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are

women
u man
? And Other
International Dialogues

CATHARINE A. MAcKINNON
are women human?

019 t1zed oy the Internet Archive


1n 2010

tittp wvvw archive org/detai s areworl"IC humanothOOmdck


CAT HARINE A. MacKINNON

are women human? eop.,,rl1h1 e 2t• 1l" C&eh11nnr: A i\1'icKu11,c1G


AD rl~h1s ft- ""'-ni
for
Pnnced in dtt Uniced S1at<1 of Ame:ttc. Asja Armanda
and other international dialogues and
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ri.l-.KU'ln(ln.1..;A1h,1rtt1C A
Jessica Neuwirth
lur: .,,icncn h,unart? 11nJ l1thrr intrm.auoruJ dulo,uo C..nh1nr.lt' A, ~(.¡~ Kinnon

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Ftv J.-l<(.j) 1.nduJes md~:x.
ISBN G-<>74-<!2 1~7-8 t.U.. !>IP"'I
1 ~-1cwnen'1 nah•" 2. WcilllC'n- t.qi.al w.a1u.., 111.,.,. etc
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1• 1 <H'l<o-J <lJ ,?llO'<j,j.747

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Cambridge, M:tsSachusctti>, ánJ London, England • • • 2006


vhi P11t11c•

.ih»ays ro Roben Dahl. who never stops inspiring: ro the late Andre.1
Dworkin. who ínsisted fr9m 1he be¡unnmg rhat we ground our work
Preface uga.ansi pomogrophy in m1emauonal law: 10 Christioe Chinkin for the
leammg of JQint 1enchmg; to thc Fcderation oí Womcn Tc•chcrs A»00·
uuons ol Onrnno !F\XIAOJ for i" vis1on of womcn'• geruus .ind moJcl
of W(lmenºs <0l1J:1ri1y; to ;U( thc women of Equul1ty Now, .,,pecially Jess1cn
Ncuwir1h. fnr nur yc:i.-. of work togct hcr: and to Notalie Ncnot.lic 11nd A5j.1
;\rmnnda ond 10 my clienrs anJ cnlleagueo from Bosnia-Hern:govina ond
Crofüfa. who ¡1ave me 1he wodd
C111hílnne A. MocK.innon
In the mid l 980s, os thc nc-w Choncr of Ri¡¡h1s and Frcedoms camc inro Srnnford, California
fprce. 1 bcgan workin¡¡ fqr legal cquolity in Canado, largcly wiih ihc
Womcn's Legnl Educa1ion nnd Ac1ion Fund !LEAF). The rcsuhs divcr~ed
strikingly from 1hosc in Úle United Srntcs, srimul•ting comp:trn1ive
thouglns. [n late 1991, rigbt afrer Vukovar fell, Bosnian ood Croa1ian
women's request to work with diem took my work m1eroauooal. as Jt has
remruned. The presem volume-onginally part of \'7omm's Ltt:es, Men's
Laws !Harvard. 200,l, now us tronsnatloiul companion-collccts selecied
comp.rarive Jnd imcmnnonal wriungs •nt.I speeches f rom this pcriod.
The picces, orranged in uppro•lm.ic chronological on.lcr \'"!hin themcs,
:ippcar hcre esscn1fall> ns 1hcy wcre whcn origin<illy spokcn or writtcn. Thc
ideas develop over cime, porricuforly in the Bosnian case. Mos1 oí these
wrirings were lmt giveo as speeches. self-com'1ined aod free.standing. with
theconsequence that certam locurions or source texts rec1.1r, if 10 somewbat
chfferent fonn. throu¡!hom the collecuon. Foomoies alerr che reader 10
s1tuauons that are now dromaticaUy chffcrent from the way 1hey are rep·
reknted in the toxt. Thi> hoppens falrly rcgularly, a. these diak>gucs werc
often p.1rt oí uuking chun.ge. in ihe worlJ with which th•1· •re cngaged
Since 1990, tbe Universi1y of Michi11un Law School. 1101.1bly íts unsur·
pmcd Law 1.ibrory, has ~iven me 1he suppon and ireedom 10 1>ursue my
own path As one pince to foUow it, rhe Ccmer for Advanced S1udy m the
Bebavior:al Sdences lCASBSJ m Stanford, Cal1fomia, has been 1dyllic. These
instlrutlons pul thru resources wbcre their pnnc1ples are. Kélll Harvcy and
Nancy Ruth have been there througbout. Chllrlonc Croson, .Jobn Stolten-
berg, Lori Wats0n. Aru:ia Baldwm, Emma Cheusc, aod Shiri Regtv, "'itb n
last minute as.'i~• from Shunnon MncKinnon, sltoulJered with <kili unJ
humor, c'llcn heroism, the 1echnicul rnsks th111 mak" • pile of munuscript>,
tr.anscripts, and offprin1s 1010 u book. 1 om grateful ta 1hcm oll.
Speciol rhanks ~ to Peter Nelson Rowe, my fusr intemarional temcher:
' Concents

part three • through the bosnian leos


Contents 14 Crimcs t1f Wor Crimc• of Peace (1993) 141
15 TurninN Rape u110 Porno~raphy: Postmodcm
Gcnocidc !19'13) 160
16 R..pc"" N•ú<>nbuih.lin~ 1199-1) 169
11 rrcim Auschwitz 10 Ornarslw, Nurernbcrit 10 The
1fo11uc (1994) r 4
18 Riirc Genocide, and \Xlomcn's Human Righ1s 1199-1) ISO

lmroduc1ion: Women" Stauu., Mcn's Swcs 1


19 Gcn,ler Bll5<:J Cnmeo in Humanitarion Law (199il
20 Wur Crime> Remedie. ut 1hc Narional Lcvcl (1997)
192
196
are women human?
21 Collccave Harms Under the ALen Ton Srniute:
part one • theory and reality A C.utionory Note on Cl~s.s Actions 11999J 202
rd '1 r it rr a• 1 lo
1 On Torture ( 1990) 17 22 Genocidc's Se~uality (2005) 209
2 Human RighlS aod Clohnl Violencc Apinst
Womeo 0 992) 28 part lour • on the cutting edge
3 Tbeory Is No1 a Luxury (1993) J-1 23 Dcfining Rape 1n1erna1ie>nally: A Commem on
4 Are Women Humlln? <L 999) 41 Aka_reµ1 120061 2J7
5 l'ostmodernism and Human Ri¡¡hts 120001

24 Pomogr•phy as TruHickin¡: 120051 247
6 The Promise of CEDA W's Optional Prot<>c:nl (2004) 64 25 W<>mcn'< Scptcmber 1l th: Rc1hinkin¡: the Tnu:mutional
Law of Conflitt 12006) 259
pa rl two slruggles wilhin states
No1~ 281
1 Makinjl Sex Equality Real ( 1985) 71 lndex 4117
8 Narionbutlding m Canada {19881 77
9 M1so¡zyny's CC1ld Hean (J 9871 86
10 On Sex and Violcnce: lntroducin¡¡ meAnupornograpby
Civil Rigbts Law in Sweden 11990) 91
11 Equalicy Remade: Violence A¡l;ainsr Women 11991 l /Oj
12 Pornogrspby's Empire ( L995) 112
13 Sex Equali¡y Uoder rbe Consútution of lodfo· Problems,
Prospecrs, end "Personal laws• 12006) 1211
2 - lntroduct1on

pcr se are oftc::n not the most 1mmediate víolators of women's bumam¡y
1ilihougb thcy uftc::n colhborate m 1t) bus tt.'<jwr~d rctogniuon, m tum,
Introduction th~t other tb.tn-statc actors n:guLidy pétpctratc scrious bumán ri¡Uiu. vio·

Women's Status, Men's States IJunM' And slnce >tates too oftcn Jo not rcpn:scnt womcn, whcthcr by
•et> or r.ilures to Jet \\ithin the <phere of 1heir power und authoríty.
wrimm Ía<.:in~ unr~ponsi\~e offir1.1I mechnnisms doctrines. and au1horities
1

h;we reoched. c>ften throujlh rheir own NCOs, to hold the law in their
own bands, sedon¡t perpetrator accountabiluv direcdr co them throu¡!h
civil l<'j(al meaos. \X'omen's asserrian of their human nghis can thus be
Sécll, on one k"'cl. at once not only as an attempt to make scates adhere
ttl human rigbts but as illl Jttcmpt to separatc SL•LCS from the human rigbts
They had been, if not social equals, homomakers nnd mo1hcrs wi1h famílics thcy gu.mmtec anJ vi<>Llte, induding by ignonng 1hcm In •upplemcnring
and homes co rnre for, farmers with land and Llvcstock, lnwycrs and jud~es or c\•en Jl umes •upplantlllg the >tate as internacional low .. historica!ly
in a legal system, workers wirh job$ in factori<'S aod businesses, scboolgirls nellrly exclusive unir. W\'.lmen hnve pushcd for the formal cbanHes 1hcy ncetl
whose mothers were alive and whole. These Bosnian Muslim, BosllÍJl.D ro secure thei r subsiamh'<' ñghrs. mcwin~ human bcinj!s-violators and
Croa•, and Croatian women and children surviveJ che arrocicies of Serbiao violated alike-to che cencer of che human ridm process.•
cxtrcmist forces in Bosnia-Hette.go\/Ína and Croatia from L~91 ro 1994 In tbe mid-1990s in panicular, Bosruan womcn. wbile tbeir communmes
determmed to stop the genocide, to bold the perpetrators accountablc. wete stiU bemg arracked by Serb1an forces. spoke out about being rapcd
and to change che way sexual vmlations are sccn ln society and ireated in en maSSe as an mstrumenwlicy o( a genocide cha1 wa.s being conduetcd m
law. 1 Con~rging wi1h 01her dcvclopmcnts. 1hcir responses to thc:ir expe· pnn <hruugh war The assoul1 Jnd their reslStilDCc 10 it challmgcd tbc: unes
ñence of violent sex'Ual and ethnic íncqualiry combined huve conrriburcd betwccn gcnodde ólnd w•r ond, ulum•td), l>étwcen wu and poicc.' AJ.
10 making women's resistancc to thcir scutus and treacment the c1.1ning th<'U)lh inequalny 1t1 pc.1tt und genodde throu¡¡h war are 001 equivalcm,
edge of dtange in internacional human rights around the curn of' the 1'11pc both in and outside zones oí rcco¡tni1.ed conllicr was dari6ed ns more
cwenty·frrst centmy.' a collectivc chan an indi,<idual crime.• To he adequate 10 thesc women's
Worntll 's rdusal to accept tbe douWe-edged Jenial of cheir humanicy- violations. human n~ts !""" needed to come further 10 tenns vo:ith the faet
tbe dcnia.l duit sex-specúic violntions are commonly commmed and that cbat !\tOUp i<lenúJications make up much of 1he ccmrem of the human.
they 3t'C ulhuman-bas long becn slowly shifting thc form nnd contcnr of m~ group-based injunes centr..J to the <.kniol of humanity, ,..¡ch sex·
thc m1nsnntional humrin righcs pnrodigm. \'>fornen, lnr¡tcly c><cludcJ from and ttbruca!ly-b..eJ barms at tbc corc of, rnther than pcnphc:ral to. human
govt'mments, hove or¡{anizcd thcir own intemouonal DOll¡lO\'trnmcntnl or· rlgbu.. To enhancc d1c accountabil11y of mt.,rruuional proc= to such
gunizations (NGOs) 1ha1 havc incrcasingly made grassrOOtS civil socie¡y a n1M\'Ors. ciV1l proceedings have been fow~. as h.1\-.: avil remcd1cs-
factor to be reckoncd with in intemaúonal re11tions. Recogniúon thac sta1es no1 hccau.<e perpetmtors should nor be incurcera1eJ. but bccausc IOcial
chan¡:e 11nd reparntion are more effecth-e rdief ancl dctcrrcncc than is pun·
Earlitt vcrslOOSo ol somc o( thc tckas 10 Um 1ot.roduction \\'t're publtshed ln tbc Unh~tty ()f 1Shmcnt .Jo~.• Steps toward esublishin¡¡ tbesc features of what mi~bt be
Mu:htpn l;1.w Sc.hoal's ~ Q..Jtalfglr- .'Jotn, fall-Wlmu 1999, l. 11n:)• bcudueJ hom bc.illll
Pfné,':ntéd 101hc E,ut0¡W1:1n Coun ofJui-ltce • ia tneettnl' htl(J hy 1he t1niVrN1y~( f\1.icrn11an L11w
termed the "'Ornen" modcl of human rights-oor because ic is exclusi\'<'
Sd>ool at ihe H•)"A<bms Hotd. W..J,Ulj¡ton. OC. IApr t9. 20001 . .,d cldn'Cted"' lb. Coo- to one sc!J< but bccause 11 1s prcd1cated on u'Omen's rhsuncrive expertences
1.t'mporary C1Wu:1non ~de L«tur~ •t Columbu Umvt'fmy utlt!d "\\'umai'a Wodd.i, oí •1oLtion iltld of Jcrua.l of tbnt violauon-arc bcgmning co make bumm
Mc.n't ~111!(~" CApr 29. 2004) .1nd ítrnn the di>t'\ltlinnt 1h111 foll°"•1..-d \..,ommnu• fn,m )Miel
riglu. an honest tenn
NniW1nh. Lt$1 Catdyo, J~ Alvarei, and Tom Bc:rKkr m.a.de 11 bcuct. Exttpüonal t«hmcal
muL 'lntc- undcr pc~llUtt v.~ prow.kd by Arui1 8.Jdwin es1d Emm.t C 1t"WC anJ the Uru\'d'l.1.1) Becornmg hum.m lo botb 1hc legal and hved scnses is a social, legal. mu!
ol ~iKhiJ;Mt L1w Lbrary. Th<' Vnh·('111fY oí 1'ticluti11n l.11a· Sthanl .and • fdki"'-.hil>•t 1flco r.rn1C1 politic.il process • h rcquires prohíb111n¡¡ 01 01hér\\1se dclef!ÍtimutinH .n
for Advanced Siudy in 111< BehaYIOOll ~ IC'.MBSl a Sunfcxd 1iUPported us ..,¡Wlj<. •et> b,· which human bein¡¡s •• such are violated, ¡¡ullnlmecin¡i pcoplewhat
Women's Status, Me1l's Slales • 3 Wome•'s Status. Meos States 5

lhcy nceJ for a. fully ltwnan exl!>tence, and thcn oíficwlly upholdin14 lhosc rudes. anJ behaviors b3Sed on the SIJltuS locaaon o( tbe male sex m scx:icry, the subordmatc, lc>Ser. oo-force-penni11ed (emalc side. Power may be
stnnJar.h and ddivm11g oo thos<: cnmletnonl$.• But, m cirntlar cpistemi< n1<!Illb.:rs of wbtcli (1nih vruiuionsl occupy a supenor posuion in gcnder hcld at<-Ount•ble, lf :n ..U, for 1ts abuse oul~ide the border's threshnl<l thm
fo;hion, seeing wb.11 subordmated groups nrc distincth ely t!epri' cd of. ~ub­ lucrMchy, resulnog in • saual poliucs"-a the 1111crnauonal sys1em 11 ddincatts where thc publk bc¡¡ins
jcc1cd 10. ''"d ddcgttimated by, rcquircs 6m 1ha1 rbey be real 10 power l'OUOterbalmce? Or IS ll mct•mAlc? The hiemrchy of 1hc st•tc ovcr cwil soc1cty provides one transnntional
thar thcy firs1 be seen as human. Tf rhe siate hos • Atndcr (a.• "'-di "' usuJll)• .1 $<:XI so 1h11t the ~me exnmple. Thc state 1us power º''Ce civil sociecy, 3 feminized realm wirhin
Pur ano1her way. human ~hts can be observed ro be a response to throttAh lls distinnive mstrumcnt, IJw, SttS and treats womcn 1hc W•)' mcn which male dominance is permitted free rein, simultaneously masculitJizin¡:
arrcx:ity denicd. Befare atrociaes are rerognized as such, rhcy are autbor- in SClctcty scc and treat womeo," doe$ lnternational law cballcnge ibis. o r lhc s:tnt<:. \Xlar and peace offer aooiher intematlonal cliscinction with classic
uativcl) rq¡arded as clther too extraordinary 10 be belicvahlc or too or- docs tt reproduce n at a yet hi11her levd? Seen in its ¡¡endered chmensions, sex-stcreotyped dimensioos. Men \'Íolemly dommsting orher men for can·
dina.ry 10 be atrocious. Ji me events ure socially con•i<lered unusual., tbe does ilie move from n.ational to 101ernanonal essen"ally simply magrufy me uol of states is called w.u-: men \~oJently docn.inatlJlg women \\1lhm statL'!.
foct that they happencd 1s dcnitd in spccific insrnnccs; if they att rq:nrded scalc and chversíty of law's ma.scultnlty, or tlocs it at me same ame offer is relegated to peacc." .Parallel lcgll categones disunguish combata.nts.
as mual, the fact 1hnt thcy •re violating u tlcnieJ: if i1's happemng, it's nm Ji...tinct dynanucs, opporturuties, anJ challcngés? faen as inu:mational bw \\tdely ihougbt o( in malc tcnns (pcnnittcd to cnpge m force) from civil
so bad. nnd if it '• really bad, it isn '1 h:1ppe11inN. Thc¡1ivcn status of cena in •nd m.mtuu<lns could t::hall""Jle or limu the powc:r of indivulual ltates, do ians, construed in femalc tcrms tunanned and puiarivcly 10 be ¡>rotectedl. ••
people is seen as tautolo¡;ous with, cven jusriiied by. 1b.: depnvarions of thcy build •nd Jepend upan und <Uppon tbe power of Slates as such ot Apan from the rclativdy constant foct that men organac themselves to
meir human nghrs. Law ohen coUaborares by making an unusual or ex- 1he same rime? As 1he stnte appears ou1moded 1(1 sorne, superseded by compete and conilkt wilh othcr men, contemporary conlliru amoog men
treme form of a commo11 violation illegal, so tbar wba1 is illegal almOSt instirutit>ns and forces with bases oí power indepeodem of s1ates. such as have increasingly become more ¡!r<)Up-ro-group than state-to-sme, tesem·
nevcr bappens, yct the law appears to sraod against t:he vioLnion. \licnms globalization. mulrinaaonal corporarions, orgamzed oiminaliry. nnd rdi- b!Jng women's t.reatment by meo more chao ibey cesemble classic armed
are thertby idcologically rendered appropria•c to their LTentmcnt, tbc un· gion, has rhe masculinicy of intemarional laws, oocms, aod instirutions conflíCL lntemauorut.L politics has much 10 lerun from underswndmg
cqual ucatmcnl senwg to conlinn thcir omolo¡;1cal starus as l<:>scr hu· wubered aw•y, or 1s male dommance equall)· present m aod transmnang womea·s ueaunent by men.
muns. \'('hcn nothing Is done, lhc tre<1tmcnt, untl social status nccordingly, imo tranSnauonal forros? Ls gender a transnal'ional force-both from me Pubhc/prlvnte lines also Jiscemihly dtsungwsh thc convcnuonaUy so·
co11fi1m and e-reate who one is. leg;1lly, onc is less t:han human "'hcn ooe's top do\\TI, cnsuring mole domtnancc, .tnd, u,th wom<'IÚ cmergcnce as a ca.Ued gcnerutíons oí humnn rights. •• Thc fim gencrlltion is considcrcd 10
violations do no1 violare rhc hum•n righ~• rhat •re recogoized. Acts global rorce. from thc lxmom up, challen¡;in¡; thu1 dominancc-th•t h11s be political and civil rights, amounting to what cmpowcred mc:n fcel they
common in human cxperimcc, sachas rape in war and rape in peace, have long been lar¡:dy ovcrlooked? need against orher cmpowcred mcn. Thesc rights define where public or-
been beneath serious notite because ihey are so familiar, "•hile acts rhat These íotemational quostions can be oskcd throu~h four dimmslons dering is considered axfomatic Economic and sociJll rights, !hose ~rs of
are uncommon, like the Nazis' irulusuial murder and rhe Serbs' industrial ilion~ which national bchavior lhrou~h law has bccn analvzcd in ¡¡endcrcd which womén as such are largely deprived aloog with many roen, are usu·
rape. bavc btta beyond belid. \Xlbile disbelief and associared impunlty terms State bdia.ior that promores and mstttutionalius mak dommance ally rcgardcd as se<-Ond gencratioo, ~-en tbough ibey are in the Univer.;ru
rdgn, the violatcd arc-sy>temicall)' and effecri\'Cly speaking-ren<lercd has been found to distin¡¡uisb public from pri,'lltc, naturalitt dommance Declaratioo of Human Rights and recogni.ud as mterdepeotlent \l1th thc
not íully bum.tn legally or socially. WhCll und whcre th1s dental is overcomc as Jifference, btde coercion bebintl con...nt, and ohsrure stxual polines so-c..llcd fust generarion tbroughout thc covenants ibemsclvcs. Thcir ter·
1nd rights against thc extreme nnd thc normal ore recogmzed, rhe trcar bcbinJ mor.iliry." Do...s the ordcr that stllto bavc cttatcJ among states ni.in is considcr<'<i more pnvate: liOcial, not po~tic~I, ~nd oftcn no< 1"C11dil)'
menr is defined as inhuman nnd the vktims human \\~ornen <1re in the bch:l\c in simiLir gc:ndcrcd wuys? enforccuble or implememable in thc usuul fonn ñj!hts takc Public inrer-
midst of rhis process. At lea<t sincc the critique oí thc distincllon berwecn lhat conute thnt vcntion hcn: is often contested, Group or coUective righrs are called rhc
Meantime, tbe status and trcatment of men stlll racidy but audtoritarively \1olates mternational law because states do tL and that torture 1ha1 docs third ~nemtion. Thesc are re¡¡arded as de6oitivcly social, quimessenmrlly
dclinc me human universal, eliding the pa.rticulamy of being a man. The not bec:ause nonsratc aclors do rt, n rhe inremational strucrure has emerged pri,'ll.te; mese ri¡¡bts are leasr guaranteed, sometimes 001 consldered prop-
statc, an apex form in whlch me power of mm is orgarnzed both among ss a <et of mtern<-<ting boxes delincd by layers upon layers oí distinctions erly rigbts at ali lo tbe eníorreable sense. Tbis bterarcbtcal ordenng nmong
men and ovec women wbilc purporting 10 instirutlonalize peace and ju~ttcc, bctw<-Cn public and pri,-ate. ,. Thc public is formalli• supr<?me º'''" the geoeraaons. conuo"etstal m irse!!. ranks systemic rq¡Rtd. From \\'ornen'>
has been revcalcd as an 1nsl'itution of mnle domlnancc, 1· lts behanor .md pnvaté, thc pnvate a spacc msidc wbicb pówcr IS lcfr alone by public stnndpoint, it migbt wcU be reversed. Women are mcn·~ unequals as
norms pon:ial Qnd gendercd. Mosculinlry (>bsen,.bly mnrks whot men w'uit Juthoriac:s. Women hllvc b1stonoilly bctn rdcgated ro anti i<lcnttfiL-<l "'th groups. lkal equalicy righl$ ore collcctivc in 1hc Jcruc of being group-based
and hove und couch ond ma.kc nntl clo in social spoe<. policical insrirurions thc pnvatc, cxdudcd irom W>J, wbon pre'<:nt, >uborJuutcJ in publlc. The in thcir es.<entinl norute. lndividuols may suffcr t!iscriminatioo one al a
indudcd. lí tbc statc is a mole institurion oot only demogrnphically bm •uprome, ""lld•ted, h1crlllc;brcnlly superiClr udc oí thc linc, lhe loe.Je of rime, but the ha<is for the injur)' is ¡troup memhership. Lacking effective
socially and polirically- its s1rucrures and acnons driven by an ideolo¡zy lc¡tmmatcd force, " 1hc iJeolo¡¡1call•· male sldc:, de6ncd by clisuncnoa from ¡:oamnrees of economic and social rights. \\-ornen h"'"' found political and
predicated on an epistemic an¡;le of •'Ísion '"'h concomitanl values, atti-
6 tntr dut11on Women's Slatrs. Meft's Slalu · 1 8 lotrodut11on

anl nght>, ho11.cvc:r cruu.J, to be l•rgdy m.1cce»1blc and >Upér6cial '!be conuol ovcr thdr own Jorn•rn• in thc hope •nd cxpc<t•ll<'n ol re<1p1<><.it)C noublv mo,ed eftcrn•el~ a¡tJUISl prosmuuon t.brou,11h a de Caceo sex
gmerouonnl J1mncuont anJ thcir ronlun¡;i. quc-.uonJblc for meo "' 111t:U, 1hc mnlc hond equ.tlny approa,h." Ahhou¡zh h1,1onc•lly 11·omcn hove not foun<l srrmgth
urc d..-..rl) ¡>rcnu.éJ oo ~..:ndcréd • ,ympll<ln>, p<re<pll<'nl. ..,,J pnonuc.. Sr•t"' rn1.i huvrn¡t º'"'"•te •< '' 11<hud1cu1c..I by an~'t'lnc ath<r than thcm · tn numbcn, whcro f"mg f;itt~ .an<l rapcn1n¡; pttnaplc IU\d lwing up to
But 1111in1unsd1rn.,n-thc JoctnnC' ~fl\Tmm~ who has P<l"Cr to <kadc ~lve<, 1he u;u.tl pt"rpct rat<>r grm1p. wuhout 1heir cxp""• conscnt or at ali, com1numc-nt• •n,I .h.1mrn« l•1l, anJ C'ÍÍocuvc externa! cnforccmcnt rcnuuu
wh.i •nd whcrc:--that thc puhl1c pnvatc d,.tmctl<ln 6nd. ns n•nmal home and domestically oftcn m<i>i on wverctfU! 1mmumnes for officw acu and un•vaJ•l>lc •n<l corrupt ion rul<ll, perlup. dcmocracy will lcad starcs to
Junsdicunn dchnl'llt.,. turf. lntemat1011ally, 1un.drct1011 =°""' amund •cts of <tatcS.'• Thc rcsult is to 1nsulaic statcs írom accoctntabo.luy 10 anv- promc>tc ... cquJlny tn rcalnv in,tead of merey in form-m.,bc C\'Cl1 10
~m11nty .\ '°'"'"'11!'1 h.L• ndu<nc dom1mon w11hm a spht:rt:, a concq>t one. A sy>temic <tructural b1.. mil1t.1tc:s a¡ramst holillllj? perpeuators oi ~ 1t as m thc:tr tntcrcsr
1ha1 b spaual ron<-.:ptu.U> a. "·di a; c>hcn roncretd}, acrnunt.bl"- íf at in1uncs to wom<:n u su..h n:.po1151blc 10 pubhc autbomy, mcanmg anr As 111 mO!ol 0111.,,.. se• cqual11\ n~ts tn the ma¡or human rWirs tDStru-
ali onlv to cqu.J '"'clCl¡tn> <111d oftcn not ,olunuml)l. A .i¡ite IS S<Wttelpl. authonty bcyonJ tbc mcn ,.·ho rule thc pm•rc rcalm 111 v.·hidi a '1.-omm'> mcrm h~'c tended to cmplO) thc purponedh neucral samcoess/ddferencc
Thi. mc.aru. th.it 11 IS JdíncJ b) a publtc/pmJtc """ at lb bord,,r, v.hidi \10Ution occun and ,. t)p1<-.ally cÍÍn;lJ\d) pcmuncJ " fa"1> thc Romc mo<ld. u 5b0'&'1.0jl more '"''00. the UN Human Rigbts Coaunmec. mtcr-
1$ prin.:11,.lh tcrrttun.J >u<h thot wh.it happcn> wtthm b pm>te, mt:anmg S<>tute of thc ln1cm•1J1>nal Cnmtn.d Ú>lltt d<>c> not cl.um universal juris prrttng thc ICCPR. ha• t.t.cn • >ub.i.nuvc •nd •ubtlc appro.lch to tbc scx
th•t u ts thc cxduSJH' dumillll ,.,¡ thc J>atnar<h.J c>rdcr callcJ gmcmmcnt dictinn but set• pl'CC<lnJ111<>11• for iu cx<rci<c O\'tr mtnnatioial crimes, cqualuy quallllllS tn 1u •rhcrc" Se>. to sorne ~tmt, h... CEDAW w wbidt
Th• hnc that mcludcs by udmhn~ createt. thc same un11 th.it is inarnatcd ,..,lym¡t on • •••te rommuung thc crunc or 1dop1ing the •tarute'" Thc ttlLlflU\tcn '""méll ~· 1 '"'"P thc n~ht not 10 be d1scnmmatt:d agmut.
tn intcmau011al la,. • at OllCC thc ¡¡uarantor ..,d \1c>l11c>r of women's perti<ubr romb11~11<'n c>I rcqu1nn¡t <tate ans for many tntemarional Yio- focu,tng oo thc roncmc snuauon oí• suh.tanti'~ group oí pcoplc imtcad
human nahL• D•mam1caU> dr<cnbcd. mak poWtt quintessennally sctS ll· 1.ation< ,.,th 12,-ers of unmunuy tor oHloal ach and aru of state, added to of ab<tract <phcrcs called m'tl, pohtical, cconom1c, and social as thc pn·
sel! up as exclusive "ithm, 1u~ul}1n11 11> he)1emony ts pr0ternon. then n- rules f.a,vnn¡t local rooluuon .and disaJJO\lo,ng cxtratcrntooal ¡unsdicnon marv ctnlb of anal)''"· Bv lts bt.n¡:uaj!C, CEDAW also rt:achcs pnvatc acts."
olates thc protect<J \'1lh rd•u1 e unponuy or permus thei.r ,fobtion by and 10 thc lacio. ol tntCNl.dlc cl•uns, !.hui. '1.omcn out althou¡¡h 11 can do so c>nly throui:h statcs, tht: parucs to u. Mo.t of
tbose 11 empower> by 1¡;oormg them <•ppc•nng 10 sorne 001 to be IClJ"8 lJ mcn havc gu.rdcd •P""'t ¡>.1tt1.Jit\, clh>tt:illy thought to be bl>Cd CEDA\'\"s acth't prov.,,ions admmcJ.ly grant womcn "'JUahty of ngbts m
'1.·h.:n u J<x-. nothm¡¡ about th1s '"'l•u<m). Thmk mant.J rape, incc>t Wi1h on 1<lc'llt1fitu11on with P"''l'lc lokc me, by rcplacmg gm cmm<.'llt oí men gmJer-ncuttal tcrrn>. Thb approach, proclucmg somc advanccs, lunus
thc globc di\ id1...J >pJU•l11 mto n•t ion "Jtn, m•lc tfommancc avcr wamen with rule of law. womcn ronunuc t!> be ~vcmcd by the mlc oí men's womm to wh•t mcn nccd. J'C>ulunp in J1fficuh) m Jeahng íor cxamplc,
beflin• at home w11 hm •n<l hcncath 'tntcs, 1mernal to 1uri..lict1011> in laws Their ~t h<il"' h.1 IX'<'n 10 •rreal ur thc jumdkt1<>nal hierarchy to wtth prcgnanq (which CEDAW CO\'Crs) and <ClL spccilic and sexual vio·
dudin~ thc family. Malc <tructurnl pnvncy " the principie 1ha1 animatCli men and laws more 1urud1ct ionally (m<.'anin¡t <panallyJ dJStant Crom, tbus lencc. '\ccmm11 to rc•l11c that violcncc agamst womm is nor jusi one 1ssuc
thc ¡:ro¡.¡r.1phy nf hoth malc power ond mtcmanonal 1usuce. Ir roles thc hopefollv lcss controllcJ by anJ 1denufied 'mh, 1hc menJla11,'S tbat viola1e on a lis1 oí 1mponant problems but ~oes 10 the core of women's status
world rhem, exoctly tho>C sotes " herc they ha\-e bt.'Ctl least likdy to be gramed and the rrla11on of ftatcs to 1t, CEDA W has been in1e1¡>re1ed 10 prohibir
!k'alu;e 1url.Jiwon ¡z1vc.' mcn p<1111er ovcr a spherc, encom¡>assmg acc"'"' to nghts anJ wbere miplementuuon onJ cnforccmcm are least as- violencc agomst women as scx d1scr10unauon.'• No state has yer proven
womtn w1thm u, thc: tntcrnationaJ ¡unsd1ctio11, wh1ch coul<l máke these sure<l and lc•st concrete. In thls rontcxt, thc rulmg "' the Umted Succs cap•blc of 1h1s recQj)nruon. 11 The CEDA\X' Commiuce m•)' be coming 10
mc:n JCcounLlule to Othcr llltn, i> Jtllk>u5)y ¡¡u•rJe<l • 11d Carcfull) COn• m Kudic ,. Kiiradik whkh pcnnlt1<'<1 i.c:xu11lly violated BO!l111an women recogmZ• ni•le clomin•ncc 11s t he real nrune of the problcm of discnm1·
stmncd, Ou tht mtcrnJtlonnl k'Vd, thc f,'"t thu1 MJI C bound.mc• <ldine thc to scck remedie• undcr lnteri..iionul l:1w for rape •s genocidc in another nauon ut:.iinst wunu~n 11
linc whcrr mcn <lil'o<lc powcr nmon¡c thcm<ell'cs, wilhon 11·h1ch <hcy setk te> rounr"· •g•inst thc •d f <l<.'(:lured lcud..-r of t ro1111e regime at home," is a Twn oí 1hc fin«>! illu~1n11ions uf• subu'1nt1vc equJlity approach tntcr-
exerc1-. exclu<i.e dom1nu,n, md111.hnl! ov~r womcn, c•r>lain• 11.·hy <he Cc>n- signal ,;rtory on the junsd1c1ionnl íronner nauon.lllv ore rc~1on.1l the lntcr-Amcnc.in Convcntion on the Prcvenlion,
venticm cm the rl1mmat11>n of Ali f'onns of Dt<cnminarion A¡zatnst Womm In the face of these dcc:ply gendered le¡inl arran¡zemc:nts and the rec- Puni•hm<nt ond f.r;1d1c.nion of Vic>lencc AR•in~t Women !Con~'Cl'ltion oí
ICED:\ WJ ,. so widely re1erved " 'i1mtlarly, amonl! the mos< reserved in- CljlntlÍon tbJt IOt'<juahty w1th men IS womcn's ¡ilobal rondiuoo, tbe sprcad Bdém do Pa,.jl' and the Afncan Protocol on 1he Rights of \\"ornen ... ro
temauoial prm151on• 1n .Jl trcaues are <hose ¡unsdicttooal pto\'ist0ns tba< and dfecuvcncss o[ intcm•uonal equal1t) n¡:ht> pro'1<le seruim-e .m<l. wh1ch women from cultures ICl'OS$ the r~ons concnbuted. The Conven-
Je..¡zn.uc thc authorltv to tc>ol•e J1,p111e:.. · Tdlingh. LEDA~. along nulung lndic1101> of womcn\ pro¡:~ m b.commg human 1n thc legal uoo ol Bdém Jo Par• rccOjlnrzcs v1olenre agamst women, ·a marulestanoo
wuh thc <.onv<.'lllJOO oo thc Ri¡cht• of thc e.luid, ha> no st11c-10-<w1c pro- scnsc. Coruudcr•blc otnJ.,.. ha'c ~en mJ<lc m th• coutt> o("""" coun- of thc hmon<.illy un~qual po'1.cr rdatK>n> bctwcen women and meo." IS
colur1', .. h1k thc Ü•n,cnuuo ''" fonurc, die lntcmaoonal C:O-cn:uu on rncs, ontably Cona1b anJ ~u1h Afn'" lxyoncl thc formal C<¡Ualít} •p • duttn<Uvc humJn n¡1lm viobt1<>n 'b.i.sed on gcnJer. "'bkh OlJSCS dl.'llth
C,..tl an<l Pobu.al Rt¡thts (IC'C.l'RI, an<l thc Con,<ntw>n oo thc Ehmuuuoo prooch uf um..·no' with • Jominant 1m1lcl stand.rJ •nd towanl rubstan- or ph,~t<al, ...,.....1 or l")thol.>~1<•1 harm or wftcring to ,.-ornen, 111hcthcr
ot \11 Form• l'I Ract.tl DJJCnmtnJlJ•>n 1CERD• .U e.lo" Thu 1< what a real m-.: cqu.t)nv. mcasunng 1....-. ..,J policics ·~•in't rr•hue< of suborchnation m thc rublic C>r rnv.nc •rh=."" Thc C.onvrnuoo s.¡u.ucl¡ ¡:ranL• "cvcry
h"'r•rch\ of n¡;lm look• l1kc 01 C'O\Jr«:, mtcl'$11tc cl.ims ª"' rarc C\'Cll and gcndtr hoerorchy." lncha's con"1ru11<>nal cqualtl'!· chmlan~ las •
chance 10 reach an cqu.il luturt: tram an unequal prescnt. s,. cdcn ha:.
"·om•n thc n¡¡ht to k Írtt from "okncc in bo<h thc public and pnvate
whcre au1lablc lntcrpr<~cJ in Kt"nd<'ttd terms, mcn rt:<pect other men 's •phcra, • back<J lw ·th., nght to <tmplc and prompt rccoursc 10 • com-
Worneú Status. Meo~ Stales 9 10 lntraductio" Womtn'• Status Men's States • 11

petent coun for protecuoo against acts that ,folatc ber nglm."" The ngh1 norm ' ' Internacional human n~hts l~w. indudm¡¡ rhe United Nations LEDAW "'tb tbat oí CERO. CERD's r.uificrs are •[c]onvínced tho.t aoy
10 &ttdom from violence nowbly indudes "the rigbt oí "'omeo to be Chaner. pervllSive.ly ¡¡uarantei:s the n¡z:ht co equalny before die law withour doctrtne oí supenori¡y bascd on rada! dúforcnuation is sc1cnu6callv ralse
,·aJuc:d and educat.:d free uí >1~reot)petl paneros of beh~,·101· anti sod:il d1)Crtminaclon on thc bJ.Sis ot $t!.X.'o,1 Many, c:Vdl mos.t, rounu.ies rec0Jn1ze mor•lly conden1nable. sociatly w1¡ust and tlangcrnus, .1nd diac che..;, Is n~
'."'d culrural prnctict:> baJJed on coocepts of tnferi.orlt)' or subordinJtÍt>O, • JUSL~ficauon ~r.racial c.liscrimindtion, in theory or in pracucc. anywhcrc."''
><X cquahty ..i~ • val~c in thcor legal •ysu:tn>, w1ddy guaramectng lc¡iul
unplcmcnt«I by "pro¡;ressrvel)· sp<"ciJic meosures" to modify ~d coun cc.juulny based on !<it':~ tn const1tuuo1is an<l olhl!r foundauonitl ~tJtements­ R:tc•al t'<¡ualtty 1s a fact. Doccrines of racial supremacy are based on che Lic
teract such prcjudices nnd rroctices that "legítimi>.c or cx•<'Crbote violence thi!fl despiu! tl1c Íal·t 1hat s.:x Jiscrin1inatory lou<s con1inu~ in íorcf! ~rdunJ al die superioriry of some roces O\'er orhers At bottom, racism is inaccu-
lljllllnst women. "" This is whar a substantive equalir)· approach with che the world' in seuings of perv11s1ve rodal inequali1y of 1he sexes in rculicv. rate.
necessary subsrnnce looks like. The fact t:ho1 .1 no~ i_< nm lived up m or delivercd upon with consis1ency Nothmgin tbe preamble 10 CE.DAW approxiroates chis leve! of re¡ecuon
~e Africao Protocol embeds its sex eqw.lity and anaviolence guar3ll- does_nor mean 1har n 1s nota norm. Much like racial discriminacíon, "·hich o{ sexism. The doscst u comes is "Recalling tbat discriminatloo .igaiast
tces '°.a broadly concei,-ed sub$taouve \'!Sion. Irs postti\'e equality recog· is widely re~ogmzed ro viola1e customary mrernadonal l:1w. the rejeccioo wo1nen violatcs thc principies of eqwility of rights and respect for human
nfaes nghts for \\'Ornen "10 live in • posiúv~ culrurol conrext • and 10 pcace of sex dt>cnmmauon 1s normauvely vigocous 1f feebly implememed, dts- dtgnity, is ;in obstado to die participation of women, on equal 1crms wich
and su;wn.1blc dc:vdop1TLen1.•• Leaving fonn.J1nic negnti,·c ¡,quality·--con- playtn¡¡ mon¡¡ beltef in legal obhgaaon bue weak sme pract:ice. Virrually men, in the ¡;olitic,11. social. e<'Onomic anti cultural life of 1lteir countries,
tcnt m re0ect unequ;l social nrrangemcr¡u, Jecl•ring equalit)" in la... when no one says thcy support scx Jiscrimination. hampers 1hc grow1h of 1he prosperity of sodety ond the family and mak{-s
pc9ple are legally soned into exisún¡¡ social orderin¡¡s-in 1hc du;i." thc Even more l.1nnnimo~1s ~han the rcjection of discrimJnotion agJ.lnst more d1f6cult che ful] developmenr of the po1enrialities of women in die
Afocan Protocol expUcidy and in diverse concrete seuin¡:s prohibiis •'Ío- W<>mcn by law is the re¡caton of thc idea (lf the bioio¡úcal inforiority e>Í i:ervice of tbeir coumrics 1111d of humamty.".. Scx discrimination •iolares
lence 3J!&ÜISt women. not reco¡inized as sex discrimination but defioed to we>men tomen•• and the condcmnation oí the •ubordina1íon oí w<>men bv other abstrae• ideas; chat discriminarion violares cquality principies js a
mdu<le "all acrs perperrated againsr women wh.ich cause or could cause men, panícularly. ,.·ben it i~ violcn1, lí discnmínauon b~ law is widdy uiu1ology. Tbe stroogest rcaluy-based argument against discrintlrrntioo
them physical, sllJCual. psychologlc:il, and economk harm. .,. TI1e Protocol rejecred on pnnc.1ple 1f not 10 prnruce, ideologies of scx-based infcnonty agalns1 women here is consequentiafut: it tnterferes with 1he abilitv oí
guaranrees appropriate and cffecuve mcasures to eoacc aod enforce IJws by naruce aod '10lcnt sexual subord.ination m SOOety an: broadly con- fa1nihes nnd socic1ies und cou11Lries to use!' "'·orneo ro gro~, l:Uld prosp~r.
against "unwanu:d or forecd se< wherhcr. . in pri\'atc or public..., co,·ers demned, .i le:i.st ostensibl)" Rape, a forro of sex i.oequ.ility widely pr-JcuceJ CEIU)'s formulation does not just turn up che rhetorical he.u. 11 grounds
·verbuJ viole.nce1- 14 und rcjects \'iolence ago•insL "'ornen in "'pri\•+ue or and pennmed, JS no11e1heless un1versally abhorred officially and >1nually a pnl111~ oí ~quahry in the worltl of reality The only rea.son not 10 reject
t>ublic lifc in pcacetime and during sin1ations of armed ctlnRic1s or of wufo"";I> made cnminal. The ad hot criminal tribunals are moving the rncism L< lcft ex¡lO'led as che imerest of one rncial group seckin11 10 dom-
u-ar.....-. umre anocber. Racism is mked' the ideology of the sclf-interest of bigors.
1n1crnanonal o~Jer co":"rd ·~ undc:-rst•ndmg of S<!l!U.d vaolcnce •g•urn
Far from being paral}<:ed bv cultural díffcrenccs or intimidated by cu]. '\\'c>mcn as n cr1me of \1«>lcnt 1n«1ualit)' i..J Perhops lhe pel'\-"ilSÍ\"" prcsence The CEDAW preamble, by disrinction, rejectS scxísm principally oot as
rural relaavism,"' che Afncan Protocol at once ¡lllarantees rights to women nf women pressurin¡¡ male state& to recognize rheir humaniry in principie false aod inberendy 11tithou1 ba.sis bu1 llS a bamer 10 tbc cxercise of ocher
in polygamous union.s and prefers monogamy." 1t moves ro elunioate ,.. well as in pracnce is shifnng professed custom." By diese measures, nghrs, heoce derivauve. and ao meffidcnr use oí human resources. Sex
"hannful practtces wh.ich negaúvcly affect the hum110 nghrs of women and pamcuforly for gross or sysiematic aas, sex equab¡y lS moving wward cqualit)• inluibtts thc realm of the good idea, the r<ght view, o gwde to
which ar~ contra~ '.º ";"°gniz•d international sUtndatds," 10duding 'fe. r~togrutlon as a percmptory norm at the h.i¡lhest level of rmernauonal prin·
propcr 1hough1 ond action, rather than being the only posiuon consistent
mitle gen•t•l munln11on. " hs economic .ind :.ocial ngbu nin 10 "the ,., ciple: with tho evidencc. The "pcrational language of CEDAW squardy od
formal sector" <tnd "work of womcn in the home"" us well as eovcrinµ the D..sp1te tlm J.,.d oí Jceep1>nt'\! of scx equolity os a prtndplc, womcn's dresro< mony concrete problcms this preambular lan¡¡ungc le<wes in qucs-
publu: worltplace. The Protocol not only guaranteC$ womcn 's rigln 10 con- Jctu.J >ec~ntl-cl..ss >tlllll$ rontinuc• 10 be concealeJ. 1hoñ:forc m•unrnineJ, rion. índudinA the r~Jditional roles of rhe sexes, rrnditional cultural aod
1rol their ferriliry and to decide wherher nnd when to have children" bu1 relij¡íous prncticcs, proscltuticm. aod reproduction. º' But on the leve! oí
~y r:rv~wve .P~•.ct1<es. umo1111 which ;. the tcndcncy of Liw to prcsent
also. uniqaely in a mult1la1eml 1reaty, requITT:s ~tes to authorize "medica! express principie, C.COA W ne.,.er s• ys chat sexism is a lie. 1t <loes not say
t1mc~1onmg.d1v1s1ons of power as" di~urse in ideas ,,f riitht and wrong.
abortion" in cemún cirrumstanccs.1' It puts Afr1ca on a par u'1t.h Larin 11~rbmg polt~cs as moral1rv lí the equal1¡y of the sexes is reco¡inized 10 be
that tbere IS no jo¡stificauon lor 1.bc lnferiority oí womea 10 theory or prac-
Amcrica on che question of '"°leoce agalnst women and in the load oo • facr, equalmn¡¡ soc1aUy unequal groups is merel\• a problem to be solved. ucc anywhcrc. Nowher<' does 11 sLJtc that thc doctrine of male suprcmacy
womcn's equ.Uty tn wodu law."' based on sexu.J diffcl'rntiation con ne\'er justify thc subordtn1mon of
But 1.f scx eqll'1hry 1s secn as a value. u can be accepred or re¡ecteJ as one
As more and mor<' oí die substanovc r<:<iltty of wonien 's deprivation of wo~en. ~ significan! an advance for womcn •S CEDAW is, oppositicm
'1cle m J norma uve c.liscussion. ln pohcy, ' fact is either reilecieJ or dts·
humonity. h~s becn reílcct<:<I m low, rccQ¡¡mtion uí scx cquali1r 115 " per toncd, o •·,tluc can be dcbu1eJ cndlcssly. lts recognation cbbs and llow• to d~<enmmnhon bnsed on $CX is, on this preambular leve! oí principie.
emptory mtcrnanonal norm has advance<l" $ex equnllty, olrhou11h subiect wuh umc JnJ pi•~. m•Jomies anti hcgemonie>. framed as a moral ¡ud¡¡mcm of v:duc. Sexism remain• clo1hed, sexual pol-
ro mryíng ínterprerntions, is nearh· universaUy embrnced a; an intcmatiooal This di<tínctll>n 1n logic.il stotu> .md S<'mc 1>f Íl$ implic.111ons can be 1tics ungroundéd.
lmernaúonal Liw often gets funher tn addressaog che rcaliaes of sex
ill11'trated I" comp.mng rwo ~"'s.sa¡;es in 1he preambular langua!!C of
l? - lntroducho• Womtn's Status, Mtn's States • 13 14 lnlroductton

