ax  B  e x  e  3.

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2

Part-B

Problem 1 Solve  D 2  2 D  8  y  4 cosh x sinh 3 x   e2 x  e x   1 .


2

lus
Solution:
The A.E. is  m 2  2m  8   0
  m  4  m  2   0
 m  2, 4
C.F.: Ae 2 x  Be 4 x
R.H.S  4 cosh x sin 3 x   e 2 x  e x   1

 4 
 e x  e x  e3 x  e 3 x 
 2 

2 
2
hip
  e  e  1
2x x 2

   e  e  e  e   e 4 x  2e3 x  e 2 x  1
4x 2 x 2x 4 x
art
 e 2 x  e 4 x  2e3 x  1e0 x
P.I. 
1
 D  4  D  2 
 e2 x  
1
 D  4  D  2 
 e4 x  2e3x  e0 x 
1 e 4 x 2e3 x 1
 e 2 x   
dy

 2  4  D  2   8 2   1 5  4  2 
 xe2 x e4 x 2e3 x 1
   
6 16 5 8
2 x
xe e4 x 2e3 x 1
G.S is y  Ae 2 x  Be 4 x     .
Vi

6 16 5 8

Problem 2 Solve y  y  sin 2 x  cos x cos 2 x cos 3x


Solution:
The A.E is m 2  1  0  m 2  1  m   i
w.

C.F.: A cos x  B sin x


cos x  2 cos 2 x cos 3 x  cos x
R.H.S   cos 5 x  cos x 
2 2
1
ww

  2 cos x cos 5 x  2 cos 2 x 


4

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
1
cos 6 x  cos 4 x  1  cos 2 x 
4
 2 cos A cos B  cos  A  B   cos  A  B   A  3 x, B  2 x

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1
P.I.  sin 2 x  cos x cos 2 x cos 3 x 
 D  1
2

1  e0 x cos 2 x cos 6 x cos 4 x cos 2 x e0 x 


     
D 2  1  2 2 4 4 4 4 
1 cos 2 x cos 6 x cos 4 x cos 2 x 1

lus
     
2  4  1 4  36  1 4  16  1 4  4  1 4
2

3 cos 2 x cos 6 x cos 4 x cos 6 x 3



     .
4 6 140 60 140 4
cos 2 x cos 4 x cos 6 x 3
G.S. is y  A cos x  B sin x     .

Problem 3 Solve
Solution:
12

d 2x
dy 2
60
hip
140

 10 x  cos8 y.
4

Here y is independent and x is dependent variable


art
d
Let D  .
dy
The A.E is m 2  10  0
 m 2  10
 m   10i
dy

C.F.: A cos 10 y  B sin 10 y


1 cos 8 y  cos8 y
P.I  2 cos8 y  
 D  10  64  10 54
Vi

cos8 y
G.S. is x  A cos 10 y  B sin 10 y 
54

d2y dy
Problem 4 Solve 2
 6  9 y  sin x cos 2 x .
dx dx
w.

Solution:
The A.E is m 2  6m  9  0
 m  3 0
2

m  3,  3.
ww

C.F.:  A  Bx  e 3x
2sin x cos 2 x 1
R.H.S   sin 3x  sin   x  
2 2
10

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
1
 sin 3x  sin x 
2
 2sin A cos B  sin  A  B   sin  A  B   A  x, B  2 x

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1 1 1 1
P.I.  sin 3 x  sin x
2  D  3 2
2  D  3 2
1 1 1 1
 sin 3x  sin x
2 D  6D  9
2
2 D  6D  9
2

lus
1 1 1 1
P.I.   sin 3 x   sin x
2 9  6 D  9 2 1  6 D  9
1 1 1 1
  sin 3x   sin x
12 D 2 8  6D

 cos 3x

 4  3D  sin x
12  3 4  4  3D  4  3D 


1
36
1
cos 3x 

 cos 3x  
1 1
4 16  9 D 2
1 4sin x  3cos x
hip
 4sin x  3cos x 

36 4 16  9
 cos 3x sin x 3cos x
  
art
36 25 100

Problem 5 Solve  D 2  4  y  x 4  cos2 x


Solution:
dy

The A.E. is m 2  4  0
m  2i
C.F.: A cos 2 x  B sin 2 x
1 1  1  cos 2 x 
P.I  2 x4  2  
D 4 D 4 2 
Vi

1 1 1 1 1 1
 x4  e0 x  cos 2 x
4 D  2
2  D  4
2
2 D2  4
1  
 4 
 x sin 2 x 
1
1  D2  4 1
w.

 1   x  
4 4  2  4  2  2  2 
1  D 2 D 4  4 1 x sin 2 x
 1   x  
4 4 16  8 8
ww

x 4 12 x 2 4.3.2.1 1 x sin 2 x
    
4 16 64 8 8

11

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
4 3 x 2 x 4 x sin 2 x
G.S. is y  A cos 2 x  B sin 2 x    
8 4 4 8

Problem 6 Solve  D 2  2 D  1 y   x  e x   cos 2 x cosh x .


2

.co
Solution:
The A.E is m 2  2m  1  0
2  4  4
m  1  2
2

lus
 1 2  x  1 2  x
C.F.: Ae  Be
 e x  e x 
P.I.  2
1
 x  2 xe  e   D 2  2D  1 cos 2 x 2
2 x x 1
 D  2 D  1  
1 1
x2   x2
  1   2 D  D  
D  2 2
D  1  2

hip
  1   2 D  D 2    2 D  D 2   .... x 2

  1  2 D  D  4 D  x   x
2 2 2
2

2

  x 2  4 x   5  2 
art
1
x 2   x 2  4 x  10
D  2D 1
2

2  2e x 
xe x
  x
D  2D 1
2
  D  1  2  D  1  1 
2
 
dy

1
 2e x 2 x
D  2D  1  2D  2 1
2e x
 2  x
D  4D  2
Vi

2e x 1
 x
2   D2 
1   2 D  
  2 
1
  D2 
 e 1   2 D 
x
 x
w.

  2 
  D2  
 e x 1   2 D    ... x
  2  
 e 1  2 D  x
x
ww

2
xe x  e x  x  2   x  2  e x
 D  2 D  1
2

12

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
1 1 e2 x
e 2x
 e 2x

D 2  2D 1  4  4  1 7
1 e x cos 2 x 1 e x cos 2 x

.co
D 2  2D 1 2 D2  2D 1 2
e x
1 e x 1
 cos 2 x  cos 2 x
2  D  1  2  D  1  1
2
2  D  1  2  D  1  1
2

ex 1 e x 1
 cos 2 x  cos 2 x
2 D2  2D  1  2D  2 1 2 4  2

lus
e x  2 D  1 cos 2 x e x
  cos 2 x
2 2  2 D  1 2 D  1 12
ex 1 e  x cos 2 x
  2.2sin 2 x  cos 2 x  
2 2  4 D 2  1 12


4  16  1

e x  cos 2 x  4sin 2 x 
17

hip
e x  4sin 2 x  cos 2 x  e  x cos 2 x
12
e  x cos 2 x
12
The General Solution is
art
 1 2  x 1 2  x e2 x
y  Ae  Be  10  4 x  x 
2
  x  2 ex
7
x x
e e
  cos 2 x  4sin 2 x   cos 2 x
17 12
dy

Problem 7 Solve  D 2  4  y  x 2 cos 2 x


Solution:
The A.E is m 2  4  0
 m 2  4
Vi

 m  2 i
C.F.: A cos 2 x  B sin 2 x
P.I  2
1
D 4
 x 2 cos 2 x 
e2ix
w.

1
 R.P of 2 x 2ei 2 x  R.P. of x2
D 4  D  2i  4
2

1
P.I.  R.P of e 2ix x2
D  4iD  4  4
2
ww

1 1
 R.P of e2ix 2 x 2  R.P of e2ix x2
D  4iD D  D  4i 

13

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
1 1
 R.P of e2ix x2
D  D
4i 1  
 4i 

.co
1
e 2ix 1  D  2
 R.P of 1   x
4i D  4i 
e2ix 1  D D 2  2
 R.P of 1   x
4i D  4i 16 
 ie 2ix  x3 x 2 x 

lus
 R.P of     
 4  3 4i 8 
 ie2ix  x3 ix 2 x 
 R.P of     
 4  3 4 8
 e 2ix   x3i x 2 ix 
 R.P of     

 R.P of
 4  3 4 8

4
hip
 cos 2 x  sin 2 x    x3i  x 2  ix 

 3 4

8
1  x 2 cos 2 x x3 sin 2 x x sin 2 x 
   
4 4 3 8 
art
1  x 2 cos 2 x x3 sin 2 x x sin 2 x 
P.I.   
4  4 3 8 
x 2 cos 2 x x3 sin 2 x x sin 2 x
G.S.: y  A cos 2 x  B sin 2 x    .
16 12 32
dy

Problem 8 Solve  D 2  a 2  y  sec a x .


Solution:
The A.E. is m 2  a 2  0
Vi

 m2   a 2
 m   ai
C.F.: A cos ax  B sin a x
1
P.I  sec a x  1
 D  ai  D  ai 
w.

Using partial fractions


1  C C2 
 1 
D a  D  ai D  ai 
2 2

1  C1  D  ai   C2  D  ai 
ww

1 1
C1   , C2 
2ia 2ia

14

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
1 1 1 1
P.I.   sec ax  sec a x
2ia  D  ai  2ia  D  ai 
1 1 eaix  aix
2ia 
 sec ax  e sec a x dx

.co
2ia D    ai 
e  aix aix e aix  aix
2ia  2ia 
 e sec a x dx  e sec a x dx

e aix  cos ax  i sin ax  eaix  cos ax  i sin ax 


2ia  2ia 
P.I.   dx  dx
cos ax cos ax

lus
e aix eaix
  1  i tan ax  dx
2ia  2ia 
P.I.   1  i tan ax dx 

e aix  i  e 
aix
i 
  x  log sec ax    x  log sec ax 
2ia  a  2ia  a 
2 x  e  e  2i
aix  aix
e  e 
aix  aix

2 
log sec ax  

x
a
1
2a  

1
2i  
 2ia
sin ax  2  log sec ax  cos ax 

a
hip  2 

 2  ax sin ax  cos ax log cos ax 


a
art
G.S. is y  C.F  P.I .

Problem 9 Solve  D 2  4 D  3 y  e  x sin x  xe3 x .


Solution:
The A.E is m 2  4m  3  0
dy

 m  1 m  3  0
m  1, 3
C.F.: Ae  x  Be 3 x
1 1
Vi

P.I  e  x sin x  xe3 x


 D  3  D  1  D  1 D  3 
e x e3 x
  sin x    x
 D  1  3 D  1  1  D  3  1 D  3  3
1 1
w.

 e x sin x  e3 x x
 D  2 D  D  4  D  6 
D2 1
 e  x cos x  e3 x 2 x
 D  2  D  2  D  10 D  24
ww

1 e3 x 1
 e  x   sin x  2 cos x   x
 D2  4 24
1
10 D D 2

24 24

15

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
1
1 e3 x  5 D D 2 
P.I.  e x
    1 
24  12 24 
sin x 2 cos x x
 D2  4
e x  sin x  2 cos x  e3 x  5 D 

.co
  1 x
 1  4  24  12 
e x
 sin x  2 cos x    x  
e3 x  5

5 24  12 
x

 sin x  2 cos x    x   .
e e3 x 5
G.S. is y  Ae  x  Be 3 x 

lus
5 24  12 

Problem 10 Solve the Legendre’s linear equation


 3 x  2 2 D 2  3  3 x  2  D  36  y  3 x 2  4 x  1
 
Solution:

2

Let 3x  2  e or t  log  3 x  2 


dt

3
t
hip
Let  3 x  2   D 2  3  3 x  2  D  36  y  3x 2  4 x  1

dx 3x  2
3x  e  2
z
art
1 2
x  ez 
3 3
Let  3x  2  D  3D
 3x  2  D 2  9 D  D  1
2
dy

1 2 1 2
9 D  D  1  3  3D   36  y  3  e z    4  e z    1
3 3 3 3
1 4 4  4 8
9 D2  9 D  9 D  36  y  3  e 2 z   e z   e z   1
9 9 9  3 3
Vi

1 4 4 4 8
9 D2  36  y  e2 z   e z  e z   1
3 3 3 3 3
1 2z 1
 e 
3 3
w.

A.E is 9m  36  0
2

9m 2  36
m2  4
m 2
C.F  Ae 2 z  Be 2 z
ww

 A  3x  2   B  3x  2 
2 2

16

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
1 e2 z
P.I1 
9 D2  36 3
1 1
 . e2 z
3 36  36

.co
1 1 2z
 z e
3 18D
1 e2 z
 z
54 2
1

lus
 ze2 z
108
1
  log 3x  2  3x  2 
2

108
1 e0 z
P.I 2 
9 D12  36 3
1 1 0z
 .
3 36
y  C.F  P.I1  PI 2
e 
1
108

 A  3x  2   B  3 x  2  
hip
1 1
 3x  2  log  3x  2  
2 2 2

108 108
art
1 
 A  3x  2   B  3x  2    3x  2  log  3x  2   1 .
2 2 2

108 

Problem 11 Solve  D 2  5D  4   e  x sin 2 x  x 2  1where D 


d
.
dx
dy

Solution:
The A.E m2  5m  4  0
m  4 or m  1
C.F  Ae 4 x  Be  x
1
 e  x sin 2 x  2 x 2  1
Vi

P.I  2
D  5D  4
 e3 x
1
sin 2 x 
1
 x 2  1
 D  1  5  D  1  4  D  5D 
2 2
4 1  
 4 
w.

