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Application of Predictive Maintenance Models in

Equipment Monitoring System to Predict Computer


Hardware Component Failure
Homer S. Santos
MIT, Polytechnic University of the Philippines
+63 917 594 4862
santos_homer@outlook.com

ABSTRACT without incurring costs associated with doing too much


The paper is about the integration of predictive analytics in preventative maintenance [18].
computer components monitoring system. The proposed Predictive maintenance targets to avoid or reduce possible
technology aims to prevent occurrence of computer failure by failure and malfunction of equipment from occurring in daily
performing computer-based periodic maintenance and also to operations [23]. Predictive maintenance gives a solution in real
predict in real time when a specific component of a computer time to predict asset failure or quality issues so that it can avoid
failure might occur. This solution will minimize the cost spend in costly downtime and reduce maintenance costs. Driven by
buying spare compoents, maximize the component uptime that will predictive analytics, these solutions detect even minor anomalies
resulting to increase of effectiveness of computers and reduce and failure patterns to determine the assets and operational
maintenance cost that will be a great help in terms of financial for processes that are at the greatest risk of problems or failure. This
a certain establishment or company. Also, the proposed system early identification of potential concerns helps you deploy limited
manages the usage and maintenance of computers components and resources more cost effectively, maximize equipment uptime and
inventory of computer laboratory resources such as computer units, enhance quality and supply chain processes, ultimately improving
equipments and peripherals with the utilization of RFID (Radio customer satisfaction [19].
Frequency Identification). Predictive maintenance focuses on predicting when the device
failure will occur and preventing that occurrence of failure with the
help of maintenance monitoring so that maintenance can be planned
Keywords before the issue manifests. One of the distinct features of predictive
Computer components, Maintenance, Monitoring System, maintenance is that the maintenance frequency is a bare minimum,
Predictive Analytics. and it helps in preventing unplanned reactive maintenance and the
expenses associated with preventive maintenance. The failure
1. INTRODUCTION prediction in cases of predictive maintenance can be done with the
In today’s modern world, most of the establishments or help of one of many techniques such as oil analysis, vibration
companies made use of technology integrated in a computer-based analysis, thermal imaging and equipment observation. Based on the
system that will help them perform their work faster, more accurate expert opinion and device in use, the proper technique is selected.
and easier. As the world advances, technological development However, there are drawbacks associated with predictive
arises in the field of Information Technology. One of which is the maintenance. The expertise and skill level required for the data
computer-based technologies which aid human for daily needs. analysis in predictive maintenance needs to be highly specialized
Some applications tend to entertain, some reduces human effort, [17].
some reduces complexity and aid for decision making and some When predictive maintenance is working effectively as a
tend to automate manual system [11]. Computer-based monitoring maintenance strategy, maintenance is only performed on machines
systems are becoming trends, creating easier method to identify when it is required. That is, just before failure is likely to occur.
item, tracking, monitoring and add on security values [15]. This brings several cost savings: a) minimizing the time the
However, existing computer-based monitoring system nowadays equipment is being maintained, b) minimizing the production hours
specifically for monitoring of computer components isn’t enough lost to maintenance, and c) minimizing the cost of spare parts and
to maintain the longevity of the computer components. supplies [17].