me4uahl)' whm it u= odler legal lt.meworks, IntemJUonal lilÚ6ckmg \1(1omen are a global group rn che .en~ dm tbe disuncrive social deli- ctfecuvc. Not to valonze lack of enforcemenr. but force is not all mere is
prolub1úou., for in:.tance, show more .iwarenes> oJ che d)1lrunics of se>.· 1lll1on, treatroent, .a.oJ stt.ttU:t oi \\10ml.!ll as a seK rcbt1\:C to meo is recog- to efkcth-cncss or even 10 pOw•r. Many \\'Ornen compl)· '"'h 1he dictates
bll>C!d u1cqu..bl) 1h.11 women .mJ girls focc 1n • sex-unequul world th.m !llZJblc m dwcrse forms aU ovcr 1hc world.' Both women'• subor<linauon .intl limlts oí Jrul!e Jommancc evcn when not mchviJually forctd to do so,
Ja.s .mything in Sl!JC cquoL1i L1w per se,' Simtlarly, ihe lntcmatiunal Crim, •nJ thc11 1'es1>1.incco 10 11 havc l>een globnl ali .1long, prednun¡¡ whar is now Most Jctt>inns of tbc Jnwrnuuonal Court of Jusuce llre complicd \\•th evcn
1n.J Tnhunal Íor Rwanda tr•nscendcd rhc moral opproach typical oí na· culled ¡¡1.,baliza1ion-J rn<'mcnt oí rcrteprion cuiching ur 10 \\'ornen'• tbou¡;h it rornnun<b no m11i111iy forces." For yc·ars, the Bcrlio \X'all w:u
tionJI la"'°' regulann~ bate speeclr in holdin¡t tbrcc media ltad<'r< guilty lon¡.1rimc t1'ality (f'imilnr 10 thc phrn<e "1hc ft111iniza1ion of povcnr•l, fcared anJ un:..,uilablc concrc1e and wi"' wrrh armed gt1ards, bu1 what
of ~enoéldc and persecution la cnmc a¡.:•inst hum.mityl for broadcasts und Gendcr inequality is a global system, Nacional J)llrtirularicics ~ive sorne of hdd 11 up did nor change the day n carne clown, Peuplc dismantlcd tbe
publiouions 1h111 impi:ll<)d the lcillin¡i oí Turs1 and modtratc Hutu ci,.;Jiam; it> forms tbe exempcion of culture, =áng che rest as narural, renclering Berlín Wall with cheir bare honds 1he cfay the world stopped bdievinR in
in tht l{wandan geooc1dc oí 199-1. ' Thc point of the ruhng was not to C\"CI) foun of oppression koown co woman citber culrurally universal (so it. On Att~ust 13, 20().j, hundreds of women in Nagpur, India, stabbed
Jccry thc neg.iuv<: and batdul s1a1cmcnu but to find and prohtbit what we "can't" do anythlng about ni or culrurally specilic (so we "shouldn'c" their mp1sr to dea1h ""h kitchen knives on tbe wbite marble floor of a
was done to pcople tlS .i roult ot thcm. Ft-ar·mongcnng, malung aggrtssl()n do anythiog about il). Nowhere 1s s~xual1ty not ceotrnl co ki:cping womcn courthouse. He w0> abouc ro be releaseJ co t<:JTonie them again afcer years
in10 sclf dcfense. orcufating hu lisis .md iargrting inili>1Juals movemcntS down. Nowhere are 1hc umversal 1md the c<Jwr..Uy pnrticulor in 1hdr of official compl:IÍntS rcsulting In no acuon, as whcn thc polkc Jaugheu ar
anJ locanon<. :md spreading a climo1e of ethnic nnimos1r¡ and rcrror so rhat vcrsi<lns of ·samcncss" ro anJ "diffcrence· from mcn, no1 vnumcd as"'" onc iMe '1ctim che perpctrutor 011led a prn;r11u1c nnd rhr.:uLencd 10 r•pe
one sr.irk could i¡?nite the proirie lire in wbich 800,000 prople were m••· son9 why thar lcs<cr pl:icc is wom1111's ri¡;htful pince and as f<';tsons to do ag•in. lt.pe is sociJUy feh 10 be incvunblc to 1hc extcnt thc rnhum>nuy
sacred inside of dll'ee momhs were found 10 be genocidal il!ld an imerna- norhinR •bou1 it,'• facn •S ruch fe:itur<.-s unitc the many fonru of subor- of women is believcJ. Thellc worncn refusccl 10 acccpt that thcir incimatc
áoaal delict.7 The issue was nor def.amaáoo but che power of media to kili. dination 0110 onc sys1em, solutions need to be dwersely tailored wich Cllre violarion wi1h thcir State's rn1ifica1ion of i1 1>-;is inc,~tahlc one O\orc doy,
Canoons thar sexu:ili?.ed b.ue and fear of TutSi \\'Ornen were linked to rheu co tlllllly local forms of chac system, Tbat day, ihey 1ook back cheir humaniry,
OlllSS rape.'' Tbe approach 10 causalicy lllken by this case, called me Med14 Women's world-both status an<l strugg)e co change U-IS the globe, Sexual violarion ma)' be law's <dcimate challcngc. Rationalized as con·
Cose, offers po\\·erful guidancc for ihe regulauoo of pomogmphy, uidudmg in Ulbeteot rensioo with subsumpuoo of women and tbeir rights to s1a1es, sensual. it is coerced. ConsiJered private, its shared ami public role and
roeis1 pomography, a pnmicc of inequalicy ronnec1ed 10 viol.mcc agamsr Thc mternadonul arena tbus presents u1 once n sp«ific problem of org11 reaLty demand pubLlc redress. Attributed to sexual dilicrencc, it cnactS
womm ou1>íde .as wcll •s wnhln iones oí rcco¡¡ni2cd conJlict: 111zcd nule dominiltlcc :llld " world sc..le opponututy for thc s<>lutinns 10 ~exuul Jominance, EnJlessly moralucd, it is poliucal, scxually poli!lcal
Ob<erv.ibly gcndered o~in<t womcn's inrcresl.<, che intcma1i-On•I S)'Sletn r,1 thc SCTile of 1hc rmblem In 1his light, work within notions. how~"' lgnored, u Is condoneJ. Scxu.J violauon ;,. J crimc of incquality of s111rus,
has ne>necheless produccd gnins for women unavailable d:;ewher~ Tn chal· t~1cotial, tun<>unrs 10 ~ckio~ C<luality for women in onc counuy, d rak to which 1h0<c wbo ure low in status und 1ts power urc subjccted an<l ro
lengin¡i men·s rule to produce thcse gains. women as such have emerged ultimatdy incapable of achicvem<:ot by itsclf, As women in one country which th""e who nrc subjected are lowered, lts ccntrJlity to women 's in·
as not o.nly a group in rtsclf-a ttansnallonsl ¡.:roup cr<at"d thmugh Ut'lll· ;;chieve mon: equility, meo sed< out -..-ornen with fewer options else- cquality to mcn (and sorne meo's inequalil)• ro mher menl rlays ou1
ment that is not limitc<l by oauoaal boundancs-but also JS a group for where-a pauero observable sexually m sex trafficking, sex tourism, and throu¡\b rulture. honor. rdigion. fomil)'. digniry. identiry, incimacy, inceg-
1tsdf, sdt-coosaously rcalized through org"1llzing.'' Titat tbe mternauorul llbÚ!-order briJes and economicaU}' [n labor uaffidcing, internacional out· rity, and respect lt dehumaniies. No material recompense or punishmem
is ihc Juthenuc lotált for thc light for womcn 's nghts expbin> the explo· sourong co S\\'Cfltshops, and relocation of produc1ion m Jom111ant coun- can fully restorc tlli inLanj!ible, invisible harm, Official force alone, alchough
sivc produc·mity of the serie> of tnlcmational conforcncos of the p1m thtte trics to •Our~es of chcap fomale lobor in com11nes whosc gtoss domcsuc esScotfa), is uot cnough. Bcyond mcarcenmon. punishmem, and olher ret-
cl<01des,·' CoMciousness of scx-baJcd otlhorJination OOU the possibilit1es rtoducl is lcss than 1h111 of sorne nf thc multin111ional corporminn• 1h.u ribuúon; bcyonJ damagcs 1m<l othcr reporauons; beyond truth and rcc-
for chan¡.:c went global rhrou¡:h thcse conferenées. mobilizing women locurc rhere."' No rntire than ck'lln air can wornen's equality be ~uccc«fully onélliation amJ symbolism, beyonJ rc,>1itu11on for 1he rrrepoublc los.~ oí
worldwide nnd producing inAuential forward-lookrn~ (despi1e sorne crucial achie.'ed in onc counuy, No woman wiU be free until all we>men are equal, Í1unily memh<orS; bevond the ret1lfn of fnnns, ho!Tle<, jobs, und lc¡¡ru S>'<
shoncomrngsl'" dratts oi le¡iislatie>n and policy. blueprinrs for where As che moum:tin of women mo,-es, che stace in its m.Ue form is arguably rems, hum<tn righis cun ¡vve hack 1hc hum•ni1y 1hc mriisr rnkes ow1iy,
women's world could move. These documems have led mtemauonal bccomlng anacbronisnc, even obsolete. locreasingly a sbell of force, íf \\1tb Global consciousness of women '• rigb1 ro human <tilCUS, beWnning ..~1h
OpUl!On anJ locusc<l nnuonal ci!ons undcr an mtemauonal umbrclb. In considerable remaming dout, che scate neve.r has monopohzed thc means mtimatc mviolabililY, is explodin~ aci-oss the porenr arufice of smes' bar-
thlS pr0<:e>s, thc Je¡¡iun1•cy of the NGO. tha1 ha\c >pok<:n for womct1 ol violencc wuhin ns borJen, unless mnle vrolence J)l•tnst womcn is secn rkrs, erupting Lhrough che fissurcs of smte subordinatioo, aod rismg from
whorn st.itcs havc long l¡µioré<l h<t> bccn n!JJCai.Jly qucSuoo<'.d, e\C!I as us cncompa.<sed wtthin ji, 1.. illq¡itimncy more nnkcJ by the J11y, rhe siore tht ashc> of stotcs' colttpse.
thr lc'j¡Jt1mac) of stJle> in repraentrng 1hcir countncs womco-halí 1hc muy be incn:nsin¡¡ly irrel<"Vant to wamen, who have nl""' had meo's s1ake
populJtion nduded fmm rhc puhlic ordcr for cenrunell .mJ rrmamin8 in ir anyway."" In rhe Jbscnce of sta1es' 1ools of implementatioo, inrema-
out>ide pubhc powt:r even in mn>r democr>cies today-is lef1 unques· uonal law-like '>''Ornen largely laclciop access to legitimare force ro compel
cioned adherence to i1s will-bas had to develop a wider range of ml'allS to be
1
On Torcure

part one Torture is "'idcly recognizcd ns• fundamental violarion of hum1111 nght>.'
lncqualiiy on thc b~~¡, of sox is also widcly condemncd, wid seii equality
:tflinncd as a bask human rigllfS value and legal guarantee in many natións
theory and reality and intemarionally.' So wby is torture on the basis of ~e.x-for example,
in the fonn of rape, banering, and pomography- not seen as a vioL!tioo
of human nghts?' \\7hen womeo are abused, human rigbts '1!e violated;
anytluog less unpticidy assumes womeo are ooc bumao. Wheo torture is
sex-b.1sed. human rights stanclards sho,Jd be rccogniud ¡is >iol.ued, just
as mueh as wben the torture is bascd on anything clsc.
TmcrnatinnaOy, torture has n rerogniud profilc.• T1 usually begins with
abduction, detention. imprisonmeot, and eoforccd isolarion, progresscs
through exueme pbysical and menea! abuse, and may end in death. The
corturer has absolute. power. whicb torrare vicums belie1oe jo absolmely
and unerly. Life and death rurn oo bis whim. Vicnms are beacen, mped,
shocked with clecuicny, nearly drowned, tied, bung. burned. depri•-ed of
slecp, food. and human coornct. The a<roc1ties nre luniccd only by che
torturer•s lll.Ste ~tnd imi.1g.tnacion und any vo.lue Lhc \'iccirn may bé seen to
bave ali'"' or unmark«I. Verbal abuse 2nd humíliati(ln, making Lhe ,.¡etim
fecl \\'Orthless and hopeless, .re integral to Lhe torture hoving its intendcd
effect. Often torture ,.¡cttms are selected and tottured io particular ways
because they are members of a social group, far example, Jews in 1977
Argentina! Tonurers alw exploit human relinionships to inllia meocal
suffeang; a man wtll be forccd to waich his \lo1ÍC being raped. for example.
V1ctims are forccd to dnnk thor own unnc. to ~t t.htir own cxcrement.

'l'bts SpttCb wu 81\"CO al ao uutnwuooal confcrmce oo human ngfns oa N~rnbcr 10, 1990. tn
0.lftfl, Albt-nia, C•n.ad11. h ,..111 ociglnally publdhcd a• '"On fortw"C A Fc:mmht Ptnpecm'C: on
1iutn11ft ru,h1J1," ín 1ft1,._," IVtfN 111 1/y TUlflf/"i·irit Ctn1,.,.., A CJnhJ (JIJ/rnt• 21 fK.tthkoc:n
E. \lab.<1..- ami P..t M..b-r. cds. t99H
17
18 • lheory and R11ht1 On Ton.re • 19
20 • Theory and Rtoloty

SomeLUlles dru¡¡s ~re fordbly admmis1ered <hat aher persooaliries and meru.I obuse each .wd rvccy tLy thcrcaftér. He unJennm«l my "°" with
wcn1 by 1 ilidn' t tbmk was my last as he touilly lost cocmol He <lept
make bodily or mental control or evcn sclf-recogmaon ll!lposs1ble. Tonure other peorle 11ad forccJ me 10 m.art) hlm on udvict from hls l•W)'\:r My
\\1tb a gun bcsidc lum every ni¡tht as he promi>e<l he woold kiU me ;nd
os ofu:n Jesigncd os a slow procc>S toword on excrucintin¡¡ death. fü'Cll 1nnl\1uon in10 prosotuWJn \\·a~ u g.tnlt rape by 6-...·c men. arrnnJ.1,cd by ~1r
thcn sb,oot buruelf if 1 ihdn't subnuc to his obsessoon of sl"'~'Y and
\\lhcn une sun*h.es, evcnt) movc 11nd csNlare to\\~ard <louh, which is somc~ T r•ynor. 1t ,.-as the rumin~ pomo m my Ufc He thrcottned to sh<iot me
bondage .wd beatlngs Junng se• J was raped 11 ames berween March
time;. wi•hcJ for to =•pe the agony. One is Jware thot on<: could be with ihe pisto! if 1 didnºc go throu¡:h -.itb it. 1 h•d ne"er expenenced
nn.J sex before and u nppcd me apan. They tre:ited 1ne like an mtla1•ble
º84 and Novembe1 'Só 1 hacl four broken hands clurong iny m•rn•gc,
km~..i at 11ny prum M.1n~ ;ire causcJ by O\Y huslr.inJ J WU> pul IDtO the hospu.J lll tracuon for two
Wh•t tortur.: does 10 a human being is intem3tionally recognizc<I. lts plasric doll, piclang me up and movmg me berc and o.here. They spread
"""'h Juc to a beaung by hom. 1 w•lkcd \\ilh n walker sc""ml monolu
purpose •~ to break people. People change under such extreme pressure. m• legs chis WllY anJ that, shoving thetr thmgs oc me and 1n10 me, che)
nfrer thm \Vhcn 1 wn' ropc:J by jerry. 1 was olway• tied 10 mv bed. Tird
srudie<l under the rubrics of brainwashmg. post-trawnatic stress, •nd the were playmg music.J cbai~ wttb pans of my bo<ly. 1 havo ""'""' been ""
where m,- I~ u·crc spn!ad aport He tied llfe with nylon cords and ex-
Stockholm syndrome. Long-ceon consequetlces iodude dissoc1atio1l, which fngh1cnoJ and dtsgrJc..J and hunuliatod in my Irle. r folo Lke garbage. 1
tensíon rorcls 1evc:n ~oc úed up wbile J was sleepiog ar ornes. He would
proruotes surviv.il bur can be han! to reverse. \X'hat Oné learns bdng tOr· ongagcd in ""' •et• for pomography ag•orut my will to avo1d bcing killcd
then penetra!< me wjoh ob¡ects such as bis rille or a long necked wine
turcJ, Jnd wbat 1s ncC'CSsary to survive tt, can milke living latcr unhearablc, Mr Tr11ynor c0trced me mto p<>rnogrnphy by thn:o1cning my lífe 6rst
decanter or rwdvc Ulch artific1al ru.bber pentses. He woulJ sba\'C alJ ol
""h a .45 aummudc ei~ht shot and later witb an M 16 senli-~utomañc
pro<lucing su1ddc """" nfter many ydll"S, Thc gcncrally n!C01Jni2cd purp0$C
moehine ~on which bccame bis f.,."Orn• toy. 1 was brurally beaceo when-
the hair off my pavate ª"'ª as be $l!Íd be W11.0ted to "scrcw a baby's
of tortun! is to conrrol. imimidate, ar elimiome those who insuh or chal· cunt. l lo would sl•p me whilc 1 was ucd. coll me ali son1 of horribk
leoge or are seen to undennine the powers tba< be. ¡ypically o n!gime or e= 1 showed any SJ¡tns of resistance or lack of en!huSJasm for the freaky ndtnr< J brokc my urm On rwo OCcasions trying !O pct tway from him
a Clldre _seekmg to become a regime. Tonure is thus seen as polirical, a]. sex he required me to aa lli 1 .:n¡oyed. The lives of my fomily were
chn:atene<l Each chy 1 was rapcd, beateo, locked, punched, smadced, When h• would wa1ch porno movies cm our VCR, he would tcU me 1<>
thou¡!h 1t often seems thac h:s polirical overlay is a faciliming pn!lext for do ex•ctlv whot the ""'men in d>e movies luid Jone 10 rbe '""ª 1 would
the pure exerdse of sadlsm, a 1.>0licics of itself. choked, degru<led or ¡cUod :u b)· Mr. Trnynor Sonictlmcs •U oí these.
tell him 10 forge1 ir nnd then he would ronnnue to slap me around unul
\X'hen mese thiogs bappen, hwnan rigbts are deemed viola1ed. lt is ac· He consi•tcntly belmlod and humilw<..J me. 1 belicvc-d Mr. Tra\nor
hed j!el $0 llJlgty thar 1 waHfraid he'd beat me so harcl hcºd kill me. At
knowledge<l that aLtocities are commiutd• While therc ís no ulumatc an- would have killed me and 01hers tf 1 did no1 do whac he dcmandcd of
rimes be'd grab a large k.rufe he kept ln che drnwcr bes1d<0 our bcd ond
s11-.,r 10 the quc'Stion "Wby do thcy do it?" anJ tn thc contcxt of torture me. 1 didn '1 Joubt he would shoot me. 1 made m)~elf Mº numb as if my
hcd hold u to my face or bn!OSIS and teU me to do as he said ar be·d
linlc •gonmng ov<"r the questlon, nothing soops tbe pmctke from being bodv belon¡¡ed to someone else ... Simple suo:vival 101>k C>1'f)1hiog [ bad
cu1 me up. lf 1 d1dn' t oct loke 1 wos enjoying plelltÍng bim he'cl tbmucn
idcntilicd ond universally opposcd ;is o crime jus cogens. I mana¡¡ed ro escape on mre.e sepamc occasoons. The first and serond
me Jg¡iln and then rrpmy 1hc sccne he w11llted actcd ou1 from thc mO\'ies.
W.th this framework in mind. consider rhe following accounis' time 1wos caugln and suffered a brural lxaung md JO awful sexual abuse
T hnd no plat'C tn run 0$ l nc--·cr hot.1 uny money of my own Ho cut off
as punishmem. The thtrd ame 1 w.is di my parerus' borne and Mt.
the phone which Wlll> my only contact with thc outSide world He would
"Lindo LO\i:lace" wu thc nJune 1 borc durlog the two •nd ooe half ycar Tr:iynor tbreatcncd "' kill my parco~ ancl my oepbe1> i( 1 diJ not !cave
unm<tliaidy wuh lum The physic'al clica. of this are siill ll1th nie. makc me visit hun whcn he fuúshed his mailmllJl rourine .nd gi,·e him a
pcrioJ of impro,¡onmen1 begmnmg m 1971 Linda•• Lovd.icc" """ ctl<'.Iccd
blow 1ob on the publtc street wbile people wen! passistg by. 1 really
through phy>icul, mentol and Séxu•l tonurc ond ubust, ofocn 01 gunpom1 During my impri~onn1c:nt D\)' brcasts \\'ere in,cctcd u1ch 1.iliconc "·hieh
W"'1ted LO die.'
•nd throuMh threits on her life 10 perform sex acrs, tndudin¡>; forced has $1nte brokc:n up ond hns bcen dan¡:erous nnd p:linful Ali of 1hc
fdlatio and bestiality so thot pornographic film• coald be mude af her.7 surfoct veins of my ri¡¡hr leg were destro>-ed becausc 1 uscd 11 to p!OIC<'I
lll)'Self from me beatings. My doctor raid me that because oi ihe abuse. Now coosider this composuc sccoum of tbe s11s1cmoac viobtion of A
~k "LO\ d acc" thcn <lcscdbes cncountcnng Chuck Tr-;¡ynor, • pimp, as wwas unsafe forme ro h3\·e anothcr child sol had an aborooo wben 1 woman n:omcJ Bumhnm by a man nnmcJ 13.:glin, her husbanJ: lkglin was
follo"" wwocd to havc tbc cluld. lt took a Joog time to <:'..:Il begin to deul with w.cching an X rotcd rnovic on cable 1elcvision in tht famoly r<1om. He
thc: meow clÍecto. A pél'>On CJtO 't be bdd prisoner for two ancl onc h.U L·ntcrcd rhc bedroom, thrC\I· btr on thc bed, and bound her He ñ1)pcd
[\X')ben In resporut to hu SUl!Jlesrions ! Ice him know J would not bccomc off her dmbinM and be~an 1aking ph0tos of her He then sexually assuulied
uwolved in prostuuuon tn any wa\ 11nd told him J m1cndcd to Ji:-ave he yc•rs anJ che nex1 da) tru>t soc1c1y, trust the pcople who h>ve put me
her. Crisis cencer workers and an emergencv toom doctor testilied ihat her
1hcrc ond JUSl ¡;o on with 1hc lifc th•1 you c>nce though1 "·.u yt1uu.'
beoi mt up pby>ically anJ the canst:mt mental abuse btgan. J lttcrally "·ris1s and anides were madced &om betng ued to me bed by copes. He
beCiUTlc: o pri.>0.ncr, 1 wa:; 001 allou.c:d l1Ut oJ his l;.aght, nol e\'CU to lbc Now con>1.cler rlus account: forced her suc~lgh1 doffcrent Clllles 10 hnve sex with neigbbors and
thc b•ohroom, wbere he wotchoJ me through J bole m tbc door He slcp1 strongers whtle be took pbocographs. She was forccd lhrou¡di assault and
nn 1op of me •I no¡¡h1, he listcncd in on m¡ tclcphonc calls wub o 45 Mv nrune is Javne Stamen. At one rune 1 thou¡zhr there WttS no onc wbo
could help me to ~r awev from mv husband. 1~ wasn 't a day that hol.ltng tbcor child hoscagc to stand on tbc comer •nd invite men m for
•uu:>molic c111ht <ho1 pointed al me. 1 was b<-a1cn ph)l>ic•lh and suffered .ex •nd to h.1w sex with the tlo¡;. He bea1 her ¡;o th•I shc was nc•rl) killed
D• Torture 21 12 • lheory and Reoltty o~ lortur< • ll

She lescilieJ lO cpisodes of torture wilh a bJtrcry·charged c:uttle prod anJ ave capacmes are sy<te01Uuc.illy e.xplo11eJ. While che rate and intensicy ol Oftcn che rc.ison gl\cm tor not cotl.>idC'IÍJlg atr00.ties to \\Omen to be
un decuic cggbeatcr. Shc was u;keJ •boul photogoplu. in an ulbum these auoaaes and nolatloos "ª'> acros.s cultures, chey are never equal or torture 11 th.it tbC) do no1 rnvolve actS by smes. Thcy happct1 bctwccn
showmg her smilin¡i during the loCXunl cncountcn. Shc .,¡J that her h'1$- $ubstant"1Uy rev~ed oo the basrs ol sex. Ali th1s is done to women as nonsmc actor. in ci1.jl $0éic:ty hcnce •re sCctt .. not onl) unofficial but
bunJ threuened her with violente if she didn't <milc while 1hc:sc: phom· 14·01ncn by mf:rt BS tncn. uncon.'lcious und unofAan1zed Jnd unsystem•tic .ind und1rccted .md un
grophs were rnken. • Dai. contextualm:s thts, Jnd .1 ÍC\1 <efow:J cxumpla show i1 with more pUruied They do not happeo it is thought. by smte policy Th<:) jusi
Jn che acroums by cbese women . .U lhe same lhin¡¡s happen diar happen texturc ln thc UniteJ St.1tes, ~4 pcrcen1 of ali womcn nt onc time or bappeo. And craditionally, rntemaaooal instrumerus (as \\'ell as oariooal
rn Anrnesty lmernational reports and uccounts of tormre--excepr tbey anomer are victims of rape or "ttcmpted rape; for -.'Ornen of color. the consanmonsl govero srn1e acaon.
happen in homes in Nebraska or in pomograph)' srudios m Los Angeles nues are h111her." 1n 1988, 31 perccnt oi murdered woméll "'ere killed b1 Fim of ..u. che State IS no11lll mereis 10 power. To aetas u itts produ~s
rnthcr th>n prison cells in Chile or deteruion centers in Turkcy. But Lbc busbaods or boyfrtend• " Jn eg;ilitadan Sweden. one woman ts barteced ro an excepaonally inadequore definiuon for human rights wben so mucb of
social .,,J legal rcsponJte> to rhc ei<periences are not thc s_., at alL Tor· deatb every \\ eek to ten days. u Dramauc increases in cbe rate o[ reponed
0
the stconJ-dns. ~wus of womcn, from sexual objcctific:ation 10 murder.
ru"' is not co1uitlered pcrson;I. Torture is not ~uributed ro orno sick in· rape are debated mere; che debate is over 1~bechet che Ulcreases are • reill" il; done by mcn to womon without expres; or immcdiate ..,, oven "3te
dividua) at a time '"d d ismii;l;eJ 11$ cxccption;¡l, or if it is, thnt maneuver or "mtrdi • rcflcrt "" iotre'1Se t0 reporung. \'Chere \\·amen are cham:I or invol\'ement lf "rhe polirical" is to be dcfincd in tcrms of men\ cxperi-
is dismissed as o CO\"er-up by che hurrHln riAhts community. Tom.irc ''ictims hJve only rctcntly cv<n legally <!m<rgcd from che condition of being ences of bein¡¡ subiected 10 PQ\ló"er, it makes some !but only sorne) =se
are not ¡r,enerally asked bow many were tbcre .,.,th chem, as if it is not chnttcl, .c9 ;., 1he situiuion in Jnpnn. what nm rupe mean? If n woman cxis!l to center its ddinitioo on che srn1e." Bm if one is induding the unjusr
impoltant íf " happened only to you or you and • few orhers uke you. ro be se•ually used. to "'hat sexual use oí her is rhe d,U,1 mnn not encitled? power tm-olved tn che subiecoon ofhalf che human race by the other half-
With rorrure, an increase is not dismissed as 1usr an rncrease in reponing, Sweden. tbe Unired Smes, nnd Japan nre ali sanirnted wirh pomography. m11le dom.inanre-rc makes no seose to deline power cxdusívely 111 cerms
as tf a constant Jevel of such abuse is ucceprable. Billions of dollars are nat o( wh•t cho stare does when ÍI 1s dclincd 3S 3ccing. The srate is onh ooe
In the United Scaces, women disappear on a dnily basis-from thci.r homes.
m•dc selling •S cntcnainmcnt pictures of \\•hat is cegardcJ us torture, nor IJ'.om supemiarket parlong loes. Somedmes they are found m dicches or in.trumcnuilit} of scx ina¡uality. To foil to sce. rh1s 1s pure gcnJer bias.
is torture as such gcncr"lly regarded as ~cxual cntenainmcnt. Nc'Vcr is J floaung down ri\'Cts. Somcwnes we dig up cheir bones along wich those Oftcn this bÍ.!1$ llies un<ler thc R•g of privac}. so thut thos" arcJ> that ilre
victim of rortu t" uskcd, didn't you rcully wom it? oí ten or fifte.!n othcr women ten or fiftecn years btcr. !)cri.tl r>p15ts md dcfincd os inuppropriatt: for Slate in\'ohcment. wherc thc discour<c of
A simple double standard is at work hcre, What fi.111dnmcnrnlly dis1in- seri.u murdcrcrs, who ""' nlmo&t ~lw•ys men, t.1rg"' women Jlmo.t cxdu· hurnan ri¡¡hrs is made irrele\'llnt. are chose "atea• in which the majority <'Í
¡¡uishes torture, understood in human ñ1thts terms, from the events these ,i,.dy. the world's women lh"e out their days .•,. Moreo~er. che foct that there is
women have described is char rormre is done tomen as well as co-women. \X'h)· i.n't this politioil? Thc •buse is nei1her random nor indívidunl no sin!de state or organned group expressly dedicaced to thts pursmr does
Or. more predsely, when what usnally bappens to womcn as these women Thc foct th<ll )1lu may know your assailnnt does not menn chac your mem- aor mean t:lu11 ali states are nor more or Jess dedicated ro ir on ao operau<e
have dtscribc!d tt happens co men. \\'hich it sometimes <loes. women 's ex- bcrship m a ¡r,roup choseo for violauon 1s irrelevam ro vour abuse. le is lc:\'d or chat 1t IS not a d<!Cp structurc of social, pohtical, .iod legal orga-
perkocc u th" templatc íor it, so chose men. too, are ignor<'d as \\'Ornen súlJ sv>1ematic and group-base<l. le defines che quafüy ot commumty life !Úz.ltion. Wby human nghtS, mcluding thc inrt:matioruil bw agarnst torture,
ttrc. \X/hen thc •busc is •Cl<unl or ummatc, esp«ially when it is sexual and and is defined b) tbe disuibuaon of power in society. 1t would seem <hat should b<: limitcd by it is the quesuon.
inílictcd by un inúmiuc, u i; gcndcred, hcnce not considcrcd a human somcdung is not considered pohtical if " is done to women by men, es- Second, th" <tnte aetuully is typically llccply Jnd aetivcly comphcit tn
rights viQfation. Torture is re¡¡ardcd •S politicnlly morivoted; srotes a.re jlcn. ¡x:ci..U) ,[ 11 15 L'O!lsitlt:ttd 10 be ""'· 1ñen it is not consideR.J poliut•I
the obuses mentioned, cc>llabornring in Jnd condooin¡¡ chcm. Linda "lovc
erally required to be involved in it. Wh•t oceds askin11 is \\'hy rhe torture bccausc whnt is roliucal 1s wh<n mcn control •n<I huri und U>c 01hcr men, lace" describes her escape from Mr. Traynor: •¡ called the Be\'erl¡ Hills
of womco by men is not 1óeeO as torture. speci6rnlly why it is not seen as mcnning perscms who nrc deserving of dignily and ¡><JWer, on somc bJSis pohce depanmenr and 1old chem my husbmd \VAS looktn¡¡ tor me wtch an
politic-al, and just wha1 the invokemem of che state in it is. mcn ha\'e dc:cidcd is dc.en.1ng "f di¡¡nity and a measun: of power. likc M 16. They told me they couldn't be im·olved ""ch domesac afuurs. \'<'hen
Women are b.ilf thc human race. To pul the individwtl accounts in com·cnnonal polirical idcology. becausc that is a basis on which chey have l 1old thcm lus we:ipons were illegal, ch~ told me to ~I back when be
conrext. oJI orounu the world, women are banered, r.iped, SCJ<Ua!ly abused beco depnvcd of dl¡:nity .nd power. So thor sufferlng Itas che di_goiry of wos io the room."• She tesuñcd bcforc a grand JU!) in un QbscenLty ca>c
a~ childrcn, prosutULed. and rnerc¡¡¡¡ingly Uve J>0rnograpluc hves rn contexts in,·olving one of Lhc: films madc of her Thc: ¡;rund jury looked •< th" filiru
polmt:S and is callcd torture." \X'omen as such are not seen as desef\ing
saturnrcd more or less with pomogr:iphy.' Womcn do rwo-thirds of thc ot dignily or power. nor does the se.xualuy that defines us ha"e dlgi11t.1f)' and :ukcd her how ~he coold h•vc ~cr done that. Shc •.Lit! becuu.e J gun
world's worl<, <:arn one-tenth oí the world's inromc, and own le.s than s1and;rJs, nor is womcn's bclief rn our own dtgmry g1vcn thc di¡¡nity or was at her hcnd lt did nothin11"' As lind.1 Mnrchiano, she later tried to
one·hundredth of the world's propeny." Women are more likcly to k po\1•1 of bdng regurded ns n poluie1tl id~'Ology Thc Jdin1uon of the p(> have an ordinance passed chat wotJd bavc madc 11 pnssible for her to brin~
property chan to own any. Womcn ha"e not even been aUov.·ed t0 \'Ote lrtical hcrc is .u1 unequaJ c>nc, d<~erminetl on the bi1Sis of kX such tbat a civil nction a¡?ainst the pomographers for damages tor t:\'etytbmg thi:y
unul very recendy and still are noc in sorne countries. Women's reproduc- atrodti,,. to womc:n ~re denicd as utrocities by bcin¡¡ deprived of r<>liricul did to her aod to remove che pomography of her trom distnbutioo." Thts
meanin¡¡. ordinance. a sex cqwtluy law, \\':IS mvnlrdared by the Umced StJres rouns
On lorture 25 26 - lbeory and Rtality
14 - Theory ••d Rullty

dura>.~ 1n "'htch a m.ui "'"' v1olendy Jc<.uned, torturcJ. anJ uccu!>CJ uf tn tblS bst of srnte atrocmes the decnmin.tliz..1uon of pornograpby, first 10
as a viol~oo oí freedom of expression. aren though the coun of appeals
that uwalidateJ n recogruzed ali of thc hal1Jl$ pornograpby did to womco poliucnl cñmcs b• a ~roup th•t wa~ aílcgcdly officinl but wa.. Jctualh • Der:un:trlr., meo JO S"'·edcn. Those wcre offic1ol statc •cts. howe-ver bes1de
:lllu •grttd tlut 11 uctu:t!ly did tho.e l».1nru. Tlus c:ourt hdd that pornog- more or le>s unoffidal but officially-"inked-at denth squad. He has n~er tbe polm of 1hc hnnn 10 -.·.,mcn lh= prior pornograph¡ Ltw• wt:rc. No
rophy mu~t be protcrtcJ .,. spcech m ~pue of 1t$ hnrm to kx cqu;ality-
been found \\"hot was done to hllll was legally impmed m Honduras os !'°rno¡:raphv l~w~ ,11 llil ;, open •oa.<un on womcn "ith offidal blt:J1smg. So
mdt..,J, b,.,..,uJc oí these harm,, annsmuch .., the •·alue of tht! speech for a state under intemaoonal law mos•ly becuuse the abuse was S)'Sccmatically ~ the acre»-,·the-bourd lcg.1líza1inn oí all partic1punts in pros1itunon.
pur¡iose.; of prot«tion mts measured by the harm n did 10 "'ornen ond 10 tcierate<f by the ~overnmenL The abuse of me women Jescnbed wns not \'<'hy uc thcre no hum~n ri¡¡lm s1;indards for torrares of women as a
their equality" \X'hen dus result was summarily aflirmed by the U.S. Su· ottícial. m. che narrow sense at thc ume it happenecl but 11s covcr·up, sex? \'Cby are thcse atrocities 001 seco as sex equaliry violaaoos' The
preme Coun, the U.S. ~<Wernmenr legalized an express and oclmmed lcg1U!IlJ2llUbn, •nd lcg•líuuon JÍtcr thc: fact wcrc opcoly so. The bLk of problem can be explained in part m terms ot the =eived ootion of
cl'lctuve r.cmcdy "'ªS entitdy oflícial. The abu>é was doné, JI the >CI} IC;t>l, cqualuy, wbich has served as a iairly subde cross-culrural template tor the
~uman aghtS violarioo oo che \'Íew that che hann thar pomo¡i.rapliy cau<es
IS more !Jl'lpOrtant chao me poopJe Ít huns.·' Tu.is is cenainlv state ratifi.
wtth oí6cial lmpunny and lrg.Jm:d disregard Th~ 1busc IS S)'!tenrnuc and legal luce of mi;,ogyny. 1be rradiuonal concept is die AaslotdlJln one of
c-.ition oí her abuse. k also rillses che quesuon. if romeone 1'auk p1c1ures knmrn, the disregord is offidol n11d orgonized ond 1he effecth"' 11overn· lr'CftUOg likcs alike and unükes unaJike-mostly likcs ohke. In pracucc, 1his
o! what happc:ns m pmoo oells JO Turkey. would they be wld .lS protectcd
mental tolerance IS • maner of l.1w ond policy. mcoos th.11 to be •n equul. you muu be thc sorne u whoarcr 'l!ls the
cxpn!Ssion and >t!xmil cntertt1inmc111 on tl1c open markct, with tht s1n1e Le¡ially, 1he pattem is one of nadonal nnd internacional guornntees of dominant standard. Thc unlikes unolike p•rt hns ;llways been .n uncom
sex equalitv coexisting -...1ch massi•·e rat<.'S o1 rnpe and banecing and tratfic fortable Pllrl of equaliry law, really •n interna! exccption m tt, :so di111
scen os uninvolved? The pornography of Lmd• ronunucs 10 prolifcratc
111 "·omen through pornography efrecttvdy condoncd by law. Sorne pro·
world"~de. affirmurive actioo. for e:<ample, is rcgnrded as thC()retically disreputable
gt<:.SStve lllternational human nghi. lxxhcs are begmrung 10 lll<¡lilll! IDLO
JPme St"men wr0<e her acrount from the Nassau Counrv Correctiooal sorne duncnsions o( thd!: BSues undcr equ.ilitJ rubrics-nooc 111to por·
and lo¡ncally problemaac, even contrad1ctory. Tbe Ans101dian approacb
Facility in \leu· York, u·here she was imprisoned. Sbc "~ ronvicted ol to equality. wh1ch dommates worldwide, never confronts severa! problems
~ogrJphy, sorne into r:tpe nnd bnttering.'" Rape is now more likely 10 look
?Janslnughter m Jem•'s killmg by thrtt men she supposedl¡ soliciLéd•.fa- iha~ the condiuo11 of women e.'poses. One is, why d<>n'Lmen, parucul:irl)
l1kc • potentrnl human ri¡¡hu violation when it h•ppens m official cust<tdy ,.
1Jence ol "barrered women's syndromc" "~ cxclutlcJ from her trJal. ro wh11c upper-closs men. haw to be thc 5•me "" anyooc m ordcr '" got equal
A wom:m's human ri¡¡)tts are mpre líkely to be deemed yfoliued when the
tbe reporLed •ccomp:m1meo1 of JuJlt:W n:rruulu such as • rm not golng to trC'.ltn1Cnt? t\noLher ~' mcn 11re ~ d.ifícrcnt fro1n ~'amen ~s '\\-Ornen ilre
sute can be sccn as an insrrumemalíty of tbe rape. Yet the regular laws irum mc11· cqu.illy díffcrcm \X'hy orcn't 1l1cy punc<hed for 1bcir Jiff.,rences
~1"" ill'IY wom:m 111 N•ssau Count)' a Liccnse to kili her busb:tnd • .md •Jcrt;·
and dietr ~ukr cvetyday admmisrrauon are not seeo as officíal srate m- líke womcn urc? Anothcr is. wlty is equality os well satislied by equ.Jiring
S1.1men IS 1101 011 trinl hcre but Jnyne Stnmen is.,. Prosecuuon •nd 1uilmg
volveroent ID legahzed se.< 111equal1ty. ·· The fact that mpc happens is re· down as up? In e>mer words, ií equllliry is treatiol( likes alike and unlikes
ate SWCe' UClS C¡Ut )'Oll imagine 3 murder prOSCCllriOn bv a Qate A1l9-inst a
garded by sorne far-tlunlong groups and agencit.11 as a violaúon of a ncmn unlike, if you ~t somebodv down in che bole that rhe unlikes are in. in
mrturc victim who killed a tonurer while escapi.n¡t? lf rou can can rou
of >Cx "<1.U<lllt¡ Bw tbc fact that thc lou: of r.1pc protccts rapi>18 and is theorv that is just as equal as elew.riog tbe deoigrared ro die level of tbe
imagine Amnesry Inrernational ignoring it?" ' ·
\\·riucn from thcír point oí ,·icw to guarant"" impunity for moSt rapes 1& dommant standard set by tbe prlvtleged.
1n tbe Burnham case. tbe convictloo for marital rape tbat the wife won
at u:ial was o~crrumed oo appeal because of tbe fuilure o{ rhe judgc below e>flic:i•lly rc~ardcd '" • •iolatíon of the "'"' of scx equallí¡. natio11al or Thc upshoL o( tllli apprOách is what is calléd in Amcricun law che "stm·
international, by '1rtuaUy nobody. tLldy SÍ!Wlted ·· test, • concepl tbat 1s U$cJ in onc form or unothcr oround
Jt1<1 1ponte LO insttuct the fury diat the husband tru~ht have belie\'ed that
Hi¡\h on rn) IL<t of Stalc atrocines of 1his son is rape faw's defense of ~he worlJ wberc\'er Ltw requircs equality." &, npphcd 10 womcn, h mc:.tn•
!'.Is. Bumham ronsemd •• Tho:re was no st1mdarJ bcyond which 11 WllS
mtstaken belie:f in consent. Tb.is permits the accu~ 10 be exonemed ti 11 men don·t nced 11, women don'1 get 11. Mm assnch do not nccd cffc<'t1ve
rcgurded a. obvious that o humon betng \\'lll v1ol.,cd hcncc true co1ucn1
he tbmks t:he woman co11sented. no mantr how much forc" he used. Tbis laws n¡¡amst rape. banenn~. prosmution, and pornogrophy (aldiough sorne
1>"aS mconcdvable. No recognition thut pcople break· undcr torture. No
is thc law in Caoa.da, New Zealand, :llld che Uruted Kmgdom, as wcll as
miliznuon thar anyonc u•ill say •n¡1hinl! to a wnurer 10 try to make it of the1~ dQI, so not havmg <uch law. for women is not nn ínequalíty; 11 is
somt pan& of 1he Un11ed States, incluJing CaliíomtJl, wbcre die Bumh~111
.rop. When \\'tlm<!D bre.k under torture. wc att said to ha•·e coo_<enred. JU'<! a d1fference. Thus are these abuses rendered pan of che= difierence
~.,,e wao Jd1u~1ca1cd. Anothcr Cllilltlplc íi Jbortion's uncoruutulldn.tlicy, as
or the mrturer could havc thou¡zht ""' did. Picturcs of out ·confessions" the .pcrmincd treating of unaLikes unalikr. Bccau.~ there are relatwely few
~n lrc1"11J: A further cxamplc i> thc uffirmauve protection of porno¡uaphy
ID tbe form of pornography follow u; around for che r:est of out lives. Few surularl}· raped, bJttert:d. or prosututetl mcn ru-ound to compare wuh. lor
m the Unued Srn1cs. mduding undcr 1hc CB>C m which Lmd• • Lo,·chicc" they art comp:trativd.y 111\'J>ibk and gcnJcrcJ íanalc), such abU>es to
say, th•t 1s.rú who sbe re.illI Is. everybody breaks under tonure. ¡\fanv do participaredu Ot course. the Onned St3tes, an imemotionaJ outlaw of
.ay, be could havé bdiCl!ed 11: bes1des. sorne worneo hke tr. - womcn are not sub¡t<tcd to e<jUllluy bw •t aU. \X'hcre the lnck ol similantv
ma1or p•oportions. is not bound by most of tite rdevanr 1mei:national
becausc of sc.x 1ncqunJ1ty, th~
1
Thi• !! the lau• of pornography, thc l.iw of bJncrcd \\'Omen's sdf of \\'Ofo'1t'11 S condnion to men is _e:xLrcnic
ag:reements. not havi~ rntified them. But other counmes where the por-
def~sc thc: /Jw of rJfl" Wh1 isri'l thi• State mvolverncnt? Fornully ns ,....uJt '' thot the law of sex equal1ry does 001 properly •pply.
oogt:llpby of her, and others hke h~. is m1ffickcd a.re. l would aJso include
conh~ur•1ion is vet;• close 10 1he rccent case Vel.1~quez-R'1<1ñguez v Hon· Sex inequnl11y, in this >-Íew, i< not Slmply a di<tinction 10 be made prop-
On To"ure • 21 H•man Rt&hls '"d Clob1t Voolence A1a1nst Women 19

crly ur tmpropcrl). "' tn thc Am1utd1.1n uµ¡much h t> lunJ.1menwUi d


h1eurdiy, hcre tntU.ill) a 1wo 11crcJ htcrJrLh) lncq11.tl11y pruJuL.. >)•tcm·
2 \\a~ she a humJn ,,,tnlicc in a rd1gion 1h.11 ha• in our umc J?O~ >ecular
or unJcrgmunJ> \\'u, ohc .,,cnu.Jly luckc<l to dc-Jlh, her tn>ides tom out,
au1.: o;,uborJindUoo, di in che 'nu.Hltll1t oí thc \\.tlOlt"n J1~(.1.ls~J.n Thc c... HtunJn Right~ and Global Violence thc ,..,,l lli her <l1>pm<J of whcn thc>e plrt.• wcre not usdul ID tbí.s ""J}
n.1<li.n 'iuprcmc Cmtn m 115 1\11J,,.,, 1 Jcci"'"' and CJl<'ll foll<'l'·mg h0> •n) 1m>rd 1)11.I >he Jie by her nwn h•nJ, Ji¡¡nificJ JnJ powcrful. ¡·c1 1hc
Against Women
come cl"'cr th•n an\! t>thcr cmm m 1hc wtirl.I ro bcgmmn¡c ro rerogn17e 11re.11n1 01p11ul.iitlfl m • worl.I 1h•1 "•ni• 1><>mm <lead?
1h1• lundJmcntal nJlurc o[ tncqu•lit), k·•Jmg thc 1.-orld on 1he «•hícct " Mo-.1 t>Í thc umc, u " h•rJly "'>nh ..kirlj! ,.·hethcr 1hc 1>·ay <he Llicd.
To be COlbblml ,..,r.h cqualm gu;aun1ccs in tht> appro:tch i, lo mov<'. to 1ncludmg whm ,iolcn1, u'H dlecuvdy pcrm1ncd 1'ow • truly or.her·
cnJ ""' inn¡ual11\' \Xncr«cr r.hc "'"'' rcmfor<c. gcndcr h1t:un:by, tt \10· wt•rldly quouoo: Her l!O\·cmmmt. JiJ 11 know <he existed. tbcn ceased
We> kg.J cqtt.tJit) gWtlllltC:O, tn n•t1on.J Cl>fblllUllO<l> •nJ lD l0lcl1Ul10<1.iJ to cx1.>t? \\'a:. hér """""'" .and p...sin11 ncr <:1-cn counced? Otd sbe reg-
COVCIUnl$ &> "'(Ü. 1>tcr cnou¡ih 10 bcwme a ua11.>11c:' For thc uomen ""'ºare around us OOU'.
Undcnt.anJm~ 1ncqu.di1i •• h1cur<h) m.1kt'S thc torture OÍ ""mrn be- bq;inninR ¡J...,..i) ID 1970, ¡¡.unJIJ¡! momcntum al"r 19SO, ansia·cn toques·
camc ci '''" an obv1<>u; human n¡;hu 1uu.: obontrt" onl> be<·•....,
of '" Y"" li.no.. 1hooc lxincs th.al .rch.iet•l<'l!i>ll Wil up from ancieru civiliu uons !tkc r.hoc lx-g.i.n to be ln01&TI \\"h.lt h•s bcen lcam..-d sin.:c-. • n:sul1
J'C".....l\cn<.'S.'I In thts lt¡iht, law• th•t rrul11hi1 .. hat '"'mcn nL..J for 1100<? Oíd\'"""'"' o.nntlcr aboul ...-omcn thc kinJs of qu.,.1ioo• r.hat Clln abnut m>lcncc .a~ain" ""mtn globally chmgcs C\'t:')1hm~.->r •hould-
tqualil), such as rt'.<ln<lton• <>n ab.>nton, •nd unmforc<'d Ltw<, <uch as 1he be, a<keJ o[ bones: l-low olJ ,..•, •he "·hen •he had her fim period" Oid •bout how ,..omt'n ·, 1" e• •nJ dcaths ore undcNood On"" such fom can
Lrw agams1 bau=~· which can makc •1<>1mcc u·omm'< onh su"'Í\-..1 op· "1e ~~ 1ha1 olJ, OiJ <he cal b<t> Do her li~amcn1 atuclunems show she he 5"Cn to \.e pan o( 1 s\~lcrn, lhc ""ª' hum.an nghL• are understood,
tion. net'.J 10 be n:tb~ht. TllC\ 110la1c hum•n ri¡?ht' l...aws r.hat Jon 't fu d.u~ anJ liHc:J too much lor her lumc' Otd shc bci.r a childt Was she parncularly r.he meanm¡¡ of cqual11v, alo;o chan~cs. or should .
thc: '10lmoo, Mlch., ilic l•w oí ""11-Jdcn'C. r•p<:, •nJ ob,,.cnuy m mo>t .iill a clulJ r.hm! Wcrc "·omcn's ,kuUs, bach. and leg. crackcd itlld B~ v1olcncc a¡tatnsi womcn. 1 mean •l(l?Tt<>1on ~e and explon.aaoo
pi.a.en, 1iol.uc bwn.n nghu .•\JI ""' .Uhrmamc •ldlc •<U or i-m\·c broltcn b, bloo.• whco thc> "'"" sull ahvct Bono ldve tbe lrind of trace ot womcn bccau;.c: "e are wom"'1. S\"Stcm1caJJ, anJ sys1emanc:all~. Sys-
om1»1on> 1h.u J1><1 untn.ic <•n 1he b.-" ol 'ex anti Jcny rd1..í for scx th•t 51>11,; ll'>Ul'O-\JllU,.¡, rnou1h> . .1nu,cs-Jo nol \\'e will never kn01&· tontc. mcarung >oelttll) pattcmeJ, mdudtng kxu.tl bat:1Ssmcn1, rape, bat-
o.¡ual11y v1ol.i10n' The l.itk ,,¡ l.1u·, a~;lln•t thc h11m11 womrn cxpcncncc 1f 1hesé "omcn "'cíe np¡>éJ <1pl'11 nr nu mio. llcr hrain lea•·cs no trace 1crn1g of won1en b) 1ntunate>. scxu.al abu.., ..,( ch1ldrcn. and womln k1llmg
in SNiety bccau~c \\"C ;U'(' \\.tlln('O, ~UCh _., m~t OÍ th(' hanns of ftOín.<lg d1hc1 anJ oftcn no rccwJ of 111 conienh. \X'c w11l ncvcr know if h.-r minJ In r.hc contcxi c.if ¡xwcn)' 1mr<:n•h<m, colon1..lism • .anJ raa>m S)">tcm•uc,
.. phy. also •iol.11cs hum.n n~hio \'(/ornen are human 1he'1', 100 w., frmured, h<r <rlf 'l'lintcrcJ. her spim shwered \Vhai w•
ha''C left mcanm~ in1c1111nn.Uly nr11.1mze.I includin11 l"º'li1u11on, pomo11raphy, sex
U. wbeo womén ore tonurcd bCCllu-.c \\'C are "·ornen. 1he law rttognirtd of her " <1lent here \\'e wtll n~r hear 1he o.·or<k she •roke. ~o ancicnr '"""' ritU<d 1ort.urc, ond c:>ffid•I cusiodul 1onurc in which womcn are
thac a human bci~ had her humJn ri~ht> dolJ1c:J. thc 1erm "'nj\hts" woulJ 1able1 will hkdy 1ell u• wha1 <he •aid or whe1her she leamed m \\TÍte. cxplC>ltt-d und nolat<-d for i.cx, r<>l11ks. and proh1 tn a contel(t of, and in
begm 10 bave ;omcr.htn¡: of thc conten1 10 whkh \\e m1gh1 uspirc, anJ r.hc \X'hat 1 w~m to know 1hc mos1 about ll'Omen ol thc past 10: How chd intricale collnlxira1ion w1th. po•cny, 1mperiabsm. colonialism. and racism .
1erm ·wum.rn • woulJ, ln Rid1arJ Rony'> plu.-c. bc¡¡ln to become "• nam~ •he e.he~ D1J shc burn JcCl<lenrnlly lrom volcanic ash or on purpo;c from .Rcsearch on thes~ rcaluie. arounJ 1h~ world presenrs a p1crnre of ~­
for n way of bc1n¡! hun1.1n." 111 kerosene? Du.I ~he 111akc hgh1 like BudJhbt mo11ks or go in10 tLrknei.s grcssion that is phys1citl, verbal. anJ crnotionJI; ara that are unconscious
l1kc mo•t of us? D1J <he J1c blccdin~ In childbinh und !mm 01.her wounds and rl'ckles~ a• well ., 1mcn11<>11.1l, thrt"•tcncJ .is wdl os dclivcrcd. This
con,idcreJ dolllL"llll"? W11' •he''"" .,f 1hc p.llnf'<',..,J fcw wc hear much '° •r>1em ,. •odc1v·w1dc. privoir '" 1>·cll •s public. Jircctcd •go111s1 childrcn
abou1. b;11he.t in m1lk anJ ¡>•rn<lcJ abou1 m<anin¡c. T 'iClrnetimc< think, us wcll •• ••lults Ir. nfhci•l impunily i~ ~r.n1C<! by omi>sion us ,..eJJ us
u~I hy t>nly one rn.1n JI • time, her duon' •liced out lc>ng •ince, pcrhaps commi•,10n. lw "h,u 11 foil• 10 do "' wdl .., h) whJt 11 does \'<'hcn the
Jym¡c quictly of <Ollll' ""·nmnn'• Ji<ea•e" wc like 10 thtnk today is obsolete" sooal sy>tema111ot1t>n •nd lc¡¡"I rn~tiiuuona.ltzaunn of r.his abuse becomes
D1d shc dte tryin¡¡ 10 COllll' becv..ecn mcn in r.heir bonding confbcts aod v1S1ble. connecuon> cmerrie bcrween marna~e and the family. and prosri-
get run through hke thc s.b1ne "'-ornen m sorne man 5 unmorul p3Jllnn¡c! 1u11on and sexuJI har1"...ncn1 Both n:qwre sexual deil\'ery for matmal
DiJ shc J1< lur • I'"'"' bu1 whMC potnt>-hke thc ull<llcn at M.isaJ._.. 1 su"·1val. 'lñc m.t.n-hu.b.tnJ, emplO)<r. punp, iohn-is m r.he socul po-
Was <he<'!""'"'¡ ot lurth bn.1u>c •he,. .. n•>t J bo> •nJ 1he M:lcctl\1' MU<>n to cxplon, donunJlc. •nJ lbc. In >uch •ptcm>. whJI b C211o.I v10lcncc
tcchnolo¡;y tor 1lxnun¡; IJt"r An<I only her h.J not )CI bccn Jc'\..,loped> ..,h<:n 1t 11 nc.~u-..c::J u 'uc.:h li cnJC'm1~, nP« exccpn<-,rttl, ~ tA·e:U J!!. ep&Jcmic
.anJ penA>ivc In 1<><1cuo <hJractcriLCJ by 1uch nrrungt'11lcms. and most
att, w<>mcn Jrc ob1cct• for 11Cxu•l 1111C, .....-nN .. pmpcny for ~on
lron;i • lrmurnpt ot e Lal1. dm .-a ~ ID die- ~mfC'ftDt'.C •t...lubal Su.au-'°lcl klr
'Thit b
Ac.t.mn, f.,,.. m dw <.auru O...mnü: \:mlmi. .. .. 1·. .a;1,..,,..._ Coenn-. (,W'lhftl.md. and acb.rn¡I(", to be, •'i<>latc:d and ahntcd oi ,.,11
Fm-,• 19'2 \X'or1J"1Jc r<'CJrch on nokn"" "l'dln,1 ,.·omm documcnts an O\'tt·
21
30 • lhtory ••d Rulotv J1 • lft,.ry 1nd R••l•IJ