1  5D 5D  2 2

  x  1
1
 e3 x 2 sin 2 x  1  
D  3D 4 4 16 
e  x
 2sin 2 x  3cos 2 x    x 2  x  
1 5 13

4 8
ww

26 2
G.S : y  C.F .  P.I

17

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
e x
 2sin 2 x  3cos 2 x    x2  x   .
1 5 13
y  Ae 4 x  Be  x 
26 4 2 8
2
d y dy
Problem 12 Solve x 2 2  4 x  6 y  sin  log x  .

.co
dx dx
Solution:
d2y dy
Given equation is x 2
 4 x  6 y  sin  log x  .
2

dx dx
 x D  4 xD  6  y  sin  log x   1
2 2

lus
Put x  e z  or  z  log x
xD  D   2 
d
x 2 D 2  D  D  1   3 Where D denotes
dz

Sub (2) & (3) in (1) we get


 D  D  1  4D  2  y  sin z
 i.e   D2  D  4 D  2  y  sin z
hip
 D2  3D  2  y  sin z   4 
The A.E is m 2  3m  2  0
art
 m  1 m  2   0
m  1, 2
C.F.: Ae  z  Be 2 z
1
dy

P.I.= 2 sin z
D   3 D  2
1
 sin z
1  3 D   2
1
 sin z
Vi

3D  1
3D   1
 sin z
9 D 2  1

 3D  1 sin z  Replace D2 by  1
9  1  1  
w.

3D  sin z   sin z



10
3cos z  sin z

10
ww

 The solution of (4) is


3cos z  sin z
y  Ae  z  Be 2 z 
10

18

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
Sub z  log x or x  e z , we get
3cos  log x   sin  log x 
y  Ae  log x  Be 2log x 
10
   log x 

.co
3cos log x  sin
y  Ax 1  Bx 2 
10
A B
y  2 
3cos  log x   sin  log x 
x x 10
This gives the solution of the given differential equation.

lus
Problem 13 Solve the simultaneous ordinary differential equation
 D  4 x  3 y  t , 2 x   D  5 y  e2t
Solution:
Given  D  4  x  3 y  t  1
2 x   D  5  y  e 2t   2 
2  1   D  4    2 
6 y   D  4  D  5  y  2t   D  4  e 2t
hip
6  D 2  9 D  20  y  2t  2e 2t  4e zt

 D 2  9D  14  y  6e2t  2t
art
The A.E. is m2  9m  14  0
 m  7  m  2   0
m  2,  7
C.F.: Ae 2t  Be 7 t
dy

6 2
P.I.  2 e 2t  2 t
 D  9 D  14   D  9D  14 
6e 2t 2 1
  t 
4  18  14 14 9D D2
Vi

1 
14 14
1
6e 2t 1  9 D D 2 
  1    t 
36 7  14 14 
e2t 1  9 D  e 2t 1  9
w.

  1   
t   t  
6 7  14  6 7  14 
2t
e t 9
G.S. is y  Ae 2 t  Be 7 t   
6 7 98
To Calculate x
ww

2e 2 t 1
Dy  2 Ae 2t  7 Be 7 t  
6 7

19

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
5e 2t 5t 45
5 y  5 Ae 2t  5 Be 7 t   
6 7 98
7e2t 5t 1 45
 D  5 y  3 Ae2t  2 Be 7 t    

.co
6 7 7 98
 2  2 x    D  5 y  e 2t

7e2t 5t 31 2t
 3 Ae2t  2 Be7t    e
6 7 98
3 A 2t 7 5t 31
x e  Be 7 t  e 2 t  

lus
2 72 14 196
The General solution is
3 A 2t e2t 5t 31
x e  Be7t   
2 12 14 196
e 2t t 9
y  Ae2t  Be 7 t    .

Problem 14 Solve:
Solution:
6 7 98

d2y
dx 2
hip
 y  tan x by method of variation of parameters

A.E is m 2  1  0
art
m  i
C.F = c1 cos x  c2 sin x
P.I  PI1  PI 2
f1  cos x ; f 2  sin x
 
dy

f1   sin x ; f 2  cos x
f 2 f1  f1f 2  1
f2 X
Now, P    dx
f f  ff

1 2 1 2
Vi

=   sin x tan xdx


s in 2 x (1  co s 2 x )
=  dx   dx
cos x co s x
=   sec xdx   cos xdx
w.

=  log  sec x  tan x   sin x


f1 X
Q dx
f1 f 2  f1 f 2
=  cos x tan xdx
ww

=  cos x
 y = C.F + Pf1 + Qf2

20

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Unit. 1 Ordinary Differential Equations

m
= c1 cos x  c2 sin x + [ log  sec x  tan x   sin x]cos x  cos x sin x
= c1 cos x  c2 sin x  log(sec x  tan x) cos cos x .

.co
d2y
Problem 15 Solve by the method of variation of parameters  4 y  sec 2 x
dx 2
Solution:
The A.E is m 2  4  0
m  2i
C.F = c1 cos 2 x  c2 sin 2 x

lus
P.I = Pf1 + Qf2
f1 = cos 2x; f2 = sin 2x
 
f1  2sin 2 x ; f 2  2 cos 2 x
f f  ff 2
2 1 1 2

Now, P   
f2 X
f1 f 2  f1 f 2

=   sin 2 x sec 2 xdx


2
dx
hip
=   tan 2 xdx  1 log  cos 2 x 
1
2 4
art
f1 X
Q dx
f1 f 2  f1 f 2
= 1  cos 2 x sec 2 xdx  1 x
2 2
 y = C.F + Pf1 + Qf2
dy

= c1 cos 2 x  c2 sin 2 x  1 log  cos 2 x  cos 2 x  1 x sin 2 x .


4 2
Vi
w.
ww

21

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
UNIT II VECTOR CALCULUS

Part-A

.co
Problem 1 Prove that div( grad  )   2
Solution:
div( grad  )  .
       
i j k 

lus
 x y z 
              
  i  j  k  i j k 
 x y z  x y z 
 2  2  2
  
x 2 y 2 z 2
 2 2 2 
  2  2  2 
 x y z 
 2 .
hip
   
Problem 2 Find a, b, c, if F   x  2 y  az  i   bx  3 y  z  j  (4 x  cy  2 z )k is
art
irrotational.
Solution:  

F is irrotational if   F  0
  
i j k
dy

   
 F 
x y z
x  2 y  az bx  3 y  z 4 x  cy  2 z
       
 i   4 x  cy  2 z    bx  3 y  z    j   4 x  cy  2 z    x  2 y  az  
Vi

 y z   x z 
   
 k   bx  3 y  2 z    x  2 y  az  
 x y 
  
 i  c  1  j  a  4  k b  2
w.

      
   F  0  0i  0 j  0k  i  c  1  j  a  4  k b  2
 c  1  0, a  4  0, b  2  0
 c  1, a  4, b  2.
ww


Problem 3 If S is any closed surface enclosing a volume V and r is the position

 
vector of a point, prove   r.n ds  3V
S

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
Solution:
   
Let r  xi  y j  zk
By Gauss divergence theorem
   
  F  n ds       FdV Here F  .r

.co
 
S V
 ds 
 r
S
 n    rdV
V

         
   i  j  k  . xi  y j  zk dV
V 
x y z 
 

lus
    1  1  1 dV

  r  n ds  3V .
S

    
Problem 4 If r  a cos nt  b sin nt , where a, b, n are constants show that
 dr
r

dt
 
n ab

Solution:
 


 hip
Given r  a cos nt  b sin nt

 
art
dr
 na sin nt  nb cos nt
dt

 dr    
r
dt
  
 a cos nt  b sin nt  na sin nt  nb cos nt 
   
 
 n a  b cos 2 nt  b  a sin 2 nt  
dy

       
   
 n a  b cos 2 nt  a  b sin 2 nt  a  b  b  a  
   
 
 n a  b 1  n a  b  

Vi

Problem 5 Prove that div  curl A   0


Solution:
  
i j k
  
w.

.        
x y z
A1 A2 A3
               
   i  3  2   j  3  1    k  2  1 
ww

  y z   x z    x y 
              
  3  2   3  1   2  1 
x  y z  y  x z  z  x y 

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
  2 3  2  2    2 1  2 3    2  2  2 1 
      
 xy xz   yz yx   zx zy 


div curl A  0 

.co
Problem 6 Find the unit normal to surface xy 3 z 2  4 at  1, 1, 2 
Solution:
Let   xy 3 z 2  4
  
   y 3 z 2 i  3 xy 2 z 2 j  2 xy 3 zk

lus
  
 1,1,2    1  2  i  3  1 1  2  j  2  1 1  2  k
3 2 2 2 3

  
  4i  12 j  4k

Unit normal to the surface is n 



  
 4i  12 j 4k
16  144  16
  

4 i  3 j  k 
hip
176
     
   
art
4 i  3 j  k  i3j k
  .
16 11 11

Problem 7 Applying Green’s theorem in plane show that area enclosed by a simple
1
 xdy  ydx 
2
dy

closed curve C is

Solution:
 Q P 
 Pdx  Qdy     x  y  dx dy
Vi

C R

P   y, Q  x
P Q
 1, 1
y x
   x dy  ydx     1  1 dxdy  2   dx dy
w.

R R
= 2 Area enclosed by C
1
 Area enclosed by C =   xdy  ydx  .
2
   
ww

Problem 8 If A and B are irrotational show that A  B is solenoidal


Solution:
  
Given A is irrotational i.e.,  A  0

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

  

m
B is irrotational i.e.,   B  0
     
  
. A  B  B.   A  A.   B
   
  
 B  0  A0  0
 

.co
 A  B is solenoidal.
 
Problem 9 If F  grad  x3  y 3  z 3  3xyz  find curl F
Solution:

F    x 3  y 3  z 3  3xyz 

lus
  
  3x 2  3 yz  l   3 y 2  3 xz  j   3 z 2  3xy  k
  
i j k
   
 F 
x y z
3 x  3 yz 3 y  3 xz 3 z  3 xy
2

 
2


z
2
hip
  
  x

z

 i   3 z 2  3 xy    3 y 2  3 xz    j   3 z 2  3xy    3x 2  3 yz  
 y 
   
 k   3 y 2  3 xz    3 x 2  3 yz  
 x y
art

  
 i  3x  3x   j  3 y  3 y   k  3 z  3 z 
  
 i 0  j0  k 0  0 .
    
If F  x 2 i  y 2 j , evaluate  F  d r along the straight line y  x from
dy

Problem 10
 0,0  to 1,1 .
Solution:
    

F .d r  x 2 i  y 2 j  dxi  dy 
Vi

 x 2 dx  y 2 dy
Given y  x
dy  dx
  1
 F  d r    x 2 dx  y 2 dy 
w.

C 0
1
1
 x3 
1
2
  x dx  x dx  2  x dx  2   
2 2 2

0 0  3 0 3
ww

Problem 11 What is the unit normal to the surface   x, y, z   C at the point  x, y, z  ?


Solution:

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m

n  .



.co
Problem 12 State the condition for a vector F to be solenoidal
Solution:
 
.F  divF  0
 
Problem 13 If a is a constant vector what is  a ?

lus
Solution:
   
Let a  a1 i  a 2 j  a 3 k
  
i j k
    
a  0
x y z
a1 a2 a3
hip
Problem 14 Find grad  at  2, 2, 2  when   x 2  y 2  z 2  2
Solution:
grad  
    
art
 i  x 2  y 2 x 2  2   j  x 2  y 2  z 2  2   k  x2  y2  z 2  2 
x y z
  
 2 x i  2 y j  2 zk
  
 2,2,2  4i  4 j  4k
dy

Problem 15 State Gauss Divergence Theorem


Solution:
The surface integral of the normal component of a vector function F over a closed

Vi

surface S enclosing volume V is equal to the volume integral of the divergence of F


  
taken over V. i.e.,   F . nds     .FdV
S V
w.

Part –B

Problem 1 Find the directional derivative of   x 2 yz  4 xz 2 at the point 1, 2, 1 in
  
the direction of the vector 2i  j  2k .
ww

Solution:
  x 2 yz  4 xz 2

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

  

m
   2 xyz  4 z 2  i  x 2 z j   x 2 y  8 xz  k
  
1, 2, 1   2 1 2  1  4  1  i  1  1 j  1  2   8 1 1  k
2 2 2
   
  
  4  4  i  j   2  8  k

.co
  
 8i  j  10k

  .a
Directional derivative a is 

     
 
8i  j  10k . 2i  j  2k 

lus

4 1 4
16  1  20 37
  .
3 3

Problem 2 Find the maximum directional derivative of   xyz 2 at 1, 0,3 .


Solution:
Given   xyz 2
 
  yz 2 i  xz 2 j  2 xyzk

hip
2 2   
1,0,3  0  3 i  1 3 j  2 1 0  3  k  9 j

art
Maximum directional directive of  is   9 j
Magnitude of maximum directional directive is   92  9.

Problem 3 Find the angle between the surfaces x 2  y 2  z 2  9 and x 2  y 2  z  3 at the


dy

point  2, 1, 2  .
Solution:
Let 1  x 2  y 2  z 2  9
  
1  2 xi  2 y j  2 zk
     
Vi

1 2,1,2  2(2)i  2  1 j  2  2  k  4i  2 j  4k


2  x 2  y 2  z  3
  
2  2 xi  2 y j  k
  
2 2, 1,2   4i  2 j  2k
w.

If  is the angle between the surfaces then


1.2
cos  
| 1 || 2 |
     
  
ww

4i  2 j  4k . 4i  2 j  2k

16  4  16 16  4  4

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
16  4  8

36 24
12 1
 

.co
6 2 6 6
 1 
  cos 1  .
 6
  
Problem 4 Find the work done, when a force F   x 2  y 2  x  i   2 xy  y  j moves a

lus
particle from the origin to the point 1,1 along y 2  x .
Solution:
  
Given F   x 2  y 2  x  i   2 xy  y  j
   
d r  dxi  dy j  dzk
 
F . d r   x 2  y 2  x  dx   2 xy  y  dy
Given y 2  x
2 ydy  dx
 
 F .d r   x 2  x  x  dx   2 y 3  y  dy
hip
 x 2 dx   2 y 3  y  dy
art
 1 2 1

 F dr   x dx    2 y  y  dy
3

C 0 0
1 1
 x   2 y4 y2 
3
    
 3 0  4 2 0
dy

1   2 1  
   0        0  0  
3   4 2  
1 1 1 
   
3 2 2
Vi

1 2
 1 
3 3
  2
 Work done   F .dr 
3
w.