1.1 Predictive Maintenance 1.2 RFID Technology


Predictive maintenance is a maintenance strategy driven by Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that
predictive analytics. The solutions are used for detecting failure transmits data using radio waves from an RFID tag attached to an
patterns or anomalies, but are only deployed when there is high object by the reader for tracking and identifying objects [12].
probability of imminent failure. This helps in deploying limited Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a wireless non-contact
resources, maximizing device or equipment uptime, enhancing use of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for
quality and supply chain processes, and thus improving the overall the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached
satisfaction for all the stakeholders involved [16]. to objects. Some tags require no battery and are powered and read
Aim of predictive maintenance is first to predict when at short ranges via magnetic fields (electromagnetic induction).
equipment failure might occur, and secondly, to prevent occurrence Others use a local power source and emit radio waves
of the failure by performing maintenance. Monitoring for future (electromagnetic radiation at radio frequencies). The tag contains
failure allows maintenance to be planned before the failure occurs. electronically stored information which may be read from up to
Ideally, predictive maintenance allows the maintenance frequency several meters away. Unlike a bar code, the tag does not need to be
to be as low as possible to prevent unplanned reactive maintenance, within line of sight of the reader and may be embedded in the
tracked object [11]. RFID system contains two main components; 2.1 Regression Analysis
the reader and the tags. The tag is normally attached to the objects In statistics, Regression Analysis is a mathematical method of
to be monitored and carries information in a microchip. The reader modeling the relationships among three or more variables. It is used
on the other hand detects tags that are within it frequency range and to predict the value of one variable given the values of the others.
writes to or read from the tags [7][12]. A study stated that RFID A regression analysis yields an equation that expresses the
technology was one of the most commonly used technologies for relationship [21].
identification nowadays [5]. It is an automatic technology which Regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for
helps the machines or computers to identify, record, or control the estimating the relationships among variables. It includes many
individual target through radio waves. Generally, RFID reader techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the
electronics uses outside power resource to generate a signal to drive focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one
the reader’s antenna and turn into radio wave. The radio wave will or more independent variables (or 'predictors')
be accepted by the RFID tag and reflects the energy in the way
signaling its identification and other related information. In order
to access the reflection from the RFID tag, the RFID reader works 2.2 Classification Model
as a receiver on sensing and decoding the signal from the RFID tag. In machine learning and statistics, classification is the problem
In simple RFID system, RFID tag is passive and powered by the of identifying to which of a set of categories (sub-populations) a
energy of the reader’s signals. In some systems, the RFID reader new observation belongs, on the basis of a training set of data
radio frequency instructs the memory to be read or write from the containing observations (or instances) whose category membership
associated RFID tag [5]. In relation to this study, the reason why is known. An example would be assigning a given email into
the researcher has inspired and has chosen RFID to be integrated "spam" or "non-spam" classes or assigning a diagnosis to a given
and be the medium of identification in the proposed system is patient as described by observed characteristics of the patient
because of its ability of detection in spite of its high market value (gender, blood pressure, presence or absence of certain symptoms,
that can bring convenience to users by just going under the range etc.). Classification is an example of pattern recognition.
of frequency cast by the RFID reader. RFID is used in many In the terminology of machine learning, classification is
researches, developments, and applications that attempt to take considered an instance of supervised learning, i.e. learning where a
maximum advantage of such technology [3][4]. RFID systems have training set of correctly identified observations is available. The
been widely used in many different application areas, such as: corresponding unsupervised procedure is known as clustering and
product tracking through manufacturing and assembly, control of involves grouping data into categories based on some measure of
inventory, parking lot access and control, container tracking, ID inherent similarity or distance.
badges and access control, equipment tracking in hospitals, etc An algorithm that implements classification, especially in a
[6][14]. concrete implementation, is known as a classifier. The term
"classifier" sometimes also refers to the mathematical function,
In computer-based monitoring system, RFID technology is implemented by a classification algorithm, that maps input data to
preferred, because it has many promising features including: a) no a category.
line of sight is required, b) Long read range and high reading speed
is achievable, c) Multiple tag read/write is possible [2][13], d) The success of predictive maintenance models depends on these
Tracking of people, items, and equipment in real-time can be done, two main models: Regression models to predict remaining useful
e) An RFID tag can be encapsulated or be implanted within a lifetime (RUL) and Classification models to predict failure within
product so it can stand in a harsh environment, f) The tag is a given time window.
programmable, therefore can be used as a portable database, g) No
extra power supply is needed (for passive RFID tags), the power is 2.3 R Statistical Language
supplied by the reader [2]. Taking the advantages into account, Captured data is continuously scored using predictive analytics
RFID is used in wide range of applications including: human software. Predictive analytic models mine the data and correlate
identification and tracking, access management, tracking of goods past failures using multivariate analysis. The models can mine all
and animals, and toll collection [2][9][10]. The enhancement in the variables and conditions that contributed to past failures in order
RFID technology has brought advantages that are related to to predict future failures. Incoming data are then run through the
resource optimization, increased efficiency within business model and asset health scores are generated on a real time basis
processes, and overall improvements in business operations [1]. [22].

In this study, to maintain a more effective computer-based R is a language and environment for statistical computing and
monitoring system, RFID technology is integrated to provide graphics. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and
automatic user identification and authorization, and monitors the environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly
in-out of computer laboratory resources such as computer units, AT&T, now Lucent Technologies). Predictive Analytics is tightly
equipments, and peripherals. integrated with the algorithms and statistical libraries available in
R. R provides a wide variety of statistical (linear and nonlinear
2. ALGORITHMS/MODELS modelling, classical statistical tests, time-series analysis,
Predictive analytics isn't a black-and-white concept or a discrete classification, clustering) and graphical techniques, and is highly
feature of modern database managers. It's a bunch of data analysis extensible [23].
technologies and statistical techniques rolled up under one banner.
The core technique is regression analysis, which predicts the related Using R for predictive analytics is a low-cost and flexible
values of multiple, correlated variables based on proving or solution, but does require a basic knowledge of statistics and
disproving a particular assumption. Predictive analytics is about mathematics. R is a very powerful language for a number of
recognizing patterns in data to project probability [16]. reasons. However, the main feature is vector processing — the
ability to perform operations on entire arrays of numbers without
explicitly writing iteration loops. Another important feature is that will resulting to increase of effectiveness of computers and reduce
statisticians, engineers and scientists can improve the software’s maintenance cost that will be a great help in terms of financial for
code or write variations for specific tasks. Packages written for R a certain establishment or company.
add advanced algorithms, colored and textured graphs and mining
techniques to dig deeper into databases [22]. 5. REFERENCES
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