,. hdman~ •mounr ot JI, olwa,'5 unc:kroumJtc:J and comrdcrc:J ro be un- hcha\l(>r "" ~ n:¡>Nt conunues 10 ob<cf\T.... uh rq¡onl ro bannv m mJKulanm and lcmamnin-, p-.iralkl to thc dm1m10 ot battenng's dofW·
J.r,vuntcJ l hcrnf,dmin~h. mcn do u 10 wumt,, lt 1.J.05 culruralh >pc- panicular. thJt ·u ha' ~one bqtely unpum,heJ. unn:markcJ anJ ha>"'"" n.UICc onJ subrm.,,.100. •cuoo aod !'&>'MI) lt mü.o sen.e of tbc cbydum
uh<' tornu but 1> tttmanglv n<"cr noi rhc:tt <.;o.t'f11mcnr J....s nar ro bc.:n IJllth, al no< exrbad<, condoo..i "" A!thaugb thcrc " Ln.k rontro- and cx'Clcs ol banam¡t."' v. bicb trad. thooc ot ~tllJl...ochism_ h mako
noth1111t d'f«t"" .1bou1 11 any•h.:rc \'i.,lcnc" •g.un•t \\'Ol'llm 1.-nJ. no110 \U.J oo rh., o.l>lC'll<c ot rlu. probl= .lfl\.,.licrc, ll ltt.ll1> that mooa place> tcnK ,,¡ rhc r.tat and dlc.:11\"C Jq,.t a<ecptabduy oí bancrmg ioduJmg

be "'l:""',...i 1n1n da'<TI:IC cam¡>aagn•. hkc thc ~liJ.llc r..ui:c "' 1h., H<>- nttd ro <lo rl>nr ov.11 "udi to C011\111Cc U>Cln that '""· 11 luppc11$ bac murJcr, undcr rubna of cnmo ol h<Joor anal r•s.100,.. configureJ a.
1"'1111'1 \\uh """"""'· i1 has bttn a ttbm·c <"UlnmJ ronJ1<1111 h m•y be lOO,. rxr•r<'UÍOD.• nf 1hc nulc rok ond thc rnrmMty ot h<-1erof~u.i love and ahc
•l('V. I\' gl..h.all\ ..->eala11n~. but e.en thc ras• nr prcsent knmm •mnums farla1n11111 h•nc.-nn~ a< more rontro\'c.-rsaal 1h•n donamcnung au n1$ honor ol rhe IJmil)
that cxm •re cnouith lor an emer¡:eoC\ acnt-c In ¡he lueratutt. bonery of w<>m<:n 11 attrib111r<l ro, omm~ 01bcr Sttm¡: ..,, as an eroocization ol hat red 11 rrohlt>matic for many people.
l re»; t-uhunal srudac:S ol '~olence ag.illm lliOmen u1 11111m•1c serun~. than¡:s. alcC'>hol. dru¡ts. mcss underdC\"'1opmcn1. mcntal 1llncs.. and a cyde bur 1 think thar D\ISOg}-11)' as tbc namc of 1he S)~tem we are confronl1lllt
Jrawn mo~th but nul cxclust\cl} lrom the Wcs1. pre.<:nl lllul1lmaung J ura of vte>lcnce The-e explanarions fail 10 <:xplaan why not Jll mcn "ho are so her~. and pan of the difficulr. of explamin1t rhaa sysrem so persisrem and
011 wilc •bu'C. ( .ross·ruhutal s1mlie> show thu1 rute> ol hu;banJ.10-wife alllictcd ban<r, nnJ wh) somo ol rhosc mcn who urc not >O altl1cted- ren.adous, lio \\,th leavmg scx out. 111 thl$ connernon, note that rhe UN
m1lcncc .re uhuut cqual in rbc Umtc:J StJll'>, J•tpm, Jnd lnJ1,1 Onc sruU)' 1ho.e d"'·dopeJ, ~bcr, 'ªªº mcn-Jo. Pcrhopi. 1h1> I• whrre i.tr..-.s comes .lclrniuon oí domesnc \'toleoce andudcs bmcrm~. tape. 1nccs1. and e010-
nf India hmt. 1h.11 [dlomesuc hoolagooi.m .anJ vi1>lencc ·~·nn.r m•mic.I 111, but 11 v.oulJ hJvc lO be thc SUC$S of [)nvdcgc No1h11111 cxrlam•. or uon.1l Abuse. yct mosr of rhe 1.Lua collectcd d..cwhcre under the rubnc
"'""'"" <'<'< ur all º'"' rhc world on a "~nificant and da<mrhan~ seo le "• uttcmpt1 u' c''"l.un. \li.'h} won1~-\\·ho are p<)('U'e1 {ha1n mcn. l•t.:k dc\'cl nf Jomc•ll< 1ic>lence do not mduJ.: 11> 11<:xu.al fonn> dt 1tll. cvm rape
Thc '""'' C<'ndudcs rhar rn "'"'" dom1non1 s<><"icuc< lmosr arel, Jll!'rcssim opmro1 fl'S<'urcc< roo. ore morr stres..,d. ha1-e b.:<:n hru1al11c.I for ~""'"' PreJmahh. rhe more women are .c:•u.tiud an 1 •ociety. the hi¡ther thc
bv hu<ban,l~ a~ainst "~'eS as sooall..- cffecuvcl,- ollo,...J t\ srudv ot Papiu ounn• "'"'"'~ Jrink and r•ke drul!" ro dcnl "11h 11. and ne .,facn Jri,= acnul 1nor r-eponcdl nue of battenng wnuld be Thi< W<>uld make "'""'
:-.lcw Gu1Ma hnds up ro 67 percenr of womcn battettJ by mJle rnnmaics • cr.m ¡,, 11-do nN battcr mcn more of rhc e<calanon m ba~nn~ rhar wtlll'l<'JI rq>0n frnm de1Tlopilllf roun!TÍ<s
'1
In Ku,.•u. a 'mal) hnds tbc same for of I" womcn >UIVC')ed' In M:n~a ~n~ ,,.-.lcncc •11amst womm r; • form oi thc «'ICUI mcqualny ol the •nth rbc mtlUJ< of JlOl1l<lirNphY ...-bach ~•ualazes 111equal11v on • mass sc:ilr.
1hhoul!h k-s public means oí SC11u.!12111g u-ornen can al.o be effecuve.
•na! llwWid s1uJ1CS ol nn.-spapers repon s1JUU,hunt •muunb ..,f alomcsuc ~C> as 1hc anal\"IS thJt h.i> come out <:l th<: >hdtcrs ,..¡,c..., rhe be.u.:o
\loltn,c .agam•I womcn • In ~agcna ood lJb-mJ.t, sm•ll mJorm.t ,,uJ..,. .. ornen ¡:u. h 1; rhc: anal)"'' md cxpla=uoo th<: ~r-roors \l.'OITlcn's mme- 1lo~. "''OOlen ol the future ,.ill knO\I me>rc about U> dun our o.-
rnnfinn ahc ••nic Onc >tuJy of '•""'" S(lCacuc• 1n '''"' anJ C.m1ral mcn1 M>rlJ .. adc h» proaluccd. anatt>10gl) «xplnted cm¡>trt<.UI, 111 work ••hc:J rdll""' can tdl Bu1 "'"" 1lu1 v•c hi\"C 1 bcctcr 1Jca of ,..¡,., ,.
Afnc. ~h"" • th•I "'albc .,.;fe i• rhe mo.1 PÍl<:n 11wm.,rJ •nd mo.1 oftm lakc tha1 <>Í 1hé Daba.h<S. The grassroors "'"'mcn'• mrn;cment u abo ha¡•p<-n111~ 1<> thc bones oí 1he women arounJ u>. "har to Jo; ~"hcn
lulkJ I"'"'°" wuhm ahc immcdia1c domc.,lic ¡¡mup ., A •HW) nf Scotland rnponMhlc l<>r ¡:m-ernmcnr.t anennon 10 th<' rrohk-m Bcfore thc wome11 '1 \Hllrn'c lf1nun~1 "':ornen hcc"mt"t a JlC'f'J"'t'Cll\(• JI ,h.1n~cs \\'hat )"OU Stt.
cnndu<k-, that ·u " in 1he marital setun¡t that "ornen are mO\I likdv ro llh"\·cmc1n Jna.immu:d its exisrence, ~o,·cmmcnt~ c.liJ n<'I dr1~n to noticc nr •ht>ulil 1hc famih• th•t brccd< u, 1hc cu•tom• 1h.11 j.atil) 11, the culrural
be anH1ivc:J m 11olence. and usually as 11cums • · In Canada. from 1%1 10 i1. for le<~ kccp rrack of 1r. 1 Morcovcr. C\'t'n <thl'l•l'\h1p rh•t noticcs tha1 •pl'Cifie11y thot ludes it. the rdi1'1011 tha1 cxcu<cs nr •nnctifies it, the wan
197~. 60 ptrccnt of womcn homicidc victtms wcre ktllcd m 1hcar famili~. incquJ!ny bcN-een womcn and men explruns violcnce ag;ain~t wom.:n rends rhar moke 11s or~noized qualiry offictol, the lei:.11 nouons like rorrure that
most ollcn b) 1hcir husban<ls. 10 In thc Unucd Srntc•. olñc1•l c>timat<:> are nnt tn da~~-u;s whar tha1 inequalicy of thc •cxe. ts llM:U. about. U <ex m- txdudc 11. rhe ansutuuons of law enforcemenl 1ha1 cssenualh· legalize ÍL
Uhtt une luunh 10 one-tharJ of "-ornen .trc bancrcJ 111 rhcir homo, mmy "'lualny c•pl~ms \aolcncc ag;iinst women. what, In tum, cxplJtn• sex rn- Human ra~hrs b•ve agoored it almosr coniplt1cly
'Crt<'Uslv lt ¡, P<"S•blc rhat thc U ~- ratcs urt: raot thc hiphc>I m thc "'JUalit) r \\'ha1 1> thc vaolcnce that ls pm ot gcnJ<r 1no4u•l11y •b<JUU ln t:. .. ung k-gal appro:tch~ 10 ba11ermg rcvol' e oround whethcr the cnm-
wNlJ • arul) hornhl< rhought. '
"'ºº"
panac'Ular. ··h) "°"• "'' ane4u:ility, wru.h 11 S<Xltl~ wu:lc, "'' marlccJI~ in.al ¡,,. anJ-or..kr approacb or thc n><:Ji.iu<'n conctl~oo therap) and
\ 1Wl'I U:-.1 repon <timmarize< thesr fin,lmg< .- "The nsk of
vaoknC'C ami vic>lauon •11hrn thc bousdmlJ """" 1h111¡t \\nntcn. ntt•pec-
tl\c nt rhnr ftlCllll"°''"º"·creed. colour or culrurc. <hore 111 rommon. • '
pmJuce h•ncnng of ..·ornen in anurn.11c wntcxta~
C".ansidcr rhar hatrrrin@: PÍ womm ma• be ~hout oa tn thc rombincd
co.W anJ ~enJer ..,.,..,,. rhe pov.-e.r of men gf1Un1t "h.u 1b.,¡ •·ant .nd
..,lutano docs nol worlt in r•rt be<·-
C"Juc.111nn •rrro.ch "' bcucr :-.lorh<:r .1NlCll'1 lU ttJlh· lliork. The criininal
1he •me is nol nn sí.:k 11ic
meJianon cnociliarion appmach SOO><;llOl"" raluce< tte1drvi<tn but cJ,...
h m1¡¡h1 h,¡,., added 1h11 <ocia) hierarchical lacro!'\ 'uch os ..acial po<Won. fed S<Xully cnntlcd ro: thc: thnll of domtnmce rhat ts both lnenl and ""' ottm to ha'-c: rmdr much ot a dmt tn abe mci<lcnce r.11e<. Banercr<
""'· and cuhutt <"111 rncn:a,.c u'O!llm"• 1-ulncrabili1) 10 rh1> n<k ol abuse. cia~tory, thc Joil'e lor domm'1uon thar ts codi.lic:J u ma,culJnc adcnmy kccp on bccn~ produccd. <;ince .,,Juuons <hoold hr problcms. it banam11
ll>c ..me >tuJ~ al!IO "~'cd. "l\'laokncc '' p•n ot thc: J1n.m1.:s ol manv and cxpcnenced » .úhrmaoon and pkasurc. 'iolro.c as an acr of !'O" cr " a <<><"aal probl<UJ of sex mcqualn~. ars legal soluum •hoold líe tht:OU¡?b
l•mil> ""''"'"n' In J.,.dopm¡t and J~dopcd 1<'<.,clld, 11tduotn•l and not. º"'' anothcr th.at 1> •c:su.al donunmcc'• ulum.tc rum -on anJ hn.J cxpro .ex cquoilirv 1.,. Althou¡th ~-ou ...'OU!dn 't kn""· lt, cquahl} law t:x!Sb m
'"'men •re bc1ng murdc...J . .isuultcJ, ,.._.,.u.JI) •hu1cJ. 1hroa1encJ. and iri.1,,n lñt• m1J:,hl m..1.lc.e som~ Sd\$.e of the " "'} bouu:nn~ 11 rom;,1.n11cized, wme funn nc•rly n·Of}"'berc, but nowhctt d<>c> 11 >CCm 10 moan that
hunul1Jt<•J \lllhan 1he1r 011n home-< by mcn to whc>m thC'V h••·c c<>mmmed t'TC'll1.11et..I, c"<oncr.tt1,.--d. md cncoura~ed hcncc cfttt1t\t:l\ J"t."nnHtcJ, 1n ft(>\Cnuncnt mu~ gt\C \!.'Ornen frccJom lrc~m m.,ll" Jc1m1nanL:e, that ~ cnJ
ahtrn'<lvt'i Thi< doe< nm scem 10 be C"11<iderod unu\u•I, nr uncomm<>n mdll\ ol e>ur tuliurc< lt malre"S sen"" .,( thc eml-eddang an low r>Í mb of ex ane<1u1h1, 1n .JI 11s fonns, andudmg 11cnJer b11JC.J \i<>l•nr on<S. lnsread.
!1111111n R11hls and Global V•olence A111nst Wo111en • 3l Theory Is Nol a lumy JS

crinunal lsws eren •1olence againsc women unequalh•. wuh no ronsmu-


aonal rontrols, wbile avil legislnnon g1vcs individuals actions íor sex dis-
3 quences for i:he status und tl'Olcmen1 ot women as such. Women's p0511-ton
under lntemJuonal law 1s 1denúhed as mu ch liko women 's p0>i11on tn Jo.
crimtnauon in many aieos of soci.il lift:-except u·hen th~) ore hun Theory Is Not a Lu.xury mcsuc ltgal ri:ttimd: morgin.Jized. exduded, subordinatcd. lt is qwte u
th t'ou¡;h m•lc vlolenci.. tnck to k<'q> ~ pt.'Qple, pJnicufarly whm thcy ure ú1e majorit), on thc
lnstcad of cmpowcring thc s1ntc, •s crimm•I l•w <loes, l.1w could put cdge, om. and Jown ai the sume rime. bu1 meo hove ligured out how 10
more p<>wcr 1n the hnnds of women borh to confrom 1he staie. where do it !O women Each pa~r rreats this quesrion of locntion hy seeking to
necessary, mcludin~ through imemmiooal and onnonal forums, ond co di- siruate women m 1he internat:ionul le¡¡al order. Barbara Stark sees women
recdy confrom meo in socieiy who barm i:hem. The reco~nition that at 1he center, Moira McConnell shO\\"S women marginalized lñe paper.;
women are violmed. a form of unequal rrearmem, because we are women also understand thc nc~'CI w changc more than pem:púoo to change
oeeds legal reeth. The connections need to be mude between th" strutture wom"'1 's posiuon m th1s ordtr. Anoi:her chscern1blc tbeme, L:Xphett lll
of marria;gct sexual haril$Smcnt. and J>rosntution, hcnce bctwcen rupc. bat sorne, subte...\l in others LS the .. chcre is no common theme· thccne: the
1

1cring, •nd sexual humiliauon and .ibusc at home, in bro1heh, nt work. on AuJrc Larde showcd thut p<ieu; i~ n0t • luxury of thc privileged but • diversi1y of wom!'.n's expcl'icnce leadmg to the disrupuon of cn1ego11es,
thc 'trccts,""ti in 1>0rnograph)" Ar thc ume umc, connoct womcn's pov nece.-icy for the discmpowerc:d.1 Her milir:tn1 rcdama1ion of w!r.tt ha<l rhe <omplex11y 1111d insrnbility OÍ ooncept. oncl world. Herc, women·~ SJt·
crty wi1h men's u-eal1h, expo$ing the link berween the prcsence of o white beco ron,idcrcd •n dítc male projcct inspircd thC$e rcmarks ua<ion delies ordered gl!:neroliiarion, reduction to rulo, and codilicntion.
industriafüed milicary t111d womeo ond clu1dren becomin~ a cash crop in "Theory• is oftcn used ·~ a club ro invaliruue criricism of established This notion can resist imposed fonns of thinkmg und being. but it can also
coumries of color, showing prosdruaon. as a 1985 UN repon revealed. m wa}"S of lookmg a1 thin~. lt is said that tbe oitics lack tbeorerícal rigor, deny realiry's n11idities and imposed pa1tems. l1 is alm051 as if rhere is no
be a movemenr of poor women toward rich meo and sex tounsm to be a or, d tbey have a theol}" they ha\'e just a theory. As Moiru McConneU pur •'Uch thmg as the statUS and treatment of womcn You w!U find me in
mo,'Clllent of rich roen toward poor women." We can s1~n anywhere be· 1t. ·die d~ation 'meo!) [isJ a polincnJ statcment as to tbe e.xistence ot tension with th1s Lmer vicw. A Jinal theme. both ob,fous and tncapable oi
cuu~ ali thesc issues u~ intcrconnec:tcd. Bur we necd to Slan, msurutiQn· sorne oou-tboory position "; the "non·tbeory pOSttion •is tbe one "imagmed bcing reptatcd 100 oftcn, is the need Cor change, Th1s animatc:; Hilary
.ilizing anti intcrruiúonaltzing i.c.• cqUlllity nglm1 in \\'Omen's hands to <b by the meo who huvc donunntcd thc wodd's powcr structurd."' We hu,·c Clutrltswonh's call to "chMge the heartLtnd."' Barbara Srntk's urgmg of
1
ins111uuon.U,.,, nnd finnlly 10 end, the govem1nenul paitcrn. n•tÍOn•l .md • thcory, 1he)· h.ve rcality. \'ChLlc s)mpatl1eiic "'th the rcsulang impulse n "bottom~up" transforn'httioa and distancing fmm \1.'01ncn ~ subordino·
internntional, of collnboratio11 in the violent scxUlllized subordina1ion of 10 jcttison theory, 1 hope 10 persuade you not to give it 10 men. That tion,' and Moirn McCannell's "brenkfin¡¡] [olJ rhc molds. "•
women. would mean accepting rea.lny as rhe most powerful men see and clcfine it, Hil.uy Charlesworih prov;des a masterful summary of emer~n¡¡ fcmini<i
whJch ulnmately meaos accepñng reali1y as chey make and live 11. Women literarure on international law (indeed. she co·"TOI• sorne of thc best of
can no more •fford chis m 1he mrernational legal order than anywhere clsc. it). This literature reco¡mtzes thc state as patriarchal, m.ilitanzcd. and bi·
New theories belp make OC\\' rcalicies. lmerpreted in 1his hght. Moira emrducal on the basJS of sex. She ar¡tues tbai, more fundameni:al.I}. i1 1s
McConnell's s1<11emro1 can be datmed JJ 1hcory. sowreign. The example 1 wall discuss wjth )-Ou tllkcs up this ruialysis, ~·
Thl'Of)' approprio1cs rcaluy i.n a ccn•i11 w•y-its way is method-10 lustnuing how SO•<:rcignty as a ddinition of tlie sme as suth, uit.lun an
m.1ke thc world •c~siblc t<' undcr..umding •nd dlll.n_gc. lt IS • w•y oí intcmorional ordcr <lefincd ~s an order of sovcre1gn statcs. hns workcJ co
~cning J grip cm 1hings. To hdp movc iowo1rd new thcory, T i<lentit} 1k-ny the human ri11hrs of wornen Sr.tes bond ,v;,h e-Jth other interna·
common themes in 1hc papers dclivcred oo 1his r•nel ílJid then ronsJder. tionally to pe:rmit mcn to violare \\·ornen :1crC1ss state borden~:. jus:t as mc:n
in ligh1 of them. the intemaüonal legal strucrure's response 10 o currem bond wich each other for chis end within stau:s. lo Barbara Swk's tenns,
example o! women 's unequal rrearmem. this example chooses process over abstract tbeory. lo my teans. Jt makes
Common themes easily emerge trom these p11pers. The h.tnd of men as tbeof)' out of practice. This analysis aspires to build a piece of theory ol
such is see.n mO\ing behmd che iruemalional legal order, \\11h consc- the lun.d \VC need rather ilion 10 talk about how theory JS or should be
done.
ThJl utk ..., runcl 101 1.hi: Womcn Ul l.tuct,wk,llU)
¡cj\"t!ft t'ID 11 u. ltH('~t Gf\>Up al th... An1a In Octobcr 1992, , piece of rculit)' 11rriveJ """' my fax machino. Ii
11t1n ~al fntrrrwo~ l-;1u•'• 81th. i\J1r)UAI \lttfine Arril J, J9'>\. itl \t'.i.'Jhina.tM, OC. h C\'Cnrually rcsuhed in mJ bcing reiaincd pro bont> by whJt •re now fivc
wa11o on.t ru~"' R~,,r.rr.·,,1, R.f-,.bl"I W<- '11(',, '" 1,,,n.,.,1"''""1 z..,i. SJ :SrudtC'$ in Tril.IU·
o/
rt.Jt1on.l lqitl f'.,¡.c:y s.., .?1, ¡1,..,,.,..J,. /01.."'"' l'tlrnw1P411 L,w>•Oonntl• G. D.illmeyn, a! women's groups, three. in Croati3 and rwo in Bosnia·Heriegovina. m seek
19C1l~ incernational le¡ral jusñce for mass sexual arrociries. Ir srnied:
36 • lbeory end Ru111y Theory Is Not a Lumy • 37

!xrbun for«> h•>< <•l~ml111Jll.J uH·r 2llJ.()lXJ Cro;uans and MU>lims ¡tenoc1de. 'et th" •ltilrc'""" h.t> rq,.,JtcJI) beco con;1rucJ .._, bJa1eral, uUnl) d<>1."> l>l•ll<r Tht• 11 cthmc <JI''<' In otboal poli<y. lt ,. not onl) by
thu• fi1r t.n an 0J,t'r.u1on thl1 \e comed •nhnac c.:lrJJU.Ulfl • In thts 8cnG-> .u a c1\ ti u ar or an cthnu: ,._,nalu.;t. lU che ª''._"mp.a.n1mcn1 of mudt wter ¡uucrn ,,¡ rn.1lr ¡•lr•<Ut< ;nJ m•lc J>l>,.·cr unlc..hcJ. 001 only b) mlent m
dJc, 111 llt"n•• l lcrzcll"'''"" al.me, ,,.., lll.000 Mu.hm >lnd Crn.uan (llrt. naut>nal \\'Olltlcrnl<nl 'h.. rcorl<' CJnnOI ~<~ •lonjt .mJ P'"°' cludung Jl ddik, 1onur< humil1.11c, dcgr•J<', mJ dcmornluc thc othcr .,Je. and no1
anJ ,..,'lllcn .,... r1T¡:iun1 lmm m.iu urr Of rhc hunJml Strhoan run ancicnt h.11rcd• •nJ 1hc h•J l~hl\1t>r ,,¡ "ali ~,J.,.· h 11 r<nun1secn1 oi mh' 1n 1.1n 1u1nnrc cu ~''" ad\ ¡¡n1•¡.;c 11nJ J.!rounJ ovcr othcr men \X'hat
cmcm1ra11m campt, .1ho•111 tw<"nty a«· ,,.,Jdv r•J'l"/tk.a1h campo for bbmmg "nnicn (.,, ~omn~ ouf\clH.. ,.red bv mcn ,..• lmow ¡¡nd rhcn 1h1< t<- 1h15 tn\C•k.-. 1he 101cm•uonal lq:al ron1na •pcct/icallv-is rape
Mwlnn .md Crnauan wc~n •"" <h11d1TR Thctt ª"' ~.,. ITp<'n• and cha<1mng u• for n<>t hkon¡¡ 1hcm ''ttl "·di altcrward< undcr e>rdcr< h t< not rarc out ol control h 1> rapé undcr conirol lt "
ptetutt> hc:n- ot ~"'" iank, rla•térN ..,.h J'<'m.,.rapl11 .and rqions ~ 'ªIX"' ª"' not grJ<rcd a< a <1ra1~ m iecnoade or as • rractitt .ibo rape unto J,..1h. rape 11> m.1».1C1T, rap< 10 kili and to mili ncnms
th.i1 tho.c -..ho catch thc "'e of thr mm ltx>~ •• lb< pomo¡¡rapby are ot rnlso¡t\'Tl\, lar less as wha1 thcy are, which 1> both •1 once. \\'ha1 t> ""'h th<) 11>crc J.,.J. h IS r•pc 11> an 10>trumc:n1 oi lom~J i:xilc, to makc
lullc.l ~e m-..cmi 111 'ill.to.'<"' "'" cll •> r•po 111J a«UU<Jru IO ampo lnppen111g to Bo.ntan Mu.,lun anJ Cl'Oll!Wl "ornen •• the lunJ. of Sccbun }"" kJ1c \'OUr home anJ l>C\cr -..un to come b.id. lt 1> abo rape 10 be
.,e bcin~ \IJcoup<J .. 1hn re happcn1115 Onc Croauan ,.....,.., clc- torces 10 tlus ~cnocick 1> contmuou. both "uh an cthruc '"ª' of aggrc,»10n """" anJ hc•rJ b) 01hcn upe u >pé<Ude lt 1> thc '"P<" of DlüOg}n)
KTib<J betait h•nured by ck<tn< llh<><l• anJ ~.&ng·nircJ in a camp ~ m tlx rcg100 •nJ 1he ¡:ent.krcJ "ª'o! a¡:¡:reu1un ol "'"'>.hl bfc This l1hew1..J f,. xcnorhubia anJ unlca>hcJ In· otlictd commmd. h ,. rape 10
Scrbun mm .mu.-J '" <:ro.111m 11núorms ... ho 6lsncd thc urcs aaJ "u b 10 r•pc C\cl) Ja) -.hJ1 thc l loloc.10'1 ••• 10 •nll Sm.1111m C\-c" Wal~r 1 pctlpk, tO Jm~ • v.cJgc thruu¡th a communtt\ 10 Jcsuoy ÍI h
focccJ htr 10 "ronlcss M lilm 1ha1 Cn>•u.&nt nrcJ ht"r In '"" "'""'' d&1 vmhout 1hc "'cr"l.oy, thc wnl11~rauon roulJ noc cimt, but do nol 1$ rap< IS j!t"ROC1Ck
al 7.ogrd>, UN troopt <>hm ..k local """1Cn ¡,.,,. much they et><t Tune rn1<12kc onc for 1hc nthcr • 1t thl< \>Ctt ractJI rape, 1n thc Amencan 'Cll...,, n would be nipc as
OJT rq><>ns o! 1Tt\.q;Ot! "'OCllCll b<-ing forcnl to «xualh <l't\,.,,dx t:~ In th" onslau1tht •.\lu-hm anJ Croauan wornm and 1ttrl• are rapa!. then rollunon. The childttn "'Ould bc ~arded as • dim • and • conwrunared."
rroops 10 ""'~'-e lid Tomor'IO\\" 1 ..tk 10 two <WVlmrs of m""' rapc- murckn:d: 'omctunes thetr CO<J"!C\ JIT nipcd "'"well. \\hm th1s "' noúet:d tha1 1>. 1he1r mo1bc"'' bab1e<, Bl.ick bab1eo. a. m the Amencan Somb under
chtm lllftl p<r Ja, tor O\cr thrOt! month. Wc •e hc.rd thc U!\ passcd a " 1s calleJ ~thér gcnornle '" rape. rathcr than rapl' 11> a prarucc: ot geno- ;l.-ery. But 1n 1h1> paruculAr cthno1. rape. wh1ch ha. no racul markcr:s, tbe
•<
resoluuon "' colla.~ C\1tlcn<e thc b,.t >lcp tor a 'l'ar crunc> IDlli. but odc tl1rtttcJ SJ""'Úl<>LI) •11.un.1 <crtlWl "ornen h " ""'" •s cuhcr pan ol ch1!Jrcn are rc¡tJrJcJ d> m-.i1<•ll> el""" and punfieJ, u their fachers' bJ·
Jt •~ s~ud hett: thjt thc~ a. no prn:.cJcnt for tryutg K.xual atroauo • comp.ugn ot Serbia ·~ltn>t non·Serb1• or J "'"' b) nvnbJtants ag3Ulst b10, 'icrbim h.1h1cs-or, ., dc•n •• un~onc , ...h J woman's blood on
avih.mi. ót .in JU;u:k b~ mcn 1&Mrun~t WC'mm. ~lmf.."timn 1t u sttn J:S susr thcm .mJ tn th,·m '"" l'C Thc Scrbran 1Jca 'ccrn' to be 10 crcate • lifth
Thc C\COIS J"' fam1h.ir . 1Llcgal t>r nN , on C>CI')' coun"' m the worlJ anmher rn•••nco of •~ll""'"ln by .111 mcn •~.oln•t tll ""ornen •U rhe time column with1n Cr.1ot1Jn onJ M"'hm \OCICI) chtlJren who thc ~bi.m
cvery da> ~s wcll o• m war: rJpc, forc:cJ mothcrhoo<l. P""titutioo, por- ""p<:eiallv in ,¡JJ w•n. rothtr th•n "il•t i1 ~ctu.111~ i• which is n1pe b,· sorne force:< <ttm to 1m•~mC" will ull b.: s<>n<-who will ri<c up and join thdr
no¡miphy <exual murder, ali on 1hc be<is nf ""x and ethmcity combined rn...n aµin•I ccrldm womcn m thl\ ¡tenociJc. which is bein¡¡ cnrried on in lathers. Much of 1h" Serbtan 1Jeolo¡ty md pracli"' sunply iak~ a ~
The 1n1emauc>nal le¡¡al order i• no1 prcdicated on the need to addt'e$S thcm. pan throuph war trom the Nazi book But tn the Serb1an abuse oí women's rcproduawc
but many are fonnally proh1bued under m1emanonal law, aJJ ot them 10 Tlte point ot much ol thc 1hcoriung that has gonc on arouml this c'OnJlict c~pncil), on ,Jumate raet.ilu:mon of sooet) ba. beca uchie,ecl tbc v1ew
anne<l conthcis. Whe1her they ure fonn•lly prol11bucd or not. the.e prnc· appcilts to be to obscure b)· .iny mc•m ov1ill•ble exactly who is Joing wbot 1hJt culture 1s gcnc1k 'lltc >pectJd< ol tbe UN uoops violatlllg the people
UCC$ ore oonrrhclcss w1Jcl)· pcrmmcJ us 1hc libc:rucs of th1:1r pcrpetr•tOI'$. LO whom anJ why <Ul<I to define thc problcm so 1h.11 no onc can or oectl 1hcy .uc 1htr<' lll 1>ru1cu udJs .1 t<•uch ol 1>ervcntl) And tbe op.mness of
cxces> of pJHIOn. spoil• of vk101;. ur by produ<ts t>f ,...ar Vmu.Uy nmhing h
Jo •n)1hin~ 1100111 ~nen thc -.ornen survi\'c, thc •••P•• 1cnd 10 br re· 1he u"",,¡ ¡•ornoµr•phy, tht «>n>ci<•u• mnlung of pornograrh> of the ••ll'OC·
" done JOOUI 1hcm wi1hln t1r •mong nation' They tcnJ 10 b., lcwiil> ond ,,¡
¡t.rdctl ;s •n 1n<" 11nb1li1y ,1rmcJ c1>níl1<1 1hc w.r of all ag'1ins1 :tll-or inc>. .mJ 1h u'e ª' S.:1 hr <n w•r prc'r"~•ntlJ m.ikl' this pcrhaps 1hc firs1
<ociaJI) mioMliicd. <>flidally winkr.1 •t, '" 10 ><>me mst•nc.:> fonnaUy ._, • mere conunuauon c>Í 1hc ho•ulnir• uf civil life, ol all rncn ·~"'"" nll 1rul)· n1,xlt"m \\'•Ir
condoncd Mos1 of ali. 1hcy ""' C>\crlookeJ · women Sn why '"""'ene. anJ on "·ha1 <1Jci !Upe docs ocrur in war Now rcturn 101 hla"' Charleswonh's d1<cu"ion of wh)' rhc inrematicm31
The panicular ronftict d~~ribro m the fax exempWics how existin~ amon~ and bcrwccn ali <1des R.lpe " also • d~tll' aet by mcn a¡;amst women human nghts of "ornen Jrc m"rc fraa1le 1h..n other rlj!htS. lntcm2tiooal
human rt¡?hts onrurunon•, as muc1uJ by thesc papers. can "'orle io cover and IS alwavs an ac1 of dt>mmauon b1 meo ovcr "omm. But tlic fact cha1 1ru.1rumcnh Je...lmg -.nh Wt•rnc:n. she nc>tl"!>, b.. e wcakcr unplementanon
up and confu.e "ho rs Joinj? "·h.tt 10 "hom anJ Ülu> eftcrovelv condone tbest rape. are pan of an cthmc war of •AA•<»•oo bang rrusrcpn::.enrcd oblo~•Uoo• •nJ 1u0<cJurc, l'hc iiuutuUOO> J011tncd to monnor tht'III are
nrocmcs. Thc plrllt> 10 tht> conl11ct anJ tbc atnxme. Ul 11 are covcrcJ as • cMI '""' "'"""lt cqual •AA<CS~<'rs mean• that Mu>lun mJ Cro•uan unJ•-r roourccJ, 1hcu r<'llcs ul1cn mcunl>Cttlxd comp;areJ "1th otlier
by m1crnauonal humanu•run bw .111J thc la"' vf war.• Ye1 no1h1n11"' fu \\"01nen .are iKuitt tv.1cc .1~ rna.ny r11rnics,., uh tv.10: .t!i atan~· cx~-tu.·o hum•n nghlS bo..l1t~ 11ic -.1Jo1,.c-JJ l''"'uce of malun¡: "'''"'"llon> 10
h•• bccn 1nvt>kcJ to >1(>¡> 1hc ah....... or to holJ '"" pcrpctraton llCcoun•· l.t1cn of mcn cm tc>p ot 1hcm rath<"r 1hm t>nc, onc ln"r iuempnng 10 fuml.tmm1al P"'"''""' u 1olcra1cd, •• 1< 1he f•ilu"' ,,f ''"'"' "' fu!ñll thctr
abk Thc Llct of Scth1an ·~""'"'" " ~.,,.,J <¡UC>tinn. rt•M 01 thc fact oí cxtmnm"'• 1bc <>th<T l•¡<'r, -.11h rwo i.,...,. of 1mrun11) l<"ing '" ¡u<rifv ohli~ation< unJcr 1he 1n•1rumm11
mak anrn<K>n ogatnSI """""" both In thB "Ar and "'~"· Ja\, I< beyond thc rapc< thc "¡usl war" kvd anJ 1hc "¡ust bír" ln-d And noihmg is ""1rc~•nit for tnlt'm•t»nal tUSIK'C tor BP.n ..n and CroarUJn V.'{Wllen, 1
que<IJOll 'Ethmc clcansmi:" L•. "crh..n rolicy ol e-<tennmauon nf non· hcm¡¡ done ª"""' eJthcr o! them lrt-.e ~• .,,cJ th•• thesc tX....-naum> are arruratc To sa1 thar tbe mtcr·
Seth< w11h 1he l!t'al ol crcaun · a C..rc• ter ~'ª· • h IS • cuphcrnisrn for Like all rn~. thesc rape> are parucul.r 1> "-di a. 11enenc; tlic paruc-
Theory Is Not 8 LUlVI)' • 39 40 - Theo,., i•d Reahty

national system is ¡¡endered 1s no enJl¡leraúon. il1ld ns ~ender«I dynaaucs fctruntzed the rights and thc victlms tno matter their sc.x) become. ood the
do revol'-e around srate só,·ert·l¡¡ofy. Th= women are not • statc. thcy do k.,.s likcly rn1cma11onal human 11¡!hts \lill be louod to be v101J1cd. no 4
JlOC C<lJlltOI J •tale; no Sl'1lC representc:tJ them unciJ B°'"iJ MJ.J Scrbld for maucr whar w•s done. Are Women H uman?
gcnocide 1n 1hc ln1cmauonal Court of Jusuce. ' W'i1h u fcw cxccp(ions Hnw - indctcrminale • is tlús rc.ility> lt L< not chnrocterizetl by "ephcm
(cxccptions 1hu1 eith.r do no1 opply here or hnvc no tecthl, hum•n ri¡thts crality," "'di~continnity/' ()r ... ÍNJ:mcntr.uíon. '' 11 How 111uch "radical re·
instrumenrs empower <tates tQ acr a~runst sisees. ""' indhidu~ls or ¡tmups thinkin~ ' 11 Joc:; 1he foct of a ~enocicle need? Do we \\·am "chaotic"" war
to nct on their own behalf, wbethcr agrunst smes or individuals. Civen etún<.'$ crials? The tbcoiy devdopcd here has nor had rhe luxury of \\1th-
1ha1 mrunlv only srnte violation.< of buman rights are reCOjlnv.ed as viola- holdtng c:omrnirmdlt '" rcfusing to be pmned clown. nor can JI resl on the
tloos, chis is particularl)• odd-<!Spe0ally aher 19~5. "'hen 11 nu¡:lu have mar¡µn Wlleso it pl<mS ro g1vc up womcn's lh·es. Are therc sorne "casy
been leamed that <tates tan violate the hum<m n¡¡hts of chose wbo are noc cJte¡;ories"" bere we 11efü 10 r<-S1st? Hcn; ns usual, womcn's particularus
starcs and who bave no sme ro aet for thcm. Under internauonal law, i• no1 in confüct wirh our commonal1tie1; thc detper 1hc p•rucubrs go,
stJtC. rcmain thc dominanc unit. Tht:)· ""' im•Rintd thc prúnary violutors thc mono rornmon.ility u·c find Thc Universal Declaratioo of Huma11 Righ1s defines what a human bemg
of hun1Jln righ1s JS ,..eJI as being che ones cmpowcred "' redress thC>sc That '" to <.iy, some of 1he disavo\ll'JI of 1he project of i:heorizing the is. tn L948, it 1old the world wbat a pcrson, os " pel'son. 1s entitlctl 10. lt
violarions. HO\\-r convenient re1lity of women's lives in rhese p¡1pcrs is dlsrurbing. A¡\ainst this disa h:is been 6fry >"'ª"· Are women hum.in )'Ct?
Nor ooly does this smist •tructure of interoarional human ri¡zlu. leove vowal. this ana)ysis is offered in the engajled spiri1 1hat otherwise 3llimarcs If women wcrc human, would wc: be a C'ltsh crop sh ippe<I from Thailaml
out men's so-called privatc aCtS agamst womeo, 1c also meaos cha< no State thr papcrs: as bottom-up theori?.ing direcred 1owa.rd a change in the scW in contninel$ inm New Yorlt'$ bro1hd<?2 Would wc be se>eual and repro-
has an wcentivé to bréak r<mks wnb smes as such by mo.,ng to set a cold bcartland of rnternabonal law and 1ts tnstitutions. wbere ¡¡enoodal cluctive slaves? Would we be bred, worked withou1 pay our whole livcs.
human rights Stilll<lard for women 's starus 3lld trearmcn1 th1u no srace yec rape rema.ins rondoned. l ' bumccl when our dowry money wasn't enough or wheo men rired of us,
meelS "'tlun itself or (seerus tol want to be beld to internauon.Uy. Why, statved as widows when our busbands died (¡[ we survived his funeral
oiherw1se, Ju.~ no s.t.uc-1hose ..·lth tlic powcr ro do something about thcsc pyre). sold Cor s.:x bccause u-e a.re 001 valued for anythmg else? \X'ould wc
u1roclti<$-stepp.J up to act on hchalf of 1hcsc wom•n umler the hum•n be sold mto mardage ro pricscs 10 a1one for our fomily's sins or 10 improvc
righis inscn1meots availnble only 10 stotc» Perhaps bec-Juse it is a •tundard our (JOU!y's can.hly prospccrs? Would we, when allmvcd 10 "'Ork for pay,
by which i1s º"'ll beha,1or h"s foilcd, since no state effeetively ~uarantres be nude to wmk 11 thc most mcninl job! and cxploi1ed 01 barely srnrva1ion
women's human ri¡thts witlun tts borders. So. imemaáonally. mcn's states lewl? \X'ould our gcnitals be ~liéed ou1 10 "clcunsc• us (our body pans
prorecr each other from women's rights tbe way meo pro1ecr each other are dirt?), 10 control us, 10 m:uk us and define our cultures> Would we
from women's ri¡thts wítluo states. Sovereignry is thc name of tht pnnc1ple be trafficked as tliings for sexual use and entenainmem worldwide in whar.
in thr name of wbicb men respec1 this. A1 least this IS ouc cxplruuuon, ever form currem cechnology makcs possible?' Would we be kept from
consi;tont w11h thc p•pors and ibis cxpcnencc, for thc failurc of thc. intct· le•rll!Og to read and wme?•
lllltional system in tbis ms1.inec so for. Which si.te is in • position to lf women were human. would \\'e have so lude vo1ce rn pubuc delib·
challengc another on thc human riAh1> of \\'Orneo? Wluch state will? Cn\IÍODS and in govemmcnt in 1he counmes where we live?' Woulcl wc be
As to mcn's so culltd privnce acts a¡1;1inst womeo. wart:ime is somc1hiag hichlcn hchind vcil• Jnd impl'isoned 1n hmu.is r!nd >ion«.! aad shot for
o( a k¡¡al cxception. More of what men do 10 "'ornen 1s form•lh- covered rcfming? Would wc be bcaten nearly 10 Jeadi. and tO death, by mcnwilh
in \1'1l'r tban in peace. Arrocuies by soldiel$ \1.gaiast avilians, so loo¡¡ as they whom we are close? Would we be sexuaUy molestecl in our fomilie<?
are in 1be scope ot armed conllm. are always secn as essentially srate aets. \Vould we be rnped in genocide 10 terrorize and eject and dcstroy our
Bu1 .men do in war "'ha1 they Jo m pcacc. \'Qhcn u comes 10 women os ethmc commumdes. and raped a¡¡ain m that undcdared war that goes oo
civiliJO ca•ualries, the c"t>mplac:cncy that >uuoun<ls poicctime cxtentls 10 tvcry clay in °'"'Y rountry m the worlcl m wbat is called peacetime?• !f
w.ir, how~·vcr thc la••• ...,.d. BarbJra S1•rk showcd th•t ""'"'" ri¡¡his gel women were human, would our \ciolanon be en¡oyerl by our violators? And .
1reo1ccl 1hc "'"Y womcn ge1 rreau:d The more • conllict can be: fromed os
\\i1hin a s1a1e, as a civil war, •• social, as domes1k. the Jess human riAhts lb.. .anaJy~ w..:1 ongmally publub<..-d u1 Rt'/1«1""1'1 (f1f tht U1111 .mJ/ ~Úf;m()n o/ l/.,mu R1c,h1J
are reco¡¡nized to be vmlatccl. The doser a fi~ht comes co hPme. the more 111 {~«"o.-1 \'llft '""' 1-lojllm •nJ B•hl:i T•hzah IM, rd•., 19C1'~
41
I? - T~.. ry and Rtahly Aie Women Human? • 43

tl "" wccc human, \\ohert these r.lungs bappcnecl, would virrually nochmg
be done about 1t?
Bein~ a womao is "not yet a oame for a way of bem¡t human, ... not even
m this most vistonarv of human ngbcs documems. lf we meu.ure 1be realny
5
IL rnkes • lo1 of mrngmauon-And a determ111~dly bhnkered focus on of wmnen's situuuon Ul alJ us vari<:cy agairut the guol\lnlces tif the Un1vcl'll•I Posunodcrnism and Human Rights
exccpi.ions dl the privUegcd margins-10 see • real womltn in lhe Univer.ol Dcclarrlutin, 1101 only do women no1 havc 1hc righrs il ¡¡uuront<:cS-mo~t
~cl.1r.ition's maj<'lir Auur.1ntoes oí whn1 •evcryone i• enti1foJ 10." Af1,·r oí 1hc: world's men .i<,n't cithcr· hu ir is harJ 10 $Ce, in ns vision of
over half a century. jusi wh•I pan oí ·e\'eryune" doesn'1 me-•n 11s? hun1:iniry, a \\'Ornan'$ f¡,C'C,
The ringin¡: lon~uage in Arride 1 enronrnges us 10 "•CI tm>'ards one Women nel'd full human s1atus in social realicy. Por cl1is, the Universal
:m<>tber m a spint of bro1herhoocl." Mu$1 we be men before illi spirit Dedar;mon of Hum'm Righcs must see the ways \\'omen disuncrively are
includes us? lei;t 1his be soen as too literal, 1f we were aU en¡()iJ1ed to •act depnved oF human og)ns as a deprivation o( humanny. for the j!)orious
towards one another m a sptrit of sistcrhood." would men know it meam drerun of tbe Universal Declaracion to come rrue, for human rl11lus to be
them. too? An1cle 23 encouragingly provid!$ for jusi pay 10 "[c]\'cryonc uru\'ersol, both ilié t'-"!lity i1 challenges and the standJrd i1 sets net!d to
who work$." Ir gocs on 10 -.y thnt ilus msurcs u lifo of human dignuy for ch.rige. for ..an .\mtril.'.im lcmln1't re-JJ1ng T"r ~f<·u·l_v &1r11 \Vo·;¡~n 1r. likt
"hnnself .md his fanuly. • Are womcn nowherc paid for the work we do in When will womcn be human? When? "un~ U'I 51<'C"p 1n ollC "-orld .Lnd wülna in anothet-jC040fC (o 'lc:cp in a
our own fomilies becnuse \\'é are not "e-"el')'Onc." or becausc whut wc do tealm (Jt tact:S. wh1ch Ol')e mus1 labor 10 1heoru:e, anJ ''alunA m • dom;un
therc is not •f"-ork." or jusi becau.se \\"C ;.tre not '"him"? Don't \\ on1en h.ave
1
al tbroE)'. ~iucb onc mwt sut\'C ro lf•acrualizc.
-::t.mJr¡¡ ~l. Gdbm·
fomilíes. or is wbac womeo ba\'e not a familv \\ithout a "himself"? tf the
someone who is noc paid at all, far less tbe ··just and favorable remuner-
auon • ~uarameed. is also me srune someone wbo Ul real life 1s often re-
11 has bcen over • qun11er of a cencury since. nccordin~ to Mary Joc Fru~.
sponsiblc for her fomily's sustenance, when she is deprived of providJng
· MacKinn<>n .. founched feminism imo social theory orbir "> ln the ron·
for her fom1ly "un cx1stl!tlcc wonhy of human cligJUry. - J.s she QOI human?
ICXI of 1he women's mcwement praccice ar me nme, rny mougbc in raking
And now 1h.11 "cvcl')'Onc" has hnd 11 righ1 "to wke pan in thc goverruncnl
up method was rhat women 's snuation lacked aod needed a full.Jtess
of "" cnuntry" sincc 1hc Univer~ol Dedarutioll w11s promul¡µced, why are thcOC)' of ~ own, and chat the expenence of \\'Ornen bad ~ disnnctivc
mos1 govcmments sa11 nm mostly by mrn? Are W(>men sile1Jt in the halls coruribution to makc to polilical thcory. indudmg on tbc "PÍStemic l.vd
of state bCC1luse wc do nol hrl\·c a humnn voice? Back thcn, my view wa.; thJI thc reb1ion bcr1>·ccn knowlcdgc and power
A documem that could provide speci6cally for the formation of trade WJ• 1h<> centro! ~ue chJt womcn's >ituatton und fonn•I 1hcor¡ poscd for
unioos and • periodic hohday ,.,, b pay" m1gh1 have m1mered 1he specdiciry eoch omer, anti lhnt sexuruity WQ< whcre thi• issuc was Cmtially pl~yed
to mention women sometime, othtr than through "mo1herhood. • whlch is ou1 Almo.<1 tbirty years later the discussion launtht"d then L< far from
more boweJ to tban provided for. lf \vomen wcrc hurruUl lo ihis dot'tllncnt, lini<hed.
w>0ulJ dorn<'SUC "iolencc, sexual vio.lnrion from bmh m dea1h, indudin~
in 1>rosli1u1ion onJ pornogr.iphy, ond system.uit sexual '!bJe<.~ific-•tion •nd
dcnigrnunn oí women •nd girls simply be left out of 1he explicit lon¡:uo~e? 1
Granred. sex discnmin(ltion is probibited. Bm how Cllll it h1we bcen fcm•ni•m ·, dcvclopmem ~s 1hoory i• 1mpdled by rhc realuio ol womcn \
proh1b11cd Íor all clns rime, even aspuaáonally. and rbe end of ali these
cooduions suU not be concretely ima¡uned as part of whar a human bemg.
SJlu.IllDll Wtimcn's live.. rhc "'timen'$ movonent b••
found. havc conto11"'
wtLh comcnt Ccntr.Jl) \\·omcrú liv"' wcre found w h"'" bcen ltvcd
as human, is éntitled toi' \\\'hy is women's entidemem co un end of these mninly in <ilt'llce. oí which existin~ thet>ril-,; wcre t~n<>rum, Almost totally
ronclit.ions •tlll opcnly dt:batcd based on culniral ngbcs. speoch righcs, re·
hgious nghcs, ""1<lllli frertlmn, f""' m.irkc:ts-.. if women are social Stg·
nificrs, pimps · 'P"'-'t:h, '•cr<d or ""'"'"I fet.ish<'l>, n:uural re<ources. ch.1uel, TbCM" thou¡;hu \I~ f>MJIUUJI~·" 1111• r~ in \'Akn.:i... \p.uo. '" tht< ~lf oo fC'mwsm ond
Pul.Juo lur i.bt lmanauarul l'M'ctsuy ~tr:ncn.Jn \ P.:L.w 1UU..tP1. Uruwc:rMI)' ~ Vakna.. (m
"''t:l)rhin¡¡ bu1 humnn bemgs? luly .. J9Qf. Thcy'l.'ttt íu,r JHd1hllllo·J * 'Polnt• , \~·,cln1' P"""'noJcrnz.n1.•7, c;hi~t.t~Kr,,tLla.
The omissions m the Univer.al Ueclorarion ~re no1 merely semmmc. Rn·1nii Nii WIO
Pntmod ... ISOI Ud Hum1n R1ah11 • IS 16 • 1heory ••~ Ru1o1y Pestmodein11• ud """'ª" R•ahl• • '7