   
Problem 5 Prove that F   y 2 cos x  z 3  i   2 y sin x  4  j  3 xz 2 k is irrotational and
find its scalar potential.
Solution:
   
ww

Given F   y 2 cos x  z 3  i   2 y sin x  4  j  3 xz 2 k

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

  

m
i j k
   
 F 
x y z

.co
y cos x  z 2 y sin x  4 3xz 2
2 3

  
 i  0  0  j 3 z 2  3 z 2   k 2 y cos x  2 y cos 
  
 0i  0 j  0k  0

  F 0

lus
Hence F is irrotational

F  
    
 y 2 cos x  z 3  i  2 y sin x  4  j  3xz 2 k  i x  j y  yz
 
Equating the coefficient i, j , k

x
1  y 2 sin x  z 3 x  C1

hip
 y 2 cos x  z 3      y 2 cos x  z 3 dx

 2 y sin x  4       2 y sin x  4  dy
x
art
y2
2  2  sin x   4 y  C2
2

 3xz 2      3 xz 2 dy
x
z3
3  3 x  C3
dy

3
  y 2 sin x  xz 3  4 y  C
    
Problem 6 If F  3 xyi  y 2 j evaluate  F .dr when C is curve in the xy plane
Vi

y  2 x 2 , from  0, 0  to 1, 2 
Solution:
  
F  3 xyi  y 2 j
   
dr  dxi  dy j  dzk
 
w.

F .dr  3 xydx  y 2 dy
Given y  2 x 2
dy  4 xdx
 
 F .d r  3 x(2 x 2 )dx   2 x 2  4 x dx
2
ww

 6 x3dx  4 x 4 (4 x)dx
 6 x3dx  16 x5 dx

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
  1
 Fd r    6 x  16 x  dx
3 5

C 0
1
 x 4 16 x 6 
 6 

.co
 4 6  0
6 16 7
   .
4 6 6
    
Problem 7 Find  F . d r when F   x 2
 y 2
 i  2 xy j where the cure C is the

lus
C

rectangle in the xy plane bounded by x  0, x  a, y  b, y  0 .


Solution:
  
Given F  x 2  y 2  i  2 xy j
   
d r  dxi  dy j  dzk
 
Fd r  ( x 2  y 2 )dx  2 xy dy
hip
C is the rectangle OABC and C consists of four different paths.
OA (y = 0)
AB (x = a)
BC (y = b)
CO (x = 0)
 
art
  F .d r        
C OA AB BC CO
Along
OA, y  0, dy  0
AB, x  a, dx  0
dy

BC , y  b, dy  0
CO, x  0, dx  0
 
 C  F .d r   x 2 dx  2aydy   x  b 2  dx  0
2

C OA AB BC CO
Vi

a b 0
  x 2 dx  2a  ydy    x 2  b 2  dx
0 0 a
a b o
x   y   x3
3
 2
    2a      b 2 x 
 3 0  2 o  3 a
w.

a 3
 b 2
   a3 
   0   2a   0     0  0     ab 2    2ab 2 .
 3   2    3 
    
Problem 8 If F   4 xy  3x z  i  2 x j  2 x zk check whether the integral
2 2 2 3
 F .d r is
ww

independent of the path C .


Solution:
Given

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

  

m
F   4 xy  3 x 2 z 2  i  2 x 2 j  2 x 3 zk
   
d r  dxi  dy j  dzk
 
 F .d r    4 xy  3x z dx   2 x dy   2 x zdz
2 2 2 3

.co
C C C C
This integral is independent of path of integration if
 
F      F  0
  
i j k
   
 F 

lus
x y z
4 xy  3x 2 z 2 2 x 2 2 x3 z
 
 i  0, 0   j  6 x 2 z  6 x 2 z   k  4 x  4 x 
   
 0i  0i  0 j  0k  0.
Hence the line integral is independent of path.

Problem 9
hip
Verify Green’s Theorem in a plane for

C is the square bounded x   a , y   a


  x (1  y)dx  ( y
C
2 3
 x3 )dy  where

Solution:
art
Let P  x 2 (1  y )
P
 x2
y
Q  y 3  x3
dy

Q
 3x 2
x
By green’s theorem in a plane
 Q P 
C  Pdx  Qdy    C  x  y  dxdy
Vi

 Q P 
Now    x  y  dx dy
R
a a
    3x  x 2  dx dy
2
w.

a a
a a
  dy  2 x dx
2

a a
a
 2 x3 
  y  a 
a
ww


 3 a
  a  a   a3  a3 
2
3

10

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
8a 4
 (1)
3
Now   Pdx  Qdy      

.co
C AB BC CD DA

Along AB, y  a, dy  0


X varies from a to a

  Pdx  Qdy     x 1  y  dx   x 
a
2 3
 y 3  dy
AB a

lus
a
  x 2 (1  a )dx  0
a
a
 x3 
 1  a   
 3 a
1 a  3 2a 3 2a 4
a  a  
Along BC

 3 

x  a, dx  0
Y varies from  a to a
3

3

3
hip
  Pdx  Qdy     x 1  y  dx   x  y  dy 
a
2 3 3
art
BC a
a
  (a 3  y 3 )dy
a
a
 3 y4 
 a y  
dy

 4  a
 a4   a4 
  a 4      a 4    2a 4
 4   4 
Along CD
Vi

y  a, dy  0
X varies from a to a
a

  Pdx  Qdy     x 1  y  dx   x  y 3  dy 
2 3

CD a
w.

a
  x 2 (1  a )dx
a
a
 x3 
 1  a    dx
 3 a
ww

 a 3  a 3 
 1  a   
 3 

11

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
2a 3 2a 4
 
3 3
Along DA ,
x   a, dx  0

.co
Y Varies from a to a
a

  Pdx  Qdy     x 1  y  dx   x  y 3  dy 
2 3

DA a
a


  a 2 1  y  dx   y 3  a 3  dy 

lus
a
a
 y4 
   a3 y 
4 a
a 4
  a4 
   a 4     a 4   2a 4
 4   4 

  Pdx  Qdy  
C

 4a 4  a 4
4
2a 3 2a 4
3

3
 2a 4 
3
 hip
2 a 3 2a 4
3
 2a 4

3
4
8a
art
 ......(2)
3
From (1) and (2)
 Q P  8a 4
  Pdx  Qdy    R  x y 
 dxdy  .
C
3
dy

Hence Green’s theorem verified.

Problem 10 Verify Green’s theorem in a plane for


  3x  8 y 2  dx   4 y  6 xy  dy where C is the boundary of the region defined by
2

C
Vi

x  y2 , y  x2 .
Solution:
Green’s theorem states that
 v u 
C udx  vdy   R  x  y dxdy
w.

 Q p 
 Pdx  Qdy     x  y  dxdy
C R

  3x  8 y 2  dx   4 y  6 xy  dy
2
Given
ww

P  3x  8 y 2
2

12

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
P
 16 y
y
Q  4 y  6 xy
Q

.co
 6 y
x
Evaluation of  Pdx  Qdy
C

(i) Along OA
y  x 2  dy  2 xdx

lus
 Pdx  Qdy    3x  8 x 4  dx   4 x 2  6 x 3  2 xdx
2

OA OA
1
   3x 2  8 x 4  8 x 3  12 x 4 dx
0
1
   20 x 4  8 x 3  3 x 2 dx



x5
0

  20  8 
5
x 4 3x3 
4 3  0
1
hip
20 8 3
  
art
5 5 3
  4  2  1  1
Along AO
y 2  x  2 ydy  dx
 Pdx  Qdy    3 y  8 y 2 2 y dy   4 y  6 y 3  dy
4
dy

Ao Ao

  (6 y  16 y 3  4 y  6 y 3 )dy
5

AO
0
   6 y 5  22 y 3  4 y  dy
Vi

1
0
 y6 y4 4 y2 
 6  22 
 6 4 2 1
0
 11  5
  y6  y4  2 y2  
w.

 2 1 2
5 3
 Pdx  Qdy      1    (1)
C OA AO
2 2
 Q P 
   x  y  dx dy
ww

Evaluation of
R

 v u 
   x  y dxdy     6 y  16 y  dxdy
R R

13

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
1 y 1
   10 y dx dy   10 xy x  y dy
x y

0 y2 0

 
1
  10 y

.co
y  y 2 dy
0

 32 1

 10   y  y 3  dy
0 
1
 5 
 y 2 y4 

lus
 10   
5 4

 2 0
2 1
 10   
5 4


8  5 
 10 
 20 
30 3
20 2
  (2)
hip
For (1) and (2)
Hence Green’s theorem is verified.
art
   
Problem 11 Verify Gauss divergence theorem for F  yi  x j  z 2 k over the cylindrical
region bounded by x 2  y 2  9, Z  0 and Z  2 .
Solution:
Gauss divergencetheorem is
dy

 
 F .n
S
ds   div F dV
V
   
div F   y    x    z 2   2 z
x y z

Vi

3 9  x2 2

 div F dV  
V 3  9  x 2 0
  2 z dzdy dx
9  x2 2
3
 z2 
  2  2  dydx
2
w.

3  9 x 0

3 9 x2
 4  dydx
3  9  x 2

= 4 (Area of the circular region)


 
ww

 4   3
2

 36 .................(1)

14

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

 

m
 F .n ds      
S S1 S2 S3

S1 is the bottom of the circular region, S2 is the top of the circular region and S3 is the

.co
cylindrical region
 
On S1 , n   k , ds  dxdy , z  0
 
 F . n ds    z dxdy  0
2

 
S1

On S 2 , n  k , ds  dxdy, z  2
 

lus
 F .n ds   z dx dy
2

s2

 4 dxdy
 4 (Area of circular region)

 4   3
2
  36
On S3 ,   x 2  y 2  9

n 




2 xi

 2 y

j
4  x2  y 2 
hip
 
xi  y j

art
3
 
    2   xi  y j 

S F .n ds   yi  x j  z k  3  ds 
3  
yx  yx 2
  ds   xy ds
dy

3 3 S
Let x  3cos  , y  3sin 
ds  3 d dy
 varies from 0 to 2
z varies from 0 to 2
Vi

2 2
2
    9sin  cos  3 d dz
30 0
2 2
18
   sin 2 d dz
2 0 0
w.

2
 cos 2 
2
 9    dz
0
2 0
2
9
1  1 dz  0
2 0

ww

 
  F .n ds  0  36  0  36 ...............(2)
S

15

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
from (1) and (2)
  
C
 F .n ds   FdV
div
V

.co
Problem

12

Verify Stoke’s theorem for the vector field defined by

F   x 2  y 2  i  2 xy j in the rectangular region in the xy plane bounded by the lines
x  0, x  a, y  0, y  b.
Solution:
  
F   x 2  y 2  i  2 xy j

lus
   
By Stoke’s theorem  F . d r   curl F .n ds
  
C S

i j k
   
curl F 


x
x  y 2 xy 0
2 2


y z


hip 
 i  0  0  j  0  0  k  2 y  2 y   4 yk
 
As the region is in the xy plane we can take n  k and ds  dxdy
  
 curl F .n ds   4 yk.k dx dy
art
S
b a
 4   y dx dy
0 0
b
 y2 
 4    x 0
a
dy

 2 0
 2ab 2 ..............(1)

 F .dr 
C
   
OA AB BC CO
Vi

Along OA
y  0  dy  0,
x varies from 0 to a
a
     x 2  y 2  dx  2 xy dy
w.

OA 0
a
a
 x3  a3
  x dx    
2

0  3 0 3
ww

Along AB
x  a  dx  o, y varies from 0 to b

16

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
b

    a 2  y 2  .0  2ay dy
AB 0
b
 y2 
 2a    ab 2

.co
 2 0
Along BC
y  b, dy  0
x varies from a to 0
0

  x  b 2  dx  0
2

lus
BC a
0
 x3 
   b2 x 
 3 a
a3
  ab 2
Along CO
x  0, dx  0,
y varies from b to 0
0
3
hip
    0  y 2  0 0  0
art
CO b
  a 3 a3
  F . d r   ab   ab 2  0
2

c
3 3
 2ab 2 .........(2)
For (1) and (2)
   
dy


C
F . d r   F . nds
curl
S
Here Stoke’s theorem is verified.
     
Problem 13 Find  F .nds if F   x  y 2
 i  2 x j  2 yzk where S is the surface in
Vi

the plane 2 x  y  2 z  6 in the first octant.


Solution:
Let   2 x  y  2 z  6 be the given surface
  
w.

Then   2i  j  2k
     
2i  j  2k 2i  j  2k
  
4 1 4 3
 1   
 The unit outward normal n to the surface S is n   2i  j  2k 
ww

3
Let R be the projection of S on the xy plane

17

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

    dx dy

m
  F .n ds   F .n  
S R1 n.k
 1     2

n.k  2i  j  2k .k  

.co
3 3
     1   
F .n   x  y 2  i  2 x j  2 yzk  . 2i  j  2k
3
 
2
3
 x  y 2   x  yz
2
3
4
3

lus
  y 2  2 yz 
2
3
2
 y  y  2z 
3
2
 y  y  6  y  2 x
3
2
 y 6  2 x
3
4
 y 3  x
3
hip
    dx dy
  F .n ds   F .n  
art
S S n.k
4 dxdy
  y 3  x
3 2/3
 2  3  x  dx dy
dy

R1
3 6  2 x
 2
0
  3  x  dx dy
0
62 x
3
 y2 
 2  3  x    dx
Vi

0  2 0
3
 4  3  x  d x
3

0
3
 (3  x)4 
 4 
w.

