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Introduction to Language

This Handout is interactive

To help you start to make notes fill in the blanks

You may of course add your own notes and jottings in the margins

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Introduction to Language

Types of

Theoretical ---------------


Foreign language Speech therapy,
Grammar Meaning

the rules that words Lexicography and Discourse Analysis,

combine into Phonology
phrases and sentences

Linguistics and Phonology Speech Pathology.
Historical The study of ----------------------

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Introduction to Language

Divisions, Specialties, and Subfields

• Phonetics, the study of the sounds of human language .

• Phonology (or phonemics), the study of
• Morphology, the study of the internal structure of words
• Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical
• Semantics, the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics)
and fixed word combinations (phraseology), and how these
combine to form the meanings of sentences.
• -----------------, the study of how utterances are used (literally,
figuratively, or otherwise) in communicative acts.
• Discourse analysis, the study of sentences organized into texts.

• Language acquisition, the study of how language is acquired

• L1 Child Acquisition and L2 -----------------------------
• Historical linguistics or Diachronic linguistics, the study of
languages whose historical relations are recognizable through
similarities in vocabulary, word formation, and syntax
• Diachronic linguistics is also known as ----------------------
• Psycholinguistics, the study of the cognitive processes and
representations underlying language use
• -----------------------, the study of social patterns of linguistic
• Clinical linguistics, the application of linguistic theory to the
area of Speech-Language Pathology

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Introduction to Language
• Neuro –linguistics the study of the brain networks that
underlies grammar and communication

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Introduction to Language


Psycholinguistics And



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Introduction to Language
Period Theorist Notes
Ancient Tolkappiyanaar


19th C. Jakob Grimm

Grimms Law

Karl Verner

Verner’s Law

August Schleicher

Stammbaumtheorie is

Johannes Schmidt

Wellentheorie is

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Introduction to Language

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Introduction to Language

Period Theorist Notes

20th C. Ferdinand de

Edward Sapir

Zellig Harris

Leonard Bloomfield

Contemporary Noam Chomsky

Michael Hoey

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Sapir–Whorf hypothesis A theory of the relationship between language and thought

expounded in its most explicit form by the American anthropological linguists
Edward Sapir (1884–1939) and Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897– 1941). Also known
as the theory of linguistic relativity, the hypothesis states (in the words of Whorf)
that ‘we dissect nature along lines laid down by our native languages . . . by the
linguistic systems in our minds.’ The differences in world-view imposed by
different languages have, however, proved extremely difficult to elucidate or test
experimentally, and the fact of successful bilingual translation weakens the force
of the theory’s claims; as a result, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis has made little
impact on contemporary psycholinguistics, though the 1990s saw a renewed
interest from cognitive psycholinguists and others.

Crystal, D. (2008) A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics 6th Edition. p. 422

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Introduction to Language

Homework, you do not need any dictionaries or books, just

try to work it out.

Adapted by Tom Payne from Healey, Phyllis M. 1960. An Agta grammar. Manila: Bureau of printing.

The following list of words is from the Agta language of the Central Cagayan Valley
in the Northern island of Luzon, in the Philippines. There are now only about 600
speakers of this variety of Agta, although there are perhaps 10,000 people in the
Philippines who speak other varieties also known as Agta. The Agta people now
speak an Austronesian language similar to other languages spoken in the Philippines.
However, they are descended from the Melanesian people who were present in the
Philippines before the Austronesian peoples arrived. The Agta language is now
seriously endangered.

wer ‘creek’
balabahuy ‘little pig’
talobag beetle’
bakbakat ‘granny’
palapirak little money
bahuy 'pig'
bag 'loincloth'
walawer 'little creek'
balabag 'little loincloth'
takki ‘leg’
labang 'patch'

Now you have enough information to translate the following words into Central
Cagayan Agta:

'little leg.'
beetle' (this is the word for 'lady bug.')
'little patch'
'little granny'

What is the rule for making diminutives in Agta?

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Introduction to Language

Rebus Puzzles

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Introduction to Language

1. A cut above the rest

2. Forgive and forget

3. Tongue in cheek

4. Crossroads

5. Painless operation

6. Glance backwards

7. Rising price of rice

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