'ilcncnl Jta, bcrn ""'mcn s sexual \100000 b' mcn Bt.i:1nrun~ m 1he e•rly 1 \Cf)1lung .about th1~ tht."O~ U;b, tl• rcl>t""JI¡ pan1lu1Jr. h w..a.s n1-,t jtetl· ll•nJp<>url anJ tb1> ¡m1ct1cc Jtt ao npra1ron ,,¡ 1he souoil f""ltl<>n .,(
1970., Jire..1 mi:•~1nc:m "uh dus ><><.'i;il ra.111,-11<11 rciili1v m the •b C"r11.I h "J' «.:tltlt.rct<! lt v.·n nm .ib~1r-.1c...1 h ".ti tf'C'c..thc.: anJ grounJeJ. lt JomuunCC' rh•t u on1Jp1.J lry 111en Th1$ J1anJpo1111 11 nol l"'lllK>nb or
,u.,1 1b1 n:-•lny m lhc: brollen dov.'11 1mmalmc ....-...U¡ 1"~ out con _... , nctit J undttnn homt~elle'()U.'i unU) 11 "as ta lt1•mplcx "IK'll· The- pc:1in1 poml ..,f """' lcss, a it ¡>urpom 10 be 11 ,¡,.._.. lll'I nnplv 01>11 accuracy
etttl"-npoo<'d the regulinU<"S •ne! •~Jorr<aJ ('Xlcnl and 1raum.1 of ot rhe J..c1>UJ<>n of method m r,,,.
urd" f..,,,,,,,.,
Tlvorr ,,¡1he ~,.,,. was anJ f11rncss as m.n~ bdiC\~ n cmhodin and ~ns • •p«tlic ionn o(
'°'";J •busc m childh.M>d. '"" ~n~<ncne.< ol upe ""'I othcr ..,~tul.,. to artkuldlc 1he con<equen= ol Un• new len<"' lcJ1tc .md the ,..., it was f".,,.cr, ooe thar haJ been 1n.,js1ble ro pohuc- anJ theo<) but, by lenurusm.
..uh. rhe ronuic anJ •h•m~ ot ba11enn11 1he rouunt" 01scrn.r of sc•.ul appreh<nJeJ tor theoiv-<pec1hc;ilh for th~ kmJ of phil<>-0ph~ that lay '"¡>O'C\l ª' undcrf),n~ them
hau,,mcnr 11 ""rlt, m <chCIOI, and on r:he s1reei, and the "ndellllc abu,e 100..1tht th.i a 1h.lU1th1 had 10 be ~eral anJ •b.m<1, meomn¡t free ol fh1, 1hc..>ry 1us not an atb.rm:mon ol che lemm1oc p.1rucubntV as op-
consunueJ hv romo1m1phy and prosmuuon The exrcn1 .1nJ n••ure ni r.an11..ul.ar1t~ ol ~1uon or sub!.ranu\:c \OCIJI (;Ontcnt, O(l( r:x~r1mced- po:.cJ ro 1he m•,c-ulmc uruvcnal h "lb no1 a cLurn co km.Je suh1ecavny
these pr~cuces JnJ 1heir place m <exual polines. hcnce pol111e>, ,..•..., un· 1n 11rJcr 10 bc ,J!tJI) thairctm1I. AnJ lu connc<t 1his """ 1nforma11on un or J f<'J!Ch for 1L. h """ dut th~ conccpt•. •nJ thc µurportcd illvul,,
CO\crnl anJ e'~m1ncd. Unce rh1s g<neal<>!'.Y mJ 11> conunu1t\ wtrh '>Cxu \\ h,H U1iok ph•lc In V.Ornen'~ l i\c~, :iiJC04.Cl( by print lftcory, lO ht\V" (a\\ 35 bd\\'ttO tht'm, Jr~ prt'Cluc.:ts oí tn.afe f>'l\\'cr ih.u ,,,nno1 •l"C thclTiloC:lvc~ or
•lny more ¡tcncrJlly \\crt c>rubhshod, nothmg lrum 1hc '""" 1u uucr-c.1 "'6t.&tc.• pr.1c..títe, une 1h111 has al~o clnirncJ 11' \:111id1ty 1n llUIUn~ gf..'flcnalit) mud1 d,e. L1n11I <>11<1seJ, the>e concepi< look«I penrr.tl. cmpt) ol content,
t(roup' to 1.,:uh UtC' to 1nt1m.uc rd.uions lookt..J 1t .. 11 huJ Clnc 11nJ'ht.:dllC,11 and •l1>1rn111un ir1111 • fMrticul:tr (i, eJ form b.1t·ked hy power •nJ uu1honty un1Vcr<11lly º' Jilable to ali. valid, mete crol•. 11~.1in<t whrth ali clse fcll short.
,..., rh.11 ho1h l.m1" 1ng ,ond thc k.nm1·n h,1J ro be n:mnJ« t<> '"n1enJ w11h The ¡muu wa• 10 take women's e•perience ~<rious!\ enou~h-both the Fcm1m•m CXJ1<1<ed how prior theory u·•s 1•uioloR<111• ro j¡, own rerms of
1he role <'Í m.1lc fl<'\\''" in wn.,ructing chem how >nJ lhe whBI of it-tO end me inequalll)' flu, proces• WIS tO get lO val1Jouon anJ could hardl~ be um'<er<al hec•u~ 11 had leh out at least
Thi< prllctical c""froo1a11on \l'llh the speci.fic ~me< ol <exiul and rhi-.· rhe bonom of the thcoreucal coosm1ru rhai haJ covered 11 up aod defioed hall lbc Ulll\'Cl'o<'.
1cal ,,o]•n<'n cre.11cd lem1m<t theory, mdudm~ <o-called h1~h 1heorv. m 11> rul111 "" lhcorcuctlly invmd .ind emp1rit"11) noncxi;tcnt or a< most .'1"1thl't <hJ lonmiom pll!Cl>d) lay clllm 10 thc 1cm1ory thJl womcn luJ
lorm and ron1<n1 llur thc.c n:almes were gendcred ,,,.._, no1 ª'sumed, mar~1n.al, ..,.J haJ msrnuoo.w.ud thJ1 tbron mJ 11> proJu<lS a> gov- btc:n ._,.,gnod unJcr Ülli •i•r=. ~lure, 11""''1u d•111110 m th.r "" i.ought
po-.11cd, 111\ c:nr.J. or unapneJ. GenJer \\':IS no< crea1eJ 111 ••ur m111..U ilftc:r cm1ng norm~ m U\\ tu J1td.ttm \X'e \ICl't' not l01•king for A plu>hcr cdl "' a more d1wufio.I
rcaJm11: rh1loo.>¡>h) brM•ks ucher pa>plc \l'n>tc; u ,.~ nor a 1 nuh rlu1 "" •\\"'t,.mcn• 'Ali' nvt .in il"'tract catc~ory •\\'ornt"n• an fcrrun.11t Ült..-or)'. >1orcutypc \\"e"º"' nor loolún¡: 10 dabou1e thc IL'muunl'. ptrt1nibnty u
'el 001 t<> esuhli;h r<> c:nJ 11<Jdenu.: dcb>te. or 10 Cr"111C: • hdJ ''' n1die an l.:llf1tounonJ ror11cn1. "·.as thu~ .l.\ 1111 1hn>rc:11c.tl montcr. f'-,.rm.1.11~ l.al")r!d\• 11 n ......, oun •• hJd becn livm~ lll<l<ie ' " 1ulls for ccmuncs We were
"" "'"' C<tulJ 1c:1 ~,¡,. h "~' ,.¡,,, ,,...,founJ thcre, b-. """"'" 111 ,. <lfn<'D', l1t"\I h• et•ntenl wu< th<- rub<t~nm·e expe<1<'n"' 1hJ1 w·omcn m .U thcir noc lookmg ro daom the <Ubíecm;,... or suhjc.'('t !'<"1'100 10 w!uch "'" lud
li•cs Pi«c by bhx..!y I''""'· m •rticubiinjl Jire,1cx(len«nCCS,1n rt•s1.,11a¡¡ p;anicul•rnlL.,, And v•riatwn> had. ~ot lll'\·au-c 1hc 1ht"'n corre<ponded 10 bttn rtlttraicd an~ more 1han we 'OOjlh• 10 "l'P"" nther« b• 8""'111l
1he disdML'\I pJ<t1<11I•" m tnin¡t 10 make wt'men'' u.in" /.,• J1ttcrem ch" <l'llllly but bcause ir was ron;111u1~J J.v 11 Th" w·•s no1 a ~nmil acce" 10 thc power 10 objecuty and JommAic thai "" hJd rC\wed 3S
than n "·'~· '' rhe<>ry <>Í the stanos of women -..·as lor~ed an,I ,.,1h 11 a 1hc<•ry uf p.1rurulars, 1t was a thcory bu1lr ol 1he>e (l.lru<ulars; a particular •u<h AD th1> wouJJ ru\'c lett wha1 wc \lcrc tf)tn¡c ro cb.illcnit<= squudy
cheol') ol the me1hod tha1 could be adequate to 11: hmt• \\C h•d to know lh<vry. Ji was bwlc on . .md accouniablc r<>, wom~-n·s c.'pcricncc::. of abuse In plJ<C; by compubon with our Agenda 11 "'·" p]~y1ng "tth, or w1rlun,
m order m kno\\ il•u •nJ violJ11on, 11> grounJ.:J construcuon unJ cn¡1•¡:cJ ae<ouniabcl1cy ,..•..., bludu. l.i<mit~ •• such w•s not our l!o5Uc lnsoJe, wc k.ncw wbo wc werc
Th" p.tnicul.ir 1heory, "'' buih.. ,,...,. • rhcory ol ••x
1nc4uulny •nJ more nu1 • 1'•1S1Urc 11 uclop1cd or J 0.1g 11 flc" ' íl1C)' wcrc wlr111 lt w11> m•Lie of. m .1 «>n>tLl<r•hlc exlcnt. Gendcr idcnllly· 1hc lcrm inirmluccJ by Roben
bru.1Jly O( .Cxu.J f"Oblin ln und frum thc CX¡>cfltltlC <•I \Htlll.1" •Ítcr "h111 11 J1J l1 ,[¡J 001 purport 10 be thr une 1r11c uru•uni ,,f ¡,.,,., c:very1hing ~1ollcr in 1'164 10 n:íer 10 the mentnl repre•cm~1 inn <•Í 1hc -.lí •• maKulrne
\\'OffioUl cn1cr~cJ 11 ?i)"U:nt.tttt:, ')'stcmic, orga1u,cJ :11o1ru..:1ureJ, nc\vly CO·
1
«-.111\· ¡, h do1mcJ 10 be aC'ctlnl<' and >ICCOUOl•hlc 10 the •OL-iJI world thm or lem1nrn..-. s1t11a1cs women's problcm in the \l'rtlnM pi.ice.' Our pnority
hc:rem p1nur< .,¡ thc rcl•ll<'"' berv.ecn ""m<'fl anJ mcn th•r J1S<.-cm1hlv con'111u1cd 11 lt ...,1a1ed to 1he re•hl)' i1 1henri1cJ m 1hi• "''''" way wa. ~•m•nA •e= to the realiiv o! mrr cnllC<"tl\'t' e•rer1cnc<' m order to
ex1ended frMI m11m1n throojlhoui thc <Ocial ordcr anJ 1hc ~111c: Our Fc:niml\m did call for rerhinkin¡t evm'thm~ for one <imple in<tance. unJcNanJ a.nJ cban¡:c: 11 tor .U ol us m our 0\\'11 lúcumt"
mmJ, roolJ ltno,. 11 ,..,. real lxcaose our hodie,.. e<.Uc.'('t1vd,, l",.d 1hc Ji<uncuon Jra\\'11 smce thc Enhi;htenmcn1 bcN o<.'11 1he um•er.al and MJ 01''11 •'Oclt p<O\'!des JUSl onc illu:.tr•uoo of ho\l thb plulooopbial
through 11 h rhcn.·fore «>aallv aisted. ;o.;or d1d m; dl\'CT<ll)' unJcrmllle ru. thc r•ru<ul•r ,.., rC\cakd 10 be l.1hc. beau<c "hat h•d bccn c.Ual tDÚ· approodi ul thcory lrom rhc grounJ up ru.. bcen proJu<U\C Ul pra.:ua:.
reilir¡. 11 ron>utu1cJ 11 \X'e "1Jd: th1> happm' The mo•cmcn1 ..¡w<.kh \'Crul ,.., thc p.n1rular lrom thc po1m ul '""" ol powcr f'or another, Ibis d1COry, •1>Plial, proJucal thc cLUm for >cxual haruanon 1> a lc~.al
bcc-.ime ¡:lobo&! .as \l'Ollldlc.-=-.. bere 1Jcntibo.I """ mc.¡u.Jit} UI ihdi ""11 the 1ubl'"~"" objc..:u,c ch\ ti1on ,,,., m .....JlcJ "' be l.!.'<', briJtne thc ob.. .,:J.um lur so \l1.Knm1n.J.t1on •So nav.. •hm • v.·ornan tr ;:nu.tll\ hJra...~
CX¡>ctl<'ntt 1nJ lb f"IKe UI Jnmng thcm 1' holc lt'"'·' This ¡\ln1<ul.r CO f"'-11\C SI inJr<••m--<>r -o 1 Or¡?ueJ m TouwJ J frnrumt Tht'O"l o/ the me
l1f1<I l¡>CllkS of 11, th31 is 0(>( "mpcy • wnrnm •reakm · Ir> ~ J1ffrrcnt
hcrcJ reul11y \lllS no1 •n eumrlc oí what. ncw .... \ "' 1h1nk1n¡¡ ahou1 ~1.11r-- .. ;s •rcc1fi<.Jly '"" """ from th~ m•k• r<>sninn uf powu ThJI is vo1c~ "' n.ma1111g he< sub1ccc ox~rien<e .,¡ he< sil\wion Shc " sa)'injl
knct~1n,,; or • nc"\ar 11nWc uf \'t,1on proJucc:d h~ \\il' ot dJt.1, n" 1' 11 ~J'f'l·ifi-.: tho.c wh" 0<.rnp•· wb.11 '' called 1he ohj..-1i'c <tJnJpnml "''"~111 who .also wh•1 hoppened to her And \lTuII happc'ncJ 10 her, "hen u happens. is
realirv 1h.11, wlln 11velv <"nsc111u>, CJUed for • º"" w"v ol 1hmkm1t ah""' cn¡(.a¡¡c in thc l'"•tttt fr<>m rhat sundp<>ml c.1Unl nhit-ct11icat1on-1he """' •u1bnn1•11,-.,1, reco¡uu.zed m law as tnetjualnv on 1he bos1. ot sex. U..c
kno\\1ng pr.1t11Cc <tl m.Jon¡.¡ proplc into 1hmM• lt1 makc 1hcm know•blc-their ''- U> J \lol•nun ul womm'< human r1~h1<, The m·1l remcd) under the
48 • lneo1y and Reahty Poslmodernism ud Human Ri&hls • 49 50 Theo1y ano Reat11y

\'iolen(c Agu1nst \'(1'01nen Act u&CJ the ~•une lop,ic Lo recognize 1h.11 r-.1pc ánd movc from, ns a b~SI• for consaous polmcal ocuoo. As jl rumeJ out, 10""' wh.i pa>tmoJ~nusm h.i.s Oh1Jc oí lemimsm's mttbodolog1Cll! brcok-
ond b.menn1: c•n be rroct1c<-. of S4'X discrimm"11on. SimiL1rly, Andrea once =~1ed íro1n f!IJll""" mvbibility. wurncn'• rcaliúcs could oftcn b.: tluough ¡ust Ul.'M:nbcJ These thn:c ISSUC> roughJy r•rnllel Jane f'lax\ di<·
Dwnrkin's ond my proposed law tha1 pomojlrnphy he reco~i:ied as a documcmcd 111 othcr W <I)'" and nearly llnyone pro\•cd •ble m undersrnnJ cu"ion oí P<'>rmodcrní•m ·~ rcvoh1n~ arC>und thc deu.h oí man. the Jcath
prnctice of sex discrimirulrion is based on rhe realines of 1he expcrience of tbcm with n liulc sympathetic •pplica1ion Women tumed lhc realitics of oí mewphysic<, und 1he dcath of history.'' 1 do not crincize ull thnt is
\l'Orneo violatecl 1hrough the makmg and use of pomography. Under ii, powerlessness imo a form of power credibility. And reality supportcJ us. called postmcodem or dcfend ..vcrytlung said by its dettaciors: io particular,
-..umen ', resnmony abou1 their abuse through pomo¡¡rnph)• would be rec· What we smd was credible because it was real. Few people daimed that the Amen~"" mu1at1on 1 focus upon 1s disringuishable from sorne Euro-
ogoiied .is ev1dence. so that pornography is lcgally ;ecn !O do the injuries women were nor v10laied in 1he ways we had found or díd nor occupy a pean p<>S!Strucruralists whom the Amencans appropaate lor • pauru1 oí
thot it <loes 1n realny. Thc same approach procluced th< argumrot, sa-ond-dass smus in soc1ety. Not many openly disputed that what we had authonty. Far from artempung to iar chem alJ -..-i1h dus brush. 1 ID'1LC
ndop1ed b¡ the Sccond Circui1, 1hat when r¡1pe 11 nn •« o( gc11ocidc In unco,-ercJ did. in foct, e>.ist. What was 5'1id lnscead wus 1hat in socíet}. anyone to <l1>1denúfy 1>1tb what I descnbc and to s11>p domg u any ame.
fact. it is '"' •<< of 11enocicle in lnw Thnt is. sexually viol•tin¡¡ women notbing really C.XISIS.
because thcy ltl'c \\'Ornen oí a ¡>articular etlinic or rcligíous communilv Jims
10 destroy that communicy• A. ·\'('orneo•
J usr these few examples of the practice of rhis thcory show a two· n Posrmoderní<m 's reiectiC>n oí univcrsals ha< bcen ckscribcd by Lyotard.
pronged rransfonnarion takiog place By including wba1 violares women Durin¡; thc same rwenry-five-yenr period rhar this theorv uod pracrice have delining posunodemism, as -incrcduhry t<>ward metanarrati\'CS.•., lo ns
uoder civil nnd humllll ngh1s faw. rhe mearung of ·ciuzen • and "human" been ongoing. a trcnd in throry called postmodernism has been working teminm ¡nuse, this themc runs undcr rhc cnticism o[ "tbe grand narraoves"
begins 10 bave a woman's face. As women's act\lal condmons are recog· on tmJoing it. hs main 1arge1 ís, precísely, rc'ali¡y. Posrmodemism, 1 will of feminjst 1hcory,• qu.,.tioning in the name ol "Jifferences• whetber
011,cJ as rnhurnnn, chose condnions •re bcing change<l by requirmg thoc argue-or more narrowly. thc ct:ntral epistcmic icn<lcncy tn 11 that 1 am ·"-ornen• cxist •nd can be spokcn of or di&! w1th • oun. · A5 Mary Joc
1hey mcct a stan<lurd oí ciuicnship an<l humunity th•t preVlouo.ly <lid noc focusing on-<lcrc.ili:tt. social rtility by ignoring it, by rc:fusing 10 be 11c- Prug •rt icul•t"d thi> poinc • 1 .un in favor of lootllzod <lisruptions. 1 am
upply becuusc 1hey u·crc womcn. In othcr words, womcn both changc che coun1.blc to it, anti, in n soint:what nc:w m<>\•c, by opcitly rcpudl11ting a.ny a¡;.ún>1 1ornlizinit ch<'Ory."" Anuesstriti•lism 1s onc fatet of tb.. objectlon'
siandml ns wc come under it and chan¡ic thc rcality it govcms by ha,1n¡¡ c:onnt.oetion \\'Í1h an "'it .. hy cl.tinting ''ir:" Í$ nol t.hcre the vicw 1ho1 thcre is no such thmg as "women" because there ore alwa)'S
it upplicd to w;. This dcmocr:ctic pnxess describes noc onl) che common Posimorlcmism is a ílog flown by a diverse a:>ngcries, modey b<!<"Juse othtr as¡>ect> to women's idenciries ond bllses other 1h:m sex for thcir
law wbén it works bue also a cardirutl tcnet o( feminist analysis: womeo lack of unity is thcir credo and rhey feel no need to be consis1em Part of oppressions. The de(eose of multiculturalism is anorher facet of 11: there
are éflutJcd LO access l O tbings as thcy ate ,Uld aJso LO mange thetu IDtO the problem in a:>min¡? to RrÍps with posrmodernism is tha1. pretendíng 10 is no such thm~ as womeo m the sm¡¡ular; there are only women in the
somttbing wonh our having. be profouod wbil.e being merdy obSéure (many •re fooled), slathering sub- plural, many difiereot partículanzed. localized. soaally constructed. cuJ.
Thus womcn are u•nsfonnmg the <lcfuuuon of cqualuy 001 by malung jecrs with wor<ls, its self-proclauned practiuoners faidy oftc:n Jon'r say tUt'.illy modified women, heoce no ·women• m u•hat postmo<lc:mislli llll"ll·
ourselves the $ílm<! as mcn, cmitled 10 violate Jn<l silence, or by rcifying mucb of anything." Anotbcr part oí the problcm os that some commen· me i> the fominist ocnse.
womcn's so-calle!d differenccs, but by insisting 1hn1 equal cirizenship must rntors crcdit poi.untxlcrnism wich ick.t> tl1a1 scrious criucaJ tr•<ltuon~ orig· If anyone <loes "grand nurrativcs." l suppa<e 1 do. so 1 1hink thot l'm
encompass whnt womcn need to be human, including • right not to he inai<-d .1nd havc long pructiced. For exJmple: · aalkin rus b.:en onc of the enm led to ..y thut 1 dt>n't know wlw thcy're t•lkrng abou1 As 10 "to·
sexually violnred •nd silenced. This was done in rhe Bosniun case by rcc· fcw l<1tul writcrs u•illin¡; 10 explore po»tmodcrn issues such as the soda.I rnlity" -• blontcd, ovcrícd, but also oddly empry 1enn-wha1 is one
ognizin¡¡ ethnic parriculariry, not by denying ¡, Adapring the words of the construcrion oí rc-.tlity. the role of idcology. and 1hc problen1 of social •JIWnSt whcn onc is "a¡tamst totali.tin~ rheory'? Why doesn't anyooe s•y
philosopher Richard Rorty. we are makin¡¡ the word "wrunan" a "aamc oí critique. •u Jack Balkin does explore tbese themes. callin¡¡ that work post· what is meant bv the tcnn? \'G'by aren't thcre foorno1es co tbe charget"
a way ol bcing human.·" Wc are chaUcnging and changmg thc procc'SS oí modero, bur legal fe1runis1s bave been explonn¡l thtm in dcpth for abouc One 1C11a¡nnes tbat 11 is a reference to Marx and Preucl: lt rs apparently •
knowing an<l thc pracuce oí power JI tht same umc. In otber \\'Ords, u tl1iny years. as ha\•e,Marxisrs andsome legal 1e-.tlísts, beginruog long before, syo<m)m for "universal," bue, jusi 10 begin witb. no analysis that rs prcd-
works. to namc on!i sorne. A funher part of tbe problem "' that posunodemihlll t<.'111cd on J ~ende.r div1sion can be a universal ooc in thc usual sense.
Pcminism m.1<l<! o bold d.iim in Western phtlosophy· women can Jttess steals from fcmmi~m-cl•imtn¡;. for CJ<nmplc, rhJt tbe crniquc of obicc· Fcmini>m ha. •lso nevcr, 10 my knOlllcdge, hJd whai (; cnllcd • • mon-
our 0\\'11 re11iry becausc we live i1: shghdy more broadly, living a <ubor ti\1ty is a posunoJern m~1gh1-and covers its 1.irccny by ;ubsum111g fcm o<:iausal" narruuvc; nl I01St 1 h.1vcn'1 Wc do nut ••l 1ho1 gender L< ali
dinoted siarus con wve one ~ccess to its realit)· Nor realiry wirh a capital inisn1 as a subprovinre oí pos:unoJcrnlsrn " therc Js. We hm-c ncvcr S•id thm it explllins C\'Cl)1hin¡t. We have said tlw
R-this particular social reali¡y. Since women "'-ere not pla}Íng !X"'oef lo any evenr, the nppelbñon "postmodemism• does cohere u conscel ¡;c:ndcr is hlj! nnd p<:rvasive. ncver not there, that it has • shapc ond
gamts or trying 10 wm academic debates, wc did not cla1m pri'il"llc. We lanon of recenr tcndendes and senriments in theory. To trace mv particulM re¡lulanties and lm\'s of mouon. and tha1 i1 cxplams a lot-mucb oth-
sunply cliumcd che reahty ol womcn 's expeacnce as a ground 10 stand on theme, I analyze 1hree rssues that are cenrral to women. pol1rics, and theory erwise missed, uocxpLrined. 11 ís a íearure of mosr evervthmg. pervasivdy
<lenied. Th.it tloes not mean rbat C\'erythrng reclutes 10 gender, tbat 11 is
Posl•ode1n1Sm ••d Hu1110 R1¡hls • 51 52 • lheo17 ••d Rullly Postmodu~ism and Humao R•&hls • 53

thc onlv rcsularll ) ur thc 011Jy «J'l.11wlvn, thc >1n~lc '"""' ul C\Cl')'h'"H• ol mtl<$oc:nu.11J,m hhrn· "'" m•ml i• Jchncd by Troq Htj.lglíll as "the ,,.Jly dctcrrn1ncJ U> lx.,:m "nh. \'ou c1111 ha' e J b1ologkal tbeory of raee
<>r thc only thmg thcrc h l l ,1l•o '"'"h '<f"'Jtm¡t thJt ... ,.,.,¡puliuo, m rc1c.u<>n t•l thc ,.¡,,.in•• pm1rnl•r ch.11.mori>ii<"' con be 1dcn1ilicd wnh ¡u.t hke you can h~"e ¡ 1>1ulu~1ul the<.•ry ul ~cnJer, 1111.J you 've gonen
ltm1msm, 1> not ,11) o•u•rch1nM prttxl'ting ¡:<·ncrJI th0<>rv th•• i' .ippcolcd womm (l\t'r tune an-.J .a~:rc-''" 1r,;uhurn "D h "Ct'1n~ to m~ that rhís presen~ "'!u.ilh "'"' hcrc m tcfm> 1•f <li.m•nthn¡¡ •O<:•JI hicrardiy. Pur ~nothcr way,
JO empmrnl roihcr ih•n ~ ron<'t"ptual yue-;non Do ch2racicnsncs cx>St
to in orJer to undt"t•nd or •'pbm, hut ,, con,tJnrl\ provisional .mal"is 1i """"'n J1>n°L e"''· bccau"" 1hrre Jrt' <"11) panicular women, maybc
in die pro<e"' ot bcin¡¡ m.1dc .and "'mJdc b, the -.ocia! realmes thai pro- th.i can be 1dcntilicJ w1th-mcJnm¡¡ lound m the red.1ry of-the status Black prople don 1 ""t enher beca~ 1hey are 1füided bv scx Probabli
duccldl u ol wQflll'n J,rou umc JnJ plJ<e, m.luJm~ lw thOS<' ,.-ornen th=sdvcs> t.,.btan• can't cx1<t 01hcr. becou.., thc:\ are.' di'1dcd by race and dass; if
ni., P"'tmo.km cnuquc ol lmum~m """"'' to <l>Sume tlut thc "womcn • \\'acnm rcport thc ciwtm<c ol >U<h rc~ulanuc:. ><'< tneqwlny, for """- "-ornen Jorú n•"· •u>man "knulíed womc:n <Urelv don 1 eXtsr. excepi tn
ot lenmlbt throl'} are '111 thc ume. hom<~°"""'· 1 untlorrn un1L 1 Jo not h IS othcr thc:rc ur 11 IS not. º°" Joc:• ni• opp<»e thc oh.cr\JUon th.u 11 thcu liad. \\e ift: rcduccd to md1.,Jw.J,. which. ol ali comciclences, is
knoo..· ..-hcrc thcy J!Ot thu 1Ju cnhc:r :-loe lrom me TI1C) don't u~ Thl> is 1hcre m thc n•me uf Jn 1Jc• tbJ1 r<f«l• tlünkmg th.i u IS thcrc. Once vohcre hber;afum pi•«"> u. \1C'1th 11> alhrmJU''" o( womcn"• rommonaL.tie>
nouan thJt C\"1\00C mu<t be the •Amc to h..,.., •«CU tu thc l•b.:l ",.-omcn" n hl< b<'Cll loun.I to e~ist, to <ay 11 ISO i thcrc, i.ho'll u 1>n·1 therc-<hov.-, tn ali thr:ir W\'<NIV, ll,. fcmm1>m th.u rCl«b thc uew tlu1"v.om.m"1> •
i> nor an 1.ka th•t ••rcnucs m Í<"'111\1$t thc.•I'} to my knD'll k~c Tui for e'ample, 1h.i Í<'m.Jc iiennal muulJuon " a rnOcct1<·c Jdusion or barm- prc.xial, th•t "· b1ologr.;ally Jctcrmm<J catq:ol'} •nJ thc nouon that JO
uniformnv ,. • .iandard ih.,.,mKal pn>f'C'M) ol a caiegon Jocs OOl mean le- or a pramcc ol "'lualll\ \\'ornen ""'ldwiJe U\ tlw SOCICl)' after 'tl"C>ffiCO •re tbc WJlC Í<mtnlsm anJ t>SCntWl<m canno1 OCCUp) thc 5anlC
1hat 11 " h:minism\ ronccpr ol "'''llltn Wacncn. m fcmmi<t thcorv. are ~" contams p.-.cuces tha1 trcat thcm un..-quall' to men To comes1 spacc.
concn:tc, thcy an: oot a.b,.tnact. Th"' are not >ex <•r iiendcr, they are markccl tlu.. lioJ a <OOCI\ whcrc thC\ are cqual. v.·hcn:: uncqual pramces do not Thc P"'tm<ldcm •n1ck on unl\Tr<alm also pro<'eS a bn 100 much In-
and ddíned .uid conuollcJ by 11. Gcnder, 1n femm1>t .,,ah,... IS al-o ob- cXl>l. To contol the documc:ntaoon ol rorru"'on char•cttti>n~ ot womeiú con•~tlv. thc ta.et o( dcath tt a un1vcrsal-approeclung 100 percenL
"""·eJ to bc po\loedully bmar\ m >0<let), hui not cxd11>1vdy ><>: P""'"' >tatUS acm» ''""' and pi•« 'ho"' tho:y uc: no< thcrc. Oi rourse. liOcial \X'hatn cr u mco111>, hou "'"'u IS rdaicd 10 culrurally and spmrually. what-
cbHStOll>""' ob.cncd to cxI>t "1thin ..,x..JctmcJ ¡¡nrupi Js ,..¿¡ 11> b..1v.ccn realu; hai "' cx1>L 1<• ¡tnl'>uc 1h... \'('!w thc P"'unodcrni;is .....,., to be C\-ct happ<ru alter tt, u happcn;. \loch to thc cmbarrassmcni of the an-
thcm, so abo m thr fcmml'I th«>I'} ni HmJcr 'J)mg hcrc " 1'1.11 thC') Jon't ltkc ihc idea thai ""111dl are uncqwil n·cry · UC>,,.,.,,tialats, "ho ¡>rCÍC'r tlt~ht> ol fmq ltl ¡¡nu1• realiucs, hlc and death
Írmllll>m m º°" M:M><' ><•MN 1hc <nuquc oí un1vcr,¡(11\ "' currentl)' whcre \\'di <>·e Jon '1 ltkc JI rithcr 1> C\CO h.1>icalJy 1 btnJ!') OOUn<UM-JnJ noi a Ve'} nuanced onc cither,
practrccd h.- •ho<nn¡t how <1<•mcn •re l~h nut oí ihe human epi<ieme. We \luch eof v.hai h.. anim•t<.J ihc criuquc ot 1hc <0-caUed es<cnnalísm of npcc1ally frnm ihc Jc•J ,,.¡., of the !me. • • lc•<i v. hcn .ccn from <he
took th• mtique c.f !>OCICt) • '0<1•llv ron«rucicd to • ncw derth by lem1m•l 1heory 11 thc niuci<m th.11 lcm1ntsm 1s racist-that 1he UTI~ <>Í ~=dro1m oí thc l"inp,. <h•t i• as far •s .... know And u is C\-en biolopical
sbo"m¡¡ how t'\!en somcthm~ often ihou~t h1• orhen; 10 be hiolo¡:ical- "thc femminc" m lcmmi>m. 1crordmg to this crinque, has a "'h1<e woman·s a1 sorne pomt So the idCll 1hn1 1hcrc 1s nodun~ csscnoal. in the sense that
scxualit) - t.S social aod Jra<>'S I'º"º' lin~ 1em1nism does 001 "assume.._.., facc. Tht> cnuc1>m Jppltc. 10 the rac1sm ol the acadcmy thst calls u.dí therc are no humm unl\·cr<al• ,. dOj!llla Ask mos1 anyone who is going
but rather bwlds, tt> "women• lrom \Himen who M>Ci•lly exm. Wbtn temlnt>l but rclu>e> 10 crcJcnual women o( color .s theorisu or appro- 10 be >hOL ~l W<>'ll.
f=U11Sm nukc. UJ< "womcn" lrom the ~round up, ouc ol pJrucuLiriue:s, pri•tc. thcir work d' p.tn of 11• plur.1l"m whtle ttsclf Jo1ng noih1ng any Mulucu!tura!Jsm is u polmcally norrnauvc vcmon of the nnthropological
from pr•c11cc. ro1hcr 1h.111 lr<>m thc cop duwn. l)UI of ulhtrn<Uon> •mi pnor J1ffcicn1l)' thun u J1d bdorc. h 111•0 •1>1•he• to the racism of lhe medu nouon of cultural rduttmm prcm1;cJ on thc " ew "thnt all culmrcs are
thc<>ry. thc ~•-cullcd c<wn11.11i~m pmhlcm connnl c>ccur.' The daim 1h.11 thot ¡ircocnt• i1 ....·lf •• >ytnpn1hc11c bu1 ,1,,.,. no1. for ex.miple, ~how how cqually vnhd "'' Thc 1-.o•tmodcrn ver.ion oí ihe mulucul1urohs1 cniiquc
fcminism i~ c•scnuufüt 111•<1 !l<n<:s tn ohscurc ihe fonnati<'c role of \lo"\1men womcn ,,f e<•lor formrd fonuni'm J1nce iis 1-.cp,innin~ anJ conúnut to do 11>sumc. thJt thc •Pc•kcr tak<'• 1hc11 own culture und ns v•lues 10 be \'alid
of color and le:sbt•ns "monji othe.-., m cwry pan of the fcmíni•t theory so tod.iy. lt bcst cnllCllCS 1hc fcmtnist luce of hbt:rnl chusm that passe:s for and critidr.cs 01her cult ure. from 1he standpoint of their O\t.'11, Feminism.
cbscussed The¡· ns much JS an1 an•I more ihan m<><t, crea1cd ihc women's temimsm m <(lme quancr., 1ncludinp, m 1he women s movemern. But un- howt'\!er. quc•ttons thc culniral v•lidi1y of suhordiMring women to mm
movement's, aoJ te1n1n1sm"s. ··"·ornen .. ltke "cssenual"m." <•-hich snunds hke \'OU'rc 1allun¡¡ thcory, raosm ts an anyv.here. Femintsm d~ not 3«ume ihm "other" c\llturcs" are ro be
Postm0Jcrn1Sm nuucrs on uhout how lcmm1'm prmlcgc< p:nder. bue u¡tly, acaJemicall¡ nonpraemuble, and rísky pohtkal ...ord dw plsses off mcasured aR:illlSl 1he ,alJJ1ty oí thor own. bccause fcmimsm does no1
sddom »l' "'hut tlut me.ns ctthcr lf 10 pm 1legé ~endcr mearu tbJt wbllc p<'<>plc ~' lll•lcJJ ol "•')In¡: thJt ><Hncthmg or >0m""'1e is rac1S1. assumc th•t •nvone.. culture. mdudm~ thcir º"""· 1> val1d. How could .,-cJ>
lcmiru;m Jrrango gmJcr JI thc ll>P ol >OOte h1crJr•h) ol opprc.>1ons, thc 11;l11ch 1héy olt<"n "'"· "'< M"' thc <-.b-.urc ph1lo-oph1C3! swear ""rd ·.,.. Dd<n$<:$ of hxJI J1flcrm(c>. llJ thcy •re "'Ucd; Jre <liten simpl~ • dclrose
•llcg. uon ,. f.Jsc. •L ¡.,._,, .. to me 1 ,lon't ,10 h1er.ir<h1 11 1h..e rnt><• scnu.W.1 • ur "" hc.-.r th.it fcmtnot> ,¡., noc ukc "d1ffcrcncc" 11110 11<'· ol nule ¡x>wcr in 1ts lo<•l ttu•>e .•\ lak ¡>Q\\er •muall} '11w•)> >ppcan m
'°""" th>< tm11m<11 1h1nk ¡:cn.icr m•n<ri u L11 and oficn n:-.aJ 11twuons (OtJnt M lo.:.! ¡tW>CS, onc m1~1 hJarJ tlut thcrc º'' "1thmg b1<1 local gUl>O for
in tcrms oí dmamtC\ ol gcnJer h1cruch), •nd reíusc to <hui up .tOOul Nice ncutnal "r>rJ. J11tem>l'<", .nJ u ha< .ill <hai French crcdibilit)· male i'<'W"' The !Jet thai thC} Jrt' local tlon oot 1mprove them
l?=dcr as • form Clt Jomination, the)'rc n~t Th.ry shoo!J say wh< m :-.IC\er mmJ ihat J1ftcrtnces c.m <tmplv he tru¡mimttd unh-enals. lt T"'º cnmmal <•"'' in which a mul11cuhural <o-c.Ikd culrural defmsc
eacb mst.mcc, wc are "roo~ 10 do ''" whv U> pi.ice m our anal,-s1> 1s doe:sn 1 unpl'U\.., ""''' •bilil\' to anal\'ze h1crarchv "" sociall> consnucted ,...s cmplo¡..,J 'h""' this mul11culrural1 m·, dyrumtc, p-.uttcularlv rtS erasurc
11Deamed. .\bk suprcm.14; "pmilq!<'S" ~enJer. 11>c cncu:tZc: u. to adJ more p1cccs calla! Jtttcrence> tl thc: Jilt<reneo are .sccn iiS btolo¡?- ol ~s •'OCl'lc:n, in opcra11on In Chnr " a Chinesc unmimlnr mm
A rcU!cd argumcnt i ; th•t k-m1nnm ".-...cn1t.iluC1" ,.,nJcr Onc <'OllCcpt
54 • Theory and Rullty Post•odernism ••d Humaq R1ghts • 55 56 • Tneory and Ruluy

who beat h1s wt!e to Jeath with • cbw hammcr wns defended on the phallus," nml it is moscly obscrved to signify. 1 Worocn havc bcrome "an modcrn1sm is for, far away from thc réalnics of the subordinauon of
grounds th•t lus r:ige and v1olencc at the lmagincd inñdcltty of bis w1fe ongoang Jisrut>Jvc practicc"" or, ubiquitoW!ly, "thc ícmale body."" 111h1cb wonw:n Ali womcn should be so fortunate.
were normal in his culture of origin. ln Jnotbcr. Rhines," un AfrtcanAmcr is wnnen on nnd signilied but scldom, if cvér. rapcd, bcuteo, or othetw1se
ÍClln m;ln wus occusetl of rnpe through physicul forc-c and •·erbal Jbuse of viola1ed. Racism and homophobin ore clided "differences" in disguise.
Abuse has bccome "•1tcncy•-or ratber challeoges to sexual abuse ha>-e
C. Realny
on African An;erican womun. His defense was that he mistakenly belicvecl
that shé consenu~d to the rape because Black people nre routinely violent becn repbc-cd by invocauons oJ "a¡tency," women's violation become 1he lt is my víew that a is the relat1on of the.ory ro realiry thar feminism
and ycll •t each otber"' Presumably che racism of rhese assumptions is sneenng wound of a "viccim" pinned in ardi quoraüon marks." lnstead clian¡?ed, -and 11 is in pare a revemon to a prefemirust relaaoo of tbe.ory ro
apparent, altbough the defenses were made in tbe name of opposing the of facing what was done co women wben we wcre violated, wc are told reality that posrmodemlsm IS reimposing. This is 001 about truth. Trutb is
racism of whne culcure in punishir¡g these men for raping womcn of color bow mucb freedom we hud at the tune. (For thlS wc oecd fcmin1Sm>) a gcncralit y, an abstracúon o( a ce.muo sbape tllld qualliy. Social rc:aliues
and benung tbem to deaih. The Afncan American woman m the rape case Agcncy in 1hc posrmodem lcxicon 1> u st•n1lin for thc powcrless cxcrcisin¡¡ ore sometlung eJ..e agu.in. Postmode1nism has deciJed rluu becsuse trutl!
wu very dear thot she was raped. lf African Amerkans yell al eocb other, powcr; sometimcs 11 meons frecdom, M>rnctimcs sclf-acrion, somctlmcs ti:· d1ecl with God, therc: ore no social facrs. The focr tha1 reolity IS • socíal
shc m1gh1 be tbe 6rst io k.now wh•t it incnnt and not be silcnccd by it sisrnnce, somctimes desirc:. Wc are not told which of these is meant, pre· construction doc:s not me~n that it is not there; it means that ir ÍJ there.
into ncting as if ~he wanrcd to have sex, or so he could think. cisely, or how any or ¡ú] of these things are possible under the circum- in sociery, where we live.
1 would olso likc to know in what culture sorne mcn áon'I kili their st;10ces. lt would be good to know. Oddly missing in this usage is whar According ro posunodermsm. rhere are no fans; everyth.ing is a reading.
wives f¡¡r pcrccived infiddiry (or just because ... ). and in wbat culture an agem legally is: someone who actS for someone else, the principal, who so there can be no lies. Apparenúy it cann0t be known whether tbe Ho-
men are not supported in culcurally specific ways in believing that force is is pulling their scrings. locausl IS a boax, wbether women !ove ro be raped, whether Black people
part of sex. (Let's roove there.) Wbar posrmodernism gwes us instead is a Dominatioo, posanodemists know cx.ists. but 1bc:y don 't 1cll us how or are genetlcally inteUecrually inferior to wbire people, whether homosexuals
mulücultural dcfense for male ,.¡o[ence-a defen.se for it wberever 1t lS, whcrc: or why. lt is something that no Olle does or h11> done 10 1hem but are cbild moles1er.. To posunoclémim. tbesc factish things are inde1cnni·
wnich in effect as a preny uruversal defense. Pornography also pl'Ollides an somchow wintb up in "gendered lopsidc<ln=.""· What we u~ed to csU nllte, rontingem, m play, ali n matte.r of interprctauon. Símilarly. whcthcr
exccll""'t cultural defcnse to rape in most Western cultures: the more por- "what happcncd ro her" has becomc, al its most crcdiblc, "oarrauve. • But or not ncts of inccst hoppened or ore troumatic to children bccomc foggcd
nogrnphy is consumcd, thc mo1·c dtfficuh it is for men to know thot thcy real harm has ccnsed 10 exist. over in "epistemological quandaries" as beyond thinlcing. beyond narmtive,
ore using force whcn thcy force women inro sex-so thcy u•rll o.1lturally So wbole chapters of books w:itb "pomogr-Jphy" in their ritles can be beyond intelligibiliry, as "this eve.nt that is no e11em"-•s if survivors hove
believe 1hat women conscnt 10 sex no maner how much force is used." wriuen without ever once tallong about whar the pomograpb.y induscry not often reponed, in imelligible narratives. that such events did happcn
Why are we cominlt up with a mulricultural defense for each culture m coocretely does. who pomograpbers are, or wbat is done ro wboro in and and did harm them." That violation ofren damages speech and mcrnory
whicb men specificaUy and particularly are permlued to believe rape IS sex, wuh thc matcrial_s. '· Therc is oo dascussion of bow pomo¡¡raphy exploiu does no1 mean that one was not violated-oo thc contrary. Recall when Bill
ins1ead of Jookmg at the assumption that rape happens in a man's mind •nd m•ss-produces se1CuJ.l ubuse. Thcrc ;,, not even o.n cxtcrulon oí thc Clinton, asked about bis sexual rclatioosbip wnh a young woman miem,
rather t.han in o woman's body in alJ of 1hcm? Nono of clus would be t!Arly work on thc scopic dnvc by Foucuul1, LaCJn, and lrigar~y lwho ~re saicl th•t it ali depended on whaL "is" mcgns. The coumry jecred lus epi·
possible íf 1hc disseming women of cach cuhurt>-tl1e women wbo say, 1 even Frcnch)-•n •nalysis 1.hnt is rc:ndíly cxtcndable 10 describe the ag- stemic dodge as o transparent and slimy subrcrfuge to evade accoumability.
was raped-werc creducd with knowing the rcality of wh•L w<.u done to gressive appropriarion and rroflicking of women in pomograpby." Nor Rct rei1l. Thc posrmod~misrs wcre strangely silcnt. But you can't commit
1hcm. have 1 noticed the mulriculturalists ouc there opposin)l the spread of por- perjury if the.re are no fam. Whcrc are 1hesc pcoplc whcn you O(ed tbem?
nography from Scandina\'ia, Germany. and the Uoited Srates oo grounds What posunodemists want. 1 have come to think, apart &om to live in
of cultural imperialism. and ir's rnking over the world. The point of pon· thcir heads instead of io thc world (that old dodgel, iS to vaulr themselves
B. Me!ho<l moclcrnism is to get as far away from anything real as possible. out of powcr metbodologically. '!'bey want 10 beat dominaoce ar lts own
Posanodermsm as practiced ofteo comes across as style- petulant. joy· Postmodem ferrunists ,,.,!dom butld on or refcr to thc real Uves of rt:al grunc, whicb ¡, usually called domiaating. Tbcy W3Jll to WÍJl every argument
ridmg, more poscure than positioo. J3ut u has a metbod, making meta· womcn directl¡, mostly, they build on th• work of Frc:nch 1nen, i( selec- m advW>ce. Abo, if evcrytlung IS in1erpretauo11, you can ne•·cr be wroog.
physics far from dcad. lrs approoch and ns position, its posture townrd tivcly and often not very well." Foucault. for instance. studied sorne reJ.l f'cmanism has foced that you know wrull ÍS renJ OOl by geUJng outsiJc your
thc world and its vicw of what is real, is 1ha1 it's ali mentol, f>o.,tmodcmi;m practices, 1hough he mosdy missed gender, whicli from the stondpomt of determinan~ (wfuch you con'1 do anyway) but by getting deep insídc them
im;~incs that socicty h.1ppcn> in your head. Back in thc modcrn pcril'Ci, feminism is• rather bi~ thin~ to miss. Foucault's elision of ~ender. feminisl with a lol of 01her people with rhe sorne foot (or feetl on 1heir necks.
this position wllS cnllcJ idealism. ln its continuity with this method, to posanodemists tr)' cndlessl¡- to fix, but his accual ea¡:nge.me.nt with re- Abdicotmg this, fcminism'$ sourcc of power, postmodcmism has swnl-
offer a few examplcs, posrmodemism bus made tbe penis inro "the alitv- " l'm an empiricist"'°-they have totally abandone.d. Femnust posr- lowed the objcctiv<: standpoint while diúming to be off on a wbole new
Postmodern1S11 and Human R11hu · S7 58 • Theor1 and Realltr Postmoder•ls., a•d Kumlft Rtghl! • 59