 4  0
 81 units.
Problem 14 Evaluate   x  y  dx   2 x  3xy 
C
where C is the boundary of the

triangle with vertices  2, 0, 0  ,  0,3, 0  &  0, 0, 6  using Stoke’s theorem.


ww

Solution:

18

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

  

m
 where S is the surface of the triangle and n is
Stoke’s theorem is  F .dr   curl F .nds
C S

the unit vector normal to surface S .


 
Given F .dr   x  y  dx   2 x  z  dy   y  z  dz

.co
   
 F   x  y  i   2x  z  j   y  z  k
   
dr  i dx  jdy  k dz
  
i j k
   

lus
curl F 
x y z
x  y 2x  z y  z
  
 i 1  1  j  0  0   k  2  1
  
curl F  2i  k
Equation of the plane ABC is
x y z
  1
2 3 6
3x  2 y  z  6
hip
Let   3x  2 y  z  6
  
  3i  2 j  k
art
Unit normal vector to the surface ABC  or   is
  
n    3i  2 j  k
 14
  
    3i  2 j  k  6  1
dy


curl F . n  2i  k .    
7
 14  14 14

Hence  curl F . nds  7
S

S 14
ds
Vi

7 dxdy
 
14 R nk 
 where R is the projection of surface ABC on XOY plane

7 dxdy     3i  2 j  k  1 
 R 1  n k    .k  
14   14  14 
w.

14
 7  dxdy
R

 7   Area of  le OAB 
ww

 7  3  21.

19

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

   

m
Problem 15 Verify Stoke’s theorem for F   y  z  i  yz j  xzk where S is the
surface bounded by the planes x  0, x  1, y  0, y  1, z  0 and z  1 above the
XOY plane.

.co
Solution:   

Stoke's theorem is  F .d r   F .nds
 
   
C S

F   y  z  i  yz j  xzk
  

lus
i j k
   
 F 
x y z
y  z yz  xz
  
  yi   z  1 j  k


S



  F .n ds          
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
hip
is not applicable, since the given condition is above the XOY plane.
   
S6

     yi   z  1 j  k  .idydz
 
art
S1 AEGD

 
AEGD
 ydy dz
1
1 1
 y2  1
    y dy dz      dz
0 
2 0
dy

0 0

1 1 1
   z 0  
2 2
   
  
S2 OBFC
  yi   z  1 j  k  . i dydz
   
Vi

1
1 1
 y2  1
1
   y dy dz     dz 
0 
2 0 2
   
0 0

  yi   z  1 j  k  jdxdz
    
w.

S3 EBFG
1 1 1
    z  1 dx dz    xz  x 0 dz
1

0 0 0
1
z  1
2
1
   z   1  
ww

 2 0 2 2
   
     yi   z  1 j  k   j dxdz  
S4 OADC

20

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Unit.2 Vector Calculus

m
1 1
     z  1 dx dz
0 0
1 1
    xz  x 0     z  1 dz
1

.co
0 0
1
 z2  1 1
  z  1 
 2 0 2 2
   

    yi   z  1 j  k .kdxdy 

lus
S5 DGFC
1 1 1
    1dxdy     x 0 dy
1

0 0 0
1
   1 dy    y 0  1
1

          
S S1 S2

1 1 1 1
      1  1
2 2 2 2
S3 S4 S5 hip
L.H .S   F .dr        
art
C OA AE EB BO

    y  z  dx  yzdy  xzdz
OA OA

  0 0  y  0, z  0, dy  0, dz  0
OA

    y  z  dx  yzdy  xzdz
dy

AE AE

  0 0  x  1, z  0, dx  0, dz  0
AE

    y  z  dx  yzdy  xzdz
Vi

EB EB
0
  1 dx  y  1, z  0, 
1

  x 1  0  1  1
0

    y  z  dx  yzdy  xzdz
w.

BO BO

  00  x  0, z  0
BO

0
ww

        
C OA AE EB BO

 0  0  1  0  1

21

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
UNIT III ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS

Part-A

.co
Problem 1 State Cauchy – Riemann equation in Cartesian and Polar coordinates.
Solution:
Cartesian form:
u v u v
 , 
x y y x

lus
Polar form:
u 1 v v 1 u
 , 
 r r   r r 

Problem 2 State the sufficient condition for the function f(z) to be analytic.
Solution:
hip
The sufficient conditions for a function f  z   u  iv to be analytic at all the points in a
region R are
(1) u x  v y , u y  vx
(2) u x , u y , vx , v y are continuous functions of x and y in region R .
art
Problem 3 Show that f  z   e z is an analytic Function.
Solution:
f  z   u  iv  e z
dy

 e x  iy
 e x eiy
 e x  cos y  i sin y 
u  e x cos y, v  e x sin y
Vi

u x  e x cosy, vx  e x siny
u y  e x siny, vy  e x cosy
i.e., u x  v y , u y  vx
Hence C-R equations are satisfied.
w.

 f  z   e z is analytic.

Problem 4 Find whether f ( z )  z is analytic or not.


Solution:
ww

Given f  z   z  x  iy
i.e., u  x , v   y

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
u v
 1, 0
x x
u v
 0,  1

.co
y y
 ux  vy
C-R equations are not satisfied anywhere.
Hence f  z   z is not analytic.

lus
Problem 5 State any two properties of analytic functions
Solution:
(i) Both real and imaginary parts of any analytic function satisfy Laplace equation.
 2u  2u  2v  2v
i.e., 2  2  0 or 2  2  0 .
x y x y

Problem 6
hip
(ii) If w  u  iv is an analytic function, then the curves of the family u  x, y   c, cut
orthogonally the curves of the family v  x, y   c .

Show that f  z   z is differentiable at z  0 but not analytic at z  0 .


2

Solution:
art
2
f ( z )  f (0) z zz
Lim  Lim  Lim  Lim z  0
z 0 z 0 z 0 z z 0 z z 0

 f  z  is differentiable at z  0 .
Let z  x  iy
dy

z  x  iy
z  z z   x  iy  x  iy   x 2  y 2
2

f  z   x2  y 2  i0
u  x2  y2 , v  0
Vi

u x  2 x, v x  0
u y  2 y, v y  0
The C-R equation u x  v y and u y  vx are not satisfied at points other than z = 0.
Therefore f  z  is not analytic at points other than z  0 . But a function can not be
w.

analytic at a single point only. Therefore f  z  is not analytic at z = 0 also.

Problem 7 Determine whether the function 2 xy  i ( x 2  y 2 ) is analytic.


ww

Solution:
Given f  z   2 xy  i  x 2  y 2 
i.e., u  2 xy , v  x2  y2

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
u v
 2 y,  2x
x x
u v
 2 x,  2 y

.co
y y
 u x  v y and u y  vx
C-R equations are not satisfied.
Hence f  z  is not analytic function.

lus
Problem 8 Show that v  sinhx cosy is harmonic
Solution:
v  sinhxcosy
v v
 coshxcosy,   sinhxsiny
x y
 2v
x 2
 sinhxcosy

 2v  2v

x 2 y 2
,
2v
y 2
  sinhycosy

 sinhxcosy  sinhycosy  0
hip
Hence v is a harmonic function.
art
Problem 9 Construct the analytic function f ( z ) for which the real part is e x cosy .
Solution:
u  e x cos y
u
 e x cos y
dy

x
u
Assume  x, y   1  z, 0 
x
1  z,0  e z
Vi

u
 e x siny
y
 u  x, y 
Assume  2  z, 0 
y
w.

2  z,0   0
f  z    f '  z dz   1  z , 0  dz  i  2  z , 0  dz
  e z dz  i  0
ww

f  z   ez  C .

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
Problem 10 Prove that an analytic function whose real part is constant must itself be a
constant.
Solution:
Let f  z   u  iv be an analytic function

.co
 u x  v y , u y  vx .............(1)
Given
u  c  a constant 
ux  0 , u y  0

lus
 vy  0 & vx  0 by 1
We know that f  z   u  iv
f   z   u x  ivx
f   z   0  i0
f  z  0
Integrating with respect to z , f  z   C
hip
Hence an analytic function with constant real part is constant.

Problem 11 Define conformal mapping


art
Solution:
A transformation that preserves angle between every pair of curves through a
point both in magnitude and sense is said to be conformal at that point.

dw w w
Problem 12 If w  f ( z ) is analytic prove that   i where w  u  iv and
dy

dz x y
2w
prove that 0
z z
Solution:
w  u  x, y   iv  x, y  is an analytic function of z .
Vi

As f  z  is analytic we have u x  v y , u y  vx

 f '  z   u x  ivx  v y  iu y  i  u y  iv y 
dw
Now
dz
w.

u v u v 
 i  i  i 
x x  y  y 
 
  u  iv   i  u  iv 
x y
ww

w w
  i
x y

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
w
W.K.T. 0
z
2w
 0

.co
z  z

Problem 13 Define bilinear transformation. What is the condition for this to be


conformal?
Solution:
az  b

lus
The transformation w  , a d  bc  0 where a, b, c, d are complex
cz  d
numbers is called a bilinear transformation.
dw
The condition for the function to be conformal is  0.
dz
2
Problem 14 Find the invariant points or fixed points of the transformation w  2  .
Solution:
The invariant points are given by z  2 
hip 2
z
z

2
i.e., z  2 
z
art
z 2  2z  2
z2  2z  2  0
2  4  4 1 2 
z
2 1
dy

2  4  8 2  2i
 
2 2
 1 i
The invariant points are z  1  i, 1  i
Vi

1
Problem 15 Find the critical points of (i) w  z  (ii) w  z 3 .
z
Solution:
1
w.

(i). Given w  z 
z
dw
For critical point 0
dz
dw 1
 1 2  0
ww

dz z
z   i are the critical points

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
(ii). Given w  z 3
dw
 3z 2  0
dz
z 0

.co
 z  0 is the critical point.

Part-B

lus
Problem 1 Determine the analytic function whose real part is
u  x  3xy  3x 2  3 y 2  1 .
3 2

Solution:
Given u  x3  3xy 2  3x 2  3 y 2  1
u
1  x, y    3x 2  3 y 2  6 x

2  x , y  
x
1  z,0   3z 2  6 z
u
y
 6 xy  6 y
hip
2  z,0   0
art
By Milne Thomason method
f  z    1  z , 0  dz i   2  z , 0  dz
 
  3 z 2  6 z dz  0
3 2
z z
3  6  C  z 3  3z 2  C
dy

3 2

Problem 2 Find the regular function f  z  whose imaginary part is


v  e x  x cos y  y sin y 
Vi

Solution:
v  e x  x cos y  y sin y 
v
2  x , y  
x

 e  x  cos y    x cos y  y sin y  e  x 
w.

2  z , 0   e  z   z    e  z   e  z  ze  z  e  z 1  z 
u
1  x, y    e  x   x sin y  y cos y  sin y 1 
y
1  z,0   e z 0  0  0  0
ww

By Milne’s Thomson Method


f  z    1  z , 0  dz  i  2  z , 0  dz

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
  0 dz  i  1  z  e  z dz
  e z   e z  
 i 1  z      1    C
  1    1  
2

.co
 i   1  z  e  z  e  z   C
 i   e  z  ze  z  e  z   C  i  ze  z   C

sin 2 x
Problem 3 Determine the analytic function whose real part is

lus
.
cosh 2 y  cos 2 x
Solution:
sin 2 x
Given u 
cosh 2 y  cos 2 x
u  cosh 2 y  cos 2 x  2 cos 2 x   sin 2 x  2sin 2 x 
1  x, y   

1  z , 0  
x
hip
 cosh 2 y  cos 2 x 

1  cos 2 z  2 cos 2 z   2 sin 2 2 z


2

1  cos 2 z 
2

1  cos 2 z  2 cos 2 z   2 1  cos 2 2 z 


art

1  cos 2 z 
2


1  cos 2 z  2 cos 2 z   2 1  cos 2 z 1  cos 2 z 
1  cos 2 z 
2

2 cos 2 z  2 1  cos 2 z  2 cos 2 z  2  2 cos 2 z


dy

 
1  cos 2 z 1  cos 2 z
2 1
 
1  cos 2 z  1  cos 2 z 
 
Vi

 2 
1
  2   cos ec 2 z
sin z
 u  cosh 2 y  cos 2 x  0   sin 2 x  2 sinh 2 y 
2  x , y   
y  cosh 2 y  cos 2 x 
2
w.

2 sin 2 x sinh 2 y

 cosh 2 y  cos 2 x 
2

2  z, 0   0
ww

By Milne’s Thomson method


f  z    1  z , 0  dz  i  2  z , 0  dz
   cosec 2 z dz  0  cot z  C

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
Problem 4 Prove that the real and imaginary parts of an analytic function w  u  iv
satisfy Laplace equation in two dimensions viz  2u  0 and  2 v  0 .
Solution:

.co
Let f  z   w  u  iv be analytic
To Prove: u and v satisfy the Laplace equation.
 2u  2u  2v  2v
i.e., To prove: 2  2  0 and 2  2  0
x y x y
Given: f  z  is analytic

lus
 u and v satisfy C-R equations
u v
 ….. (1)
x y
u v
and   ….. (2)
y x

Diff. (1) p.w.r to x we get


 2u  2 v

x 2 xy
 2u
Diff. (2) p.w.r. to y we get 2  
hip
….. (3)

 2v
….. (4)
y yx
art
The second order mixed partial derivatives are equal
 2v  2v
i.e., 
xy yx
 2u  2 u  2 v  2v
(3) + (4)  2  2   0
x y xy yx
idy

 u satisfies Laplace equation


 2u  2 v
Diff. (1) p.w.r to y we get  … (5)
yx y 2
 2u  2v
Diff. (2) p.w.r. to x we get   2 … (6)
xy x
V

v v v
2 2 2
v2
(5) + (6)  2  2   0
x y yx xy
 2 v 2 v
 0
w.

i.e.,
x 2 y 2
 v Satisfies Laplace equation

 2 2 
Problem 5 If f(z) is analytic, prove that 2  2  f (z)  4. f (z)

2 2
ww

 x  y
Solution:
Let f(z) = u + iv be analytic.