methodologic:nl departure. Then postmod.,.nists sigh ond •<lrrut th.tt they h•vc to <>tabli;h ·~clf •• real in ordcr to exi.1, becau>< ll hJ> 1hc status us fon.'' Tnkc bcing ntlrnadic. My &sninn \\'Ornen clicnt$ •re rcfugecs. Will
might h11\"e to concede parri:tlity," meaning admiuing nnly knowmg pon. real 1hu1 power gives u; only 1hc re"lity of the powerless has to est~blish Rosi Bntidoni" s N01nad1c Suh¡ects help t.hem ¡¡tt througn thc day?' Bcin¡t
What. ogain, W\lS th• oltemotive? To1ol11y? What's wrong "íth pnrrialicy- 11>clf ~s real Power am also e•toblish unre:tllry-like thc bormlcssness of a n:al nomad can include being forced 10 flee your own counuy for ~'Our
except from the obrective $landpoim, which think$ u means you cnn'c be J">Ornogniphy or smokm¡¡-:is realicy. Tbat doesn't make it harmless. But own survival as )'OUr frunily is exterminated m from of you. Po~rmodemism
ngln? Who soid th"'e rs eith"' 1he whole or a pan? Postmodemisrn keeps umil power is effecrively challenged on these lie:s-and they are lies- ooly celebraies interculturality as a libernúng head tnp for ÍlS cultural rootless-
hecornmg whac 11 claims t0 supe:rsede." t:hose harmed (and those harmmg them, who hove every incenll\"C ro oon· ness aod multiplc poss1b1ltties. The actual expeoence con be somethmg
1l feminism is mo<lcrnist-wh1cb is hrghly probleroatic. bec:nuse it 1s as ceal1have ac-cess to knowmg thiit that is what they are. So it has caken us dse agaln. But tben. Rosi did say bomclessness gor fun only after she got
much a cnuque oí mo<lcrnisrn"-an<l posunodemists want to be postÍetn· itll tht> umc. "11U a movcmonL that has challenged mole po1&·cr. to hgll!C cenurt.'.¡
1ni<t, they have to tnkc fcminism "íth thcm anti go further. Tbey oítcn out that womc1ú rcality is olso a pbilosophical posuion: thut women"s One final cxumplc putS togethcr these points abcmt posunodcmism t>n
cloim 10, To be ponmodcm in this sense, the insightS of modcrnism ond r<nlity exist>, 1ncluding women ·s denicd violation. therefore social rcaluy women. method. multiculmralism. and therefore social rcality Tt ccnrers
its crítics into rhe inequaliries of :;ex, 111ce, and class must, it seems come, CXÍSts separa te Í l'('lffi llS CODStÍIUti!ln by mole po\\·cr or llS \'lllidanon b)' on a question. large in Western philosophy, of whether the "·orld exists
be taken on boord befare they can be gone be}'Qnd." lnstead of super· male knowlcd~e. mclependcnrly of our ideas of it. This has been • big male problem. An
sedíng these mStgbts. postmodemists routinely elaborately deny them, ig· Thts analvsis raises some questions •bout poscmodernism that are nor introduction 10 tbe postmoclem collection Domi11at1111. N<owledge by Sre·
nore them, acr as if they are not th"re. Th1s •• premodem. as íf fenunism simply a repon oo my currenc mental stare: Can postmoderrusm stop tbe pben Marglin addr"5Ses lt by statíng that che material world has objective
né\'l!r txisted. On the qu"5tion of conunutty, whether posunodemism has rape of childreo "'heo everyone has thelr s1ocy, and evetyooe is p=umably reahry but the social world does not." H.ts eirnmplc is that althougb he
much tf anything to say that modemism didn t is also wonh aslung. The exero.sing sexual agency ali che cime? Can postmodernism ldcnufy fascism lcnows che eanh is rouod (he do"5n°1 say how). people used to think it was
gre•L modcrn Genrudc Stein wrote in l946: • ff)bcrc uint any unswcr, if powcr only c•isrs 1n microccntcrs 1nd nev"' in sym:matk, fixcd. and !lat in human sodcty, accordíng to him, thcrc is no reality, hcncc no
chcrc aint going to be art)' 1.tnswer, thett n~e:r has becn an ans\ver, 1
thl1t 'i dctcnnlnatc hicrnrch1cul •rrangernents? 1low can )'OU opposc somcthing knowing, likc rhat. •• Thc idea is, if you believc thc societl cquivalen1 of rhc
the answer. ".. How is posrm<>demisrn ¡xm that? 1ha1 i> .alw~ys only in play? How do \'Ou orguni.zc agoinst something 1ho1 world is llot-like, say. thnt \\'Ornen nre inferior 10 men-i1 is. Tn society,
What T meJln to say on rhe question of realicy in rheory is rhis: \Then isn'L cven rcully thcre exccpt whcn you are thinking ahout n? Cnn post· there is no n:aliiy; therc is only what is thought to be real.
somerhing bappens to women. it happens m social reality, The perspecnve modernism hold the perpetrntors of ¡¡enocidc accountable? lf thc subjcci To illustrate tbis. he discusses the subje<;e of "human sacrifice" in a
&om womenºs point of view does not mean that women's reahty c:nn only is dead, aod we are dealing witb deeds "ithout doers," how do we bold soetety that beüeves in tts ne=s1ty:
be seen from Ehcre, hence is inaccessible to an¡'One else and can "t be talked perpetrators accountab!e for wbat they perpetrate? Cao the Serbian cu). lmaj!inc tbc priest<S.\ calletl upon to cxplain the consequcnces oí a foilure
about und docs n0t exJSt. Rathcr, wbat can be seen from the potnt of vicw rural defense for tbe einernunation of Croars, Bosnian Muslims, und Jfo. ro sacri6ce the requisite virgins in tbe requisit< munn<"r Shc rni¡i:hr wcll
of the subordinati()n of u·omen h.. b«:n thcre aU along-100 long. \X'e sovar Albaruuns be far btbind? 1f we can have a mulucultural defensc for say. •Sociery will fall apart. Our women and our land will b~me barren
wish it didn ·, exist. but ít carú be wisbcd out of existenec. Anyo11e can che curttnt genocide, because th•t"s how tbc Serbs sec it, why oot • because our men will become impotent as lovers and intffecti\'e as cul-
see it. Tt c•n be found. lt cun be 85certoined. Tt cun even be measured Germun cultural defcnse Cor 1he t!3rlier one? Anñ·Semit:tsm mar pan of uvacors." A»d shc Wtll ~ rtgpt. 6el.téVing themsdves to be impot..-nt JO
sometimes. h can be discussed. Before us. it l:uis been missed. overlooked, Gcnnun culture. Finally. Cor another old question, if you onl)· cl<ist tn tbc hammock and incf6<icnt in the field, tite men wtll be Ulldbk to pcr·
made invisible. opposition. if you are only fuU in opposirion to thc modem,'• it ha., de· form in cither conrext. The binh rato will decline. and thc horvest wul
In other words, the harm of secood-class human S!aros <loes not pose i=ed you. Don't you need an account of how )'OU are not merdy fnil. Sociery w1/I fall apan. • . (BJclicf1 bnng about thc very conditions
an abstract realny queS!Íon. In social Jife, there is Unte that tS sobde about reiterating your dctcnnination.~? From postmodemists, one is not yet fonh· that will make 1hese bclieis come ttut."
most rapes; there tS nothmg complex about a fut m your face; there is crurung. Tbe postmodcrnist rca.ltty corrosion thus malt<:s 11 not only !neo·
nothing nuunced ubout genocidc-although many nuunccd questian> no betent and useless-tbe pragnllltists' v:tlid crtticrsm"-but also rcgres<tve, Wbat wc ho•-.: herc is a mulúcultural sexual and ecooonuc ruuonaliz.rlon
doubt can be raíscd llbout them. Thcse social reulitics, central to fcminL=. discmpowenng, ancl coU.borntionist. for thc murder oí littlc girls. Wc also hu\'é • sítuation in whích mcn's
do no1 raise difficult fina·or~r renlity questions, not Joy more. There 1¡ reality to many of thc poscmodcrnrsts' favorite conceptS, ,¡. erections can be dc:pcndtnt on killing femalc children Male impotenec
lt is the denial of their social realiiy tha1 is complicaced and raises dif· thou¡th they sddom t;ilk about it Toke their •fragmented self .,. In the occupies the staros of a fact; erections, 1 ¡¡ucss. exist. Wha1 r want 10 say
ficult pbilosophical quesrions. Understand that the deni:tl of the renlicy of material world chey largdy refu•e 10 en~age or counrenunce, the frag· about this son of thing is tbat no one is askin~ the gixls. The description
such events has betn a philosophiaJ posnion aboot reality itself. Unless mentcd <elf is a mulriple perronality. Multiplicity is crea1ed through ex· of "thc way things are" is &om 1be posttion of a man who 1s about to kill
and until tt tS effecovely challenged. ooly what powcr "'llnts to sec as real neme. liSually se;rual, tonurc at a vei;• youn¡¡ age." Postmodcmists oul!ht ~ child. Of course. m this example. it's put m tbe moutb ot a wam:an.
tS gronted. realiiy status. Real.ity is a social 1/atus. Pawer's reality d0"5 001 to b.ave to confront the human pam of the ideas tbcy think are so m:ucb Womcn often serve male power und do have power over childrtn, but
60 • 1heort and Rul111 Po11n1odorn111• ••d Humu R11fth • 61 61 • lhto1 1 1nd Rul111

p<'>Unodtnum ha'c in J"'nr.11 wnmm •<rnally h11·m, powcr 1hu1 m<n cm"m will go on ~Jopt1n¡: thc m<'fh<><lulug11•I I''""'""
nf male po,.·er, .1nJ cn¡t•Rcd h) comran>0nl, • pttcinu• pol1110 e>f abd1carion compla·
lalJlcl' ha\C tn nrdcr '" <onOl\C l'l'C'lfllC aoout J'C'IW~r IThat they Wllll 10 and tht l"'liu<'I of rhe 1'omcn'1 mnv<nll'nt of thc 1'170' will he dead. in CtnC), and rassiv1sm,
.,..,,d bé1ng c•lled ~"" in thc rm«'" 1>c havc acrompbshed.I 1heorv ~1esnume, womcn m the "·<>rld ,..,IJ ¡¡o on fighnn¡¡ ro chan¡le che 1 do kno"' 1h1< wc cannot havc tlus po<tmoderruStn and snll !uve a
.\ti p<'Ult "' 1h1« ,.fui h•rf!Cn• 10 thc v11):tn bem~ sacnbced is mdcpen- uncqual o;oc1aJ r"21mts of "·ornen\'"º ilS 11 ro,tmodem1>m dad not <XISL rncantn¡¡IUI pract1cc ol 1>omcn's humm nglus, far le« a women's movc-
Jen1 oJ "ha1 ,¡,., 1h1nk. aboot 11. S/.e ma> tlunk th11 ihc ero¡» will R""" ment lrumcall), .uicJ h°"' l""'tmodcrnu.m !oves m tr0ny, 1us1 as "-ornen
lll>l as wdJ 11 ,Jtc ll ail\C tnmorr"'' b ti ~ IJ killcJ 1..Ja) Sh,, llU) "'""' h.-" be¡:un 'º beromc human "'en u ...-e h.-c bcgun 10 II'lnsform me
think h.:r humilll n~hu ore béin~ \1<•wcJ h muo nn Jilfc=cc 10 thc
m hurnilll ..., u as 1<>mc:1htn¡: more worih ha'1ng and mJght apply to us. "e
rcalui of h<'f ¡:cmng kill.J t<kla, i'\n m"ncr "h•t oltc thinh aboot n, ,¡,., IJ u 1> LO contnbutc to lrniuu•m \ lu1urc, pournoJcrn1>111 b.is, 1 think, """" •re told b) h1gh rhcorv that the human " inht:rcnily auihorirarian. not
,..¡¡¡ ~b.--Je.J 11m 1ttm• in me \cfY wnplc: thc ruliry rl pcork quci.uon~ ro •nv.-·er \\:ña1 ª"' u1 '9c\:nun1 fl'Í n!>df? Hov.: con\:mrcni to \.-onh h0\1n~. unmansformable, and may nnt cvm exi.i-and how hope-
who dorú ""'e """ª'
f'O"'Cr rxrm 1nJcr<-ndcnrlv ré ihC\' ihmk 11tc waal
ron'tructs 1ha1 ron1rol 1hcir In·'° vm C'hcn are not thor roosmms. Wba1
rq>udmc ilCC'OUnt ¡¡m~ "hcn u ..-....ns 10 h.i,..., nooc, .i la.t no preocnt
•ble """ \\1..r •r< itJ gmunJ<> !'inv.· 1h1> •• an ag¡:re<..,ve qucsuon
¡..,¡, runcteoenth-«nrury of us 10 want 11 '° ITha1 fcw of the fmünist post·
moclern1m. had 11 no• beco for thc iheory of hurruuuty clic¡· cnnazt. ...-ould
v.'Ofllcn 1hink Joe'\n'1 1end '" makc thinp be thc '"' v.·c think ~use Thinking f?rouncls rrumcr, rhcy rcrud1a1c as "lounJabo""1i.<m • Bu1 v.ila.1 h3\ e beco ~rmmcd 10 leam tO read and wnl~ tS perbaps a small
wc Joo't ba,e me social p<l1lCt IC'I Jo them ot 10 Stop thcm. An~ "'OIJIUI are ihc •cxual anJ rn•tcnal prcconcLuon• lor m1> thcon' l)a,id Hllt\'~ poanr)
wbo Joorú """" 1tu., in my npuuon, b.ts llOI pushcd \'Cf)I hard 00 me traca me n-ooonuc and culrunl l<>rco of L11r-r..·cnuoh-o::ot:UC} capnalism The l'ClllOCI ¡x»U11t>tkm1>m unJcrmino • pracuce of hum:in nghts,. not
"alh aruund her .,nJ othcr ""ntcn "' hA> bttn, so far, \el) prn1lcgcd and mat, U\ ru. an.tl¡,J>. h..c proJu,-,,J, rcaJ Jctcnrun<-J, posun<klcmum." becJ<IJC u conoclct unl\erul11v, l lum.n nght> m thc rcal v.-orld att
\Cr')' lua~', \t'lur cloo thb •u¡.tg""t .1bc>uc th.:u abalit) 10 promotc chAllgc> \\"h.i 11 provm, far ku •n,.hcJ 10 mctr F.nhgh1mmen1 baggage ihan a.re me in-
Thc r.,...,., 1ha111d~n1 •rrcu1nm<n lnrccaally mcnof1hemcorydaut postmodcmi<m'• rmrc:ct> llc.w lanc•r, ho.. 1drolo..,1c.I. h""' "'"""' To tclkctuJls ""'º ~uuJ ... thcol) The rea'°n is. me rcolicy of viola1ion is
tlm l¡,., V."OrlJ o,,,. inJcrc-n,kntly oí th<ir rnmd• IS bccausc thcy Lar¡tdy do ...·hom anJ "hJt ,. 11 acwunublc? r ..,.,. u " occountable 10 ucadcmic thc onl¡ 11roonJ the \lnl..rcJ h.ve 10 stand on 10 cnd ir Power and its
havc thc pov.~r 10 do" h.11c,·cr hapf'('n< m their mmd' Ji ih"" """t. in tbar hieruchy. Who d<e can offord th1'1 the<>ry? prC!cnden thmk thcy can cLspemc ,.,,¡, ground ~use they are in no
mmd<. 10 k1U her, 1hcy can Jn 1ha1 in ihc world lf rhev 1"anr 1110 !tl\'C them PMtmodcrn1sm nrprornJtcs 11• meth<><iol<'!lical prctcnsioos Wld ¡lCS· danj!Cr o! lostnR mc1rs or thc po..·cr that ~ ...,th ll. Postmodcrrusm
cm:uoos. 11 wtll So they natuntllv don 1 kno"· wh•t come< lirst. u or mem. rures from femmasm. but u cloe>n't pracuce thcm hs rcalíiy posttion is v1tiate> hum.111 nght> 10 thc cxteot 11 crccts ruelf on tts lack ot relaaon 10
\X'har ih1> mem~ 1> th•t W<'mcn •re thconc. "ho know wmcthtng•boucsoc:W doser 10 me premoocm, ,-,,nainly che prclemtnist. a mrowbJck lO before me rc.i.11ues o( the suborJma1cJ because u IS onh in social realicy th.tt
reaht) as suth, whích ·~ thccxrcm of 11$ inJcpcnJcnccof minal U.oaal rcahty me femuu.m in1t1.i.lh J.scnbcJ. ~ u's foru.lJ'J lO me pa:.t: to )~l moiher hum..n '"''•""" t•kcs plaoc. c•n be kno•m, and can be stoppcd.
"1ndcpcmlen1 oí'"'' m111J., u's mJcpcndcnt <>Í m1nJ. nnJ rnc:n ¡u>t Lhmk lL set ol 1bs1mctaon; wtrh no a<:edunL11btl1t) 10 subordm;1cJ ¡><'Ople> realit) Th1> 1n,1l)'11 1n lllm fll.\O u c.¡uorion femtni<m has not haJ 10 nnswcr
""'' becau•c ol 1hc11>(l(iol l11<•t1<>n and •n imphcn but tot•I a.coum•b1l11y to powcr w1th ÍJm1li•r if fnncier before..., crttically '" we dci now. bec•usc wc ncvcr hnd a thcory class
Worncn are in a ¡>0<1<ion '" kno1> thi. 10 che cxicm 1ha1 real11y dOC' not reurons for dnin¡i no1hin11 r•Jic11hounJan¡¡, but with thc ..me ori¡¡ins, • bcforc whnt i• thc pl•cc c-f the oc•dcmy in che movcmcnt? Posunodcrnism.
respnn<.I fCI u5. Wh>t wc know i• 1ha1 rhc ¡>ov.·cr to malee rcnlity be real is Jislocotcd d itc. ~nd the ~11mc cons«.¡uence•, u dtScn~a¡¡od thcory, 1ha1cor- cmpcy· os mu ch oí u i•. is rnkin~ up ti lot <>Í femmist 1hcorcúcal encrgy m
a product of •ocinl flOWcr to act. not jiut to una¡¡ine. Wc kno,.· 1hat rcabiv rode< material re<israncc ro powcr. thJS onc world ihn1 we all 110 10 slccp m and wake up rn. Ponmodernism
is abouc power hecau<e "e c;1n ima¡¡tne chanAe aU da>· loo¡¡ and noihing Posrmodernism's analysis of the social c<>nstruct100 of rcality is smlen is an academ1c theory, on~inatin~ in academia with an ac.ademic elite. not
is :tny dilterent ln1s " • crmc..m. 11 r; noL .ui mC\1tabilny. Wc cnn col- from [emimsm and ihe leh but ¡tuued nt sub~l;lnU\•e content- producing 111 thc u orld of womcn 111d meo, where fcllllOist mcory IS rooted. In me
lect1vely mtcrvcnc in ao<:liU hfo, but not if v.·e Jeny th•t ll is thcrc or wb.u Marxism v.1ihout che worlun¡: cla>s, fcm1nt>rn wlmou1 womcn lú •n ob- carly 1970$, l Uor cine> haJ unaglncd mar lcmtnists doíng mcory '"-ould
m..kc. u be rhere. Wc can "'en 1m1g1nc, long cnough t<> organizr 10 stop nnct cnuquc ol ~bmau 'uhrc<t• Thc hall of mirtor> !ihat'$ rlural) rhai retheori1.c hf< in the <:vncrctc rAml'f thlll •pmd thc DCllC thrcc docadcs on
ihci.c: men, ,. h•• u11.1IJ h•p¡>cn íJ 'ontc >u<h ~rl· 11"' •""•> wuh their L,es much of 1><mrnoJcm1,m •ubstnutcs for •O) ancmp1 m gr..p • rc.J '°'ial met•rhcory, t~lking ~htm11hcol)-, tthuhinR C'l\'cr nnd over in rhis discon·
onJ thc et<>!" kept n¡:ht an 11row1ng. Stcphcn ~lar81in is n(>I a<kmg this ""'rlJ i> an ultun•te rollapk' imo ltberah•m ·, rdauvi<m f't'J:'~"'' As mildl) ncctcd "•V how· thcorv ~uld be done, ka\in¡! wruncn's liveJ rv.-istin¡¡ in
~id if som-ry '"" t;1U •1,.n 1[ Ñle livcs. Wc are \\'e •re, u vou ,.,u, an put b, Al.tn Sokal and lean Bncrnont, "relatm<m ,. an extreme!' "~ak 1hc "'llld Too. 1hcomin11 ahout Lttlc cx~pt o<hcr theorics of t:heonrs
unpmbeblc ml'\emc-nt .,¡ thc C$<ilfltt'I and '"'"""""' ot such <acnficc foundanon on which 10 hu1ld a cnuci•m nf 1hc e<tmni o;ocial order • ., prmmlcs Lnk cxpencncc on how 10 do 11
Yes, _.¡eiy is la'ltelr madc ol rc<>fllc's con<ctnu<ncs' of sooal relanons. Once posnnodcmi<m's \'at'IOU\ ªª' n( ihcft and selloo1 are exrosed . ..-hat .\h lcdmg 1<. ti the po<rmodcmL~ rook rc-.pollSlbilicy for cbangm~ .,~
Tbat doe<n t -.in tlut c-·crynnc' s con'iCIOOsnes• coosuturcs social rc:iliry 1> lett 1> • pose, m cmpt\ j!C'turc ni thcarncal anar<:hl>tl1 ho ..-hrch \lan(s onc rw ihtn~. ihcy wou!J leun more about ihco~ tlun "'·~-thing they
cqually. As long '" sooal rcaLty t> a proJu-i ol mcq1ul11y. and pomnoJ- muque appliol, • Hc¡:dim n~•Uon ot thc >UIUS quo Cand lll>l a> Jt.tcr- h.- e "nucn to J.i1e pul together lnncaJ. as pra~uccd by porunodemur.s,
cm1,,¡s rcfu.., to cuntCSld "uh '<Ktlll u1cq.wit) mc:tl>O<Jo~<ally, pootmod- nuncd b¡ nl, Mx:ral1Jrn's tnnhk ch1IJ lm.my hbcrala louk plent} grouoJcd the 1<ib ol thcory, '" thc blooJ ·~"'" of thc aaiJ0111c curung cdgc, lS 10
Postmodern1sni and Hu•an Rl¡hts • 63 Tbe Promise ol CEDAW's Ophonal Protocel • 65

ob,..,tve •nd pos• on und play "~th these big quc,tio11>. ou1 of toucb ""h
nnd unaccounr~ble ro the lavei. of the unequru Their cntically mindcJ
6 olaaon, "" S1ates can opt out oí the 10quuy procedure. bue, umqudy
umong comp"rablc instrum<nts, thc Opuonal Protocol pena1ts no rescr
$1Udenrs are tought tha1 nothing is real, thm diseng.1~C1T1em is smnrt ln<n The Promise of CEDAW's v•tions. 0
10 mention career-promotin~). 1hat politics is pamomime and vemrilo- ~1andin¡¡ 10 10iu.rc o communicarioo for "viClims"" i• confine<l 10 in-
quism. that rea.lit)• is a reJ<t (readin(l is safer man acnnj! any dayl. tha1
Opcional Prococol
<lividuals or 11roups of ind1viduals who clnim acrual injury due to CEDAW
creative misrea<liog is resistancc (you feel so radical and oomfunably rnar- violations. Others can act on thcir bebalf" witb their consem. or if good
gmall. that nothlng can he chnnged \you cnn only amuso yoursclf). With reasons ex1st that their consent should not be required. 1• The scope of
powcr lefr ~1andlnJl, thc fcnunism o[ thls thenry canno1 be proveo by any permme<l represenrnuon o[ vrcums will be determined by the Commrttee
~\1ng woman. 11 ~ úmc 10 a.<k ihC$C pcQple: wh.tt JrC you domg' as ns 1urisprudence devdops, as will the reqwsitCS of consent 10 complam
on behalf of another anti che l'Cllsoos iheir conscn1 may not be required.
No doub1 tbese uc1caninarions will be iníluenccd by tht prjctic"' of other
Thc Optiooal Protocol to ihe Convcncioa on lhe Elimioatioa of Ali Fonas trcoly boJics wirh complaint mcchanisms. 11hhough mabün11 w<:>men 10
o[ Discrimiruuion Agamst Women.' "·bich came 1010 force on Deccmbo- claim their rights as women m•y cal! for indcpcnden1 solurions Anony-
22. 2000, pul a new legal tool 1010 tbe bands of wruncn, empowenng thcm
mous cornplnims are not allowed," bu1 an unprecedemed prohibition on
10 clalm their iotemaúonally protected equality rights.' retaliatory "ill·rreatmeat or iotimidaáon • of complainams. represematives,
lf justice inhcr<'S in procedures, i1 has bttn long in coming under the
Convcmion on the Elim1nation oí AU l'orms of Discrim10ation Ag•irut
or Wlmesses provides sorne promise ot securicy." Together. mese ptO\'I·
sions give nongovemmentalorganlzadons <NGOs¡ a legitimare<! role 111 thc
Women ICEDAW or "<he Convemion")' For rwen1y years. CEDAW's eomphlnt protess, expnndíng ihe practica.l posstbilny of br111ging doims
subs11101ive guaranrees haw b«n marginoli>.ed and disreR•rded. hampered whilc 01 thc samc úmc ensurin¡¡ ihot complJin1$ are grounJed ia, and
by multiple reservations' and enforcement limited to reporting.' Lack of hopcfully occountable to, real pcoplc who hove •uffcreJ real hun1"n rights
procedural mechamsms for direcr victims to dnim violarions has con- violoi.ions. The compromises behind thcse provisions balance legitimacy
strained tbc Conventioa 's effecuvencss agamst offiaal acts and fatlures 10 uoith prncticalil)• nnd realism
act, and agwnst those iarcractions of srn1c u-ith nonslllte •ctioo thac so Admissibility criterio under the Optional Protocol leave lamude for
pov.·eriully enforc" women's subordinatt status and trt'31mem.• L;tws that Con\mitree mterprctauon as weU. "Ali available domestic remedies" mus1
c..Hscrimhtatc ogainst \Vetmen rcmain in cffecr in r1.uif)~ng countries nround be exhausted unl<ss they are "unreasonably prolonge<l or unlikely to bnng
1he world' CEDAW's mundatcs 10 promo1c women's cqualiry in poli1ical, effctuvc rclicf."•• Domesuc laws agaum CEDA\VJ violaüons often cxist but
economic, social, and cultu ral life' ~re widely ignorcd. The Convcntion's ore not cffccúvdy enforceJ, such as thosc agaios1 domesrk violence; sorne
efficacy as a force for chang~&om transforminR social and lc~al nonas are lurgcly ineffcctutd by thelr Jcsign, such as l•ws against pornogr•phy.
10 inioating domesac legislaáve and polic¡• reform to strengrhening forces
When CEDAW vialaiions Jrc pervasivdy tolcrmed, cnn formal la"" agairur
for equal11y 10 civil sociecy-bas been seriously undennined. rhem be consm1ed •s "1111Ukdy to brin~ cffective relief"? What ~bour
lf U'OJUcn 1ake ii up. tbc Opaooal Protocol could end ihaL h encom- woups of womcn challengin8 partial rcme<lies. such as laws iha1 produce
passes all provisions in thc Convention, not just those expressly stnted ln more womco in pubhc office but do nor sol•-e iheir dramatic underrep.rc-
1cnns of righu.• Din:Cl eomplain1 1nay be mndc agtlinsl mtifying countrics sen1atioo, or quotas of less tbáll 50 percenc? \'Cha1 01Jgh1 • complamant
10 thc Comminee on Distrimina1ion Agninst Women 1•chc Commiuee"), be required 10 do to exbaust domescic remedies to compla.m abou1 lack of
thc cre.11y body t>Í elecred cxperu 1hat imerprets the Convention.1• T"'º legal rcmalies Ior >ex Jiscrirrunarion in civil socicty 111 light of Aruclc 2(cl's
mechanísms are av11ilable- individuals and ¡troups can initiatc communi· rcquircmcni that siatei partic5 1akc all appn>priotc m..sures ugau1s1 dis
caáons, 11 and the Commmee itsdf can undenake iaquiries based on in- criminarion "b) nny pcrson, organi.ia1ion or en1erprise"? Only Jomei>ric
formauon submmed to tl comalning evidence of "gmve or synemaric V'I· remedies need be c.luus1ed not intemarional ones. Tndeed, the Optional
Pro1ocol's communicarion procedure (no1 the inquiry procedurcl is exclu-
s"e:"' But will European proce.dures, embedded in the laws of eacb
64
66 • lhoory and Reahty The Promlse of CEOAW's Optlonal P1olocol • 67

•"OUfiU')', hove 111 be <:xhaust«l, or wül thcy be reg.rded os conílicting? nauonality, inbentance, and propeny laws tha1 g¡vo women lesser rigbrs.
Perhnps íf ,, rcm.,dy is mr;orpormc<l in Jomcstic law, i1 1s rC<¡uircd b), bu1 domesttc \'lolence cases wherc nauonal law has not provtded an a<lequatc
nt1t prcdusi\'c of. 1hc Op11onal Pronx:ol Exhausting remedies withour ex- remed}. ond labor laws 1ha1 exelude ca1egor1es of labor commonly unuer
hnusiinjl women may prove challen¡¡ing or unprnblcrnmk. tuken by womcn such us do1nestic work. /llore innovntive ust!S may • lso
Cnrnrnunicatioos are examined in "doscd meetiogs.°21 with che Com- emerge os the jurisprudcnce devclops. Victims of discriminarion need not
rnmee s \'tews transmined to tbe parues."' lnquiries "shall be conducted be nation:Js of the country they complain againsr, so a survivor of craf.
conlideotiall)'." ""h much depcndant upon the levelof cooperatioo of the 6cking (for examplel mighr complain against a ratifying destination country
state parcy, to wbom the Comnuttee's v1ews are communianed.'1Nothing if she was under its jurisdiction when the violation occurred. Evenrually,
makes the foc1 of n d'"Cision 10 holu ao inqwry necessarUy sccret, ho,vever, broad reservadons 1hu1 undennine the Convrntlon 's univcrsallry rnight be
1us1 as notl11ng formal restri= tllsclosurcs by statcs ponles subject to in· challeoged u1 uppropriaie cases for mcompatibüity wtth CEDAW's object
quiries or by 01hers in•-ol~d in the pnx:ess, such llS those submitting in- and purpose.
formnuon rcqucs1ing thot on mquiry be ini(iated. lkt11usc conndcntiulity l l«man rights cann0t depend exdusively for thcir implementation on
of inquiries exists for the beneñt of the sute pany, presurnably me sme thc snmc stotc cnti1 ies that violate, and permit violorions of, those rightS.
could waive 1r, enbancin11 che vtsibilicy and transparcncy, and with it me The new compliance mechanism offered by 1he Üptional Prottxol en
effectiveness. of che proceedings. lt is emisioned mat dec1sions ID com- courages action on che intemarion•I level by women whom discrimination
munications will be made public by the Commiuee, wlm tbe sme under- has harmed- whose numbers are leg:ion-supponed by NGOs in ex-
wlung to fal"ilime access 10 tbem.'' posing govemmental fatlures and social pattems of abuse, and by lawyers
Un1qudy among comparabl~ in>trumentS. the Opúonal Pro1ocol re- mdependem of their govemments' concrol and unafraid of thdr displea-
quir<$ !lotes 10 providc a writlt'n response 10 communications wi1hin six sure. As tbe proce>S brings inttm aúonaJ credibility to equality seekers.
months.'' lmerlm measure• are ¡ivoiloble "to avoid possible irreparable women will bring credibility and vitality, irnaginotion and cnergy. 10 thc
damage.""' As usual with human rights 1rea1ies, the Opcional Protocol pro- Conveniion, illuminoting CEDAW's upplía1bilicy tO thcir lives in dh•crsc
vides no enforcement powcr as suC'h. Ali ouccomes are effeccuated by vol· cultural senings. By handing women rhemseJ,·es t he pawcr to complain
umary compliance." The visibllity and leg1tirnacy of the process becomc agaiost discrimina1ion direcdy, the Opcional Protorol holds out ar once
parricularly cruaal whon enforcernent depeods on linle more than the mO· the possibility of reinvigorating me internacional human rights frarnework
bilization oí shamc. which rdies ruaínly on public press11re. Aport from and hope for equalicy 10 women.
thc educauon.11fun<tion of tbe proceeilings tl1emllclvcs, Optional Protocol
cu;cs can help brir\8 ouention to issues in the national context, cncour•ging
Jornc«ic changc agninst systemic discriminarlon in p.rticular .ind sup·
porting civil sociecy initiatives as well as official ones." The procedure's
publicity requirements-"' are designed to susrain tbcsc functions. Hopefully
they will not be ignored.
Una:ied procedures are doubtless daunting, and wornen encouo1er spe-
ciúc barríers for accessing th~i r human rigbts. To date four conununica·
cions hove b(cn rcgistcrcJ; tbe Comrnllttt has .Uso beguo work on an
mquiry in10 thc decudelong und ongoing dis;1ppearance$ and murden.,
many of them ,;cxunl, oí women in Ciudnd Ju<lrez, Mexico, with vinual
oíncial impunicy. '° More communications and inquiries may be expected
as word spre-•ds thar the Committec is open for business. lnvitin¡t inicial
comphunn include the many discriminatory laws, policies, and pracdces
tba1 blatandy viola1e CEDAW's substantive provisions. sucb os citizensh1p.
7
Making Sex Equalicy Real

part two This moment, 0 1 the dawn of C11n11do's né\\• 0.•ncr of Riflhrs ond Free·
dom<, is full of possibilities for ali Cinadians. lt is also o ¡¡ood rime for
fundamental reconsideration of equality cheory
struggles within states Mosr countries do oot eveo have one equal cights amendmem to
Canada's two. Secrlon 15 is che mote abstnlctly framed provision but con-
tains tbt crucial subsrondve clemem of disadvamagc.1 Sectioo 28.spcakíng
o( m.Jc ond Cerualc person> concmcly, is even more subst.anlively framed.'
ln my '1Cw, theorctkal opproachcs to legul equollty noc:d 10 be n:unoly-<cd
in light of thc gender incquality thut socially cxi.srs. Can1Jdo's Charter pro
visions cnll for an analysis of thc social inequality of 1he sexes that opens
onro a legal equaliry rheory chat enables sex ioequaliry to be identilied
wbere sex equality is legallv mandated. Inrerpreced as proposed here, the
Chaner would dtaw a Une and ser a tone as weU as cast a shadow thar
becomes a standard, givíng equahry concrete meaning in women's lh·es,
making sex equality real
1fürorically, equahiy law ,1nd philosopby hove b«n crea1ed in • \'Olcuum
o{ critkal arrention 10 sex as an incquality. Sex h•s more rypically been o
coumerexample to et¡uality orgum<:nts proper or rhcir reductio ad ob-
surdum .• As 3 result, equaliry theotics bave not adequately addressed the
inequalicy of women relacive m men, makiog them inadequace and incom-
plere as rheorics of equa!ity per se. To amicipate the conclusion: if Canada
mterprctS cquality as us11al- including Lbe way mosc U.S. couris and main-
meam commcmotors in the Anglo-American junsprudtmial tt•<litioo <lo-
it wiU m.' íntnin tl1c incquality of lhe scxes. \Vornen will rem411l a pC!Cpotual
cconomic, sociu.1 and policicllJ underclass. \X101nen·s 1nferiority. po\\·erlcss
1

ness. relative neglígib ility "~11 conrin ue, both 1hrough positive acts of gov-

Thlf 1.tk wsu ftrq publt5hrJ in Ri¡~t1q tÑ 8.JJ,,a- c,,,_,,11J.'1 °Nf'fl' &¡wl1h Rtr}tt )7 flynn
Srnllh él .i.. ..i... t98) 1
71
7Z • Strugglos w1th1n Slates M1kina Su tqu111ty Reol • 73 suuulu Wllhln Statu

cmmem 11nJ neglccuttg, hence penni111ng, social ¡uacuccs like marital l'llpc As thr;s rule ha< workcd out concretdy 1n Amcricun l.iw. 1t h.. mo1nly .1 •ub•1anuvdy male standard for women's trea1men1 undcr equul1ry law
•nJ 1he pomogrophy ínJumy, oca •nd in<tirutions so socilllly systcm•tic ~'Otten men thc benelir oí thosc few thmjls \\'Ornen hove histOnl'nlly h:id aillín11 tha1 sameness. and predudin¡¡ fr(>m bcing addrcssed 1hose problems
th:tt po<itive law hos :¡c)dom been neccled to enforcc them.' In family l.iw. ir has transformcd custody and di\'Orce by jllVing meo an thru pmlomiMnúv \\'Orneo hove. calling rhem differena:s lt adudcs from
Equalit)' theory can ~ read as an 11nswer to a qucstion it docs noi pose equal chance at rusiody ol c:luldreo and at alimony.• It bas gotteo meo attack sucb treatmem as lS S}-Sr~maiically. almost uruqud}-, done to "·ornen
directly- "Whar ís an equality question a question oP" Tbe standard .tri· access tO wamál'S schools,• womeo·s jobs.1• and motbers' benefüs.1 lt by assimJaun¡t tbose abuses 10 "dte :>ex diíforence. • In tblS fromc:work.
swer in faw and philo.opby has beco that an cquaüty question Is a questton mobtli.zes thc tdt."J tbat tbe way to gec tbmgs for wpmcn ts to gec tbcm for rnpc. baneey, prosuruaon exprcss "tbe scx dif[crmce." Ccrtwoly. tbt pr-.ic·
ol samene>s and cWlermee. to be resoh eJ by treaung ükes >llikc and Wl mcn_ ll has also gottcn for womeo-those who CllD sho\\· tlwc we 1rc tbc ucd> 1ba1 cnforce women .. particular >ubordítuuon .are dtffcrenL• Thc
ltkes un.tlike. The word "equru• means "same." lt "codo for •amcness. samc a> men-somc thin@$ to wh1ch men h;ive previously haJ olmo>t ex whole poult of womcn 'o sooal relcgauon 10 mfcriarit}' i> tbat tbese thmgs
Ji. nonnauvo thrusLas a pruiciple flow~ from an cmp1r101l dctcrminnuon cluswc ncccss. Employment ond cduc~uon, che publíc pursu1ts. have been are sddom done 10 mcn. But 1hm docs not make them cs>enrially female;
<>Í similar•t}· or dís.imílarit) Hence Americ.m judkfal cqualii; mcrhoJ- priori!Uc:d \X'omen hove receivcd ~me acress 10 acndemic and profes· it onlv m"kes thcm rcrvasivcly im~ upon women.
e>logy's fixarion nn catc¡¡C>ri:.>1ion, thar caregoríes firempírical rcalny Wben Stonal advancemcnt. blue-collar \\'Ork. rbe miliuiry. and more th.in nominal Observe that meo •te as differem from women as women are from men
it is srud rh~r me>· must be cntional' ir means they must 6t tbe world as it access to atbletics. This approocb has nor allowed W!>men ro question the The ~cxcs are equaff1 differem. Meo. howe--er, are nor paíd half of "·hnt
is. "fit"' meaos rhe étllpirical term and the normatíve purpose must cor- pballocemricíty of knowledge, éompecition as the point of spons and ca- v.-omen are paid for domg the same things on the baslS of tbeir equal
r:espond-the dass1ficatioo must, say. 6r a val.id srate purpose for wbicb it reers. do1D1Daúoo as the modd aod meaos of power, or WJr 35 a peculmrl) d1fftlencc. Evcrytluog tbey touch does 001 rum valuelcss be.muse th<}
ís drnwo. Categonc.,,, 10 fu, mus1, in the som.,,.•hat carruvorolll> language ejaculutory means ol eoofüci resolucion. toucbcd <r. Wbeo tbey are hit, a person has been assaulted. \X'hen tbey are
of iwo Am~riain commentators. cai,·c the social worl<l ot " natural jrunt. This <locttme hns broken clown "·hcn facc<l ",th real >ex tlifforenccs, =u:tlly violate<i, especiaUy if tbC)· are maight and wbitc anJ a<iult, 11 tS
Wlm mnkC$ a joint se= nntu r.J, or whethc>r punishing sorne peorlc• for insunce, pregnancy. Patcntly, thcre are probletl\$ ..;,h nn equnluy prin- nor gcnerally disbdi....cd or simpl) colcmcd or found entcn•imng or <le·
n.11ure Jn<l privilcging other pcople• is wh3t cqualít)• menas, is often i~ cipie that <loes not know how to handle dístinctions 1h•1 .J,'11.ntage ooe fcnded as rhe nec•ssary <tructure oí the fomily or the pricc of civib.zation
nora!. llfOUp at anotber's <ysiemotic expense.u Sucb problems include socfaUy Tbe quesrion "Whnt is an cquulity quesrion a qucstíon oi?" needs n new
This mamsrre~m npproach fllves women rwo altemarive rootcs to situated differenre; sucb as the de facto sex segregaáon of rhe labor force answer. a realisric one in the context of actual inequality. An equality ques-
cqu:tliry. One, be the same as men. This is tbe leading rule, rermed "gender resuláng in lack of equal pay for work of comparable wortb, so 1hat women tion lS a quesoon of dominance and subordíruuion. lnequalicy is a question
oeutrality" or "the single standard." The altemarke lS to ask for reco¡¡ni· on <1Verage make mucb less income tban men. Equality law m i~ main- ot hierarchy. The fundamental tSsue of equallty ís oot wbetber ooe ts tbe
uon of our dilfereoces, 1ermed tbe "specíal beoelit rule" or the "double stream form caoooc address tbe mosr syi;temacic social disadvantagcs. the same or dtfferent; 1t ,. not thc gcndcr dill'crence; lt 1S tbe difference gender
st1111dard." Tbe sameness Stan<lanl gc1s womcn, wben thcy are likc mcn. most sc.x-differentíal abuse; of women. lndudcd m rhc.e abuses are not makcs. In this perspectl\'c, equ.tlit) 1s not txdusi\'ely or .,,.en primarily an
a~Cd!! 10 \\hnt mcn •lréady have; the Jifferences rule seeks 10 cush1on tbc only se¡;rq:¡auon mio less ""lucd iobs. bu1 also the tange of íssucs of vío· issuc of <liJfcrcnuJtion thot is ruuonal or noc.. To be on the bottom of a
impacL of \\·runen's distinetiveness or value \vomcn as they are under ex lcnce •goinst women 1hn1 hol'e bcen systemntic:tlly 1oler• ted bi \Írru~lly h1crarchy ís ccnninly tlífforen1 from being on the top of one, but ít is not
i<tíng rond1tiom.. Stdln Blíss. unable to work bec;iuse shc 0..11• pregnnnt. every aovernmen1 in the world, despite e1.1lrural diffetences or $imilar ~imply diffcrence that mo•t dístinguishes rhe iwo. Ir is, in fact, tbe lcsser
mer bmh standnr<ls <0 got the benefit of neither.' formal equJ.IÍJy guaramees. These abuses índude the massíve amoum of acccss to resourt-es, privileges, credibility, Jegi¡imacy, authority. p:iy. bodil)
The sameness standard is rhe legally and thl!(lretically preferred pnnciplc rape and anempted rape about whicb virruaUy nothin¡i. is done; the sexual integriry, securlcy. and power tbac makes che two unequal. The issuc bcre
m exisong lnw aod tbeory, indudin¡¡ in Chartc:r deliberatioos and among assault of c:hildren endemic to thc patriarchal family; the bauery of women 1S not entirely ho"' ro roake access ro those thmgs nonarbitrary, bcowse
mos1 úmadians. Usually it is siroply called "tbe equalicy rule." Womcn tbat is systcmatic m homes: prosutuuon. \\'Omt n 's fundamental economi< tbe situaúon we are confrondng lS anythíng bm 51mply u bu.raiy, lt does
who wisb 10 be equal to roen musL show thetnsdveG 10 be lhc samc a. opuon: anJ pornograpby, wh1ch makes mcquallti sc>.1• 10 tbc tune ol btl· ha~ ao moer logic. The issue is systernadc malc suPlemacy and bo" to
ml'll. This lS .m egu:tlity orgumem. Most proposed tntcrprernuons of Scc- hons ol dollors m profit evcry year. enJ u. Confronltng thi• problcm requircs • lcss absuua anJ more sub·
uon 15 rcvolvc around tl11s ;undnnl. h shows how subsc•ncc bccomes Thesc issues are silencc<l ouc oí the sameness definition of equalJty stanuve Jpproach 10 cqualitv. Under it, to be equal is not to be subordi
form in la .. that this i• rel!"rdc<i as "formal equnlny." 1ñis appro•ch pri· lar¡:dy because rhey hnppen olmost exdusi\'CI)' ro women Under.ioncl for natcd on n 11roup 11round. lf systemnric relegation 10 mferiorit)· is what ¡,
oritizes 11s equality íssues those in which wi;>men 's sociul options and con· thís reason. rhey are considered no/ to raise equahty íssues. They bdon~, "'"'"K ..i ch inequalill, tbe L1Sk oí equaliry law ís ro end thar status. nOI to
dirions ""' alrc.idy most like men's. [1 als9 prioñtizes the daims of chose tf at ali. on thc criminal side of the la\\". 1 think thc major r~son these focus on conditions uoder wbicb it Cllll be just:ified. F.qualirr in thlS scnse
women whose social condinons are already most üke men's, tbe moo1 pri"' abuses are oot reganled ns raising equaltty issucS is tbat tbe 1reauneot tbey is not voided by diffw:oce and is saus6ed only by real ¡nriry.
Jc11ed women. Aod tt deJiocs worncn's goals m terms of lsomet mcn 's 10\'0l\•e is l'.égardetl as a prcs.mg • tbc """ dificreoco. • J.rophcít 10 tbe no- lí íoequaliry es subordtnaooo, to manda1e equalny on the bllSls oí sex
ACCualiu.:s. tton tbat equalir:y is,. quosnoo of samencss and Jillcrence ís tbc: seuing of legally means that a decis.lon has been m•de: tbc proposwon th•t women
Mak10¡ Su Equahly RW • 75 15 • Strugeles Nltftm States