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
Then ux = vy and uy = -vx (1)
Also uxx + uyy = 0 and vxx + vyy = 0 (2)
Now |f(z)|2 = u2 + v2 and f(z) = ux + ivx

 | f (z) | 2  2u.u x  2v.v x

.co
x
and
2
x 2

| f (z) | 2  2 u 2x  u.u xx  v 2x  v.v xx  (3)

Similarly
2
y 2

| f (z) | 2  2 u 2y  u.u yy  v 2y  v.v yy  (4)

lus
Adding (3) and (4)
 2 2 

 2  2  | f (z) | 2  2 u 2x  u 2y  u (u xx  u yy )  v 2x  v 2y  v( v xx  v yy ) 
 x y 
 2u 2
x  v 2x  u (0)  v 2x  u 2x  v(0) 
 4u 
2
x

 4. f (z)
 v 2x
2
hip
Problem 6 Prove that  2 Re f  z   2 f   z 
2 2
art
Solution:
Let f  z   u  iv
Re f  z   u 2
2

 2
 u   2uux
idy

x
2 2 
x 2  
u   2uux 
x
 2 uuxx  uxux 
 2 uu xx  u x 2 
V

2 2
2 
u   2 uu yy  u 2y 
y
 2 2 
  2  2   u 2   2 u  u xx  u yy   u x2  u y2 
w.

 x y 
 2 u  0   u x2  u y2 

 2 f  z
2
ww

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
Problem 7 Find the analytic function f  z   u  iv given that
2u  v  e x cos y  sin y 
Solution:

.co
Given 2u  v  e x  cos y  sin y 
f  z   u  iv............... 1
if  z   iu  v...............  2 
1  2  2 f  z   2u  i 2v...........(3)

lus
 3   2  (2  i) f  z    2u  v   i  2v  u  ............(4)
F  z   U  iV
 2u  v  U  e x  cos y  sin y 
U
1  x, y    e x cos y  e x sin y

2  x, y  
x
1  z, o   e z
u
x
 e x sin y  e x cos y
hip
2  z, o   e z
art
By Milne Thomson method
F   z   1  z, o   i2  z, o 

 F   z  dz   e dz  i  e dz
z z

F  z   1  i  e z  C      (5)
dy

From (4) & (5)


1  i  e z  C   2  i  f  z 
1 i z C
f z  e 
2i 2i
1  3i z
Vi

C
f z  e 
5 2i

Problem 8 Find the Bilinear transformation that maps the points 1  i,  i, 2  i of the
z-plane into the points 0, 1, i of the w-plane.
w.

Solution:
Given z1  1  i, w1  0
z2  i, w2  1
z3  2  i, w3  i
ww

Cross-ratio
 w  w1  w2  w3    z  z1  z2  z3 
 w1  w2  w3  w   z1  z2  z3  z 
10

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
 w  0 1  i   z  1  i    i   2  i 

 0  1 i  w  1  i    i    2  i   z 
w 1  i   z  1  i  i  2  i 

.co
 1 i  w  1  i  i  2  i  z 
w 1  i   z  1  i  2 

 w  i  1  2i  2  i  z 
w 1  i   2  z  1  i 

 w  i  1  2i  2  i  z 

lus
w  2   z 1  i 

w  i 1  2i 1  i   2  i  z 
w

 2   z 1 i 
w  i 1  i  2i  2   2  i  z 
w

 2   z  1  i 
w  i 3  i   2  i  z 
w  i  3  i  2  i  z 
w

 2  z  1  i 
hip
i  3  i  2  i  z 
1 
art
w  2  z  1  i 
i 3  i 2  i  z 
 1
w  2   z  1  i 
i 3  i 2  i  z
 1
dy

w 2  z 1 i
i 2  z  1  i    3  i  2  i  z 

w 2  z 1 i 
w 2  z 1 i 
Vi


i 2  z  1  i    3  i  2  i  z 
2i  z  1  i 
w
2  z  1  i    3  i  2  i  z 
2i  z  1  i 
w.

w
2 z  2  2i  6  3i  3z  2i  1  zi
2i  z  1  i 
w .
 z  5  3i  zi
ww

Problem 9 Prove that an analytic function with constant modulus is constant.


Solution:
Let f  z   u  iv be analytic

11

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
By C.R equations satisfied
i.e., u x  v y , u y  vx
 f  z   u  iv

.co
 f  z   u 2  v2  C

 f  z   u 2  v2  C 2
2

u 2  v 2  C 2 ...............(1)
Diff (1) with respect to x
u v

lus
2u  2v  0
x x
uu x  vvx  0.............(2)
Diff (1) with respect to y
u v
2u  2v  0
y y
uvx  vu x  0............(3)
(2)  u  (3)  v   u 2  v 2  u x  0
 ux  0
hip
(2)  v  (3)  u   u 2  v 2  v x  0
art
 vx  0
W.K.T f   z   ux  ivx  0
f  z  0
Integrate w.r.to z
dy

f  z  C

Problem 10 When the function f  z   u  iv is analytic show that u  x, y   C1 and


v  x, y   C2 are Orthogonal.
Vi

Solution:
If f  z   u  iv is an analytic function of z , then it satisfies C-R equations
u x  v y , u y  vx
Given u  x, y   C1.............(1)
w.

v  x, y   C2 .............(2)
By total differentiation
u u
du  dx  dy
x y
ww

v v
dv  dx  dy
x y

12

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
Differentiate equation (1) & (2) we get du  0 , dv  0
u u
 dx  dy  0
x y

.co
v v
dx  dy  0
x y
dy u / x
   m1 ( say )
dx u / y
dy v / x
  m2 ( say )

lus
dx v / y
u / x v / x
 m1 m2    ( u x  v y u y  vx )
u / y v / y
 m1 m2  1
The curves u  x, y   C1 and v  x, y   C2 cut orthogonally.

conjugate.
hip
Problem 11 Show that the function u  log  x 2  y 2  is harmonic and determine its
1
2

Solution:
log  x 2  y 2 
1
art
Given u 
2
u 1 1 x
2 
 . 2 2x  2
x 2 x y x  y2
u 1 1 y
2 
 . 2 2y  2
dy

y 2 x y x  y2
 2u  x  y   x  2 x 
2 2
y 2  x2
 
x 2  x2  y2   x2  y 2 
2 2

 2u  x  y  1  2 y
2 2 2
x2  y 2
Vi

 
x 2  x2  y 2   x2  y2 
2 2

 2 u  2u y 2  x 2  x 2  y 2
   0
x 2 y 2  x2  y 2 
2
w.

Hence u is harmonic function


To find conjugate of u
u x
1  x, y    2
x x  y 2
ww

1
1  z , o  
z

13

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
u y
2  x , y    2
y x  y 2
2  z, o   0

.co
By Milne Thomson Methods
f   z   1  z, o   i2  z, o 
1
 f   z  dz   z dz  0
 log z  c

lus
f  z   log rei
f  z   u  iv  log r  i
u  log r , v  
 2 1  y  
u  log x 2  y 2  r  x  y ,   tan  x  
2 2

 y

hip
 y
v  tan 1    Conjugate of u is tan 1   .
x x
 

1 1
Problem 12 Find the image of the infinite strips  y  under the
4 2
1
transformation w  .
art
z
1 1
Solution: w   z 
z w
1 u  iv
z  2 2
u  iv u  v
dy

u
 x  2 2 ........(1)
u v
v
y   2 2 ........(2)
u v
Vi

1 1 1
Given strip is  y  when y 
4 2 4
1 v
  2 2 (by 2)
4 u v
u  (v  2)2  4..........(3)
2
w.

which is a circle whose centre is at  0, 2  in the w -plane and radius 2.


1
When y 
2
1 v
ww

 2 2 (by 2)
2 u v
u 2  v 2  2v  0
u 2  (v  1)2  1..........(4)

14

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Unit.3 Analytic Functions

m
z
Problem 15 Prove that w  maps the upper half of the z-plane onto the upper half
1 z
of the w-plane.
Solution:

.co
z
w  w(1  z )  z
1 z
w  wz  z
w   w  1 z
w  ( w  1) z

lus
w
z
w 1
Put z  x  iy, w  u  iv
u  iv
x  iy 
u  iv  1


 u  iv  u  1  iv
 u  iv  1 u  1  iv
u  u  1  iuv  iv  u  1  v 2
 u  1
2
 v2
hip
u 2
 v 2  u   iv
art

 u  1
 v2
2

Equating real and imaginary parts


u 2  v2  u v
x , y
 u  1  v  u  1  v 2
2 2 2
dy

v
y 0 0
 u  1  v2
2

v
y 0 0 v0
 u  1  v2
2
Vi

Thus the upper half of the z plane is mapped onto the upper half of the w plane.
w.
ww

17

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
UNIT IV COMPLEX INTEGRATION

Part-A

.co
z
Problem 1 Evaluate   z  1
C
3
dz where C is z  2 using Cauchy’s integral formula

Solution:
z
Given   z  1 dz

lus
3
C

Here f  z   z , a  1 lies inside z  2


zdz 2 i
  f  1
 z  1
3
C
2!
  i  0  f  1  0


C
zdz
 z  1
3
0. hip
Problem 2 State Cauchy’s Integral formula
Solution:
art
If f  z  is analytic inside and on a closed curve C that encloses a simply
1 f z
connected region R and if ' a ' is any point in R , then f  a    dz .
2 i C z  a
dy

1
Problem 3 Evaluate  e z dz where C is z  2  1 .
C

Solution:
1
Vi

e z is analytic inside and on C .


1
Hence by Cauchy’s integral theorem  e z dz  0
C
w.

1
z
e
Problem 4 Classify the singularities of f  z   .
 z  a
2

Solution:
Poles of f  z  are obtained by equating the denominator to zero.
ww

i.e.,  z  a   0 , z  a is a pole of order 2


2

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
The principal part of the Laurent’s expansion of e1/ z about z = 0 contains infinite number
terms. Therefore there is an essential singularity at z = 0.

1  e2 z

.co
Problem 5 Calculate the residue of f  z   at the poles.
z3
Solution:
1  e2 z
Given f  z  
z3
Here z  0 is a pole of order 3

lus
Lt 1 d 2  3 1 e 
2z
  Re s f  z   z  0     3 
z  0 2! dz 2 
z 0
z 
2
1 Lt d
 2 
1  e 2 z 
2! z  0 dz


1 Lt d
2! z  0 dz
1 Lt
2! z  0
 2e2 z 

 4e 2 z
hip
1
  4   2 .
2
art
cos  z
Problem 6 Evaluate 
C
z 1
dz if C is z  2 .

Solution:
f  z
dy

We know that, Cauchy Integral formula is  za dz  2 if  a  if ' a ' lies inside C
C

cos  z
 dz , Here f  z   cos  z
C
z 1
Vi

 z  1 lies inside C
 f 1  cos  1  1.
cos  z
 dz  2 i  1  2 i .
C
z 1
w.

Problem 7 Define Removable singularity


Solution:
Lt
A singular point z  z0 is called a removable singularity of f  z  is f  z  exists
ww

z  z0
finitely

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
sin z Lt
Example: For f  z   , z = 0 is a removable singularity since f z 1
z z 0

.co
1
Problem 8 Test for singularity of and hence find corresponding residues.
z 1
2

Solution:
1 1
Let f  z   
z  1  z  i  z  i 
2

Here z  i is a simple pole

lus
z  i is a simple pole
Lt 1
Res  z  i    z  i
z i  z  i  z  i 
Lt 1 1
 
z  i  z  i  2i

Res  z  i  
Lt
z  i
 z  i
1

1
 z  i  z  i  2i
hip
.

Problem 9 What is the value of  e z dz where C is z  1 .


C
art
Solution:
Put z  ei
dz  iei d
2

 e dz   e ie d ........... 1
i
z e i
dy

C 0

Put t  e  dt  ei d
i

When   0, t  1 ,   2 , ssss t  1
1 1

 (1)   e dz   e dt  e   0
z t t
Vi

C 1 1

3z 2  7 z  1 1
Problem 10 Evaluate C z  1 dz , where z  2 .
w.