cm be treJtcJ as ;,ubhuman i> no long.:r Jcb•l•hlt. Thc only quoúon "' ru W()nlC!l "he> Wc>rk wltb tbc )dW 111 )"óUr lutu.4, wbat ÍS tbc ffi""1nmg 8
whctbcr or 1101 • proc11cc or d1>llnc'l10ll ¡, C\.LUal or u""qwil. ,uborJtn111Jns til yoor proc:n<e "" l•\\')crs •nJ juJges in 11 •ystcm that ktt)l> women out
or not. \'<'hctltcr IJw~ or pr11cuces reílecc existmg ~oclal rd11cions or are • unJ Jown? CompJreJ wnh mos1 women. we 11rc in ond up. r helieve we Nacionbuilding in Canada
mor.JI, grod ideo 1s 001 rdevum Antlsubordination could be thc di<tinc ore let mm this •>'Slem on the condition that we nbide hy its norms, one
uve ~uidin¡¡ inrerpretive principie of Secnon 28 m particular anc.I could of which is 10 keep women our 2od down, while our presence conv'1''S thm
also be buur toro Stttion 15. Under Section 28, equalil} bcrween womeo thnt is no1 rhe sys1em at all lf we do abtde by tts nom1s. most women's
and men IS guarameed "notMtbs1ancbng anythin¡l else m this Ch1rrrer" and U\..,,; wW remam whar they have alwil}'S been: a cyde of dcpendencc. pov·
IS also not subjecr to legisLuive O\trndc. eny, lorced l11bor, forced sexual uccess, forccd rtproclucúon, :md for m:my
Scction 28 was fought for bi women to mean somethtng more 1han the an wnimely Jcuh. 'Tñc posuion tli•t .omc of us havc mo1·c'<I up 11Dd out
m1Jtlional metmmg of "nonJ.i>crim.inaLion on thc b..sls of scx," and it del<."' uf wiU be ñllcJ by 11nothor w<1m1m. \X'o1""11 wlll be usa! until wc 11rc w.ed
Nonsubordinat ion, op¡ioSJt1Qn to dis:id,·an1.1ge. is o sub,tantivc: prinople. up. 'l<'omcn will be boro. de¡¡radeJ, and die
Í thtnk dm iÍ yo\I eicpose. •s Section 15 could nnc.I Section 28 p•rticulnr]~ 1 think th111 'lections I~ and 28 are " po¡>ular nnd principled m•ndatc After succes<ful uwtution, Canadian women Se("ured in Can•du'~ new con-
could, the substance bencarh 1he gloss of ~enc.lcr neutrali1y. u subsrn.nti''C for a chan¡:e in this. To malee ibe1t promise come 1rue. women who ue sticurion, che Chartcr of Ri¡:hts and Frcedoms, sex equaltry J!Uarnmees witb
approach ro mequalicy issues could emer~. Wheo \\'Ornen are raped. for now tn po\\·er in ibe exisung svstem mus1 not accepr anythm¡t less than more potentfal to produce actual sex equaliry than wt exists in aoy oiher
example. .ind rbe srate effecuvcly condonés tl, women's equalirr ngbrs real social eqLuiliry for ali women. \'Ue mus1 nor allow ourselves ro be used roosticutional language. These equalicy provisions. which carne imo effect
would be viola<ed. Ccrram uacbtional eVtdentiary •t:Utdards, eroded to 10 sbo11 we mude i1, ali women can. As i1 is, all women can'r. U the m Apnl 198,. probibit Jiscrimínation on tbc basis of sex 1hrough Liw• ond
sorne tkgrce but still cauuoning tbat \•ictttns o[ se:xual ossa.ult are especiJll1· combination of the principies oí Sections 15 and 28 is kep1 in tnlnd-if also t!Xprcssly gunrantee ali Chruter rights equally 10 • male •nd fcmak
not 10 be bd1cvcd," would be focially inv.ilid. The) assumc: thot womeo ibc .>Ubstmttvc mandacc oí Seruon 28 is ob~n·cd 1oge1hcr wltb tbe mor~ person~. "' Thc 6rsc i.lecision Ltn<ler tbr broad cqwtll1y righ1> provl>1on,
!re. S<>me subordinoúon of \\'Ornen 10 meo porrially but incffcctu•lly pur· fonnal mMJntc of S.:Ction 15, togethcr with its subst•nuvc anttc.lisadv•n 1\ndr.,,... v, Law Socicty of Btitish Columbia begins to delhu upon the
sued b)' tbe m11e-for ex,1mple, ics regulation of 1hc pomogr•phy in· taging nonn-if wc do not forgct 1hat Section 15's "•ex" d1scnmination promise of che Ch.rtcr• lan(!'.1•ge. Ir openly re¡ects tlie usu•l "similnrly
dusuy-migh1 n.lso be challen¡¡ed Compor•ble worth for pubUc employees prohíbition 1s reall¡• about whar Sectton 28's subsrnntive ¡n1nl'Jntees to siruaced" appr<111ch. under which equality means treating likes ulike nod
should be ochievable. as shoulJ pre¡¡nancy !cave. Such an approach will "women and men" ore nbout-Susan B. Amhonv's goal will come to pass unlikes unalike. anc.l takes a purposrve and substantive npproach. aiming
begin 10 revea! and dismnncle the comphcity of law in rbe sex-unequal sooner in C.nacla than in the United States: "mcn, t:hcir rijlhts and nothin¡¡ ro equahze the disadvan1age of htstorkallr subordinared groups.
Slrucrure of Anglo· American sooét), whiclt op<:rates as an affumam•e ac- mo~ womeo, tbeir nghts and notbing less. •n A defcct in ibe J 982 compact tbat crear•d the Charrcr u•as its lacl< ot
tion pl:rn for wh11c ml'll. •ppcoval by Quebec. A long-term teosion has existcd in C:madian sociciy
lkeausc sex inequ:ility is pervruvc: and potcnt In chis. sm11:1urc, e.'pressli betwcen it• Englhh mJ Frcnch bemage, cul1ur~. l.tngllilgc, and pcoplcs.
lcgalizmg 11 has oftcn nm bL..,n nccessary. Women hove had virtu11Uy no Francophonc. are 1n thc minoriry except in Qucbec; Anglophoncs tlomi
vo1ce m 1he design of ex1s11ng luw or sC>Ciety to d•1c, hovmg bet:n k~t out note throughout Cinndll but urc a numencal mmority in Quebec. The
and down For chis renson, to realize scx equality will require more affir. c:ulrnral digniry and panicularity of the French are folt ro be insufficieoily
marive j;OYemmental action than che simple nc¡¡atioo of exisrinF. law. To respecred by mucb of Ao¡do Ganada. producin11 a Wllrincss of tbe Charter
che e~'tent thc C.nadian Charter is in1c:rprtted as a neganve documenr. irs as a poss1ble device for unposing Anglo·Canadian valucs. culture. le¡ral
assumptions about sootty will not apply ro the snuation ol women-for trad1tions. aod language. At rbe same ume. tbe nonaccq>rance ot rhe
cxamplc, ú it assumes that speecb Is free. anti. therefore. rhe pnncip'11 Charter by Quebec leavcs for man) a legal an<l pohúc.J g•p. o ser= m
tbreut to íreedom o( spc'edt is govemment inter\'Crtuon." or that •ocicti wbich the nation is no1 whole.
1> equal, and 1hc princip.J threat to oqual1t) "Liw> that imp~ inequ:1litlC$. Elei.-en mcn- ten premier. :mJ the Prime Mmister-mct 1n 1987 to
fo, cqu111iry pro>isions du not h•vc 10 be 1nterpreied in t.his way Resisr
this ft is not true thot womeo's speech is free and its resrricrion comes
onl~ or ~ ptimarily from govemmem. h i~ nor rhe case rhar society ~ Tlul tcstunony •-u dd.í\•ertd ro tbc ~~Wl\-'e Ats:tmbl\ Ot ÚOt.lrio. Sdect Commiu«' on C..00.
•ttrut'4'inal Rctorm, on ~'an.b ll, l98S S« 191'~ C'..on11uru1K"1nJJ A«Olr..t Jl.i~rd Of6aa.1Rej1'Jrt
equal and tbe problem of mequalicy es onlv or even pnmarily cxpr<-ssl} <"Jfilcbt~r-, '41h Parl ls1 ~.e: IJ62..Ctl7i 1~1 .... ll 1088) h.""• fint pi.abliihcdm 1' T"!w
legi~laavely l.!Tlposed. l.a:. Joomul 'l5 119'!0).

17
78 • S11ugsles w11hin S1am ff•hanbu1ld1•1 10 C•••d• • 19 80 • Slruggle> wllbln Statu

nuempt 'º Jevisc "'rm' tor confcdcnnlon 11eceptnble to aU Thc Mecth of meo are the la" for women. a1 the same ttme that thc laws of men l'.qunl Protecuon Clau.se was firsc appbed co gender and has tncréasingly
Llkc ¡\,<or.I "'ª~ the resuh. Tt proviJc~ for the rcco¡¡n1tion ot' Quebcc •IS determine women's st1111ding m the poliucalorJer To O\'Oid this m CanodJ, bo:n useJ •U1ce, mo.in¡t lol'\• •rd lnrgely througb an uneven and oftco
"a di~tinc1 socict)' • 1nthm Cun•Ju· ond als<> renerates the reco¡¡niuon of we n1>eJ > j!rasp of botb. irudcquatc proc:es. of nrologiiíng <ex to race. The expericnce of rhe J¡f.
muhicul11m!l und aboriµmal d.,lns. 1houµbt to be in jeopardy wi1hout re· Compar.ufrdy vicwed, thc Cun.1dian Charicr oí Rights llll<i Fr~Joms is fic:uluc:~ of 11nempung ro ltchie\·~ scx cqualil~'· not on i1-s O\\'n tcrms-as is
aílirmation ' 11dvanc:cd beyond sny comp11r-Jblc in>trument in 1hc world 1oday tn prom ¡><'ssíble umler thr Canadian Charter-but throu!!h analogiC1ll method,
Women, mdudmA sorne m Quebec. reacred 1mmed1atdy 10 the lack of ising full cítizenship to women, les combinarion of equal protcc1ic>n of the hí¡¡hlight< 1he d:ingers for ali \\'Ornen, indudmg women of rnlor. of struc·
rerogninon of sex equahty rights in the Accord. At rhe same ume, 1111y laws wirh speciJic noodiscrimtnaáoo guaramees, 1ogether with i1s substan- rural~· elevatin¡¡ sorne bases for probiblted discnminaaon over othcrs.
critictsm of the Meed1 Lake Accord has often becn mkcn as, mJ bus olico tive rec:o¡zninon of dlsadvaorage and suppon for affi.rrnaave celief on a Secnon 2 of the Me.:ch Lake Accord emers the field of rights sdecti,•dy,
bcei1. unti·french. A; thc debate has progrcsscd, concems with thc Accord consmuaonal leve!, sin¡¡)es it out in laying a legal foundanon for some of potenually de.varlng some cultural rigb1s over equality ngbts. Secnon 16
th.1l n01létheles. respe<;I thc Frcoch "Jisuncl SOCi<'ty" hnvc becn virtually che mos1 significant ud1111nces in se). equaltty ever to be made for women <loes a$ wdl. 13. combmation, rhe "disunct society" dausc. \\'IW the guar·
drowncd out by oftcn vicious (and somc1imes subde but cquolly invidiou•J undcr ln11. nntces and rct~gmtions of oborigin:tl •nd multicuhural righrs, is •tructuml
anti·frcnch sen1imem Tt has become nlm~ impossible to be henrd ns The Conodian c:ommí1mcnt 10 divcrsity, with the polnicol mobiliz;ition 10 C•nadrnn fcJcralism, and equuli1y rights are nm. Sorne ri¡¡hts urc more
unvthin¡t otlicr tban anci-Quebec u·hen expressin¡¡ resen.':lcions abour 1hc of 1he women's community tluu the Chaner has occasion.:d, hM pmduc:cd importo.ni than others, and ~me equality ri)lhts are more equal, in George
Accord a.n equipoise omong 1he >-arious bases for nondiscrimination under Sc:ction Ül'\ve!l's phrase. rhun others.•0
Undcr ruks that seem m require unanimny, by the deadhne for rat1fi- 15. oncl olso 1111 equipoise between eqoal1ry riglm und other ñghts This poses concems for thc. dfccrive pursui1 of a sex equaliry that is
cation by the provmces,Jtme 2J. L990. two refused 10 nuify amJ one talked throughout the Charter. This means. for one ching. thar women's mreres1s rele~ated to a nonsrrucrural constitucional plane. It poses concems for lhe
of rcscinding. Tb.c oppos:iuon of one Maniroba lcgisL1Lor, a Na1il•e mon, are noc d1vided between those based on sex and those roored m language, vuahry oí Seccion 15's protecuoos from dtsctimutation oo the man)' bases
prcvemed iis mt1Jicauon. Altema1ives bcmg acr1vdy discus>'!d •Ílcr 1his .:ulrure, n•uon, religion. crhmcicy, ond rac:c. A unified approach to .sociJll S«uon 15 COV<IS, aUof wruch are crucial Cor the ndvancemeni of \\'Ornen.
failurc of ratificouoo indudc furiher negotiation of terms, poS$iblc com mc:t¡u.tlity i.~ possiblc under Lhc Chnner. Thc Meecb Lakc Accord Jisturbs lt pos<.>s concems for thc cohcrrnt and pred1ctable d~'Clopmen1, even the
panion reso1u11ons, conunucd limbo, or the pnrtinl or complete: separution this Structur.tl cquality among cquality righ1s und thre.11ens to quolify, limn, Jewlopmcn1 at all, of Stttion 15 ¡urisprudtncc. lt • lso pn:senr. concems
of Quebec.' ond undennine bo1h che Charter's clistinnivc lcgul contrlbu1ions in thl$ :1bou1 balances co be struck m cn"'s of potenlial conRicts of ñ~hrs. both
\\'lhen tbe Ontaño lcgislature approved Meech Lake, women saog ª""' and the di01ate of polirical will so cn1cial 10 ~ realistic dclivory on under !ieccion I" ond otherwise, becnuse i¡ome constirutional riphts are
soogs of protest in the gallery: Perhaps the 1esti.mony here, given at the their promise. g;,-cn more wei~h1 than others.
request of the Omaño lcgislature a1 beariogs oo the Accord and slight:ly For purposes of comparisoo. the experience of the Unired Smes witb Examples ba.-e proven creacberous in this area; no one "'antS 11 tmplied
revised, will resonare elsewhere, such as in Eastern Europ<:. lts argwn<:nt sex cquality agh1s-more accumely. the lack of them-may be insrructive t.bar he or she would discrinunate. h speaks wcll for Canada that the value
is that natiooal unificanon should Ml be acconiplishcd at worucn's ex· as • negauve object lesson. Sex equalny ín the Unhed States bas coosli- ot equaluy is so wtdely beld tha1 no one wishes 10 be considered as e-·co
pensc. uwonal dunension only by analogy. The Equa.I Protection Clausc of the a hypotbetical perpetm1or of scx d1$crurun01ion. But u 1$ a fact that, across
F'ounceulh AmcnJmcnt wus po~d to r~~pond 10 a perceivcd emergtncy cultures. se~ inequah1y ;. more rule th.,, exrepuon. Most cultures 1111d
Testimony Bcforc me L.'illslative Assembly of Omario: to the tmity of 1he nation, specificall)' 10 whitc Amcricis imposítion of groups discrimtno1c on the b.1SÍ$ ()Í scx, t>f1en without íntendíng or meaning
cnattcl slavciy, social se¡:regation. 11nd disenfranchíscmen1 on Blnck Amcr to, Scx discrimin~ti{ln is rypic:Jly ~nrded as nor sex discnminntion btin¡\
As an Ameñcan coosmurional lllW}-er and polícical sciemist worlung Ín· icans. The Equal Prorection Clause \\11S, in curtent parlance, pan of a valucd as culture, reli¡¡loo, privacy, or expression,
tcrnacionally in the area of sex equality, 1 will offcr for your coosiderauon nauonnl reconcíliarion, che oeed for which had beeti creaced by mese in· There are rwo sides m e<'CIJ' sex inequaliry datrn; 'the issues bttween
a comparauve perspective oo the po1enual ímpact of the Meech Lake Ac· stiruuons of racial bigotry. them are often decided by 1merpre1a1ioo. lt 1s when 1herc is doubt. and
cord on women's equ;iliry in Callada. The Equal Protection Clause tS gender·neutral on iu fuce, e.'cepc thar "~th legal accions mere usuall.y is at leasr sorne, lhat a structuml weighting
\X'hen womcti ask abou1 thc 1nipact tbe Atcord moy have on 1hcir legal the pan on \'Otiog I! con6ned to male aliuns.• The reSt Joes no• menrion can be disposiuvc. lt is also a bu h•trd to be reqwred 10 givc examples of
righ1" lhcy ure rcassurcd 1hu1 the issud are no1 l"flal, but politicnl, hence scx, hut then again, nCJrher does it menti<>n r.ce. Auempts to •dd .:xpl"C$S wbat migb1 happcn under a pro¡ecred le¡¡.I st•te of .lÍÍJi.r>. only 10 be told
nonbindin1111nd ne¡:11tiahlc, Whcn 1hL')' ask about the impact nf thc Accord sel< cquulity g<1arantcos to the U.S. Cons1íiu1ion, which would removc thc 1hat bcc•mc 1nc•e thing> h.we no1 yc1 hoppened under o legal r~~mc 1hu1
on rheir rolitioal <tatu$, they urt IC'J<sured 1hat 1he issues ..re legal and will quesrion of rhc U S. ¡¡ovcmmem's commirment 10 <ex equnlity from the is •> yer untcstcd und uncerrain, che e•amples ore merely hypothctícol
be dealt wí1h by thc courrs. This supports a crc:>ss·culturnl suspídon womeo viossitudes of politicol winds and thc conrin¡?encies of shíftin~ m•¡omies. To hazurd lltl cxamplc: Wcre a si¡¡ni6cam odvance 10 he made in an
have abou1 thc relatjon berween law and polítics, whicb is t.bar the pohtics bave foiled, So the constitunooal text is no< in cquipoise ln 1971, tbe are-J co•-.:red by the Accord, analowes to the oreas che Accord does nm
N11ionbulid1n11n Caoada • 8J

mcnnon mlj!hr no1 he .iv&1lablc .. , 1hc-y 1><hcrw1sc: "ou!J, •"1111 IM nghi. w hc1hcr equ.iluy ngh11 •houlJ be aJJcJ to thc \lca:b Lakc Accord Th1$ group• thJI in;ucr, othcr ~n>u¡>• th•I on< •~ne " ' hdr noun~ in el uJe mcn,
'" cqwpo•-c •• ""'' MC' In thC' e h•nrr wuhoul 1hc AnorJ Suppo.c: úut n•mmltl<"' ha< l,.,<11 ll•ltl. lor cx1mplc. 1hM Sccuon~ 2 •nd 16 of J.he Aceord .,. "·di ·'' lx-inp h11ll "•>rMn Thc A<t-.•rJ •rr.ire111ly ¡zJvc J -.itbfoao"
i1 1i1,gn1ficant 01J\:anf..."C' "ere m.1Jc 1.n , ••, , thc rC'ct..i:n111fln Ñ somc ~rour·s are hon.t<>I') nnJ l•r¡:cly symbt•lic, no1'1ncily1~1 Ye1 onc ~~rchco your an¡,.·er w the qu..,,unn '\\'h•t ,],,.,, Quch1:c w.1n1>" lt <lid no1 .an>wcr thc
cultura] rights, and In anaJol!)' ,.,.~ ll0t11lhl lo Slll'P<>M a rar.úJrl mulnivc líJ:Oq"nrJ!j 10 \~in fnr ('{l0("(f'IC' examrlcs ot htt\\I thc "'distinet society" quesrioo ·1,X'h•1 Jo womm wam•• becau~ • ._,ha.' so nf1en bc:c:n 1he case
for womm'< MRh"-""º""'" 11 <>n..., h.1\1ng a cuhu~ and h~'1n¡¡ httn et.use, utuch is clearl1 <'l''cnnal tO the l•ir dcal tlut Qucbec w¡s prom1sed. ,..orldwidc. u was not .,keJ.
d=ed a cu hure 1hrnugh U1Cquabtv. bm both '"'"""" and thc 01her cultural 15 crocretcl' C<>n1emrla1ed to chan~e ICRal ourro~ m parucular cases. In 1oor heann¡¡s. 1-ou h8\c bttn told 1ha1 the m,uJ, ol "'ornen 's exdUSioo
group bong úm:a1cncd b1 1he Jomanam cuhurc. O,., Accord would mil- Y et u wa. mcl uJcJ beouse somc:on<: thOUl\bt tt ..'OUld makc a dúfcrcn<-". from thc .\lccch l..&kc AccorJ "'*• no pracuol >1¡zruhc:m<-" becausc the
nat<' aganm lull •pphcaoon of .u.:h an an..Jo~r a. prc:ccdem an • >CJt Thc clilkren<" h.IJ bct:n expl.uncJ an thoe te=. O l lt V.'IS unponarn to ArmrJ 1; mcrd' lnterprctl\ e, ,. hile othcr k.-.:Uoru ot th<: Chaner att
~ U><: Suni.Lul1 . coulJ hatc: luera1wc: 1.1,.., be: urhdJ 01er an e~ bnng Que(,.,, 11110 thc confcJer.uon. they ra¡wrcJ tt and they count. (2) nghr. t"antlnR. Wnh rc.~1. thli •• a l•l.c Ji,unru..m an k1!.J prarucc.
pre.SI\.., n~ht> chalkngc as •rrlicd 10. for c:nmplc, ]<"'>. ""h 1he •UrP<>R lt ~ranh lc~1t1m•cy anJ rcco11nuwn 10 tik' Ji.una MXÍc:ty Thcn Lhc ra· For C'X.ample whcch "as thc \f11rtt'IJIJ/a CllSé; 1 S.'CtJUn 7 b) ll> l.tngw¡;c
oí ~ltech L..kc, but noc, ,.ere 111<.h La"• 11mc:n.léJ 10 cU\<r sex, •• •ppltcJ 1100.J< 1 •r Sccuon 16 " pr<>VulcJ on • umiLo.r kvd. lt pro'1Clcs O 1 l'CIS doe> not grant ""rnen 1 n¡:h1 tu ahonion. 1' But , bv 1nterprcra11on. 'ecuon
10 ali 11-omcn. \l.1thout thc .\ccorJ'< suppon? <ur•n<·e 1ha1 1h.· nghts oí cuhurol 11rnupo ami ahori¡:inal peoplcs •'ill be: I ,..., siron11 cnnu~h 10 tn•aliJ•ce thc procedure< for acre<< ro 11 as ün-
upposc: ofter .\lcc:ch Lakc. N11"" "-om<"n ch.,.., to challcn¡:c • <a in- respC<1ed ~n 2 m.1) no1 be a&q""t" íor the n¡¡hts of Frcnch people perm1«1bly mmn11~.
equalny ,.,thin tMir nauons. 1nd 1he ruk t~· challen¡¡ed a< d1scnmma1ory oomde Quebc:c~ and Sc:cuon 16 ma.- nor be adequate for the riglus ot F<"'· consnruunnal nj!ht' •~ en11ttlv ...,lf~xerutan¡z Those rhat are rarelv
was defenJeJ a. a nece»a" and 1ntqiral pan ol ahorlj!anal culrure and man1 cultural grnup> or for aborWnal peoples. but th<: •Otee of women •nnJ up en coun. MO'o1 ol "<>nlCtÚ n¡¡hi. Jre noc m 1lu1 aitqtorv. MOS!
abonguial rigbt>. Po:.trnntd.:t tribal rulo coo.IJ be: ar~cJ a> no< culnualh """ rq;arJcJ a. so ncgh¡ublc an thi. pl'OCOS that tt ..-as sttt1 as somctlung wom1:1ú ngh1> are c<.>ntclll<.J. wc ¡;t~ than an •ppbcauoo .mJ by en1erpre-
Judienu.- But J.I Natl\c 1'omcn chuoc 10 U) to use the Chaner. thc ques- th.11 coulJ •Ílord to be 1gnored enurdy \X'hro ..-omro ..k, in ~. 1.1uon or not JI •11 To 00.crvc Ú\,. thc ~lec:ch Lakc Accord "' only •
non thc AccorJ rJU.:>,. "'h<:thor they 'llou!J rnt'Ct a Jede •r.ckc:J agatn'I pou1dy b111 firml} lt1> one Jocs 1n C•n•da). · b 11 not unponant 10 bring m•ner of Wt'ghc " thcrdorc n1>1 rc:a"unn¡t t'Uhcr In Lm', intcrprewion
thcm .. wo111<:n \ lecch 1..ikc coulJ •ell >1ruc1ure the Ch•ner og.uns1 the1r '"'mcn int<> 1hc confeJeniuon~· thc:y are trC"tcd ns 1f thcir cansrn1 to tha b everythm11. •nJ, m incerrre1.111on, cmrha•i< cun be oll Alter being 10W
claim.1us1 "' many (c.11urt'I nf An¡¡lo cuhurc are prcm1;cJ on <c:-x incqu.tl1ty •truaurc of ¡:ovcmmcnt c~n be ~-.umcd No one 5C'ems '~ worried that 1ha1 11 " ali ¡u<1 interpre1i,-.,, m.1km~ Wl'fTlm'< J i<qu1et <eem O\erblo.,11, •
md couJJ be defended undcr muluculiural n11ht• You mi\ find thi< fur- th.·v rniRht he ahena1ed from 1hc: smc or tbat they migh1 reµ rd thdr most b3'1c canon ni 'ltarrnory mterr,.1a11on i< left oui: excluJio umus, cha.r
fetched. but con<i<kr 1f • prn\'i<ion re<1ncun~ pomography wcre passed irnplie<I con.<ent o• cClC'rccd -os thev clearly do, for cxample, en the manta! wh1ch is nor mentioncJ 1• cxcludcd
10 tunber women 's equalny riWits Ir could be atucked not only as a rape come<t. Lons1dcr, in h11h1 ol the une<¡u•I " t11ation of women, wh•< the Charter
rcsmcnon on Subsccuon 2\bl exprcllsivc nghi., but al.o po1cnt111ll) ltS a Do womcn not requm: nauonol reconciliauon? \'<lhen women illk for ol Rights and FrccJom>, oi tt "'bc:11lnn1n¡c 10 be l111erpre1c:J now, c-an offer
re;rrícuon on culturo! righi,,, rí¡iht> that, w1Jcr Mc:cch Lakc, could ou1- legitirnacy and recognttion for womcn 's c<1u..J plJcc in the swte, thcy are Womi::n h•vc hi>1onc1ill) lx-cn scmnd db.> rnizeru m Can•<l• "' clsewhe~.
wc1gh se' e<¡ual11~ n11h1> for American P<Hnogr•phcn., 01 any rau:, tolJ thnt 11 1s so ubvious .s to be rcJundant. lf u is rcdundnnt for womcn, with ind1tc• oí J1<aJvanu11c 1nd11J1n11 11111:411.11 puy. ull<11:•tion ro dtsre·
norhíng ¡, forfctch<"<I. Nme 1hu1 n<>ne of 1hc:se cxJmplcs 15 bmi1ctl or par why li it not 11!<0 roJund;nt for nborigmal groups •ncl mullieulturol ínter· sp<."<.-1ed work. an<I Jcmcuned 1>hy'lirnl chor.ic:tcriftlC!<. \~'ornen ha•e bcen
ticubr 10 Queb«'s W<'mcn, wh""c r111h1~ unJer 1hc i\ccord ore pr(1b.1hly cs1s? lí u ¡, inerel> rttluntl•m, wh.i harm is 1hcrc 1n statinA it? Why thc tor¡tetcd fnr rape. domMlir bancry, sexuol abu<o as children, •nJ sys1cm-
m no more JCOtlarJy and ¡¡ivcn Qurbc:c" law. nnd rnli1ictl culture- re<Í•l•n"' ro ic? Ap¡>arcncly. 51..10" il would add something ma1 soroeone atic sexual haro«mcnr \'Comen h.we hcen cleper<onalized. uscd in deni-
po«ihly Jess 1han those W(\llléO OÍ dSC\'·here In Ú nada " wh<> counn d~s not wont •dded 11IC' only other argurnenr l bave heard gralm¡t emcnainmcnt, and forccd inco prosmuuon These abuses havc oc-
The potnt ts, sex equaltt~ l11111a1ion and le~1slat1on can alre~d1· be op- is 1ha1 if women ore ~ron1ed equaln:y n¡¡hts under thc: Meech Lake Accord. curred in a hmorical co111cx1 characterized bv dtsenfrancbiseroeru.
p~ under CXlSÜn~ Chaner prov1~1on>. The Mc:c:ch Lakc Accord ,.,,.u)d many other 1;sues will have to he reopcned-thc percnnial shppery~slQP" exclus1on lrom pubhc lile. prcdui1on from propeny ownership. sex-based
ll" " mott suppon to .orne ol th<l><! othcr Chm~ prov1>1oru. Eqwluy quesuon \\'ornen ª'" º'"r half thc popul11uoo anJ half o( \muall) "'"'Y (X>\<M). f<>rccJ mJl<'rnuy. Jduuuon Ji •~xual ob¡eci., Jepm·a1jon of re·
nght> woulJ finJ thcm•ehe> uneqwlli •nuatcJ tn thc Chartcr m • wn othcr group invoh cJ in 1h1> 11roce.s lbcy ttc not likc any othcr group, pr<>Ju,1i1c contml, •nJ Jc,a]u;uon oí wumcn·s contnbuuon> m .úl
th11 Ú1r) ue n0< °"" wnhout 1ho A«orJ. To a.'k whcthcr thc Acrord I"''
th<:ir 1ntert-.1s •n\ 1n1cro1> Or, pc:rh;ps thooc oth<:r wucs should bc ;ph<rn of so<1al lil<"-1 •llllJll<>n thar wnun1.1C> to tho 1'"""'111 da~ .
ovemdcs thc Cluner is 1hus not rrc:c:udy ,¡,.. 1,,.ur or 1hc only li•uc. lñ.!tt reopcncJ •• \\ cll Con,utuc íon, are h.>th m1emcnts oí bc:hcf •nJ 'diid.,. tor acrwlizmg
11oill he rontbcu of ri11his within thr Chaner 11IC' Acet>rd tal<t\< >1dc. an \\nen "ºmen ......k 1t•ssun1nc... that thc pact 1hc Chantt made 1lith 1h~ bdids ~· 11t ••ptr111onal •nd a.lm<'rnto"' as ,.·di '" declami,-.,
~ ol tho... d1<pmeo an .d\11ncc in wa¡' 1ha1 can hum "-ornen and the1r thnn ,. "'" hc1ng irnpLedly •hrogated. t~ are tnlJ thac i1 is onlv • maner and prnlubnorv In thc la.e oí 1he ~ real11v of «:x mcqual1cy. and m
equalily. ol 1n1crprci111nn ~· \lary fl...rts pu• u 1hey are 1old. ·Trust us. • Real hglu ol thc Chaner'> in111.J mterpm.auon. ns oqualiiv ptarantc:c:s are po-
Thett has bttii -omcthm, ol a Jouble >1anJard m tbe ~ on ~r&nlcn 'l<ett con$Ídcred appropru1c 10 rcas.w... OO>cr ¡troups-odicr >1uonc:J 10 he ~oel-oru:nrcJ ... "cll b ll>pcrauonal h bc.:om.:s a manc:r oi.
8' • Struules wJ1h1• Slatu Nahonbulld1ng '" Canada

mrcrprc1•t1<l11 whcthor the Clwncr will trcat equ.ility l l a positJ•c goal


nee<.l111g to be 11f6m1ed. ntenJeJ. ond rcaliz~d. <upport1ng and C\'cn re-
Thc U.S. Consuiuuon'> rccorJ "" womc1ú equaluy mak<-. •ll mo d..-.r
th•t ncflléctin¡; to menticm womcn's ri¡!hts .11 conMituti\'c mumcni.. likc thi>
9
quinng posnivc lqci&l.uion, mdudmg <>ver conílictÍnJ.l cluims <>Í nght h c•n one is prcJicrnbly not gender ncutml in ÍI> cÍÍcC1$, ponicularly under con- J\ilisogyny's Cold Hearr
~ applied in •reas wherc cqu<1litv is urJ.lcntly needcd, such llS rape and ditions. like women's siruation, 1hut requirc acti\'C chon~e in mC$t3!US qllO
banerin¡¡. Or cquality can ~ toterpreted in ne~ativc renns and ronsídercd in order for equality to be crea1ed. Lf lca\'lng ¡¡ender ouc of Lhe Accord 1s
:ich1eved so long as the srate does not ítsdf discnminate acuvelv. keepmg considered ~eQder-ncutral, it should be noted that facial ~ender neutraliry
!(ovemment out of tbe social sph<!re, leavmg most scx ineqwli1y in place. in a non-gender-neurral world does not even guaramee gender neucralny,
Perhaps the de.:~1 cuuse for conccrn is the e!Iect LihtL ~ Accord in far lcss actual Sé'.1< equilllty.
ns pr"""'1t form "'uu!J ha\'e on the .ocilll procas of ronnitutíon-buildmg 1bc chmiljjc <looc 10 women'• riglm in Conada Ut thi• poin1, oí concern
"" 1he Charter's poliue1u culture bt-'¡¡ins to dchvcr promised nghts. [quality 10 ,11 wonien worlclwidc, \\'lll be especiolly ;tcu1c ií no rcmt-díal uruon is
guarnmecs do n(>( change societies only when 1hey are strktly •pplicd In taken. given 1ha1 the issuc has bcen so dirccdy r.tis<d. Meech Lake fullills
couns In addition 10 bcing a species of low. thc Acrord would worlt in the promise madc in 1982 10 Quebec 10 acrommodate its aspimtions Fi¡¡htin~ pomo~aphy in the Uníted Sraies. feminisis ha,·e found tha1
civil socieiv 11 would set priorioes and •¡¡end:is and \'lllues and alíec;t within the Cbarter of Rij!hts. foilinp, m indude refel'ence to Seccions 15 women lt"" m a world the pornogniphers h11ve made. W/e already knew
resourcc allocacions. As constitutional law, the Accord is also a poliucal and 28 of the Charter in it, or neglecunr; to malee clear mac notlung m the \\
0
ha1 Sttmcd ükc o1 lot ahqut sex inequolity. sexual objeenbcarion. the
act ol naoonal self-defimtion. lt enters into the atmosphcrc lhat ddines Chancr IS abrogated by me Acrord, squarely poses the quesuon whether >CXualiL:111on of malc dominance and Íemalc subordtnacioo, aod sexual
the lel'cl of commitmcm to equahty riglus on • <lay-to-<lay basis. Tbe.1t, a s"" equality is basic to the Caru¡dian poltcy. As thmgs stand. it scnously ,1buso. espcaiJly rape, sexual abut.c oí ch1Jdren, prosmuoon, sexual ha
constuurion becomes mcurungful or die> usa picce <lÍ paper. un<lcrnunes thc compact that the Charter mJde berwecn womcn anJ thc l'\l!iSmcm ••inJ battery of \\'Ornen Bu1 finding porno!lrnphy "':ts likc commg
On thís bd, whcthcr or nm ti is impleme111c<l concretcly or can b" Canadian sLJt~ upon • sacred, secrcc codcbook that ha<l boLh obscurcd .md detc:nnmed
invoked 1echn1c•íly, o connitution offects perceptions, octions. nnd out qur füoes There laid bare was the cold beart of misogynY' ~xUJJI ,;ofation
romes from f•mily rourt •nd rnpc uiols lo humnn riglm ndjudications T1 enjoyed, J>O"'Cr and powerlessness as sex . Porno¡;raphy linked sexual use
sbapes women's fortunes in the boardroom and at the bar¡¡alnin11 rnble in and abuse ";tb ¡!ender inequaliry b) equatin~ ihcm.
the home and oo rhe srreet. "·here it is raised and when i1 is oever men- Women in pomograpby are bounJ, batrered, tonured, lurasscd, mped.
uoned alike. A poliacal act like the Meech Lake Ac-cord either supporn and somctimes killed. Or, in t.be gloS5}' meo·s emenrunrncnt magazin"'I,
or detraccs from this duna1e of coocern. affecting outcomes in particular they ore mercly humíliatcd, molested, obj=i6ed, anJ uscd. In üll pornog·
coses e.·en whcn ti does noi technically apply, shifnng the ground bene11th r:tphy. they ill'C prosrnuted This 1s done because it meaos sexuJ! ploasurc
leg.J argumeots, determmlng what i> petsullSi\'C an<l whar h•s to be taken 10 pumopraphy's consumers and profits to i1s providers. But to the women
>Criou>ly. wha1 has ro be proveo und what can be wken fot ~rnntcd. h •nd children who are cxploited rhrouµh iis nuking or u<e, it mean< bcing
beromes part of what 8JVCS lifc LO l11w. bound, bartercd. tortured, hamssed. raped, and sometimes killed or mercly
On this lcvd, ronstirutional process be¡¡ins os poliLies, beet>m<S law, ;nd humiliated. molested, objerti6ed. and used because someone who has more
f.10<!S on as social life. Tiús is wha1 Que~c wantcd and why it waoted it. powet rhao they do, someone ,,.ho maners, someone wim nghrs, a lulJ
and what it got in the Accord. lI whac t! gcit was ooly redundan1 or ¡ust human betng anil a full atizcn, gets plcasure from seemg tt, or doing 11.
tnterpretl\~, why bother? lt is on this leve! also that mulriculmral groups or scetng tt as a form oi doing iL
and aborigmal pc-opb wcre regardeJ as o<c<ling rcassurance-ihey got ít, Specilic.i.lly. m che hundreds and hundrc<l< of inagazines and pictures
•pproptiatcly .o. Thh "' also m< levd oo whích thc cquaüty nghts of Jnd 6lms and vi<leocDSSetrcs and so-called books tha1 ro1mnu1c the por-
womcn are a -.liJ ronccrn Thcy were n.glected The place of M:x c.¡ualit)· no~rnphy ind11<try, womon 's legs are spld\Cd in [)C!lture; of -exunl ~ub·
•S • fundomcnml comm1tmen1 is os much constitutcd by do<.-ument5 likc mission, di~pbv. and access. We are named after men's insults to r•ns c>f
this •• i1 15 n:llccted in t hem. l\lake n<' mi5tokc, lcoving it out does Sii> our bodtes and mated with animals. We are htm_g like meat. Children are
'°mcthm¡z. aod it docs do •omcthin11 In choosm~ to reaffirm sorne rights presented a.s adult womcn: aduh women are presemed as children. fusing
and 1merests and not to indude cqualiry, some ri¡;hts are made strucrural
to Cana<lian íederahsm. Equalii)" mcludlng sex equaliry, is not ooe ol
thcm. 86
11110,yn) s Cold Hurl • 11 ll•SOflny s Coló Hurt • 89

thc \'lllrlcrJb11il> vi • ch1IJ •uth thc sluuúb <Jgcrnn> for oex •.uJ to be tur rc:IU\lOJ.C hJ 14.:(\"fU ns authont)llt1J unsl1tnttfic.: fl,r bchC'vLng •·omcn's h•ra"mcnt, ~xu.11 abuse of chJJrm . .mJ lorccJ pr.,.t11u11<1n \X'e ICJIDCd
o.iur"1 10 thc l<rn.al.- ,,f e>cl') llJrl'. R•ci.J haucJ " scxu.1liRJ h• m•k1ng IC."•Um..ny •hout 111 1mp lct 00 th.·ir lívcs l C> f'Omlljl,_f'h\ " propJP.UlJ., thn tbc more pomo¡tr•phy meo occ, thc m••re abu.l\'C anJ '1oknt ~
C\el') r.ci.11 '1<rn>l) pe on10 • sexual íensh Asían 1''0mcn ""' prncntcJ to '""· 11 "an o pí<'S1K>n oí malc 1ckolo111, )"" 11 "hale l11cuture, Y"' ll t5 ,....,, 11 h• he, the more Jhru1"" anJ \1<.lcnt 11 lx<11n1C'S, ihc more thé.") mJOY
P"''"" !he:) can!IOI ¡,., JJ1d 10 be •ll\'C, bowid 'º thC) ""' 001 rrcngnuJbl) thc tfocum.-ntJ11on ol • cruoe; ~..., 11 L• <tll ar11umrnt fnr .exual lllSCÍ<m, 11. tbc morl' ah11SJ\c anJ \ioknl they bttomc •nJ die te.. harm lh<") ><e
human, h•ng>ng trom tre1'S and li,dit fixtun:s •nd dothe- r<'P in do.m ) CS. 11 "• wmhol. • represemation, •n •rul ...1 , • "mrtom ol malc Jom. in 11 In "'her ,...,rJ,, pomo¡:nrph~'s ron~ b<-t-omc umhlc to>«',..
Bltck "''OOlen att pttKntcd ._, anunahstic bncho, brw~ anJ blero1114!, inan<-c: )"'• 1c <C>O\'e)'> ideas hke anv Sl'lCllUlllC >OCUI rrarucc ~ lt IS harm bct-ausc 1hé.-) •re rnio)111ll 11 =u.di) Mcn c'lhrn thmlt 1hat 1hcv u~
sU\lgglm11 ·~n<t the1r bond,, jeu1Sh u'Omeo or11a.m 1n rtt1U<1menis of Jlso ollc'll 1mmo1".tl, tastdess. u~\" <l!ld b<>rm~. 801 nonc o! thi. IS wbat pomo¡iraph\ l>ut do n<'I do th.,.., thm~' But pomography mak~ u 1m-
death camp 1onura. In so-cilled lesbian pomoiiraph). 1n>mcn Jt> 11.·h.i pomu¡:r.rh• Jnuncmdy "'· ho" 11 wvrb. 11·hJ1 " 1••n1cularli wrung 1'1th pO><iblc tnr thcm to tell "'-hm scx 1> lorccd. th•t \\<>lllrn are human. anJ
mcn unag1nc ~(.'mcn Jo ,vhtn meo att ntlt .;irounJ. Ml mcn cdn \.\111ch. u, 111 "h, "e h.ve to stop u. \\'as thc C\ J t•f 1hc llol<ic•11>I wtw. 11 ,,,¿ that upe " r•pc. Pomo¡?Taphy makcs meo ho;uk and •¡lares•" e 10..·ard
Prcgnant won1en nnJ numn~ mother., Jmput<c• .mJ t11hcr J11"1bkd or di .11"'"' ll"ll•I \X'., .-nt!m¡\ i1 a íorm oí 1hn11Ahl <unirul• lf Au>ehv.-i1r haJ womcn, and 11 makes womco sdent. Anvonc who Joo not belie\e this
womcn and rc1•r<k'tl ~irl• 1uc u..,J •• dccrncJ 1exuJll) cx<itinj\. In s<Jmc ht' ·n rrqui r«I 10 m•ke anti Semi tic ¡m>r11g.111<ln. •houlJ ir h:wc heen pro •houlJ Sf'C1lk OUt •g.W!>l pomogruphy In pubhc \Olllt: IJRI<
porno¡¡rnphy callcd "snuff" wnmcn <Jr children ""' l<>rlurcd 10 dca1h, mur· tcctct.l ' l«ch? Porno~raphy is a s~~tcmAtic atl a¡ram.i w<>mcn <m every In our human nghu l•w, which pcm111s "''""" '" •e<:k ci•·•I d11m•gcs
dered, to makc ~ se• film Gocbbels's film documentlnll tht <low mnure le-.d nl ii. 50dal exis1eoce. 11 takes •Cts a1111inst 11·omcn ro makc 11; scllin¡r unJ t!llf' th< rornographcrs when thC\ <•O f'íO\C hnrm, pomogmphy ÍS
morder by h•n,inp frnm piano wire of che ~ncrals 11·ho plon<'tl to lull 11 I' a <ene• of acts fuansactionsl rhat pro\'ldc 1hc mcenuvc co make u and Jdincd •• 1hc ·~•uallv cxi>licit <ubordmJt1on nf womrn thrnuMh pícturcs
Hnlcr may hJve b«n a lorerunner. The pomographe,. 1owv ha•c !carnal m•" produo: !he abuse; coosunung lt 1> an .m u~amsl "ornen anJ spawns or wnr.1< th>t al«> mdudcs women pn:.cntcd Jchumanm'tl .. scxu"1 ob-
somcthmi!. thoo¡¡h. bccause ouJteoces do no1 run 'º""''"~ lrom thc more •<ts th.i makc many mott wo-n·s 1<1u.t h'<'> JangcroU>, mean· fcct• ,. ho en~•) pam. humiliauon. or r•pc: womcn bounJ mutíLned CÜS·
thtitr<s as Gcnnan> Jid thcn. They stay and th~ mJJturb.<te AnJreJ m,lc>J anJ unc.¡lllll. le i. rhcrrlore ;lll Ull u,;.1111>1 11oomen to protcct anJ mcmlxrcJ. or ronurcd: "'Ornen in ~turo <>I <en1l11) or >ubrruss1on or
l>..orlün llD<e u1J to me 1h.it ú lútlcr lud d1'CO\creJ """' thc potn"ll <lcfenJ 11 Ji.pl•v, bcmg pcn<traccd b) objeas or animab .\len, chilJrcn, or ~·
r•phm luiow about 1ex, thctt ..-outd not be •Je-. Jlw.- in EuK•pc for Thmul!h "' pmductJOn pomograrhr i• • traffic m fomalc ~xu"1 <ll\CI')' ocxiuh. oll ol "ham .re somc:umes \lola1cJ W..e "onl<'tl are through .ind
womrn, lr>'lhll in thc world thc porno¡¡raphcrs ha.1' mJM nleilllS """I! Thwugh 111 coo<umpripn, pomo1tr:irh1 íunhcr 1nst1rut1onalv"' a sub. in pomo~rarh•, c:&n <ne for >imtlar trcauncnt \uhorJmuuon "' an t<.~1\1'
""h tbc 1mphcatioo< oí 1hat. hum.m. \1<11m1zrd. <ea>nd-dass <ratu• tor womrn h• cood1tioolfll! or¡rasm prawcc oí placm¡t "'mc<>nc: m on uncqu.&I p<»llloo or m • Jl<"lll<>n nf ¡.,.,,
On tht ha-1s oí thi< cnuquc. Aodrea Du-orlan and 1wrott • law 10 place 10 ''" 1ncqual11) Whcn they use polllO)!r•¡ih) , mcn expcnentt m tbeir of 11<""\'r To h.-• wJ,.,rdim11c Í< thc opf""llC .,f l>cm3 •n equal Prisoncr1
~ powcr to op~ thesc practices where n belon~· rn 1he hands ol the boJi<.,, that un1'31cnl ;cx-scx berwcen a pcl'1i0n and a th&nl'l-•S sex. rha1 ¡:uard 1c:ochcr1<ruden1. ix..S1workcr ddinc suhordmalc rcl•ttons Our idea
vinuru. AoJ wc d1rcctcd u ogamst tbose uiio should •n•wer 10 thtm the'lJ' ~clual U!I<' 1~ se>.. ~xuaJ abu~ 1s scx. &c:xu.11 Jomtn.auon u1 scx. Thts lS thc is 1ha1 man/"''Oman not be such a rdauon Manv pc<>plc apparcnth· caonoi
virumtters. Ow law mokcs the women bctng ral"'J more m1pon,ut1 llun '<'>.o•llly thC)' then Jemand, pr•clJce, .uit.l ¡1u1th~'<:. l'orno¡¡raphy makcs una~1nc M:X w1thout t.his.
die pleasurc tif thc mcn who likc to watch them h ••» th.11 buyin¡: anJ 5< "'m •<•Y· lt " • ma¡or way thut gendcr h1crard1) ¡, cn1oycJ anJ pra.: Our dcbn1uon of pomography sunpl" h>ts wh.i l1Js 10 be 1n 11 for 11 co
sclling womcn is lnwnsiotcnt \vith •ny •criou> mand.11c of \e• cqunlny. In ti•c<I The ¡iroblem with p<1mngru¡ihy •> nm wha1 11 '">' hui whn1 tl dOC!I: wo1k. scxually. Pan oí rht mulc dclinuion of 1101·no¡1.r.1plw hJS beco ns
domg tho<, wc took on or¡lanizc:d cnmc, which run• thc porno¡¡mr hv m vil'll.11c women'1 human riRhts 1111,lchm1bd11, :'llo man 1.L11u .kfinc 11 bcc•U•c sorne urh~r rn•n mii:Jt1
dunry, buym~ ,.;,h rcrror ony suppon it cnnno1 buv with monc). the ld't In nur hearinRs in Minneapohs. whcre our la" wa. fim 1ntroduced, the 111duJc "h11t lll• ¡'CnÍ~ l'C>pood< to Our <ldinlll<IO 1\ th•• pomo¡tr.1pher'•
and the m1cllwu"I' thJt ddeod pomoimiphy as sc<ual lthcrnunn and. \l.1th hann ol pomn¡¡niphy wos exten<ively documcnted 1n proceedm~ one ob- JeÍlnllJ<>n Porno~raph' " cn:a1cJ b\· formul• 11 ""'" n<•l \'ory. ;-.lo pN
tbc liberal ptts•. as freroom of speecb; tbe right rhat coopct•tt> b) pu•hm¡l '<'r>cr liken<d to the Nurembcr11 rnal• llee•rther. and dirucians docu· no¡rraphcr h» an\' trnuble kno-.'in¡; wh~t to m.1kc. No • uduh • bonksrore
uscleso monwsm anJ worse·rhan·useless legal apprnJches. thc consumcrs mcn1cJ ,. ha1 wvmcn knO'l· from We: pomo¡iuph\' mcr<:JSCS amtudcs and ha• •nv trnuble ko0>nng \l-hat to siock No CtJstomcr hn ""' rrouble
...,.¡ tb.- couns u ho Jo not >e<: "'°'""" ~ h = beini:s: anJ 1l;w, mU.b. bch.ivwn ol •f\!?res>1on .md 01Ji.,r di$Cnmm•uon hy mm a~81DSI u·omcn .
\\'onirn t<>ttheJ th.1 pom<>f?raphy ,..., u~ 10 hr..U. tb.:ir "'lf.Cllccm, to
kno...1011 ufat 10 bu)· We ooly descr1bcJ y,·h.r thC\ •lreadv know
or.iors the ""xnrn IOIO!otl, hbcr.al l.w\1'T> .nJ acoJcnú~;l who Jd'enJ thc
• < •
t:ndc:r Atnt'ncan 1...,.., speech m1eresu ar.- oul1l d¡r,bed 10 >nme dqirec
p1m¡n. 1':01 •urvn11t1¡rly, 1he mun> hdd Uu! !he US Consumuun prn1ms trun lht·m to 't"Xu.al iubmb.)ion, to K""J.'4.>n th(_n1 h.1 Íorll,J sn. to 1n1i.núJ.. c: "'""'" p1<1ur.s and •·ords are found f.Jsc, <>hocen<, <n<h'Cftt, rarut, eott·
pomO@r1phy •• "•pttch" lxcau.e-gra111cJ that n J.x-i all 1hc h•rm 1'c tbrm 0111 pf tob opponun1ti<s, to blatkmJ1( thcm IOIO rro<t1turíon and c1,~. thraucrunt:. tntn.bl\"C", mconv~rucn1. 01 maothc-tac Ustng A dulJ to
prnv<d 11 don-n ilio expr~ a "poúu of ,,• ..,, • Our fi~ht c<>nllnU<'> •• kccp 1ht'm 1htre, 10 terrorize and hum1lwe 1b..-m into Sl"xuoal compliaoC1', malee kX rw:1u~. Of J1uributtng or tt'(elVIQg $U1..'b JHiLlU~ 1!\ • cri~.
you ttad thl\ Jnd tn <rlencr 1he11 dL<Sem ThC)· told hou 11 tokt'> CO<'TCJOO ro malee por· Yct "" are mld 1hai beau~ pomo¡¡NIJ>hv C'lf'"''"'' • \1Cwpom1 &hou1
Becausc 1he ¡ilca•ul'C pomo¡¡raphy 11''~ IS se.xual. u ha. bccn cons1deted n01tr~ph\ h"w pomo¡:raphy is lorccd on .... ornen and children in "'1i)'S tluc 1''0lllm, tt does not maner 1Í 11 i• also c:nem,J, .-~ulmc or dt""Cnmmaiorv,
CJ<cmpt from !>Cruuny, rcprcssive to qucsuon. We havc l>ecn c•lled lasc1sts ¡¡1• e thcm no d><>JL"<: abou1 v1e11.~ng the porno¡:r•ph)• or perfornung the seic The cnum h>ve $O lar dooded th.u an mure da« ni wnm<"ll '"11 be rre.ied
1hcv 1old how pornogruphy •timulate> und tondon,.,. rape, baucry, sexual m the<e wa» so that others can havc what th~y coll lrcedom ol ;pcech:
90 • Slrvuies w1th1n Statrs 9? • Struu1es w11h1n Stalts