Solution:
3z 2  7 z  1
Given  z  1 dz
C

Here f  z   3 z 2  7 z  1
ww

1
z  1 lies outside z 
2

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
3 z 2  72  1
Here  dz  0 .(By Cauchy Theorem)
C
z 1

.co
Problem 11 State Cauchy’s residue theorem
Solution:
If f  z  be analytic at all points inside and on a simple closed curve C , except for
a finite number of isolated singularities z1 , z2 ,..., zn inside C

lus
then  f  z  dz  2 i   sum of the residue of f  z  at z1 , z 2 ,..., zn  .
C

e2 z
Problem 12 Calculate the residue of f  z   at its pole.
 z  1
2

Solution:
Given f  z  
e2 z
 z  1
Here z  1 is a pole of order 2
2
hip
Lt 1 d e2 z
 Resf  z   z 1   
2
z 1
art
z  11! dz  z  1
2

Lt
 2e 2 z  2e 2 .
z  1

cos  z 2
dy

Problem 13 Using Cauchy integral formula evaluate C  z  1 z  2  dz, where


3
z 
2
Solution:
Vi

cos  z 2  cos  z 2 cos  z 2


 z  1 z  2  C z  1
C 
dz  dz   z  2  dz
C 

 1 A B 
   , A  1 B  1
  z  1 z  2   z  1 z  2
w.


Here f  z   cos  z 2

3
z  1 lies inside z 
2
ww

3
z  2 lies outside z 
2
Hence by Cauchy integral formula

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
cos  z 2
 z  1 z  2  dz  2 i f  z 
C 

 2 i  1

.co
 2 i [ f  z   cos  z , f 1  cos   1]

Problem 14 State Laurent’s series


Solution:
If C1 and C2 are two concentric circles with centres at z  a and radii r1 and r2

lus
 r1  r2 
and if f  z  is analytic on C1 and C2 and throughout the annular region R
between them, then at each point z in R ,
 
bn
f  z    an  z  a   
n
,
n 1  z  a 
n
n 0

f  z  dz f  z  dz
where an 

Problem 15
1

2 i C  z  a  n 1

Find the zeros of


hip
, n  0,1, 2,... , bn 

z3 1
.
1

2 i C  z  a  n1
, n  1, 2,3,...

z3  1
Solution:
art
z3 1
The zeros of f  z  are given by f  z   0 , 0
z3  1
1
i.e., z 3  1  0, z  (1) 3
z  1, w, w2 (Cubic roots of unity)
dy

Part-B

dz
  z  1  z  2 
Vi

Problem 1 Using Cauchy integral formula evaluate 2


where C the
C

3
circle z  .
2
Solution:
w.

Here z  1 is a pole lies inside the circle


z  2 is a pole lies out side the circle
1
  z  2 2 dz
dz

C  z  1  z  2   z  1
ww

1
Here f  z  
z2

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
1
f  z  
( z  2)2
Hence by Cauchy integral formula
f z 2 i n

.co
C  z  a n1 dz  n ! f  a 
1

C  z  12  z  2   C [ z z (21)]2 dz
dz

lus
2 i
 f (1)
1!
 1   1 
 2 i  2
 f  z  
  z  2  
  1  2  
2

 1 
 2 i  

2
 i .
9
9
hip
z2
Problem 2 Evaluate  z ( z  1) dz where C is the circle z  3 .
art
C

Solution:
1 f z
W.K.T f  a    dz
2 i C z  a
z2
dy

Given  z ( z  1) dz Here z  0 , z  1 lies inside the circle


C

Also f  z   z  2
1 A B
Now  
Vi

z ( z  1) z z  1
Put z  0  A  1
z 1 B 1
1 1 1
 
z ( z  1) z z 1
w.

z2 z2 z2


C z( z  1) dz  C z dz C z  1 dz
 2 i f  0   2 i f 1
 2 i  f (1)  f (0)
ww

 2 i  1  (2) 
 2 i  2  1  2 i .

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
z 1
Problem 3 Find the Laurent’s Series expansion of the function , valid
 z  2  z  3
in the region 2  z  3 .

.co
Solution:
z 1
Let f  z  
 z  2  z  3
z 1 A B
 
 z  2  z  3 z  2 z  3

lus
z  1  A( z  3)  B ( z  2)
Put z  2
2  1  A( 2  3)  0
A3
Put z  3
3  1  A  0   B  3  2 
4   B
B4
 f z 
3

4
hip
z2 z3
Given region is 2  z  3
art
2  z and z  3
2 z
 1 and 1
z 3
3 4
 f  z  
dy

 2  z
z 1   3 1  
 z  3
1 1
3  2  4 z 
 1    1  
z  z 3 3
Vi

3   2  2    4  z  z 2 
2

 1      ....    1      ...


z  z  z    3  3  3  

7z  2
Problem 4 Expand f  z   valid in 1  z  1  3
w.

z  z  2  z  1
Solution:
7z  2
Given f  z  
z  z  2  z  1
ww

7z  2 A B C
f z    
z  z  2  z  1 z z  2 z  1

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
7 z  2  A  z  2  z  1  Bz  z  1  Cz  z  2 
Put z  2
B2
Put z  0

.co
A 1
Put z  1
C  3
1 2 3
 f  z   
z z  2 z 1

lus
Given region is 1  z  1  3
Let u  z  1  1  u  3
z  u 1  1  u & u  3
1 u
 1 & 1
u

 f  z 


3
1

2

u 1 u  3 u
1
1

3

2
u

3
hip
u (1  ) 3(1  ) u
u 3
art
1 1
1 1 2 u  3
 1    1   
u u 3 3 u
1 1 1  2  u  u 2  3
2

 1      ...  1      ...  
u  u  u   3  3  3   u

dy

1   2   z  1   z  1 2 
2
1  1  3
 1     ...  1      ... 
z  1  z  1  z  1   3   3   3   z  1
2   z  1
n

2 1
 f  z      .
z  1 n  2  z  1 n 3 n 0 3n
Vi

z2 1
Problem 5 Expand f z  as a Taylor series valid in the
 z  2  z  3
w.

region z  2 .
Solution:
z2 1
Given f  z  
 z  2  z  3
ww

Now  z  2  z  3  z 2  5 z  6
z2 1 5 z  7
  1
 z  2  z  3  z  2  z  3
8

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
5 z  7 A B
Now  
 z  2  z  3 z  2 z  3
5 z  7  A  z  3  B  z  2 

.co
Put z  2
A3
Put z  3
B  8
3 8
 f  z  1 
z2 z3

lus
Given z  2
3 8
f  z   1 
 z  z
2 1   3 1  
 2  3
1 1
3 z 
2 2
3 z  z 

2 2 2
8 z 
 1   1    1  
3 3
2
 8  z  z 2
hip 
 1  1      ...   1      ... 
 
 3 3  3


n n
3  n z  8  n z
 1    1      1  
art
2 n0  2  3 n 0 3

n  3 8 
f  z   1    1  n1  n 1  z n .
n 0 2 3 

sin 6 z
dy

Problem 6 Using Cauchy Integral formula Evaluate  


3
dz where C is
z 
C

 6
circle z  1 .
Vi

Solution:
Here f  z   sin 6 z
f   z   6sin 5 cos z
f   z   6   sin 6 z  cos 2 z.5sin 4 z 
w.

 
Here a  , clearly a  lies inside the circle z  1
6 6
By Cauchy integral formula
f  z 2 i
C  z  a 3  2! f   a 
ww

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
sin 6 z 2 i   
  f   
 6
3
 2!
z 
C

 6

.co
     
  i 6   sin 6    5cos 2   sin 4 
 6 6 6
 1 5 3
 6 i     
 64 16 4 
 1 15 
 6 i    

lus
 64 64 
15  1  21 i
 6 i  
 64  16


Problem 7 Expand f  z   sin z into a Taylor’s series about z 

Solution:
Given f  z   sin z
f   z   cos z
hip 4
.

f   z    sin z
art
f   z    cos z

Here a 
4
    1
 f    sin   
dy

4 4 2
    1
f     cos   
4 4 2
    1
f      sin    
Vi

4 4 2
    1
f      cos    
4 4 2
W.K.T Taylor’s series of f  z  at z  a is
w.

 z  a  f  a  ...
2
za
f  z  f a  f a   
1! 2!

2
 
z  z  
  4 f      4  
f z  f      f     ...
ww

4 1! 4 2! 4

10

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m

2
 
1    1 z 4   1 
 z       ...
2  4 2  2   2
 

.co
z sec z
Problem 8 Evaluate  1  z  dz where
C
2
C is the ellipse 4 x 2  9 y 2  9 , using

Cauchy’s residue theorem.


Solution:

lus
Equation of ellipse is
4x2  9 y 2  9
x2 y2
 1
9/4 1
x2 y2
i.e.,
 
3
2
2

1

3
1

 Major axis is , Minor axis is 1.


2
hip
3
The ellipse meets the x axis at  and the y axis at 1
art
2
z sec z
Given f  z  
1 z2
z

1  z 1  z  cos z
dy

The poles are the solutions of 1  z 1  z  cos z  0



i.e., z  1, z  1 are simple poles and z   2n  1
2
Out of these poles z  1 lies inside the ellipse
 
Vi

z   ,  3 lies outside the ellipse


4 4
Lt z
 Re s f  z   z 1   z  1
z 1 1  z 1  z  cos z
Lt z 1
w.

 
z  1 1  z  cos z 2 cos1
Lt z
 Re s f  z   z 1   z  1
z  1   
1  z 1  z cos z
ww

Lt z

z  1 1  z  cos z

11

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
1 1
 
2 cos1 2 cos1
z sec z
 dz  2 i sum of the residues 
1 z2

.co
C

 1 1 
 2 i  
 2 cos1 2 cos1 
 2 i sec1 .

lus
z4
Problem 9 Using Cauchy integral formula evaluate (i) z
C
2
 2z  5
dz , where C is

4  3z 3
the circle z  1  i  2 (ii)  dz , C is the circle z  .
C
z ( z  1)( z  2) 2
Solution:
(i) Given z  1  i  2
hip
z   1  i   2 is a circle whose centre is 1  i and radius 2.
i.e., centre  1,1 and radius 2
z 2  2 z  5   z   1  2i    z  ( 1  2i 
1  2i i.e.,  1, 2  lies inside the C
art
1  2i i.e.,  1, 2  lies out side the C
 2 4  20 
 z  2 z  5  0  z  2  , z  1  2i 
 2 
dy

z4
 dz
 z   1  2i    z   1  2i  
C 

z4
 z   1  2i  

Vi

dz
C
z   1  2i 
z4
Hence f  z  
 z   1  2i  
Here by Cauchy integral formula
w.

f  z
 z  a dz  2 i f  a 
C

z4
z  2 i f  1  2i 
2
 2z  5
ww

 1  2i  4 
 2 i  
  1  2i    1  2i  

12

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
 3  2i  
 2 i   3  2i .
 4i  2

4  3z

.co
(ii)  z ( z  1)( z  2) dz
C

3
z  0, z  1 lie inside the circle z 
2
z  2 lies outside the circle
4  3z A B C

lus
   
z ( z  1)( z  2) z z  1 z  2
4  3 z  A( z  1)( z  2)  B ( z )( z  2)  C ( z )( z  1)
Put z  0
4  4A
A 1
Put z  1
B  1
Put z  2
C  1
4  3z 2 1 1
hip
   
z ( z  1)( z  2) z z  1 z  2
art
4  3z 2 1 1
C z ( z  1)( z  2) dz  C z dz  C z  1 dz  C z  2 dz
f  z 2 i n
  z  a n 1
 f  0
C
n!
dy

 2 [2 i f  0 ]  2 i f 1  0
 4 i f (0)  2 i f 1
 4 i (1)  2 i 1
 2 i  f  0   1 f 1  1
Vi

dz
Problem 10 Using Cauchy’s integral formula evaluate  where C is circle
z  4
2 2
C

z i  2
w.

Solution:
1 1

z  4  z  2i   z  2i 
2 2 2 2
ww

Given z  i  2 , centre  0,1 , radius 2


 z  2 i lies outside the circle
z  2i lies inside the circle

13

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
1
 z  2i 
2
dz
  dz
 z 2  4 c  z  2i 
2 2
C

.co
1
Here f  z  
 z  2i 
2

2
f  z 
 z  2i 
3

lus
2 2
f   2i    
 2i  2i   4i 
3 3

2i i

64 32
Hence by Cauchy Integral Formula
f z


C z 2
 4
2 i n
C  z  a n1 dz  n ! f  a 
f z
2

2 i
1!

f   2i   .
16
hip
art
Problem 11 Find the Laurent’s series which represents the function
z
in (i) z  2 (ii) z  1  1
 z  1 z  2 
Solution:
dy

z
(i). Let f  z  
 z  1 z  2 
z A B
Now  
 z  1 z  2  z 1 z  2
z  A  z  2   B  z  1
Vi

Put z  1
A  1
Put z  2
B 1
w.

1 2
 f  z  
z 1 z  2
2 1
Given z  2, 2  z i.e., 1 1
z z
ww

1 2
 f  z  
z 1 z  2

14

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
1 2
 
 1  2
z 1   z 1  
 z  z

.co
1 1
1  1  2 2
 1    1  
z  z z z
(ii). z  1  1
Let u  z  1
i.e., u  1

lus
1 2
f z  
z 1 z  2
1 2
 
u 1 u
1
 2 1  u 
1


u
1
u
1
 2(1  u  u 2  ...)