lrctc.kun mc-.n1ng irc..'C' Jlc..~~!ri. ttJ "''01ncn's boJ1cs. irrt Uk ol u·omc:nºs livcs. me Th'-' «•ulJ nie.111 thJt Mn)th11111 \1oknt " undcr>t<X><I •• noncon!.l'n·
~rttc.:h ml-.ln1ng uun1l·n·,. bt,Jll') 1ts u 1ncJ1um fl'r thosc otbcn."exptc1s1on.
10 01ul But m J'<•mogrnphy , u m<-an• th•t force e.in be u"<:J 1<> lon¡t as .ame·
A< Bl•ck •l.vn ""'" <'0«' ... h11c nwn"s pr<•¡1<·nv unJcr thc U.S Consti On Scx an<l Violcncc c.1n<"- 1hc cc.lfl~Um<"r, "'11.1lly ¡¡ rn.1n-cx,~ru.'1lceJ u J!. ~xulll. \l.·hich thc:n
tu11on, u11mrn <1rl- no\\· mi·n 1 •torn-1.:h .. lt ICCrn' thJt nur p;.Un, humilla· ~•n• u " fch h\ h1m to "" ronscR'ual, indudon¡: for the pcrson beúig
tlf'n , 1c,n11rc, Mhl U$t... 1s w1nnlung 1hcy nn1 '" '~' lnrroducín~ che \nripomography fom:J fhc ur>hoo " bccau-c thc u...- " ~~ cnl"}'lll~ r.uchin~. no
P~rnfl«riiph, ,·annot 01'1 ;11t 11 dclCS now v.·nhfllUt hann1n, Í1' '-iictirm, Ci\'íl Righ1s LJ\\ in Swcden mmcr ho"' mu•h l<•rcc h lnfüctcd, no maner how much tbe woman os
"""° ...,u mnain \'l<llm• unul ""1lcth1n11 dJc:ctivc an he done. "" Ion~ as bono.: "olatcd. he expcncoc~-. the matcnili 3$ pre:.enang a consc:ntml(
"<•m.&n In othcr "'<'rd" •~>« thc mJtcn.U. produce an erccooo. thcy m:-
che pornc.•¡¡uph> ""'"' as 11 Je>c> """. "''ma> and cluldrm v.1U be used
.mJ .ibU>Cd to m.dtc 11, •• th"' are """ , anJ u will be U>Cd to abu.e mcm. :k.-"'l. 10 thc ...:<.truumcr fttls. thilt thc ,.,\,mm \\.ºAnt~ u, no martcr u:hat u.
as lt b DO\\ l1x: quc.."SllCID tor •orocn <\d)"llhc:tt b \\ñrthe.r \\'C: wtl1 \\lll bong Junc 10 her To suppon this pem:pnon. u ;, common (or "-omm
lor c:-Kh .. ,1 ot 'h..ltmUolUon to CX\.""Urth.n "T knt..>'\li' ",n occur, confining m pomlli;r1ph¡ 10 be.- m1hn¡; Ol1cn "1.- " forttd 10 ~milc The ron<llm<'r
oursdH.. ro dc.uun¡¡ up aftcr thc J>0mo¡:upbcrt onc bod) , ooc •ptnt, onc 1• oftm nnt <h0\\'11 rhc force th.at cncm:• her to •milc, "' rhc, pem:prion
dn•'1•t«l Jale 11 • mnc-ncHr notl<tnR thc it<-nJcr oí thc boJic,., ""'"'r <¡,.cJcn IS iamouJ\' for SCX .mJ ·~'lln•t nnl<fl<-.,, Thc IWO •re dcfincd b\ oí thc u<tt 1• that <he" consen11n11 bccau<c >he ;,. múlin¡:. 00( rhat shc 1s
nll'1cm11 th•t thc '1<run1uuro is ccntr•ll> J<'IU••liz<:J throUl!h picruiu and distincuon ..·ha1 is """ c•nnot be \1olcncc, ond -.·hat Í• violcncc cannot be: <m1hn11 becau~ ,¡,., i• bcin11 torced to
"-ord'. and newr nori<'tnR that ""' mrountcr thc pomo1m1phy m the In-,, sex. Rq!re!Llhly, thL\ distmet1nn Joc, "'" holJ m che poroo¡¡rapby sctrin¡.¡ fa en moh< Jeccpm ch, often thc \loknce is olf-sattn. ou1SJJc the trame
in thc coun< C'\'CI) nme "·e tn ro pr""c that • "'·ornan ~ been bun. In Sweden. as dse.. htte, porn<>11rarhv " brj!dv unJcrstoocl as a maner OI "·hJt )OU .a:. lñc Jc»cr punp .. ho abJuctcJ Or entrappcd me u-ornan
\X'omcn, 11 is >a1J, <hould be lo)ill to porno11reph~ becau..e our treedom <>t moraluy. of ~ and bad. Thc nght'~ moralny oo me sub¡eet m-ohes ~nJ so)J her to 1hc b1¡;¡¡cr punp-mc pomop"aphcr-uso force th.u you
anJ eqiuli~ Jcpcnd on protcxunir 11 Thu Í> bcuu.e pornograph' IS arounJ sex. 1hc ldt's .roonJ '1ok1lcc. Tbe rigb1"s moraluy """'S poroog- Jo noc >« m thc lilm Snmctuno '"º cll.n """ the ""mJn's brwsc:s ., \'OU
frccdom anJ '"lu;ln). >u tfom~ •n)thmg •bout n " rcprooon. {lbCJ>m, raph) "' ob.cme. mc.ming r.cx th•t i> b•J ur wrong 10 Stt: 5<!X is lilthy, «>11IJ "'e thcm nn l.iml• "l.o\dJc~· 111 thc J'<>rno¡;raph) ñlm D<<P 'rh;..,t
JnJ ccn.,mhtp In prJ<ll<'c, 1111• mc.1110 th.11 wbJtt:\cr thc pornographcrs womcn'> bo..lu:s •re .l111y, homo,,.x11•li1v " pcrvcr.c Thc mau:r1.Js are brui<"' Ínim thc ho11in~ <he ~Ol Íff'm her p1mp, OÍ wbom shc 11.·..s ~cap•
0

Jo [, '1'<'<-<h." ''"'' "h•tc•cr 1hot1C "ho <>J>Pl'1<" thrm do " ccnsorship. >mu1 Thc ldt ' nuir •l11y \<"<:< a problcm w11h ¡>t•rno¡trtph). if ut ,¡JI, whcn lÍ\e, dunn~ thc •hooun~ But \'OU have lo look for rbern: me> ª"' DOI me
\\'omcn "rc.1min~ in p.ltn m » l"'rDO¡tr•phy film ¡, "•pttch • womm it show< violcncc SL..,in¡t vmk·ncc in p<>mo¡m1rhy " hdpful But ndther sex in th" particul.i r film O.·ep 1'1>rr)ut show• no explicn violence. yet it
SCttanung Ín th~ a11dt<"OC."'1 tn C•J're>< thl~r pain and J15sent IS breach of opprooch solves rhc r..-.ol prohkm ¡X>mOANPhy po~ for womcn Ideas of took •·1olé11cc 10 make. \X'hatcver people mean by nolence. the fortt that
the reacc anti mtcrtcrcs "'nh si=ch. "'inuW ""speech," but dernooscra- p.ood and baJ lll wha1 is <.oid and ><:tn do nor ~.tch thc hann that is bcing ~01 LtnJ.i into D«p l'h1'•tl os not v1>1ble in 11. Wh:u you see is an actor
tors who u;e s1mn~ lan1111<11tt to JHOtc>t lt are arre,ted for obscem¡v. When done. Nenher left nor rt¡lht aJdreS<"> thc re1wue> oí who pomography ponraymg •n cc>tJU< smJin~ wom.1n who )oves 10 take • perus 10 tite
Prntl'<luu h•n¡:s Asían womcn lrom trc."'>. n " •speech·~ wheo onripor- hurt>, how, why, and how thcv ¡\el ""'•'>' wuh n hom>m of her 1hrci.11 hcin¡¡ >cx11Jlly fulíilk.J by Joing 1oO. J lcrc ¡, .i 11oman
oograph) a<11v1st Nikk1 Crnh lc•llct> w11h th~ snmc photugraphs m pro1es1, C\'Cl)thing 111 pornogr•phy is se' for oomcone, or 11 would not be therc. who "'·" violcmly rncrc<-..1 intn pornll11r11phy. doong fcU.ido •he h.id to be
shc "dfrc>tcJ tor oh..:cnll) \\'h<1l P<lrn<•111•11hct'> makc pomogrnphy oí Th1s mduJc~ ony ;nm11n1 <>Í viulcn<c. iuth •s satlomasodusm·s tonure or hypnori7C<I ICI •UJlJ'l'l"S lhc OlllUJ'11i ¡ta¡:, re>¡....n...- lO accomplish,' \et me
Andrc.1 Dw1irkm, 1ho1 ... ,,...,.,,h"
wlm1 rubh•hcr. rcfu,c lO publ..h her •<>ml'Ol1t bc1nA k1ll<"J ur J,.mc1nhcn·J. 1onurcd m dt·a1h, 10 m11kc a snuff ¡><>m<'jlntphy ~h"" • no "nlencc 11 1~ ali off sr•~c.
w"rk. •~>in¡¡ 1h•t 1•uhhshm11 \ndrt•• r>w1>rkin ts b.td for frccdl"ITI of <pc<:ch film. lf >(ltn< con•umcr 1fid nm c\pcncnc.: ali 1h1' ·" «?X. thcre would be ,\.latenai< Jikc TJ~r{' T/m14/ and what IS knm1m amund 1he worfd as
becotl'e of h~r 0rpo<itíon to pomogr.iphy th•1 " 1hc "J\ frccdom of no porno¡vaphy maJ~ nf ít, ycl 11 ¡, voolcncc b)' ony •1andud. Pomo~rnphy S"'·cd1;h em1ica are thc matemils rap•Sts fa\'or Srudtcs of rnnm:ted rapists
speech 1< <upp<'Wd to w1>rk Nor coulJ •he jlct .,, •rticlc publi<bcd Jj,. sewalizes violmcc. The violcntt d<>e<n 't cancel thc st« 11 rt thc sex. The show tlw thoS<! ª"'
thc matcrials-oot the so-callcd .,oJcm material$-
cussmR 1he<e example< \X'h<11 the An<>mC'V C.ent"ral's tomm1ssic>n on Por- reahrv IS clciser to the sex c•ncehn11 thc violentt: the consumei s sexual that me) mo•t ohen u'c to gct thcm aroused lor their ra~ anJ 10 hclp
""W"Ph)' v;ro1e ~ kuer 10 ">11<11 mlonnauon on pomOj(l'aph) sales. n w-as response lO 1hc \IO)<:nCt m.J.cs htm OOl S« Wt "'b"1 IS ~ done IS thcm •d«t wltont thcy ,..nl 10 rape Sómc r.pl.\1> Jo 11><! \'IOknt por
<ucJ by pom<.>~ra¡ihcr> '"'Y'°~ that tbc-c ll·ord> 11·ere mumiJ.u.ing, and a nolcnt. nogr.aph~, l>ul rap~t1 n101c- t)-¡iÍail} \\·ant to ~"C '''ºlilftl v.·31tmg and
cuun COJ<.>JncJ rub1a,..11nn ol thc roulu. So "''"' me pornOf,rtphcr> CdlSUr Scx l' tm.t¡tincJ 1<• be rnhcrrntl) .-omcmu•I. •u>lcncc. 1nhcfdltl) <-ocr- \\ltnltng 10 ha\c done to thcrn "·h•t thcx l1l<'ll want 10 do and cnjoym~
1he ¡:mcmmtnt 1n 1hc o.une <•I fr,,·Jom t•I 1p<'C<h, and AnJrca Olrorlan b..'"I! rapcd at k-a.1 by thc enJ. R.p1•t• a)..., use pomo¡inphy 10 decide
>nJ 1 are puhhd¡ l1kcn<.J to ll11lcr for rdwmg to >top 'rcak"'l! abou1 u-luch ·n~ ol" """'"" 10 •mod,, wnmcn rheir hod1e< thcn come 10 believe
no. b ... ab1cd "~""'el. tpc<eb ....... "-1.l>olm. , • ..x... ~......,¡,,., : 1000. Andru
Jeme 10 he rapcd lt 1> a dn run. Tht< ondude. materUls tha1 are not
ll1lmCll '< ni:ht• awun>I 1fx.m h " lxJ:innm¡1 10 k'm1 rh•t thc ocxualit}· of ~ -• 1 ....., .i..i.i, .,._,ni "' i.... i..m ..lcJ ·~ .ddr... , '....ini. ~
thcm-.:J,.,. \'klknt m thc u.ual scnsc ol ,,bo,.mg ,1<11ro1 acts but prom0<e
pom<!ftl"llJ'h) ¡, rhc fa.asm oí conu:ml"'r•ry Amcnca, exponed wNldwíde.
and ~are m the bst J.,-s of \\'cunar
....,_,.,.. ond - - ~...w. - - '"""""'""'' 111 .........
91
On Set 1nO Y11Jen<' • 93 94 • Stt•Ult> w1t~•• Stat<S On Su ••d Y101ence • 9~

\'1olcn<0 ·~•Wht '"""''" ID !he wotld. So-.:alled "po>1tl\c-0u1<:<.•mc nopc:" l><•h l..,,.u..., "'"''e ¡><'<'ple "tll be u¡hcl aboul 11 ll.nJ bcuuk <u<h ~In.• c>ampb th., are 11<>1 gcnJt-r b....J .re llt.ld1 re'"'"""J ~· "~• "ICLll
pom~r•phy, m "h1<h ,.."""" Ullu.uh ""'1>1 but <H'fltualh c-cst•ucaJI, " unhldv 10 "ºI' '<'"Y much Thooc v. hu h"c !"""' ,.._..,,unung th<' poc 1nn¡11•lm "or¡:¡in1ttd bctu·cct1 guu.t••11..l ¡msmcr>, =r~•)er. anJ em
•ubmit to • ..,xu•l •tta,k, " Jocumcntc:d to be th<' "'°'' "'''°"' pomo<. ""l'"rhv-U>11all1 induding 1hose "ho ,. nic anJ ..ntor.-,, 1111J m1npm pluyl"C> 1e11ehcn and ,tuJen1<, CJIUc:ns an,1 •llC'n< ¡>ol1ce un.1 cmzcn>
111ph, nmk In trnru of arous.tl anJ rtlox1> • h 11 ~x or •11&-nce? \\'ho I~ 1.,..,. anJ hJ,.., p<>\\"'1 ID <O<ietv-do noc 111u¡;inc that ""'h a In· app!IC'S JJuh1 •nJ <hildttn, arcukcrs anJ w.rds \11 Jrnn~ uncqual !""''ª
Jn:u.J.,' \\'ht-n Jlt'fTloo¡¡raphy th.i Joc,s noc .¡.,.,,. \1<>1m,-., " m... lc 111th 10 mam motcn.ds dm are ac:ruallv there Thc 1cnn 'v1<ilence" mttns ncir· -..1Jdv «<n &> hierorchies m sooety. Thc re>iliuuon 1h•1 1t.e. are r""1
•íolt'nce •n•I produ.-..'I \1olcnce. wbm <exwl ma1t'ri.ih that do •ooll· •m- •m•. e\<ep110NI, extreme. n0t C\"el'}d>), n<>t P'"''"" The pkasure ol comes lari¡C'h, 1 dunk. lrom thc tJct. tha1 mm arr C• p1,•ll> J' cm the boctom
leoce .1.rt noi c'P<'rl<'nceJ •s m>lem 10 the extmt che cc>1humcr '' sexuallv '<.'Xll.il JroU>.1.1 L> a ¡>O\\'erful po51uve r<.1ntor.cr l'ornopr.phy com.:s 10 ol th...m .. on thc 1op. Being oo thc bouum proJu<"<'> .,, unJemandtn~
arouscJ b• thé 11okni:c, when aets a.re preseoted as '10lem but a.re .ho11~ >l•nJ to1 ti>~ ro>•m·c ".tluc rudi!mmt 1hJ1 ~·""- w11h ,....,, no m•ttcr how 1h•1 \Oll •rc ¡,.,,,.,.,¡, >Olll<!QllC ,..ho lS un mp ot ynu !king on tbc top
lO be cx¡,.,ncnccJ b) thc htr¡tet of the v1olence .t> .exu:1U. a$OU>IOI! Wld 111uch '1<•lcncc 11 ~hov.-.. Once \1tilcncc ,. ...:xuahtcJ. u .., le" hkdy to be •ctn\\ to """"re 1h.11 po•nion. h h.is h..'<'n d11f1rnlt to <"'ll•hl1Ji 1hc h1er-
sat1>1}1n~. which i• the •ex .mJ "'h1<h IS thc \'tolen<ef '<'"" ,,. 1wlcn<c h mll lx: nu:rually 'w11d1.-.I mtu u 1.tm••> rc.tlm thJI urc.h)' thllt is ttcx bcc;uuse mo.,tl} mm ¡are ntlt ''n th . .~ houoni of thh~ onc
Othcr th11n thc n•l!•tivc v•luc ¡udgmcnt thc worJ "v1c>lencc" wnl'eys. u m.1kc• 1he \'l<llcncc un real so the sex <>Í u <-111 ho cxpcncnccd ,,. r leasurc. 1.1ml thu<e who •rc 1cn<i 10 be «>cinll)' fcmmi1ctl 1h,'rchv1nn,l1hc Jrron¡tc·
¡, \Cl') <li1•1><ry •nd <clJom, ti C\'cr, dclineJ. 1 hove ohserwJ it hr1n~ uscJ 111c ,bc11'i1itJ1ion thu1 pornC>¡\r.1ph1 ,·01!Sumplion -."Compli.Jtes thus nient " sc•ual. Gender is no les• reJI :1 hierurch1 howevcr
tn Je§cdhe "·hott rncn t-IC1 ;1" men tn hurr f)ther mC'n 11 11 m.astuliné" co use worb to pro1c<'t it, t\•en unckr a la\\· 1hu1on thc •urfacc "'Ould seem wnh We tlcline pornograrhv as sexually exrlicu lllJl<.'nJI, thJI <ubordinare
p;un< c>n nién, nicn cut mc:n "'ith knive• So the hop<' 1n callmM pnrno!lf'lphy • lmle cnucal d1S1ance, 10 make much of u 1llegal. womcn through p1crures or words. wheo the m;11tri&h .U.o include women
violence 15 tha1 1f men u<oe ¡nins on women ond cut \\'<>mm u ith kni\'C>, AJJr.,.,,m~ the reaht)' of thtS probbn. AnJrcJ Dv.-orlun and 1 have betng dchumantzcd as ob)CCIO or thmgs or commoJ111e>. bemg penemued
that .,..,u be >ttn to be <1olence, beoce 001 ..U°"·ed becou>e mm kno" thev crc.u.J 1 (.¡,. Jgamst pomograph1 th.11. •lthou~h 11 rown ,,oJcm 1runertals, b) oh1cch or Jmmah, presemed tn >CCOJM<" ot 1onurc or d"f'rad.mvo or
do OOl u-.nt 11 .nJ do noi l.tke IL \\'ell. dream oo. \\:'hile mm wmcumo cJpl u= th• real 11olauous pomograph) J,.,,.,,, "hich e.tcnJ beyond "'""' hl1h. l>eu1J hnu..,J, hcatcn. humilil1c.l upcJ. nr ""~"'"'8 '""'" anJ r-•pc,
Jo r.pc mcn uswlly th...) upe ,.olllCfl. Aum ute, "f"' 1> m ...-1 111 ,.hich 1> called Holcnt. Our •pproach .JJ...,..~ .,.,1"""'' ol ""mcn th•1 exmin~ •nJ ,,m..'f panicular>.• Thc 11>1 oí p•nicula" Jc.cril..,..,. ha1 '' 111 thc m•
thc pcrpcitaior u ¡;co.kreJ mak anJ tht ,;mm ,. ~enJcrcJ tcm.ilc. so- IJu miu h 1> • hWlLln ri¡;lm ¡,,., an "'1Ual11y 1... ¡,, bJ.,c kka i> to serial• pn!duccJ b) thc ro""'l!raphy 1nJu•ll') The Jl'fmu~m of pomog
áJI) -;., u "unhkd) h> be .._-en J> \'Íolmt "h<>n ...r thc mi1m " b«•Uk' ho!J 1hc pnm<>¡:r.phen •cwum•bl., fe>< 1hc sexual 1h11.c th.:, c<>mmi1 and raph) c.·nien Ol1 abuse of u'Omon becau..c 11 u rnmanly ln>mcn u·ho are
1hc "" Jdill('S thc v1et1m whcr th•n thc 1>1hcr \\~)' an>unJ But more cau-.', 10 make 1hem ¡>•)' the CO!ll ol 1hc d.l.m.ll!C 1hC) Jo, .ind, m dlli "'"', hun by and 1hroo¡di pomognphv on the bJ,,, ol thc·ir <;ex Bue the Jeli.
directlv tll thc prcscnt p<>1m e.-.,,, whcrt thc "'°"' thmp mcn <lo to mm e.-.nnuU, ro stop them from dom~ u niuon ol..o cO\·ers roen wbene<er 1he same 1h1ng, ª"' done 10 tJi<,rn becouse
tC> hun them arr done to \\'Ornen. thci-· oftcrt ore not <C'cn u bc:1n~ thc Th•, bw " b.1$cd on the reCOjlnmon 1hJ1 pomo¡irnph~ lS a pracuce o! 1hcy att ml'O. or members oí pamcul.v ~roup> ot mc:n. and romewnes
same. \X'hen J mJn 1; cut. be screams, he bleeds. he hum. he 1; in pain. ''" IO<quJhty. h aJdresses me <Oncrc<C pUCllCClo ol this in"'!u.Jny. not 1hcy ore. h n>\'Cl'S both boys ond girls, to whom thc >Jme things are com·
Thc blooJ "' r<:•I Thc hope in aJdressin~ pornogr•phy o1> \IOlcnce. not 1dc.i. Jbt>UI \\hJt 1> ;e= and s.ud ubou1 •e~. Tfu, low 1> nut prcdtcatrtl oo n1onl> ,1.,nc, 1ndud1ng here m Swcdcn. <1111 h tnduJc> trans•cxu.tls, \\.'bo
sex. 1> thJI whcn women are cu1 and "-e scream, maybe 11 w1ll be believed wh.11 W" <lü no1 cn¡oy !L"'111~ Or JrC (>ÍfcnJcJ by 5CCIR)I lt uJJr.,...,. wruu tcnJ 10 b.: rtM•trJcJ by c:quality IJw l• ncith'" w1•nwn ""' mcn thus nccd
tha1 tlllr p.1ln "rc11I •nd th111 the bl00<.I is human bl0<><I. Th•t i1 '' \'1olcnce, hurts rrul J>c<>)'lc in re>I '"'l• rh.11 e.in l.ic proveo. \X'., h.l\·e th• \'Ícúms 10 •1x...-i!ic mcnuon Thc\ """ uscJ in pe>m<~r11phv 111 ull thc ~umc way-1 J~
•o 1hc lcf1 1hmk• h " "ron~ The problem. 1hou~h, " th•t " cx11cdy whJt >how fur u /\11 wc nccd is B chance tn prow thc c<>nnecnon wirh the wdl.
pomo¡iraph\ Jc,lr<•y• thc 11bilil\· 1<> >ec 1hat \ 1olencc ·•~•1m1 wnnwn 1s
0
r••rn1..:r1rh• 1lm harmed rbem Thc 1enn -~ubordinanon" means social rroet1c~ 1ha1 keer reorle down,
violence «nd thAI "'"°"'" are human Pomo~r•phy tum• 1hc ""'k-n~-e in10 TI"' l•w I> based c>n che rerogrution 1ha1 cotreton, m a society of sex cntorcc hicrorch". keep 11 in place. Subordina111>n rcícrs 10 the concrete
"'" Her K""1ms """'me <creams of pleasurc; h<r \1olat100 hcromcs hcr mn¡wilu), "..U <omeumes appear in a lonn l'C<'O~ll~ <l!' \10lmce but u-tll Jm;1.mic and nwenal •ets ol soctal inequal1n ber...,.,.n 1hc sexes. whicb
fulnllmc-m; her """'ªnce becomes btr affirmaúon Her "olau"" is ,;ex, >0 m<>re olt"n •ppcar m more S)'Sletruc. m<t11umW1alucJ anJ m1cmaliz.ed mu.1 iKtualh· be done to be CO\'CfcJ b, 1ha la"· ¡ ¡.., nwcruilo musi also
th.1 blo."1. her blooJ. "' not human blood. fonm lncqwlm .. • íorm oí torce m•y 11<>1 k>ok hkc.- uoknce ~ though1 bé M:•u.Jly cxplmt mcJmng e•phc1tly ,i,."' 11<"X Thc Jchn111on cncorn·
Alter 1v.cn1~ )C•t> oí ..iurauoo o! SOOC'I} "'th pom<>11niph\, .., lw w kool h look> Id.e age betn~ • hule <h1IJ h lc'llk> hke duabWI}. de· rasscs the lull range vi pomogr-•rh~ from 1'/nbov to mulf Pon10j!111ph)
h•ppcncJ licrc 111 S" .den 11 1> OOl surpnsin8 th•t 1he i..,. prolub1t1'1l' pmJm, -e vn • <Arcukcr h lo<•h hkc thc outhont¡ oí thc """"' O\'U " an1m•1nl by • lottic oí 1hc >CXUabiy of Jcath 1b.1 bci;in• "·uh the most
•rrc•Jms <kp1.:11<>DS of ,,..wJ \10lcnce' <- incff.,.;111.J anJ rntcrprct.J 10 pcopk l>C"mg .trf\">tN or inc:an:cutcJ h l.1Pks l1k<' the omhomv 1ha1 romcs pnmllnc of h1crarch1es ~ <J\-er 1hinM. ll\-e 1>1tr JcaJ Pomógt:1ph) ..
•rpl) tn .Imoo1 no1h1n¡i Once pomo~r>phy has ct>nJiunncJ a popul111vn, "'r~h 11.1rria1 r. •uh ~x.ual •can being n)uun11ed .inJ ,1"-.'lo\Ht~d. 1n most • thmg Thc \\'OO'l;lO in PL.~lvy is. m 11, md\k mtc> an of.1«1, an muln-e
•1olcncc <lnne to ~ W<>man in media no maner ha" much " v.·1.kh per· co intn<.. cootcxt e>t the wite', economit .lcf'l'nJcncy lt looks hite bein~ tma~c ,he t\Jncall) J.,,.issociates from her º"'ll 1Jcmm 10 m.tltc, th~
ceived R< <ex.'" "'n""'1<u.1I, >< not ,;CJlence ar ali Alrcr romo.iraphy h~, a non ~c•ndmav1.m unm1~ram to Sclllldtn.l\IJ, .le¡>enJen1 on another to wh1<h lu•u.Jl)l •mm experiences lus ><:xu•lll) lle 1> a pcrwn. He buv.
SOCtaU1 cx1stnl unrcstt.uned, passin¡z a law apms1 sexual \10lcnet" 1s ea"" \[¡y m th• countn .md tac~ wnger 1! tor.'(d to r<turn dS<.·where. The her in th1> thm¡.¡1hed fonn. He btl! acce» to her, he con U>C hct in wba1cvC$
96 • SttuUI•~ w1th1n Stalu On Su and V1olence • 97 98 • Suoules w1t~in Stalu

"•v he "¡,hes 1k J,..,.. l lcr 10 ••llcJ "'"" 111 " 10 un1"c".ú U>C for l•thcaJ}> 10 Jc1u¡¡htcr. lll c•'en«, ·11 )'<'U tell, 1h" '""hAt 1'11 U<H<> you," ' rupcd \\hi11 wom•n Ju<'>n'1 • Ou1 111-. \\'OlJJ cnJ th= lics by mnking 11
m..nirbatioo h) m1llu•n1 .,¡ mm ohc h•, IK'\'rr mrt Thc •exualny hi< bodv Wornt.'11 •r~ fu1c.eJ tu t.,;00)Umc: Pt'rnt.rttrh~ Jll dltelnn' ui hc.:t:t> . So1nc J'l'>"hle to M1c for J..t•mllllon 1hrou11h ¡>omo~rnrhy 1hat, bcClluse i1 is
leams as a onc sidcJ , ....,u•l11> l><IW<'t"n a pc.-.on anda thm~ bem¡¡ accessed wutnm h.l\'t h«-n forccd to rci1J 11'1' .\to'1' ,,¡<> 1&1at.f to 11.c.t out u1 ~ccrur105 «.,.u.ti, h" ~ 'l~'<·1al trcd1hiluy th•t othcr s¡x-tth do<'• 001 h"'" md othcr
Jnd u<eJ lt " no surrr1«: tl onc tcd' L1kc a 1hm¡¡ .,.·hen C>ne has sex with IO thdr J.t1h hfo OS pon Of tl1'.'lr lhl'tap\ ll S.\11lC V.Timen ho\'" pomoi:raphy srecch cannot countcr, onc tha1 Jc,IJ'O\'> women in Wll\'S that cxisti11¡1 law
• m.m -.ho ha.< lc-•meJ h" ;cxu..tny from pomottraph, , He has bttn forccd on thcrn m th<'lr rrnploym...nt •" J lmm <>I -r•ual haras<mem • A on puhlic women m "'"" coumne. does not re.ch.
h..ing '<X anh thin¡:.. Jc.J. n.1 -.omcn Jcb,crcJ l<' him bi mcJJ.. t<Ch- -..·oman's <prcad le¡:s look al 1hrrn from thc rldlm ol 1hE'1r typcv.'rllet Or hnalh , trafh,km~ m thc produl'tion. >.ale. c.xhtbmoo. or distnbunon of
nulo~ "'"'" lor u>e lk'*I m11111a.) a. lk>I powble unJcr thdC cuoiliuora. tht'."j open thcir locker to pomo~r~phy 'tullt'd tnsidr 11 " Or m cold pt>m<>J!raph¡ •• ddmcJ >houlJ cnJ. Pomograpby 1s • W\'c tra.k produccd
Th""" elle.u u11110 lrom "hJt 1rc u>rnnl<>nl) rckrred lo .. "onlv" thc
PW.boi l>J>c nurerrol Thc l<>w< hoJJ, •nJ CIClllJl<-s •• thc •wesm>0 that

weath..... on consirurnon )<>b>, 1hey tu a rot >luack tor lunch and there by 1hc coor..1on ol pm.c-ny •• 1>dl J> by phy>ic.J lon:e, Jrug ad<lictioo,
JnJ homclrnnns (whcrc >tJta Jo fk>t prm.idc home» and bi anplO)mcnt
IS thc pomo¡:rophy Thc only warm pla.c on thcu wurksite 1> p.opcn:J wnh
¡, 1mphl1t m hi<-rar<h) h«omn <-iphrn h ~.1.,.,. 1hrough <womaso·
thc open •a¡:mb ol orhcr v.oml'11 1• Pomography " ' torm ol workpLtcc dtknrntnJtM>n b•>«I un scx anJ ,.,., So long'" \\'Oól<n are discnminated
cb1,m and t'\cnruat~ m muH, m wluch a p<".-.On bn-omcs • rhmg lncrally:
a lning wonun ~"""'her corp<;e. her hnal 1hmg This ,. porrlOjlraphv'~
>Cpejllltion anJ K'Xu.J h•r••"'1l'111, .u "di u tcrron>rn, 1nduiling ID thc ~m>I 10 tlx- ,,.,J 'A'orlr.for<'C Jnd kcpt poor a> "'''"""'· as they ª"' m most
home \\'<>mm ,..¡,., •re hun whcn 11 ÍI uoed apin11 thcm m the<c Wll~'S rl""'1-'\\'0men ol color and forcign hom and noncinzcn womcn m par-
mner loi:ic. "hcre u ali b k•Jed Ktllm11. murder reall•. is the ulama1e should be abk 10 ¡ict a rn<irt ordcr tn Jtop it-ollld J..m1~n tirular-women w11l be 1n p<>~rarhy and promrunoo. pomOll"'phizcd
<e>. act m pomo11r•ph1·. h " thc ulumatc ••1 of crouCl>lll rcqujred by Women are .Jso a<-.1uhcJ be<• ..,., ol po.nicufar pomo¡!raph•· Prosn anJ pro>muted As lon¡t •• !Orne countno arr unpo,~rished ,.-\ufe othcr
pomoti:r•rh> '; mncr k'f!i., by th1' h1crJr<h) ut pcn<>n º"'' th1ng, tlm. m- ruted women are told, a. thc 1n,k J!<!b more and more •ÍOlcnt, "I know countn<:> are n..h. womcn lrum poorc:r roun1no will be srxually ptt)ed
cquJluy 1n "hrch rn.an 11 pcrwn unJ ,.,lfll,1n m chilJ "' thtfllt \\'e bcgm •ou lave n, 1 saw 11 ID."." o111d tl1cv m<:11uon ~peahc pomoi:raph}... A upon b) mcn m n..hcr countna Pomu¡tfdph)' "' an ann of pro.>uruuon.
rcdu.cJ to• Jc.1J oht«l, tJ;¡ 011 • p.1~~. to be m.i'111rlu1cJ "'"'· JnJ cnJ youn¡t bo) brin~ pomo~uphy -. 11h ltb tnc:nJs anJ tlic¡ ¡ump bis ltttl<" T)p1<>tll\ , sc:.u.il .ibwr t>f yaung "º"""' 111 1hctr familics moke. thc strcct
littrall) ktllt.I 10m1kc J "'" "''"'º A110 thc murdcr, whcn <-nmercJ. thc >Í>1er, holJ her Jo,.n, holJ up thc J'<e>rfk1gr.1pby. 1dl her 10 put your •nru look like ''" 1mpr.,wmcm The .cxu.11 tortu"' unJ •bU><' \\1th 1mpuru1y tn
pom•'f!rophcr. .1nJ th"" Jdcn.lc"' Ín<Í•t it i• ,u >irnul•ted. sorne of i1 1hc ÍJm1ly produce •n rntin'.' popul.J11on uf voun¡¡ ¡¡irb 1>·ho lc•\'C home
like tlu,. •our lep ltkc rh•I, "''"' sm1lc likc •he ,. 1n thc pr<turc, no\\ .-y
Joub1k-., 1< Bu1 1hc consumcr sr•ualh bdtC\C:S n is r<21. and thcre is this. They i;•nll r•¡>e 1hc ~irl 1um thc p11~c. tum rhc ¡?1tl, 8·'"l!·rapc her 1hmkin¡¡ 1h01 noth1n~ muid be 1"'0"< and cnd up. in 1heir own country or
e..1Jencc that ""me ol 11 1>.ª ogain for hours ,. The pomo~rurh> is nm S<"!'J"1l" from thc<c ucts. 11 1s half a "·orlJ ow•y, tn thh slovc tmdc 111 womc:n, this traf6cking io women
Uur t.w reetigmL"> CC)flcrcrc harm>. !>-.·ed.:n'• ob><cnuy laws prolulm rhere h is nn 1ns1rumen1 of the as<•uh h 1s • scnp1, a dircction book: 11 unJ chíldren th.n ,. thc pomogruphy 111c.lumy
thc J1>pl.ty ...1le, ar J1>1r1buuon ol ccn.un mJterub Uur la", b) con1NS1, says here how 10 ne the knots. · \\'hcn pomo~rJphy can he pruvcn 10 AU thc: hann> th•t pomo¡¡rapby produces m sooery as a wbole rhtough
stJnJ> a¡;•ln>t 1hc real h.irm> bcmg 1/u"" UnJcr u, 'urvlvors could >u• for cause assau.hs dtrecdy, pomogr.1phets ou¡¡l11 10 be ablc to be s1oppeJ lrom 11> consumcts, mduJmg through che sexuatizeJ b1goll) agamst women ch.it
bcu1g c0<t<cd tnlu ¡wmogrophy. /\ ¡>cr~c."1 Qught l<l be •ble to •lop the sdlmg iL 11 pornogruphy is provcn ro J1r~ctly c.1use an nssault o[ oru: 11 cn~eiiJcts, woulJ be « IJrcsocJ through 1.hc trafticlung provis1on. The
l'l'n"'~"ph¡ ol her nnJ rtrcrvc d.1mn~<"ll Írt•m C\Cl')'unc who hun her and woman, it will <•u•c "''uults of more w<1mcn lt sbould be stop¡:>eJ. c.lcgraJi111011 oí wonu.-n in pornogmphy. this scxuahzed lowcnng unJ Je.
henetited f mm her cocmon Whcn n woman " haul...I off 1hc street or Pomogr.1phy •180 1lcl11ml'• w"mcn. P11nítul.1rly lc1111nisis who oppo"" hurnani,,11it•n oí womrn, rcíl«1' unJ tclnforccs ond reproduces and reines
lured mto • linRenc modcl1n~ J<I ond suddcnlv linds her;df in pomog· porno~rnphy hove l'>l'en '"""in ¡xir110Rr.i1•hy 111 1h1< w11y, indudmg Glon.1 thc lt>wcr lhllll> c•f """nen 1hm11~ho111 sodcty Thc womcn who Jre in
raph\ ued up with u man \\11h a ¡¡un 01 her hcnd savma. "Sm1le or fU kili Stcmem, A11Jrca O...•orkin nnd Sus.n Brownmillcr.' \X'11h Su<.m Brown rhosc nmennls. who bcromc womcn in ¡¡cncrnl. nrr nm the pcoplc who
you. 1 cm ~et a k11 ol monC\· lor ""'mcn who smilc whcn they'rr ued up millcr, che 1><>1111 wílS 10 say she rcally wnmeJ m oo rwpcd. that's wh)' shc bccomc authoritk.,, po\\·crful, lc~ítirnote, rcsp<"ctccl In pomo¡¡r•phy,
likc>""'•.., tl1Jt woman woulJ be Jblc LO .iop thc pomO¡?raphi· madc oí wrote 1his book a~ainst nape ... This false md Jefamatory he 111 thrs por- women bewme cunts. \X'ould you want onc operaun¡: on your braio or
her J\ \\ cll ~ r~<:CJ\ 4: munc~ Jama~c) for the: .it-U ol JAAl'b~ion Jl took to nographv rtponcJ a ¡iu1auve Jate: 1 haJ a c.l•re with Susan Bro\\mntllcr headm~ 11iur llº"cmmc:nt> Pomo¡¡r•phy crcatcs bl¡!OU)' hostiluy, and con·
makc thcm. n,,, 1.\\ In v1hcr \\<>rt!., .. lll!I "'d""'d} abow \\bJt " we were •bout 10 havc hot .ex, .he v.'ll' very arou<ed. ali ol a suJJen she tcmpt tow•rJ v.omcn, ... wdl u a¡:¡¡rc;sion IL engender. that scnse you
dcp1<,cJ lt '"*l><•ut "h•• h•d 10 l.: d<'nc IU tlu· "om•1Ú bfc 10 mllkc 1hc stancd Sl'ttdlTUng •boul rarc Yuu'rc nc.>t ~""'!! 10 rape mt. att you? nnnot "'"'" tu break 1hrou¡¡h 1ha1 ) uu are 1101 mtl to thc meo MounJ
pomo11rarhcr1' •<> ,.11.,1 drplCtl<'n• ond .,1.., 1>111 bc Jonc.· heaousr it is You're not, 411! you, t>h rcJUy- 1 hvt"' you'rc not gmng 10 rape me! In )'OU, no m.tllC'f "h•ll )'t:•u '•I) t.lr Je, lt ~ng:cn~D rCSt"ntmmt of your pre
w called ,JcpiCled <exuaU,· "'PIKn 1cims. po¡:c ah<'f ¡~c.· aft.r l"'H<" Suun 8"1"-nmillcr" Cll<c when '"'" voirc rc¡:iMcn. m thc lu¡;cr JIOCICt) , the scnse that you Jo
\X'Clfllen could 11'0 suc whoeH·r !orce.'$ thcm to consume pomo¡:rarhy lll i><'r'R01!'"Phl' "' • l>'Oíllan whn wanu to l>e \'iolared \\TI•~ no means noc he-Ion¡¡, ~ IC'l\llC maJc •·1-.ccr•I hcnce fdt "' natural ""'"" ~rualized
agam't thc1r \\ill, •• h•I'~• m marn~ 1n hom.~. m ..1xx,¡, Lntle ~ ves Consumc:rs of th1' ¡>omoiiraph)" h.vc • S<:xu•I cxrcncncc of "usan 1hmUJ1h pomogra¡ilw \Xñcthcr or not am· ol 11• othcr ,;olat10ns hit mdi·
are torced 10 -..:e thc :at<l'<lllo bc1~ •»mmmcd on thor mothcrs aJJ rught Brownrnillcr 10 m\'ahdatc her opposmoo 10 rarc lf '-u<an Brcnmmiller. a \'1Jual u t>mcn, thr>r lu~cr 11111udmal and ulcolo¡ncal dp1amia affcct ali
J> thev b..-Jr thern ""'""' throu¡;h th.: , .._ ~bo-. ~ ha thc pomo¡;npby, kadi~ fcrntnm opponcnt ol •nJ authonty on rape. '<-crctfy 'll'ants <0 be w<•men 10 \'U)'Ul~ JC1trce> m a !>OelélV a. sa1ura1cJ by pomographr as
s,. c.Jcn 11.
On Se• 1nd Vtolenct • 99 100 • s11uule> w1thln Sta••• On Se• and Vlolence 101