 2 1  (1  z )  (1  z ) 2  ...
hip
1 z
2
Problem 12 Prove that  2 d 2
art
 , given a2 < 1.
0 a  2a cos   1 1  a
2

2
d
Solution: Let I  0 a 2
 2a cos   1
Put z = ei
dy

dz 1 1
Then d  and cos  =  z  
iz 2 z
dz
 I iz
a  a z  1z   1
2
where C is |z| = 1.
Vi

1 dz
 
ai C a  a z  z 2  1
1

i dz
 
a C z  a  1a z  1
2
w.

i 1
  f (z)dz where f (z)    2
C  a  z  a  1a z  1
i 1
 
 a  z  a z  1a 
ww

1 1
The singularities of f(z) are simple poles at a and . a2 < 1 implies |a| < 1 and 1
a a

15

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
 The pole that lies inside C is z = a.
i 1
Res[f(z); a]  Lim (z  a ). 
z a  a  z  a z  1a 

.co
i 1
 
 a  a  1a 
i
 2
a 1
i 2
Hence I  2i. 2 
a 1 1 a 2

lus
2
cos 2.d 
Problem 13 Show that 0 5  4 cos   6
2
Solution: Let I 
Put z = ei
Then d 
dz 1
and cos  =  z  
cos 2.d
0 5  4 cos 

1
hip
iz 2 z
2 i 2
e .d
art
I  Re al Part of 
0 5  4 cos 
z 2 . dz iz
 Re al Part of C 5  2z  1z  where C is |z| = 1.
dy

1 z 2 .dz
2i C z 2  52 z  1
 Re al Part of

1 z 2 .dz
 Re al Part of
2i  z  1 z  2
C 2
Vi

1 z2
 Re al Part of  f (z)dz where f (z) 
2i z  12 z  2 
.
C

z = -½ and z = -2 are simple poles of f(z).


z = -½ lies inside C.
w.

z2
Resf(z); - 1 2   Lim (z  1 2 ).
1
2i z  12 z  2 
.
z - 12

1 14 1
. 
3
2i 2 12i
ww

1
 I = Real Part of 2i.
12i

16

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
Lt 1  1

   z  i 2 2 
2

z  i 1! 
  z  1 

.co
Lt 1 d  1 
  z 2  1   z  i  z  i 
z  i 1! dz  ( z  i ) 2 
Lt 2

z  i  z  i 3
2 2 1
  

lus
i  i  2i  3
4i
    z  dz  2 i  Sum of residues of   z  at its poles which lies in C 
C

1 
 2 i    ..........(2)
 4i  2
Let R  , then z   so that   z   0


z   
Lt
  z dz  0.........(3)
hip
Sub (2) and (3) in (1)

   z  dz     x  dx
art
C 

dx 
  
x  1
2

2 2


dy

dx
 2 
x  1
2
0
2 2

dx 
  .
x  1
2
0
2 4
Vi


x sin x
Problem 15 Evaluate x
0
2
 a2
dx

Solution:
w.

 
x sin x x sin x
2 2 dx   2 dx
0
x a 2

x  a2
 
x sin x 1 x sin x
0 x 2  a 2 dx  2  x 2  a 2 dx
ww


1 z sin z
  2 dz
2  z  a 2

18

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Unit. 4 Complex Integration

m
1

I ........(1)
2
Now z sin z is the imaginary part of zeiz

.co
z sin z
   2 dz

z  a2

zeiz
 ..  dz

z2  a2
z eiz zeiz
Let   z   

lus
z 2  a 2  z  ia  z  ia 
The poles are z  ia , z  ia
Now the poles z  ia lies in the upper half – plane
But z  ia lies in the lower half – plane.
Hence

 Res  z   z ia 


Lt
Lt
z  ia
zeiz
z  ia  z  ia 
 z  ia 
hip zeiz
 z  ia  z  ia 

iae a e a
 
art
2ia 2

zeiz
 dz  2 i Sum of the residues at each poles in the upper half plane 

z 2  a2
 ea 
 2 i  
 2 
dy

  ie a

zeiz
I=I.P. of  2 dz

z  a2
= I.P. of  ie  a 
Vi

   e a ...........(2)
Sub (2) in (1)

x sin x 1 1 a
0 x 2  a 2 dx  2 x  2  e
w.
ww

19

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
UNIT V LAPLACE TRANSFORM

Part – A

.co
Problem 1 State the conditions under which Laplace transform of f  t  exists
Solution:
(i) f  t  must be piecewise continuous in the given closed interval  a, b  where a  0 and
(ii) f  t  should be of exponential order.

lus
Problem 2 Find (i) L t 3/ 2  (ii) L e at cos bt 
Solution:
(i) We know that
  n  1
L t n  
s n 1
3  3 3
   1
L t n / 3    3  
2
1
 
2 2
s 5/ 2
hip
   n  1  n  n  
s2
3 1 
   1
art
2 2 

s5 / 2
3 1 1
.  
2 2 2

S 5/ 2
dy

3 
 5/ 2  1/ 2    
4s
ii)
L e  at cos bt    L  cos bt   s s  a
Vi

 s 
 2
 s  b  s  s  a
2

 sa 
 
  s  a   b 
2
w.

Problem 3 Find L sin 8t cos 4t  cos3 4t  5


Solution:
ww

L sin 8t cos 4t  cos3 4t  5  L sin 8t cos 4t   L cos3 4t   L 5


 sin12t  sin 4t   sin( A  B)  sin( A  B) 
L sin 8t  cos 4t   L    sin A cos B  
 2 2

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
1

2
L sin12t   L  sin 4t 
1  12 4 
  2  2 
2  s  144 s  16 

.co
 cos12t  3cos 4t   cos 3  3cos  
L cos3 4t   L    cos3   
 4  4
 L  cos12t   3L  cos 4t 
1
4
1 3s 

lus
s
  2  2
4  s  144 s  16 
1 5
L 5  5L 1  5    .
s s
1  12 4  1 s 3s  5
L sin 8t cos 4t  cos3 4t  5   2  2   2  2  .

Problem 4 Find L  f (t ) where f  t   


hip
2  s  144 s  16  4  s  144 s  16  s

0 ; when 0  t  2
3 ; when t2
.

Solution:

W.K.T L  f  t     e  st f  t  dt
art
0
2 
 e  st
f  t  dt   e  st f  t  dt
0 2
2 
dy

  e  st 0.dt   e  st 3dt
0 2
 
 e st 
 3 e dt  3 
 st

2  s 2
Vi

 e  e 2 s  3e 2 s
 3  s .
 s 

Problem 5 If L  f  t   F  s  show that L  f  at   F   .


1 s
w.

a a
(OR)
State and prove change of scale property.
Solution:

W.K.T L  f  t    e  st f  t  dt
ww

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m

L  f  at    e  st f  at  dt
0

Put at  x when t  0 , x  0

.co
adt  dx when t   , x  
  x
 s 
L  f  at    e
dx
a
f  x
0
a
 s
1  t
  e  a  f  t  dt  x is a dummy variable 
a0

lus
1 s
 F  .
a a

cos at
Problem 6 Does Laplace transform of exist? Justify
t
Solution:
1 hip  f (t ) 
If L  f (t )  F ( s ) and f (t ) has a limit as t  0 then L 

cos at 1
t  t  S

   F  s  ds .

Here tLim
0  
t 0
art
 cos at 
L   does not exist.
 t 


Problem 7 Using Laplace transform evaluate  te 3t sin 2t dt
dy

Solution:

W.K.T L  f  t    e st f  t  dt
0

Vi

  e3t t sin 2t dt  L  t sin 2t   s 3


0

 d   d  2 
   L  sin 2t       2 
 ds  s 3  ds  s  4   s 3
w.

  
  4 s  
 
   s 2  4 2 
    s 3
  
4s   12
   
ww

.
   s 2  4  
2
169
    s 3

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
 t sin u 
Problem 8 Find L   du 
 0
u 
Solution:

.co
t  1
By Transform of integrals, L   f  x  dx   L  f  t 
0  s
 sin u  1  sin t  1
t 
1

1
L  du   L     L sin t  ds   2 ds
0 u  s  t  ss s s s 1
1  

lus
1 
  tan 1 s     tan 1 s 
s s s2 
1
 cot 1 s
s

Problem 9 Find the Laplace transform of the unit step function.


Solution:
The unit step function (Heaviside’s) is defined as
0 ; t  a
U a (t )  
1 ; t  a
, where a  0
hip

W.K.T L  f (t )   e  st f (t ) dt
art
0

L U a (t )   e  st U a  t  dt
0
a 
  e  st  0  dt   e  st 1 dt
dy

0 a

  e  st dt
a

 e st   e   e  as  e  as
Vi

    s
 s  a  s 
e as
Thus L U a  t  
s
w.

1
Problem 10 Find the inverse Laplace transform of
(s  a)n
Solution:
L t n  
n!
ww

s n 1

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
L  t n 1  
 n  1!
sn
 (n  1)!
L  e at t n 1    n  
 n  1!

.co
 s  s s  a ( s  a )
n

  n  1 ! 
e  at t n1  L1  n 
 ( s  a) 
 1 
e  at t n 1   n  1 ! L1  n 
  s  a  

lus
 1  1
 L1  n 
 e at t n 1
  s  a    n  1 !

1
Problem 11 Find the inverse Laplace Transform of

Solution:
1 
t
W.K.T L1  F  s     L1  F ( s )  dt
hip s  s  a2 
2

s  0
  t  1 
art
1
L1     L1  2 dt
 s  s  a   0  s  a 
2 2 2

 a 
t
1
  L1  2 dt
 s  a 
2
0
a
dy

t
1
a 0
 sin at dt

t
1  cos at 
 
a  a  0
Vi

1
  2  cos at  1
a
1
 2 1  cos at  .
a
w.

 s 
Problem 12 Find L1  
  s  2  
2

Solution:
ww

 s  d
L1  2
 L1  sF ( s )  L1  F ( s ) 
  s  2   dt

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
1 n!
Where F ( s )  , L t n   n 1
 s  2
2
s
 1  1
L1  F  s    L1  , L t   2

.co
2 
 ( s  2)  s
1
L1  F  s    e2t L1  2   e2t t
s 
 s  d 2 t
L1  2
 e t   t  2e 2t   e 2t
 ( s  2)  dt

lus
 s  2 t
L1  2
 e 1  2t 
 ( s  2) 

 
 s2 1 .
Problem 13 Find L

Solution:

L 
1 s  2
  s 2  4 s  5 2 


L 
1

s2

hip 

 2 
  s  4s  5  
 
2
  s  2   1
2 2
  
art
 
s
 e 2 t L1   .......(1)
  s 2  1 2 
 
  
s s
dy

1  
L t L  1
ds
  s  1 
2 2
s  s  1
2 2

 
du
 t L1  let u  s 2  1, du  2 sds
2u 2
 1 
Vi

t
 L1  
2  u 

t 1  1 
 L  
2  s 2  12  s
w.

t 1  1 
 L  
2  s2 1 
t
 sin t........(2)
2
Using (2) in (1)
ww

 
s2   e 2t . t sin t  1 te 2t sin t.
L1 
  s 2  4s  5 
2
2 2
 

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
100
Problem 14 Find the inverse Laplace transform of
s  s  100 
2

.co
Solution:
100 A Bs
Consider   2
s  s  100  s s  100
2

100  A  s 2  100    Bs  C  ( s)
Put s  0, 100  A 100 

lus
A 1
s  1, 100  A(101)  B  C
B  C  1
Equating s 2 term
0  A B
 B  1
 B  C  1 i.e., 1  C  1
C0
 100
 L1  2


1
 L1   2
s 
hip
 s ( s  100)   s s  100 
1  s 
art
 L1    L1  2
s  s  100 
 1  cos10t

dx dy
Problem 15 Solve  2 y  cos 2t and  2 x  sin 2t given x (0)  1; y (0)  0
dy

dy dt
Solution:
x  2 y  cos 2t
y  2 x  sin 2t given x (0)  1; y (0)  0
Taking Laplace Transform we get
Vi

s
 sL  x   x (0)   2 L  y   L cos 2t   2
s 4
s
 sL  x   2 L  y   2  1..........(1)
s 4
w.

2
 sL  y   y (0)   2 L  x   L sin 2t   2
s 4
2
2 L  x   sL  y   2 ........(2)
s 4
1  2  s   2  gives,
ww

2
  s2  4 L  y  
s 4
2

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
 2 
 y   L1  2
 s  4 
  sin 2t

.co
dy
2 x  sin 2t 
dt
 sin 2t  2 cos 2t
1
 x  cos 2t  sin 2t
2
Part-B

lus
t
sin t
Problem 1 Find the Laplace transform of e t  dt
0
t
Solution:
 t sin t  1  sin t 
L 
0 t
 sin t 
L
 t  s
dt   L 



 s  t 

  L  sin t  ds

hip

1
 ds
s 1
art
2
s

  tan 1 ( s ) 


  tan 1  s 
2
 co t 1  s 
dy

 t sin t  1
L  dt   co t 1  s 
0 t  s
 t sin t   1 
L e  t  dt    co t 1  s  
Vi

 0 t  s  s  s 1
co t  s  1
1

 .
s 1

Problem 2 Find  te 2t sin 3t dt using Laplace transforms.
w.

3
Solution: L  sin 3t  
s 9 2

d  1  6s
L t sin 3t     2  2
ww

ds  s  9   s  9  2

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m

 e  t sin 3t dt  L t sin 3t   by definition 


 st

6s

.co
s  9
2 2


6s
i.e.,  te  st sin 3t dt 
s  9
2 2
0


12
 te
2 t
Putting s  2 we get sin 3t dt 

lus
0
169

t
sin 5t
Problem 3 Find the Laplace transform of t  te4t cos 3t dt  dt
0
t
Solution:
 t 4 t
 0
d 1


d  4t
ds  0
t
L t  e cos 3t dt    L   e cos 3t dt 


    L  e 4t cos 3t   


hip
ds  s 
d 1 
    L  cos 3t   s s  4 
art
ds  s 
d 1  s  
   2  
ds  s  s  9  s  s  4 
d 1 s4 

dy

ds  s ( s  4) 2  9 


d 1  s  4 
 
ds  s ( s  8s  25) 
2

d  s4 
Vi


ds  s  8s 2  25s 
 3

  s 3  8s 2  25s  1   s  4   3s 3  16 s  25  
  
   
2

 s 3
 8 s 2
 25 s 
w.

 3 
 s  8s 2  25s  3s 3  16s 2  25s  12 s 2  64 s  100 

   
2

 s 3
 8 s 2
 25 s 
 
2 s 3  20 s 2  64s  100 
ww

 
  s 3  8s 2  25s 2 
 

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
 3 
 s  10 s 2  32 s  50 
2
  s 3  8s 2  25s  2 
 

.co

 sin 5t 
L   L  sin 5t  ds
 t  s

5
 ds
s
s  25
2


 1  s 

lus
 5. tan 1   
 5  5  s

  s 
  tan 1   
  5  s
 s
  tan 1  

 t
2
s
 co t 1  
5
5

sin 5t   t 4 t
hip   sin 5t 
 L t  e 4t cos 3t dt    L t  e cos 3t dt   L 
 0 t   0   t 
art
2  s 3  10 s 2  32 s  50  s
  cot 1  
s  8s  25s  5
3 2 2

Problem 4 Find L t 2e 2t cos 2t  .


dy

Solution:
2
2 d
L t e cos 2t    1
 2 2t
 2
L e 2t cos 2 t 
ds
d  s 
2

 2  2
Vi

 
ds  s  4  s  s  2 

d2 s  2 
  
  s  2   4  
2
ds 2
w.

d2  s  2 
 2 2
ds  s  4s  8 

d   s  4s  8  1   s  2  2 s  4  
 2 

ds   s 2  4s  8 
2
ww

 

10

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
 
d  s 2  4s  8  2s 2  4 s  4s  8 

ds   s 2  4s  8  
2

 

.co
 
d  s 2  4s 
 
ds   s 2  4 s  8  2 
 


s 2
 4s  8   2 s  4    s 2  4s  2  s 2  4 s  8   2 s  4 

s  4s  8

lus
2 4


s 2
 4 s  8   2s  4    s 2  4s   2s  4 

s  4s  8
2 3

2s 3  8s 2  16 s  4 s 2  16s  32  4 s3  8s 2  16 s 2  32 s


2 s 3  12s 2  32
s 2
 4s  8
3
.
s hip
2
 4s  8 
3
art
Problem 5 Verify the initial and final value theorems for the function
f  t   1  e t  sin t  cos t 
Solution: Given f  t   1  e t  sin t  cos t 
L  f  t   L 1  e  t sin t  e  t cos t
 L 1  L  e  t sin t   L  e t cos t 
dy

1 1 s 1
  
s  s  1  1  s  12  1
2

1 s2
 
Vi

s  s  12  1
Initial value theorem:
t 0 f  t   s  sF  s 
Lt Lt

LHS tLt0 1  e  t  sin t  cos t    1  1  2


w.

RHS  sLt sF  s 
1 s2 
 Lts s   
 s  s  1  1 
2
ww

 s 2  2s 
 sLt 1  2 
 s  2s  2 

11

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
 2s 2  4 s  2 
 Lts  2 
 s  2s  2 
 2  4 / s  2 / s2 
 s   2

.co
Lt
2 
 1 2 / s  2 / s 
LHS  RHS
Hence initial value theorem is verified.
Final value theorem:
t  f  t   s 0 sF  s 
Lt Lt

lus
LHS tLt f  t 
tLt 1  e  t sin t  e t cos t   1  e 
 0
RHS  sLt0 sF  s 
1 1 s 1 
 Lts0 s    


 s  s  1  1  s  1  1 

 sLt0 1 
2

s 2  2s 
  s  1  1 
2  1
2

hip
LHS  RHS
Hence final value theorem is verified.
art
  s 2  1 
Problem 6 Find L1 log  2   .
  s 
Solution:
dy

1
L1  F  s     L1  F   s   .......(1)
t
 s 1
2
F  s   log  2 
 s 
Vi

log  s 2  1  log  s 2  


d
Fs 
ds
2s 2s
 2  2
s 1 s
 2s 2s 
w.

L1  F   s    L1  2  2
 s 1 s 
 s 1
 2 L1  2  
 s 1 s 
 2  cos t  1
ww

  s 2  1  1
L1 log  2     2  cos t  1
  s  t

12

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
2 1  cos t 
 .
t
s3
Problem 7 Find the inverse Laplace transform of
 s  1  s 2  2s  3

.co
s 3 A Bs  C
Solution:   2 ....(1)
 s  1  s  2s  3 s  1 s  2s  3
2

s  3  A  s 2  2 s  3    Bs  c  s  1
Put s  1

lus
2=2A
A=1
Equating the coefficients of s 2
0 = A+B  B = -1
Put s = 0

1 
3 = 3A+C
C=0
s3
 s  1  s  2s  3
2

1
 2
s
hip
s  1 s  2s  3
1 s
 
s  1  s  12  2
art
1 s 1 1
  
s  1  s  1  2  s  1 2  2
2

 s 3   s  1  1  
1  1  1
L1    L  L1
   L  
  s  1  s  2 s  3 
 s  1 
  s  1  2    s  1  2 
2 2
dy

 s  t 1  1 
 e  t  e t L1  2 e L  2
 s  2   s  2 
2

 e  t  e  t cos 2t  e  t sin 2t
Vi

 e  t 1  cos 2t  sin 2t  .

 s 1 
Problem 8 Find L1  s log  
  2
 s 1  
w.

Solution:
  s 1  
L1  s log    2  f t 
  s 1 
 s 1 
 L  f  t    s log  2
ww

 s 1 
 s log  s  1  s log  s  1  2

13

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
L t f  t   
d
 s log  s  1  s log  s  1  2 
ds 
 s s 
   log  s  1   log  s  1 
 s 1 s 1

.co

  s  1  s  s  1  s  s  1 
  log   
  s 1  s2 1 
 s 1   s  s  s  s 
2 2
 log   
 s 1   s2 1 

lus
 s 1 2s
 log   2
 s 1  s 1
  s  1  1  s 
tf  t   L1  log    2L  2 
  s 1   s  1
  s  1 
 L1 log 

  s  1 
To find L1 log 
  s 1 

hip
   2 cosh t....(1)
  s  1 

  s  1 
Let f  t   L1 log  
  s 1 
art
 s 1
L  f  t    log  
 s 1 
L t f  t    log  s  1  log  s  1 
d
ds
dy

1 1 2
   2
s 1 s  1 s 1
 1 
 t f  t   2 L1  2   2sinh t
 s  1
Vi

2sinh t
f t   .....(2)
t
Using (2) in (1)
2sinh t
tf  t    2 cosh t
t
w.

2sinh t 2 cosh t
f t   
t2 t
 sinh t  t cosh t 
 2  .

2
t
ww

14

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
 
 s  1
Problem 9 Using convolution theorem find L
  s 2  a2 2 
 

.co
Solution:
L1  F  s  G  s    L1  F  s   * L1 G  s  
 
L1 
s   L1  s  * L1  1 
  s2  a2  
2  s 2  a 2   s 2  a 2 
 

lus
 s  1 1  a 
 L1  2 * L  2
 s  a  a  s  a 
2 2

1
 cos at* sin at
a
1
  cos at*sin at 
a
1
t
  cos a u sin a  t  u  du
a0
1
t
hip
sin  at  au  cos a u du
a 0

art
1 sin  at  au  au   sin  at  au  au 
t

a 0
 du
2
t
1
sin at  sin a  t  2u   du
2a 0 

dy

cos a  t  2u  
t
1 
  sin at  u  
2a  2 a 0
1  cos at cos at 
  t sin at  
2a  2a 2a 
Vi

t sin at
 .
2a

1
Problem 10 Find the Laplace inverse of using convolution theorem.
 s  1  s 2  9 
w.

Solution:
L1  F  s  .G  s    L1  F  s   * L1 G  s  
   1 1 
ww

1
L1    L1
 . 
  s  1  s  9     s  1  s  9  
2 2

15

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
 1  1  1 
 L1  *L  2 
  s  1    s  9  
1

.co
 et * sin 3t
3
t
1
  e u sin 3  t  u   du
30
t
1 u
e sin  3t  3u  du
3 0

lus
t
1 u
e  sin 3t cos 3u  cos 3t sin 3u  du
3 0

t t
1 1
 sin 3t  e u cos 3u du  cos 3t  e  u sin 3u du
3 3


0

sin 3t  e  u

3  10

sin 3t  e  u

 cos 3u  3sin
0

3u  hip

0

1

t
 cos 3t  e u
3  10

  cos 3t  3sin 3t    1 

  sin 3u  3cos 3u  
t

0

3  10 10 
sin 3t  e u 
art
1
    sin 3t  3cos 3t    3 
3  10 10 

 s2 
Problem 11 Find L1   using convolution theorem
  s  a  s  b  
dy

2 2 2 2

Solution:
L1  F  s  .G  s    L1  F  s   * L1 G  s  
 s s   s  1  s 
L1  2 . 2 2
 L1  2 *L  2
 s  a   s  b 
Vi

s  a s b 
2 2 2

1  sin  a  b  u  bt  sin  a  b  u  bt  


t

    
2  ab a b  0

1  sin  at  bt  bt  sin  at  bt  bt  sin bt sin bt 


w.

     
2 a b ab a b a b 
1  sin at sin at sin bt sin bt 
   
2  a  b a  b a  b a  b 
ww

1  2a sin at 2b sin bt 
  2  2 2 
2  a  b2 a b 

16

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
1  2a sin at  2b sin bt 

2  a2  b2 
a sin at  b sin bt
 .

.co
a2  b2

Problem 12 Using convolution theorem find the inverse Laplace transform of


1
.
s  a2 
2 2

lus
Solution:
L1  F  s  .G  s    L1  F  s   * L1 G  s  
 
L 
1 1   L1  1  * L1  1 
  s2  a2  
2  s 2  a 2   s 2  a 2 
 

sin at sin at

1
a
t
*
a
 2  sin au sin a  t  u  du
a 0
hip
t
1
cos  2au  at   cos at  du  2sin A sin B  cos  A  B   cos  A  B  
2a 2 0 

art
1  sin  2au  at 
t

 2   cos at  u 
2a  2a 0
1  sin at   sin at  
dy

 2  t cos at   
2a  2a  2a  
1  2sin at 
 2 
 t cos at 
2a  2a 
1
 3 sin at  at cos at 
Vi

2a

Problem 13 Solve the equation y  9 y  cos 2t; y  0   1and y  / 2   1


Solution:
w.

Given y   9 y  cos 2t
L  y   t   9 y  t    L  cos 2t 
L  y   t    9 L  y  t    L  cos 2t 
s
ww

 s 2 L  y  t    sy  0   y   0    9 L  y  t    2
s 4

17

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
As y  0  is not given, it will be assumed as a constant, which will be evaluated at the
end.  y  0   A.
s
L  y  t    s 2  9   s  A 

.co
s 42

s
L  y  t    s 2  9   s A
s 4 2

s s A
L  y  t    2  2  2 .
 s  4 s  9 s  9 s  9
2

lus
s As  B Cs  D
Consider   2
s 2
 4  s  9 
2
s2  4 s 9
s   As  B   s 2  9    Cs  B   s 2  4 
 As 3  9 As  Bs 2  9 B  Cs 3  4  s  1 s 2  4
Equating coefficient of s 3
Equating coefficient of s
Equating coefficient of s
2

Equating coefficient of constant


Solving (1) & (3)
A + C = 0 …….(1)
B + D = 0 …….(2)
9A+ 4C = 1 …….(3)
9B +4D = 0 …….(4)
hip
4 A  4C  0
art
9 A  4C  1
5 A  1
1
A
5
1
C  0
dy

5
1
C
5
Solving (2) & (4)
9B  9D  0
Vi

9 B  AD  0
D0
B  0& D  0 .
s 1 s s
 2  
 s  4  s  9 5 s  4 5  s  9
w.

2 2 2

1 s s  s A
 L  y  t     2  2  2  2
5 s  4 s  9 s  9 s  4
1 1 A
 y  t   cos 2t  cos 3t  cos 3t  sin 3t
ww

5 5 3
1 4 A
 cos 2t  cos 3t  sin 3t
5 5 3

18

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
 
Given y    1
2
1 A
1   

.co
5 5
12
A
5
1 4 4
 y  t   cos 2t  cos 3t  sin 3t
5 5 5

lus
d 2 y 3dy
Problem 14 Using Laplace transform solve   2 y  4 given that
dx 2 dx
y  0   2, y  0   3
Solution:
L  y   t    3L  y  t    2 L  y  t    L  4 

s 2
 3s  2  L  y  t    2 s  3  6 
hip
s 2 L  y  t    sy  0   y  0   3sL  y  t    3 y  0   2 L  y  t   
4
4
5

s
s 2
 3s  2  L  y  t   
4
 2s  3
art
s
2 s 2  3s  4
L  f  t   
s  s 2  3s  2 
2 s 2  3s  4
L  f  t   
dy

s  s  1 s  2 
2 s 2  3s  4 A B C
  
s  s  1 s  2  s s  1 s  2
2s 2  3s  4  A  s  1 s  2   Bs  s  2   Cs  s  1
Vi

Put s = 0 4 = 2A => A = 2
s=1 3   B  B  3
s2 6  2c  C  3
2 3 3
 L  y  t     
w.

s s 1 s  2
y  t   2  3e  3e 2t
t

dx dy
Problem 15 Solve  y  sin t; x  cos t with x  2 and y  0 when t  0
ww

dy dt
Solution:
Given x  t   y  t   sin t

19

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Unit. 5 Laplace Transform

m
x  t   y  t   cos t
L  x  t    L  y  t    L  sin t 
1
sL  x  t    x  0   L  y  t   

.co
s 1
2

1
sL  x  t    L  y  t     2.........(1)
s 1
2

L  x  t    L  y  t    L  cos 2t 
1
L  x  t    sL  y  t     y  0  

lus
....(2)
s 1
2

Solving (1) & (2)


1  s2
1  s  L  y  t   2  s 2  1
2

1  s 2  L  y  t   2s s22 11  s


2 2

L  y  t    2

s2  3
2s 2  3
 s  11  s 2 
As  B Cs  D
hip
 2 
 s  11  s  s  1 1  s 2
2 2
art
s 2  3   As  B  1  s 2    Cs  D   s 2  1
Equating s 3 on both sides
0  A C put s  0
Ac 3 BD
dy

A0 C 0
Equating s 2 on both sides
1  B  D D2
B 1
Equation son both sides 0 = A + B
Vi

 1   1 
 y  t   L1  2   2 L1  2 
 s  1  s  1
 sin t  2sinh t
To find x  t  we have x  t   y  t   cos t , x  t   cos t  y   t  , y  t   sin t  2sinh t
w.

dy
 cos t  2 cosh t
dt
x  t   cos t  cos t  2 cosh t
 2 cosh t
ww

Hence x  t   2 cosh t
y  t   sin t  2sinh t

20

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