Se\'«al addtuonal fi:•rnrcs oí our human right> Liw conm1>1 w1th <!Xi>Uog bnng abou1 c4wl1ty "·bcrc "'umen n<eJ 1t lllld mt:n Jo not are allowcd, us u practica! anti eth1c11J problcm, • doublc ~Lmdard reinirusccnt m rev1:rse
SwcJlih l•w un pomogr,1ph) f'irs1. t>ur pruJX>sed l•w has • Jcfin11íoo of but •> cxcc¡>ll<ln• 10" rule Jg.iinst ducnmin.1uon Whcn you an: promoung of the moralisuc !>weJ1$h •tale rcgulations oí 1847-1918 that dlspropor-
¡mmography l luvinM one make. rhc m.11crial• idcmifinble ro p<.-ople ond c4u.1luy. you m•y discrunmarc on 1hc h.1sis oí sex. Thi• doe> nm con>idcr iiona1cly burdcnctl the womcn 1n prostitution." Convcnuonal ubstracl
¡¡iws lcss room for discrction by amhontics to foil m apply i1'''10 mi>.lpply th.i mlmsin¡: >CX·based subordinauon in which womcn ore disunctivdy "'lUaliry thcory hlls symmcLl)' problcms likc 1his. In 1hat modcl, similorly,
i1 A concrete dcfinition like ours makcs it difficuh for the pomograrhers dama¡tcd ir¡ W3>'S thac ovetWhelroin~ly men nre not mi¡¡lll OOl be discrim- cqualizing do\\..n-men proqitutin¡i, ar arrestin1t mcn for prost1tution as
and their triends to say that 1t is impossible to know what is nod is noc tnotion at ali. but racher tts op1>0sire. ofren as womcn-would be iuSt as sex-equal as womcn not prostitutin¡¡ or
pomography This is• srupid 1hmg to say in wiy evem. The pomograpbers lJ Liws equalizinl! the sexes would be co11sidc:red sex discri.minauon UD· as nor arresting womcn for prostitution would be. B)' the same lol\lc. scx
know wha1 pomography is. They know how ro make 11 and \l-hat 10 put less un escepáon 1> ere made for iL lhc queruon is rru.sed wlut Jiscruru-
0
equality in pomography would be achieved by w-omen sexually conswning
m 1L The poople who order u for the storcs know whm to orJer. unJ thc nauon gt:net.Jly mcans and how cquuhty ~ gencrolly promo1eJ. lí giviog anJ violaung mcn, or by pcoplc consumuig and víoJ.1ing pcople oí the
pcoplc who go ou1 to buy it know wh•t tbcy •re looking for •nd whar ro che uncqu.ll what chcy nccJ 1<> cond incqunliLy is the cxccpuon, wh:n is che ll;tn]c scx to tbe 5'11lle extent th.u exlstmg pomography does the opposuc.
buy ALI 1hes.e ¡><.-oplc know how to dming111>h pomograpby from 01hcr ""'"' rule? Thc mam co11cc1>1 oppéllrs to be wlw i1 usually is. to addros Bue just •S the f.1J.e symmctry in lhe currenr low of prosutuuon nccds 10
m•1erials Ali wc havo done is wri1c a definition 1Jrn1 captures what oll incqu.1lity be<1 whcn. ln fac1 i1 cxists the leBSt. Promonng cquality in ..,. be: changcd to fncc 1hc for-from-syrnmctrkal reali1y, thc tr•dition•I lc¡¡al
1hese people already know: cverything that is pomo~niphy and nothin¡i ciety in the sensc oí cndin1t sex-based subordinntion. transformin~ the scx· conccprion of cquoli1v thnt does noL reco¡¡nizc 1he scx incquality in pros-
1ha1 is n0t. Politically •nd lejlaUv, the definition says what pomopaphy is ba<ed hierarchy. rcquires addressmg inequnliry m substance. whcn it is tirution needs 10 be changcd as wdl, facinjl its unequru realicy. To do
by descnbin¡t \\'hnt ir does, whicb is subject 10 evidencc. rather than em- 1herc the most. otherwise makes a mock:ery o[ women's substantive degradation, wbich
p)o~"Íng vague moral or senumental judgments like obscemry or violence. More groun<led clues to Swedish equalny tbinking perunent 10 the sub- ool.y runs in one direction: Irom che top clown, \1°il.h womcn on !he bocrom.
1t <.bcribcs only thosc múterials thJt Jo 1hc harrn of sex inequality ro í~ ol pornography emerge from che well-kno1>"fl 1981 repon on pn»LÍ· H che repon had pursued irs initial insight and the vis1on dr1ving irs per-
w()nlcn in thc wny 1ho1 only pomot:mphy does iL tunon. Tuis rtport criudzrd uslung only how ~nJ why wumen could pl'O!I tepuon of reality. ít would bav.: seen tlm en<ling prostitutlon by t:nding
Leg:illy. nur law locJtcs 1he in1ury of pomography in rhc ri~ht pl!lcc; 1n Litutc thc:mb<:lves lnstc.1J oí asking how and why men dcmunJ that 1hcy 1he dcmand for it is what scx equ•lity undcr l11w woulJ look Uke.''
the lnw of equaliry. He.re m Sw«len, you •re surrounded by • rheroric oF e.lo so. quoun11 Johans.<0n, • uiticnl mcmbcr of 1hc ¡¡ovcmmento.I e1>m· Subordin.iion conoo1 be ended by ussuming u symmctry tho1 Jocs nrn
equ•liry. as we are in the Oniced S1:11cs, with less ba<is m renlity Thc tnittee on tbc reguLition of prostitution. who Or¡lUed b.tck in 1910 chat if exis1. lt cán be endcd by lows dire.:ted 10 cnding ¡:roup·bJsecl, iop-down
rroditional concepr of equali¡y that you use, and is commonly used iorer- all cu<romers-for insrance, because rhev wcrc concerned for soc1ery's ge11- social rcllltions. ending hierarchy on the basis of scx. No exceptions are
nattonaUy. may be difficult ro imagme 6ráng ·wirh the harms described. eral well-bcing-suspended 1heir rclanons with prostiruted women, the needed to pursue this rule. Consiscem with de1•elopments in intemaáonal
Thc reccived norion of equality in Sweden 1s. to the extem one is the same. social insarotlon of prostiroaon would ccase 10 cxisL" This repon noticcd hiw, this concepc has beco adopced in Canada as the imerpretaáon of the
one is cnútled w cqual rrcaancnt. lf womcn are like meo, they can be that prosmunon-of which pornograpby is a form-is supplied beciuse new Cwiadtan Charter of Rtghrs aod Freedon1s," mspired in pan by the
Lrc.itcd ~ wcll :is meo. Tllli tmd11ional notion of cquahty <loes not ask why it as dt!m~nded. Ali is oot equal ouc théte. The traffic is pullc:d by men. Swedish modeL In tlus upproach, equali1y is promoted when less fooorable
mcn do not bo\·c to be the '''"'" os anyboJy cxccpt onc anmhcr to be thc dcmand, nen 1>11sheJ by women, the supply. Rc.Jiry ha:; boen rccog tret11men1-suborJination-bnseJ on sex is cnde<l. Becausc pomogrophy
trcotcd os equals or why women ore rcg.¡rded :u 1he ones who are differcn1 nized: meo's <k"n'lanc.I creures prosmuúon. If mcn did nut buy pro.u1u1es, is o pract1t't" oí ¡¡cn,k-r ineqwJny, injuring imd cxploiang women becuuse
irom meo, Men are jusi as different from womcn-equ.Uy different, lt thcre w1)ultl be no prosmuaon, ond if 1here w.1s no prosritution, 1herc they are womcn, ending ir promo1cs equulity. This is 1he no1ion of equaliLy
docs not ask why the consequences of 1har equal difference are nor the woultl bc no pomo¡¡n1pby. Women ha>'e ro sell sex hecause mcn wan1 to mobilized in the work of ROKS'º (thc National Orgnnwuion for Womcn"s
s-ame. and are worst" for \vomcn rhan for meo. buy it. Beoause this is not a symmerrical world, tt cloes not caJl ior a Shehers in Swedenl and che other Swedish organizations 1hat pursue
Standard equalicy law is most at home at work. where the coorribution S}inmetncal le¡¡al solution. It is ao unequal world and cal4 for a law againsc equaliry for womcn.
of the sexes is most likdy to be scen as tl1e same and valueJ accordmg to tbc men usmg the women. nor Jg•inst the womm being uscd. This is not only a political approach but also • legal ooe. lm~ine a
ú gcnder-neu1ral work proJucr. Libor is .liso a place whcrc mcn c.•pcncnct: While thc repon m<tkes Vl\idly vasibk: men's violc:nce against womcn 10 wonw1 is raped and therc is a hiw ~gamst lt, bu1 thar law doe> no1 envision
inequ.Uny. so inequ~liry on v•rious >eb1trary growub is more likdy 10 be prosutuuon -1he subsiancc 1>1 gendercd inequ.illty, mt,,,'s pornogr»phy thc way the woman wa~ mped. Imagine rhere 1> a law ogalnst bauering,
proh1b1tcd 1hcte, if anywhcre, bccau~c men undcrs1•nd 11 thcre. if Jny· us pl11ycd out in womcnºs world-it nusses 1hat pro<iitut1on IS .1muttcr of bu1 thc police do no1 cnforce 11, lnrnginc i·ou ha\"C u guarJnttt of >ex
whcre Bu1 che ide• oí cquality rcmuins the male smndard: ií mcn don °1 ••>< iMqu.1litv for prc'<:•sdy this rea<on H•ving C..ced the vicious realitv of equality ut work, bu1 1here is no law •gains1 being sexuull)' h•rnssed there,
need n, 1>·omen don't ¡¡et it. Thc Swcdish Consutution hBS improved on rhc •Ítuatinn, Md thiu it cannor be (1ddre<sed by lookin¡z n1 1he women so your economic surviv•I can still depend on bein1t sexuallv ovnilahle, 11.nd
thas notion ro sorne extent: "No law may unply che discrimirutrion of noy alone, 1he repon goe• off the raíls by not ~eem¡¡ beyond tbe convenaonal me law docs noc reco¡¡nize itas sex discnmination. You do not need much
citi2en on accounr of his sex uoless die relevam provision forms pan of equaliry model. For example, ir regards crimmaliúng only the cus1omers imagmarioo, do you? Women ottd dfectivc: legal guarante\!S oí personal
efforts to bang •bout equalicy· berween meo and women. '•• Sorne steps ro
102 • Slruggles •1th10 Slates O• Se> aod Vool•nce JOJ 11)4

..,curuy ami scxwl 1niegrlty to h.ivc equal11y Thc Sw~ilish Consmucion 1h<'fl1. lt mJk'"' each woman into • potenLial rcpresent11U\'C for .U u·omcn . se~u•I \IOlen<.'C. h> lcgiumacy is a form of pou·cr in usclf. Anyt1n<! who
aJdrC>se> the bw h h.1s .1 rcqulrcmcnr of sex cqL1ality \Phrff tt vour f~g11f c1npo\\·~ring euch \\"dm.tn who can prov~ harm to ncr fnr "-·anlcn .as <uch want• 10 .rop oomcthin~ cannor j¡inorc Liw's abilnv to do notlung whtle
r.¡1111/11.1' L• it in your l•w of mpc? b.mering? workpl.1cc discrimin.. uon? unJer law. lnokin¡¡ likc il i~ doin¡; 'Vmc1hsn¡i How do people plan 10 srop pornog·
pros1irurion? 1f you iniroduce rhis law. it is uncle>ir whar "íll h.1ppen. You will be roph)' \vithout 1he force of l•w> Why is it rhar when women u"1o are hun
ls yoor legal equalny pnnciple alive in )'Ollr lnw of porn~raphy? The told a 101 of lies Jbou1 how pornography does no1 do any hurm, w•hen in d=and redress from thé si.ate. <.'\·cryonc sudclcnly disco•-ers the limits of
Swedish law ol pomo¡¡raphy, w1th respect, is clie wrong law. li is not based facr it docs and the "'idence shows rha1 tt does. But you have ulreadv the law•? \X'hy is 11 that whdl we ask u to do somcthing for us "" are
oo 1he realny 11 proh1bus. and even the J.aw you have JS noi enforced. You probably beard thesc lies, and you know thar i1 produces these burros. You lectured on our lndh1tlual. responSJbiliry 10 Stop rapists and how tb" law
have n law agamst Sé.xual violence 1t1 pomography, and you aresurrounded will be colJ thm pomograph} 1s sp<ccb nnd thus must be presen·ed, and re:tll¡-, sacll¡. can only do so much? \\('orking "ith law 1s an unpro,•emcnt
by s..xu:tl \'1olent'e in pornograph). Notlung is done abow it. lt scems that tha1 b) comparison, women's lives do not mJner. Sw«Li"1 l•u· is begiMing on '10ldlce. if not b¡ much.
thc mo>t thc outhonUC$ cun cvcn colll!ider Jddressing legally lltC thc c.11· w gct u 118111 oa thU quest1on. In tbc law of Swcdcn, Jcpic1ions of sexual M>1vbc thc Liw would be les. lunited JJl our hands than it has been in
won., which llfe bud cnough, but no llesh-.10d-blood "·ornen •re immc· violcnce, chUd pomography. ¡¡roup defam•tion, and 01hcrs urc lis1eJ "' thcir.. lf onc cmisions tumin¡¡ 11round 1hc ennre Swetlish s1a1e to Stop
diarely abused to muke chem, which mnkes • mueh le>s real case-almost "offenses ogllins1 freedom of speech" mther rhun free speech ;cscJf Tn thc pomn¡¡ruphy af1cr rwt:nty years oí •aturnrion. thar poses d:oe limits of law.
so to spe<lk, a canoon case. A law against sc.-.ual lurassmen1 has beco United States, it is the laws a¡r.iinsr rhese pracúces tbat are c0mmonly But if you imagine the law in the hands of several million women acúng
recommended and hopefully •11;i.ll soon cxiSt," bw no law addresses the 1ermed o!renses against freedom of speech" Laws rha1 resrrict this craf· againsr their own onjurics on their own behalf, more is pOS$ible. Thc mee
harms of pomogrnphy. lidong LO sexual violauon may be decried as offe11ses a~ainsl freedom of does nt:e<l to !l'VC women this law. The ~wedish sr.ace, the beacon o! affu-
Your luw ag;iinst pomography dOeS not promote sex equality. To mllke speecb." .Bu1 rhose rhings thélllSdves-the pomography. the defamacion- mati\'c go..ernmerual eoncern m tbc wenem world. hopefuUy does not
it possible for Swedish womcn tó ad<lre•> the harms of pornograph)• woukl are no1 even im;l!Jllloble therc as offenses againsl freedom of sr>eech. intcnd to ruro us bnclt on Swedish women 111 th1s respec1.
implemcnt the COMutuuonal l't!quirenlC!lll of cqunl laws. 11 woul<l funher Swcdisb law recognízes 1hese ming• for wh.u they ure. Bc:causc il <ilences Perhaps 1t á ume for thc Su•cdish cxrui1ple ro 1he world 10 bear the
Swcdcn.. 1nrcm11tional humnn right> con1mitmC!lll$. conventions under womcn, porno¡:raph,· by our definltion belong.< un 1h;1 li<1 n1"rk!i of thc paín of Swalish womcn, nntl of cl1cir ·~•lidanty with wamcn
which M:>->pecific abuses are beginnin¡; 10 be recognized as sex inequalicy lf yt>u do nn1 1ntrnduc;e rhis law, what will happen is dC11r. There will here ;ond 1hrou¡¡hom the world. with the bauered women who Me thoo,e
violarions. lntcrnational law has ret to realize pomo¡¡rnphy's pl•ce in 1his, be no real scx equaliry as long as pomo¡¡ruphy satura tes )'Our sociecy. Rape sh:idows walkin¡¡ pas1 the windows in the Women's House, where we ha•·c
but Swe<len could exercise n:s tradicional world leadership role in this area. and bauery will incrcase, and reporting of 1hem mar decrease as dese:nsi· nnly to see 1he pomography to imagine t.be eleccric sbocks, the dogs, and
UnUke your pomography law, ours is civtl. not criminal. This is crucial tizaoon to sexual abuse and women's pe«:eprion thu1 they will not be the beuan¡¡s cbar pu< t.bem mere. Sohdamy with the woman rapa! tn the
Your current law agaiosr spreading depicrions of sexual ,;oJencc is a good responded ro if rhey rcport oncr~.ise. As the real rape race nses. tf 1c 1s subwav wh1le a hundred people ·watched, as the} \l'atch tn the pomog-
cxample o{ how criminal laws agruns1 pornogruphy tend to funtuon. nooced or repotted at .U, ll will be mirumized as an mercase in reponing raphy. Ancl solidarity with Cacrine da Cosw, who was prosútuted anti
Nothing hap¡~n>. Those wirh power can act ag;iinst ll; they \lo not "aru Wdl. suppose therc u •¡us1· an iaerease in reporting. Now ¡·ou kno\\ hov. di.smcmbcreJ, whose lifc w11s pomogruphy, wbose death was poroog-
101 so they don ·1. A civil In", womcn kccp in our own hnnds h empower1 much rupe thcrc has bcen al! ulong. Why 1s • cunsuint b·cl of r•pc ne· ruphy 1• You can .i.tnd with 1hcse women. \\'e hoJlC' you wil1
wc¡mcn to •et wi1h >tole suppon. 11s if our livcs are •t srake hcre. whkh ccp<Jblc, cause for wony only ií ll increases? Then we find tlw 1hc con·
thcy are. As if we ore the on"" who nccd to ucr, as we do. As if we know smm leve! is twice what it was rhoughr ro be. Why is no one worried>
bow to do it. and we do. and they don'r. Women would 110 to civil cou:n Policical acrion against ali of this is crucial and must be coounued But
when we decide to go. Not lirst the poUce. then a prosecutor. theo tbe law is pollllcs by other means. \Y/e ure told 10 use educa.non. aot law;
ornbudsman 10 get the pollee aod the prosecuror 1ct do whac they were change aul!udes. T ranslatioa: li:t mea conanue 10 enjoy rhemselves abusing
supposed 10 do and tlon'1. antl theo me ombudsmao Joeso'r ms.ke r:hem w~en wí1h unpun11y wbtle u•t try to make them tlunk better thoughts.
do 1t cithet. \Vle Jan '1 need their permission. Women who ure coerced c.on U ¡ou m Sweden figure out how to •rguc with un orgJsm beuer than "º
use 1he couns to light 1he pimps who cocr<cJ 1hem; women tJn wc rhc hJve ín tM United Srn1es, pleasc !et us know. TI1cre;,. Utt.lo a. cd11c.umnal
mcn whl:' forccd pnmogrnphy on dicm, 1he mcn who ll•>.mlted cl1cm be •s knowing you u·iUbe n 1ed, and lmlc thut e..lucures pcople 10 the mcunmg
c.1use of pomn¡;raphy. Women can brin~ • lc~;1] .iction OJ111ins1 the por of bigotry bener 1han civil liabili1y for dhcrirninntion.
no¡¡ruphcrs who moke, and unyone who sells nr exhibits or discribute$. rhe The 'ª"'· as you knou', as all women knów, is not ou rs. le is rreacherous.
ma1erials char 6c our deíinruon. showin¡¡ u subordmates women and stop Ir is slow. lt also should nor be Jet off the book. lt promJses you equali¡y.
them. Any one ot you rould go to civil coun and get an arder 10 s1op Ger it. lt "' too powerful 10 be igoored. ir says ot is dosng someduog abour
106 • Sflue&lu w1th1• $tates Eqnllty Remide 107

11 s:uncnes> ""J J1ffcrcnte l:qúuluy "' b:is1c•lly c4uiv.tlon1 to samon=. \l1th


diffcrcn<t:, wh,.,, unJcni,1blc, brinping up 1hc renr. In this fnuncwork,
w.is "JcJem d3S Seine" =blazooed ovcr a coocentnmon camp "To cach
what tbcy dcset'\'c. • As you are,'º you are 1re<11ed. Thc d1fferen1 >re 1rca1cJ
Equality Remade womcn cloimin11 e<¡"alin h•vc 11r11UeJ 1hat '"" •re 1he snme u men when J1ffcrcndy· extermuiared. Aris101clliin cqu,11iry is saa>fied. Of cour«, thc~e
\l"C." can. Jod difforem from men when uoe can'1. men's equais because we rcsuhs m bot h Europe .1nd rhr UnimJ Srntes hove bcen rtpudi.ued, bm
Violence Againsr Women are !he same, enmled m compensa1ion when \\'e are differem 1 Thac prcg- 1he « ¡uality lo¡¡jc 1ha1 <UStamcd them h:u no1 been Thi• is an Jpproach
IWlt')' benefits are tenned ·posim·e dtscriminaoon"' m Europe, for ex- rhar secks to h•ve law mirror lile: likes in life trei11ed as likes in iaw, unhkes
ample. cfossilies them ,¡s Jiscriminaüon but of an aeceptable son. in lifc rreared as unlikes in law But what if social life is unequal? Legal
fbe goal of legal equ~lny eampn1~ns lor U'Omcn has been 10 secure equalicy 1hcn becomcS a fom1ula for remlorcing. ma1mifyin¡t, and n¡ndi-
cquitln¡ on the>e 1enm. Thc cqu"lny concep1 iisdf has nlm0>1 ncvcr becn l}ing thc .soruJ mcquahties ic purpons to be <:<¡ualizmg ond m1gh1 havc
qucsuoncJ Thc dose<11 10 u cr111quc hos bccn thc cultuml fcmin1>1 pro1es1 rcculicJ.
1h•1 wom•n" diffcn:ncc ,Jioultl be seen os a goo<l thin~. no1 a bnd thing Cons1s1em w1th thts logtc unJ ht>wry. mlbSivc rns1iiuuom of sci<-based
But the samenewdifferenre nation :is funda.mental to equaliry has rr- d1Spari1¡ like sexual vi<•lencc are seldom nddressed b) equaltty L1w-typ
Equality IJWlranlttS are ev~rywhert, bur nowhere is there equality. Eqmtlicy maincd in piare. icully only when • focial sex-based disúnetion is maJe, usuall•· one 1ha1
oo the basis of sex is widely guaramecd-m Ausma and other European Missing m how Ariscode's theory has devdoped unJer law over ttme is dislldvnnta¡¡es men. 7 se.~ual violence seem• as<imilured ro che dtfferencc
countties, io !he Uruted States, in sorne rcgions, and mr~oatio.oally--bu1 an accouot o[ th~ onginal disn:ibuaon o( goods accordiog m parocular berween thc se.xes. so a woman is not coosidered creaied uncqually wheo
wome11 are unequal to men in ali ihcSc places both undcr i•w and in ti.fe. troics, o thc<m ol the social creation of dtfí<"tellce, o craneal •wareness ol she IS sexually •'Íctimized. jusc rreated differently for her d1ffcrenct$. Sexual
This disp:uit)' between principie and n'1illty is promored by equnlity's ttn the Wú} 01111bucion of dtffercoce can suppon sysrcmalical.ly worsc 1rca1- a>.Sáult rs seeo as ine-itable. The foc1 iha1 womcn Are ¡¡cncrally vicum12éd
di1lonal logic, partícularly as opplic<l to violcnce "l!•inst woml!n. mem, on under;;1anding of 1hc st.tndard against wlnch Jnrthm¡¡ else is aoJ meo generally perpetrate is nQt constdered sub¡ect 10 cqualmmon.
Equ•liry is thr dcmocrnric norm for l<tw. Formally, i1 i$ central 10 the deemcd Jifferent, hencc les., os bcinR o •trnlegy far social dominance J \X'heo \l'Omen are ircaied "diffcrcnrly" from mtlll. Crom .$<!xulJI obJcctifi
nde or l•w as ruch; law's ;ippiia nion is supposed to depend on whut people ª'
¡¡rosp of 1he resuhin¡: sy<1em reproducin¡¡ social supeñoñty ond inferi- ca11on 10 sexual murdcr. the U'aditioruil cqualicy rule is no1 seen as vmi•ted
do, 001 oo who they are. In posicíve law worldwíde--intemarional, con- ority. and any conception of the foa that those who set rhe dominam becuusc thc Jis1inction made by 1he practicc ñis 1he empiñcal dcfinition
siicuüonal, and smrutoiy-cquality is also a leya) domine. Funher. it is a standard presumpth-ely !!•• firs•·class rreatmen1 wiihout havin¡¡ to be !he of thc p;roup. \Vomen being delined a< rapl1ble, rapin~ 1hem doesn't ,.¡olatc
rwi.sprudence. a pohcy nonn for law's .rdanon to society, l'\·en wben re is ;-ame <IS anyone. Pclnctple. m dus approach. has been delined as i¡¡nonng tht:m; ir mereh trears 1hem as women: unlikes unalike.
not doarioally ÍO\'oked. Pa.ralleling thc'SC ilimrnsions. t brs r.alk is dt'~ded "·bciher J ¡vven ¡!toup begms or cnds brtter or worse ofl. lfimed "neu- Embodied ~ the law of t:hemale state, this equality intrrpre1atioo builds
tmlir~." Cruci.tll) as opplieJ ro sex, ihe wors1 inequalitic-s of women os a
0
mro thrce puns. Equali1y oiade" crltic.-.ill} Jc.sc.nbo t.hc trod1tionul ap· aotidemocraüc noons imo the very docuin•s ihat most prombe democ-
proueh "Equ•liry rcnrnde" rcframcs equalit} '"th women's incqw1lity pri· gro11p, such •< l~ck of a¡u.J pay for <ex-<e¡;r<;¡¡~tcJ work of comparable rlcy. A1 the oucsei. 'J pcrcem of thc popul.Uon or so" largdy dfeccivel>
m•rily in mind. "E<ruolit)' rcvisioncd • linds sex equality bcginning lt> valut and tht faUuro of cqual prmtcuon of t.hc fow for crimco of géndcrcd excludcd !rom 1h1s a¡u.iliry. plU> mcn uncqual on tbc b.ms oí thetr race,
emerge as a \l'Orldwldc jurisprudemial movemen1, onimaung social chan¡¡c m>k·rK-c becomc unrccol(nizable JS se• incqualides bccausc they Jre ethn1ei1y, rdi¡?ion. nnd ><:xuality, plus dass, and ali chaidrcn are cx<ludod
for women a1 the point wherc law nnd socíecy imeracr. mer¡ted with 1he sex Jifference. Treatin11 such siruations less wclJ becomes ;, wdl Add<.-d 1ogeihcr equaliry b\\· buiids m trenring ·diffcrendy," in
In what has become a1 once the common seose a.od common law of treanng unalikes unalike. bence equal. cluding worse maybe nine-temhs of humanicy. The lc~al cqunliry priociplc
cquaHty, Arisrotle ddined equality as trcating hkes alike and unlikes un- Tlus equ•litY logic has descended tn an unbroken line from Arrstotle is <aid ro be satisfied when permanem undcrclasses are b6n¡i m.1.intained
.Jtke. Trcating those who are the same the same, firs1-dass cquaiity m chis througb 1he .Enh¡¡hcenmem rrad1rlons of EnPish and r rench ~berali.sm cha< h is an exrremel'( sman trick.
approach, 1s termcd genJ~ nruu'llii.I)· for sex, colorblmdness for roce. hs gavc birth 10 httmJO righis, 10 the sLwe lml's and legalized mcial segrc¡¡anon A wocldwíck ~ovemmt of womcn movin¡t •!l•iost theu dcterminants IS
sccondary rule, accompa1ucd by nn aur• uf iofononty, trcats difforently in rhc Unitcd 'irn1es, to rhc Tlurd Rcicb, to the libera1ocy movcmcms of remaktng equallty. ln us pracucc. >CXual violénce is recog.oued as ceottal
!hose seen os diffcrcn1; it is 1ypic0Uy termed "spccial bcnefics" or "spedal 1hc 1960., arriling fun<i•menrnlly unchJn¡;cd in rhe cquJlit~ J,w of Europc' 10 our mcquahty. Tboo m1sogyny UDl.llUlÍog ;,ex u.ti \10lcncc i> re<."Ogmzed"'
prote<;tion • Legal equalily hu• acrordin¡ily revolved around nrgumen1> oí unJ 1he Unnc-d StJte> 1ooa~. ~fotoricnlly, 1hi; •ppr.:iAch ha~ mionaliied a mamspring oí tbc mcqualit) on thc b...,, of scx tlw dc,;tt0ys our !J,,.es
SC}\regaiion in the United S'rn1c:s <>n !he ..-iew ihul Bliick people are "dif- in rc11luy. The movemcnt ·~•inst 1his nbu~c is no1 •bs1ruct or universal in
Thl• wlk Wil' ~kh'<lcm.I •1 tht 1'01 dx 'X'c.-1 Co11fcrt"" 'J'1<>nt0ml l'Y lhC' r\uurl•n l ~rJ.:r.S
íerem" from wbüe people, claiming equal bu1 separ:11e IS equal.1 The Th1rd th" usual •cose: it i• everywhtrc bul con4're1e 1od al"·ays social!'' specific
\1inuuy of \\"omca's Aífat:tS and 1ht- fe'\kttl Ch.ncdkn m \'imDI, Novmibcr 1*-lS, 1992. •nd Reicb adopted the same approach. treatin¡i "ooo-Aryans" differend)• from wi1hin the culrure uith which women idenrify. Women's divemt\' is ex
ori,8iNll~ pubb:sbedm Tw ~ Wm ~11;k, °""'1t><r11C) •nJ \ roiA«tVk'Dua. t99·U~
1
• Ary•ns • oo !he bJs1s ol d1ei.r 'dJJfereoce. • One chillin~ emblem of ih1s 0'3ordinary: yet C\'erywhere, alwars in socially particular ways, wonx:n are
10~
108 • St1uu1es "'th11 States Eq .. hty Remide • 109 110 S1reu1u wt1h1n Shtes

iound 10 be bclow some men.• lbe equaliry ol Uu.> mO\emcm is not prcm· social equalicy. sponraneous and mdigeoous across cultun!S. offcrs • prio· that u is seen no looger as scmply hou• men behave 1oward womcn. but as
1sed on belll¡z tho snme as mm. bue 011 endm¡¡ v1oln1ion unJ abuse and aplcd bastS Cor a posmve equalicy. h:s prinapks mduJc: il mm Jo 001 a torrn ol sex Jiscnmmation." Pregnanq beocfits thaLwcre not paJJ undcr
scconJ ·cli1'$ ciutt.-n~hip becJusc onc is a ''"º"¡,1n. Jo it to coch other, the)' cannot Jo ÍI to us, .u1d endm¡¡ the >ubordlllauon thc m1d1uc-nal eq111aluy •ppm.ch-no rcgulul' d1s.ibility bencfits bcC11usc
In 1h" movt'ment, Afncan vmmcn opro«: clnoritlectomy •nd in~hula oí \\"Otnen becJusc voe are \\t.lmen. P'<'llD.tnC)'w11, t1ot • regular c.l~Jbt!it) , <mJ no prcgnanq benefits IJccausc
1ion Philippine and Thai •nd Jupunese anJ Swedish u·omen or¡znruze Tn \V'On1c..-n's cxpcticncc, sexual vio1cncc LS central ro gen\kr ancqualrty. thcy <liffcrent"1ted on 1he bJSi• <>Í sex-ure now required To ,lo othennse
agillnS1 the m1emotionol sex tn1dc. \'\'e>mcn in Papu<& New Gumea and nót oui<iJe i1 or a subdtvision of gcnder-neutrul violcncc 1ho1 just hnppens cli>udvannlj!cs women b«nuse they are women" LF.J\f •lso orgued 1h111
women who work for thc Unitcd Nations resist seJ<ual harnssmenr Brn· to lut women And sexual violence is sexual. Thc C\·Cr\'doy sexuali"· of crinunolt.Zinp, pomo~mphy because i1 is offeosive or disgu¡ring or lmmoml
zilian and lrnlian womcn proccst domestic banery ®d honor •s • m•le masculinit)· and femininiry eldsrs on a conrmuum with che BAAression thac '~olares rtghts of freedom of el(pressíon. bur s1oppin¡¡ it beamse pomo11·
excuse Cor kilhng thCJtL lndian women prote.L dowry and >Ullee ns a malc becomes violencc~ againsr \\'Ornen that is e.xprcssed in rape, sexual. h.arass- r:ipby h.arms \\'Omen is consrirurional on sex equalny ground.. The mjurie.
excuse fo1· ltilhng 1hem, Cnnadum womcn pro1cs1 the use of fem1msm as ment, sexual abuse of chlldr~. prosntution, bouering, pomography, wd it does IO womeo-the rapes. che sexual hara.<smcru, Lhc baucring, thc
o malc excuse for killmg them Americnn womcn protcst dumestic baUCI') sexual murder around the world . sexual Jbuse ol chiJdren. thc pro•titution thuL are rcquirL.J to mak<' it anti
.1nd n11n,1mic ]ove u• ,¡ mnle ex.use for killmR thcm \'\lomen e-·e"whcre Legal cqunh1y 1heary 1s emerging from this work In onc pince: CmaJn aro nccc:ssary CQl'S<:(Juences of its usc-make criminilll21ng iLconslitutional
ri~c up ai:ainsc rape, cv''" in cultures in whkh wc are 1old it doe.. nm exis1 Cquat.q rcnrndc 111 CanucLi imcrpwcs the consucuriooul cquulicy lll•nd.1Le The Suprcmc Coun oí CunaJ• o¡¡reeJ, upholJing the provision ng;iinst il
or is rurc, rulrures in which \\'Ornen uncil rcccntly have bttn regarJed as in li~h1 of histoncal rcality. Tu., Supreme ('.oun of O.nada asse1ses lc~is· on on cxplicit sex equality mtionalc.1'
chaucl c>r are snll defined as se,'Ual objecrs. Forettl motherhood is opposed larion, poliC)•, ond official proctice in social context with the 11001 <>Í clirn 1n Canada, as equali1 y is becomin1t a robusr docrrinc. i1is also becommg.
írom lreland 10 Gem¡any ro Ban¡zladcsh. Fcmale infancicide and objecu- inacing grou1>-based •ocial dkadvanta¡te.'" &¡ualiry law's acüve role in so- more broaclly. a jurisprudence. &¡ualiiy is being reenvisioned. LE/IF ar·
fymg ad•enis1ng are denounced ond legisl:ttcd againsr en lnJ1a. \\ºornen 10 cial change is chus pan of conStirutional doctrine. Tbe C:madian approach gued tbar giving meo power to veto women's abonions violares women's
the Uruted Sraies. Scandma.fo. the Uruced Kingdom, and tbe Philippmes requires rhar laws promote equality 10 bé consutuúo"al: go forward. not equality righ1s'' and th.at "Ieral rigbcs" sbould be women's rights. 1• The
rcsist porne>gr>1pby.• just >it here aod rellect extSting tnoqualiti.:s. Once social reulny comex- Coutt agre.ed with the resulcs without using seJ< cquality logie cxpLiotly.
Thts mo\"cmcnt Jnei; nmic<' 1h.i mcn ure no1 usu.ill)' treatcd in thcse tuuhzes the calculus, gcnJcr neutr.J law• may promoti: ineqwliry. !'un.her. We Jrgued that the stnru1e of liJnualioos íor ine<:St \\'dS too short because
"'""' Mcn Jo no1 hiwc ¡i.1soline 1hrown on them nnd lit ond hove it cnllcd 1f luw ctther promoles iuequality or eqwliLy, wh1ch tS it doing 111 on uncquul it d1d not rccognize the reulincs that vtctims of scxunl nbuse focc. The
n kicchen accident Mc:n Jo not hn\'e 1heir 11enitals sliced up and tom a¡><1n sociery if i1 is dom¡¡ nothing? Once th1s lcver is lnsertcd, che mc-unrnin l.oun rulc.J that the rcquircd umc for brin¡<in¡t that legal claim runs írom
so mar HTV is e-~ more likelv and imercourse is excruciating or pl~s­ moves. che time you know thar he did i1 to you.17 How simple: Your ri11h1s da1e
ureless. But t.hts. does .not Lmit ;_,ornen to unmmng men. No on" dcmands The Supreme Courr of Canada has recognizcd that to promote equaliry from the moment ir is real to you that yoo ha•...- them. Anoiber case rec-
the equal n¡:ht to co\'er men wuh gasoline <md Lip;ht n. Pu1 conceptually, rcquires prornoting a sociery in which alJ are recognized as ha.,.ing equal ojlllizes the reality of batterin11 in marriage from women's point of view.
women everywhere appreci.lte that dúfercnce ttselí <loes not mtrui bemg human d i¡utiry, rcsources, and acccss to social power. lr chus '"has a large ~ain wirhout sex tqualtty docuioe cxplicitly." Another upbolds a publi-
$<'.conJ.cluss. lmposl.'d infenonty does. Th1s rnO\"Cment shows a kcen sense rcmcd1.J component":" ofttn,somethU1g has IO change for a consriruuonal caúan ban on the namc'S oí victin1s of sexual asSllult, solving • problem
thJt <oc1.J.ly organizcJ dominoncc is 1hc problc=ni •s wdl as cnuazes it> equ.illty mandnte to be correctly mtcrpreted. C.U1adlans tlo not J i,•itle uf· c.xpascd b¡ J criuque of se.-. lnequalny but ool U>IDg scx cqu.Uity doctrine
excesses. \'romen e\'eryu·herc reulize boch that mcn huvc too mucli po"·er firmau'" nctJon úom 110od1scrinunauoo; 11 is JJl one 1h1ng. To cnd dis tn udJ=s ll C.\pressly." Anothcr e.se takcs utequality in the wsucuuon of
anJ thnt power i• based on rh~ wron111hin¡¡s. or¡:.1nizcd in the wmn~ ways crimmation. pcomote equolny m soc101y; it 1s thnt >imple Fundamcn1alJy. mumuge in10 •ccoum in ollocacing spousal bendi1s on dissoluuon u<ithou1
Women wum pC>Wer redistributcd as it is ~dined-rcdism1m1ed ro rhis approach reco¡;ni7.es that social inequ.11ity exists and sets out to chanAe c•lling thc problem • sex inequali¡y rirnblem or gÍ\'Ín g womcn sex equoliil'
\\"Ornen as tt 1s redelined so thot someone ts noL al"IX-'ays above someone 11. Sometimes 1his 1okes diffcrcntiarion. someti1nes reco11núion of sameoess. ri~hrs.~ The new equnlity loRic als<> serured relief for u woman kept Jd
else, m an 3rranJ.temrm at once íorced and sexuahzed. defuung who cm but who is bein~ hun and how is always noticed wd pu1 in bistoncal. dkted ro drn¡tS in excha11~e for having sex wirh her doctor. The rraditional
do tha1 as a mm and a supertor being. context. The point is to eliminate che inequaluy o( lustorjcally disad•-an· common law appr011ch held it her fuuh bec'•use sht wem along witb lt.
from thts -.·urk h.ts come a concept of cguJfü)• ib l•ck ol hierarchy tagetl groups. \Xlho people are and how they bave beeo treatcd, who bas Thc Coun •Areed "'th LLAFs analys1s that the powcr rclntioosblp be-
r.uhcr thJn s:imcness or Jiffacncc. in u rchnt\.lc universn1uy th•lt ~mbn1co bcen ndvanrngeJ ut whose expense-ugain. concex1-is kcy 10 thc tloc- twc'Cll thc malc doctor and thc lemnlc paut:nt hacJ bc'Cll exploireJ anti WltS
n11hor thnn d1mJnu1e. or Jo,cb pani<ulnnty. A rcfu•al 10 ~ttlc íor .1ny1hinp 1.nnc. Ulcg.il.
1"'5 thon a sin11lt stand~rd of human di11mry •nd entitlement comhines ln work with 1hc Conudian ¡¡roup W<>men's l...:g.U Educadon 1md Acuon GrntiÍyiug as u is 10 w111, 11 woultl lx beuer tf ch.,,., •"lctoric. were
here wuh • demand that the sm11lc stand.uds themselves be equ.Jizcd Ali Fund CLD\ Fl, which argucd tlus op¡•roach to the Supremo Coun oí grounded on scx cqu.1li1y ri¡¡hl'I exprcssly, rnther thnn 1reaun11 cqu.!il} .1s
chis lcJ1vel< An.<totlc 1n thc dus1 The scope and depch of rh1s upmm¡i for C•nnda. equali¡y principies hO\'e beeo e"«ended to sexual hurassment. so one more ~ood iJea Good ide.ts ollow those \\•th powcr 10 pick JOd
Equ1l1ry Remide • 111 Porno1rap~y·s E111p11e 113

chlX'Sc whcn 1hei· will be <eCOj(llized and when not Women's expericnce
wirh this has not been good. Rí¡¡hts (lÍ\'e rou more cntulemem ro stand
12 approach c:nforces morals. In pract1ce. tt prohíb11s dep1ctions of sex t:hac
some meo find offensive-tbat is, tbe puhlic showm¡t of scx that some roen
on. One wonders what it means tha1 • body of hiw i> b=g bwlr tbat Pornograpby's Empire wam to SJY the) do not want otba mcn to stt. lt takes the vicw ih:u scx
promotes sex equafüy in reality ""'huut call1ng tl M:X cqwiliry by ru.mc. is cliny, women ~re dítty, and homosexwihty is batl-in othcr ""rJ.<, u
In any event, this le¡tll rhe<iry of cquality, th,: Jim to dllerge írom • tukes thc umc vicw of pomogn1phy that pornographi takes of scx. In t he
sub¡ccted ¡x:oplc. is m•king bw 111w a pot"'1tt:tlly acu'c 1001 for soci•I wakc of British coloniali~m. itS l<'Rfll lyi:tem colom2ing rhc ¡tlobe lonj! ;ftcr
chon¡¡c. lt confronts male suprema<)· in socieiy ,.;,h rhe democrotk tic Í!$ military h;s left. tbc obsceniry conccpt, ._,;¡h mínor local variations,
mand that lc~a1 instiiutions work for ali of ns. Based on gcrting cxisunl' woonds the legal approacb to pornQW11phy from India' nnd Austral.ia.• to
insúturions to face women's realtty, Ít olso potrntrolly rndistributes power che Unned S1a1es' and Ganada," to Kenya' and Zambia.• lt cares more
[rom tbe sme to women. One example ís the pomogrnphy ordinállce coo- abouc whemer men blusb thao whether women bleed. 1t is designed 'º
c-eh"C<f by Andrea Dworkin aad me that would allow bun womento hold suppress, not eradicate; does notbiog 10 hold pomographers accounwble
pomogrophers accoumable dircctly, r•tha thJlll rdyíng oo tbc: b!Jlte to takc 'X<'hcn tb~ Ilriúsb Empirc was a1 iis hdgh1, tt w•s said t:hat the sun """"' for promoting aggrcssion, bigotry, .u1d dtscrimioation; and cannot em
action thnr it \\'W oot takc ot doe:s not takc '.J set on Bríttsh soil. ToJay, thc sun """º' rises on tbe pomogropher>' ern· pow~r pomogrophy's ,;cLisns. \firtuc and vice i:are its roncems; wo1'Utn uoJ
Neme of this cxpresM:S faith in bw. [t ncts on detenmoauon 10 pursue pire, wh1ch Bn1ish-based laws help kcep in the dnrk. children are not
l•w's proinises anJ possibili1ics. Whcn ali 1he fonm of violencc •!t••n>t In n night thnt cncírdcs tbe ¡tlobe, somewhere on formcr ímpcrinl Tts hkelíhood of acrually doing anythíng •bout 1he índustry approaches
\\·omen in sociery, and impunity for it in l~u\ are rttt'>J:nizet.1 ~'s sex in ¡:rouod. women and childrcn are every moment beíng violated ro make zero, although what chese governmeots do about the pi:esenceandvisibiliry
cquality víolanons, law will he made new in womm's haads pornogr.iphy, bnnalized throuj!b íts consumprion, bou¡¡ht and sold m chis of pomography in che oame of obsceruty regularion varíes consider.ibly.
tecbnologícally soplusricated slave craffic. Because mcn en¡oy pomograpby The varlance seems to depend, amoog other dungs. upon cultural supports
sexually. because most of iis abuses occur in privatc. lx-cause tlS vicrims for 1ts supprcss1on, such as a sense tbat pornography undeanines cultural
are rcgardtd as socially wonhless, and bc<:ause pomogrnphy as oot scen as spedficity and tr11d111onal values: upoo tbe govemmcm 's pttccpuon thJt
an officilt! inva<ler áD<l occupier, idtnu!icd ""'h unothcr staLe, tbc pornog· us suppression it politicnlly uscful, JS in South Afrlca;" upon how dc1er-
rt1phcrs' cmpirc ls largely lnvisíblc. Societies kecp ít ip >hado,.'$; law lcavc> mincd the =sors are, which ebbs nnd íl0\\'1; 11 upon women's level oí
it b.?hind u veil, hcighteníng its d..irobiliry by periodic spasms of prohi rcsistance. which in sorne countries. such os lndía. hllS been substantinl~"
bítion. Yet any man who wom• it, \'Írtually onywhere, can get ir. Thc resulc upoa how detenníned rhe pomographer$' marketin11 srrategy 1s nnd
is that tbe pomographers, largdv or¡zanized crime, make off with immense wbetbcr they have goaeo tbere yet.U The publk l..gitimacy and '1Sible
profus-and tbe equaliry, freedom, and human digruiv of women tn tbe presente of pomo¡rrapby are ooly ooe level of iis in¡ury, 1he lcvel of ac-
process. knowlcdged public standards for womeo's crearmem. Addressin¡t íts pubbc
Bntish Jaw being one of tbe most durable fearures of i13 ero.pire, the v1s1bility, whích 1s tbc n>OS< obsccrury la"' does, does nothmg about the
closest tbe law of Common-alth countnc:. comes to addressing the nonns of 1ts production nntl rnnsumption. To tbc bc:st of my ínfonndlÍon,
proble.m oí pornograph)' 1s tbroug,h its adaptation> oí the English cornmon nou·herc tbnt pornograph) has once penetrated hos ít hL'CJ1 cffectively con
law of obsccmty. This is ""' "º'Y closc. The obscenitY,, upproach takes the 1rolled b)' obscenity law.•• fa-erywhere it hns cver becn, it thrives. etther
,;ew 1h11t thc hann of pomographi• is Íts tenckncy to • dcpra'"' nnd corrupt above¡;round or in a black market."
thosc whosc minds are open to such ímmoral iníluences aod into whose Tbe inadequacy of the law of obsceniry 10 address che harms of child
hands a publícauon of this son may foll." • Althougb exactly what ibis pomograpby has iatreasÍngly been recowuzed by Jaw, On me VICW tbat
means is uoclear l think it meaos that obsceruty scimulares men to mas- makm¡¡ sex pictures harms thc ch1ld 110d che distribuuoo exceods that
turb•te, talung chcm furcher from CoJ. In secular terms, the obscmity h11rm. '' Thc total ínndequacy of the obsccmry approacb to pomog,rapby's
hanns to womcn has virtually nevcr becn recol)nizc<l hy law. l 11din cnactc:d
tts lndecen1 R.prcscntnrioo of \'\lomen Act, which Jt 1• .,,t notíCC!i th•t
llus ulk..., rter«<d fCr 1he l\tndi An!l\lal c,,,.,.,.,.,..caJ,¡, Law Coofutn«:, Arnl lb-22, 1990,
AudJ..nd. Ncw ~4.nd. The ttSetn:h llSStmm« 01 t..mnd.a C....1cll.aoo ¡llt.tttfull) ~.f.
womcn ore affected, deíin~ women's incleceni represcnt.uion ª' <lcpictin¡¡
cda«l rhc figure or ª "l' pan of tbe womea'¡ form or bod)' when ir has the "effcct
112
111 • Suuutes w11~1n SI llu 116 • Slruures w•lh1n Sum

of bcin~ mtkc.:nt, or dr.,,~atol\ 10. '" denil(r.lllng womcn. or 1s ltkcly 10 meaos scxu:il pl~urc to J'omo~r•rhv'• e<.m-umers anJ ptobts to 11> pro- the umc rc.ilm u.<>mco d0<umc111eJ lrom hk pomoguph) mcreascs at·
Jc:-pra>e. wrrupt or mrurc thc pubh< mor.l11v or moralJ. ' \'('h.t1 ibou1 ' 1dcl'\. lar~d\ orit•nllcd rnmc But 10 tho'<' "ho are Clploucd, u meaos utuJes anJ llt"h.-11>11 ol ·~~"' >ktn anJ othcr J,,,cnnunauun by mcn
uirunng ""'ml-n" Cun.iJ• a l•hsccnll\' l•\\ h.11 come c.lOM:st to such a ro:· b,,1ng bound, b•ucrcJ, 1unu1cJ, h•r•;..,·J. u1x.J. anJ '"mcttnlC> lolkd. or áli!JIR-"lt '"om~·n \\'c.Hntn l('IJ ho\\ pornn~raphy v. as uM...J to break thcir
o,;nuat"ln Ponr•~i.tl~ c..t toc:'Xuill \:1olnlcc.- <1);.a.tnt.t u.·"'mcn cotn btt pan t'f what mcrdv humilutcJ, m1•l...,1cJ, uhJC"rnficJ, •nd ""'" li " Jt,nc l><-.:•usc 11e:lf Nt«m 10 1r11un thc,:m h' M."Xu.al ~uhm1J.s100. to ~ason tbcm to forccd
m•k..-. innal mattn•l• .J.-,.-mcJ lt¡tally obsccnc " Y et mu ch \"M>k"Oce l< IOror<>llr "ho ha< more rCl\l.•cr th.an th<'\ J,>. "'"""""" \\htl m•ltrr<, IOITlt· \CX tO lnllmtdotc thcm "Ul of r'h orr<>r1unmcs, to blackrnail them llltO
dooe 11> mokr romoµr•pliv 1hJ1 " not sh<""'O in 1hc m•tcrul"" and much <>ne 'mh n¡¡hi<, a ful! hum•n bctnit and ,, tull ctt!len, ¡:<1< p]ea,Utt fmm pro<tuunon •nd krt1' th.-m thett 10 lerr<>me and humíliatc them uno
v1olatK'n 1< done u a '"'"h "' thc coosumrnon of ma1erials thai do no1 stting 11, or doing 11, or l<ttlng 11 u a lorm o! domir 11 • h 1< dooe bccausc snual romrli•nc...., anJ to <tknce 1heu dMcnt ThC\ t<>ld of bein2 use<! to
t~h"' ,.¡,.,,. l¡!Rn"<IM b, COO>'CflUOnal <tandards. Acrual harm is he ,. ants 11 done In ordcr to m.tk.e wh.t1 thc con>umcr wams to see, u makc porno¡1rarhv unJC'I' ~mon. ol thc force that µ.e them no choice
stnctlv mdc>ant to 1h< swidud obsccnn~ •rproach. mak.Ín¡? 111m:nnsu:ally mll>l hr..t br Jan., to sornconc, u.,u.dJy a ""man. a \l."Om•n ,.,th ¡.,,.. real abow 'ieu111~ thc pomo;?rapby or pcr11>nrun¡: thc ...._..._ Tbcy to!J OO...
U1Ubk to n:m~.Jy the rc.J hum• of pon>Oltfapbi l'bcsc h111D> happcn 001 choi<o. M0s1 "ornen in pomo¡:rapb,, ti thc) ur not dm:ctl) .ibduacd. ('Om<\\:rtphy >11mul•tc• .mJ e<>ndona rape. b.tttef) , S<'llual har.w.mcnt ,
m thc mmJ but 1n thc ,.,,,!J, att m•ttcl'\ nOI t>I monlit)' bu1 ol º'il and .ue poor, &.pcr.tc, •Jdictcd to Jrugs. xxu.aJli Jbwal u ch1IJrcn, orare l<'Xual abuse ol duldttn •nJ lor<ed pn»utuuoo.
potittc..al :>l.iatm ,.nJ croumcnt. JnJ •r< mounl) Jc-)rw: 001 lO c.'Onsumc", moc:I chilJrcn U •pr.-...11'1¡1 rour lql> lor .1 camera " a u.»m.an'1 •utonomou. In 1h<1C hcann¡;s, "'"rnc:n and rmn spoltc in pubhc abou1 thc deva.1a111>~
of ,..¡,.,m •r• rmn hui 10 1h.- co1m11ncJ. mm1 o( "'h...., att woa><t1 Ob chC'ltel:. •• thc m\lh gon, ,..ooldn't )-otl 1hmk that 1hc "'""en ,.,1h thc 1mr.i<t P<•moi:r•rby had on their l"cs \X'omen •roke ol bemg cwrttJ
<C'Cfllty is ahout "'hat men 1hrnk of ....-x Pomo¡tr•rhy i.< ahou1 what men m<m choi= rat~r th>n thc Í<"U'C>t u.1th 1he mM rttrondmons ior au· mto scx 'I<> th.tt romo¡;rarh, could be maJc oí 11 Thq- •roke of bcin~
do lor <e"<. tonom\ rather than the lcatt, would be thc women ck-mir 11> r.pcJ l"'ttcmcJ on •rcufic J>O""'llflrh> tha1 wos resd ind rd'crrál to
,\Ion pomo¡miphy of aduh v.-omcn m thc ,.'Orfd tod.ay "produeál and In the hundrcds anJ hunJttds i-1 m~zmcs •nd r•mire< ond lilms and dun11¡1 1he r;¡~ or ttpcatcd ltke a mantr-• th~ut thc rapo:. ol bein¡:
dmnbutcd br or~an1:tt'd mm.-. .\luch i-f 11 comes from thc Urutcd !:>1.11es.'" ndcocassmes illld >0-c.allcJ b<>ok.i. that compo>e th" ,J._.., rr•dc. uome1ú turnn! O\er as the P"llcs ,..=turna! ovcr Th<ry spoke ot ln.'lJ!l! or v.'Orlung
althou~t. subst.mu.al amouni. a\.11Lablc 1n thc Commt'flu.nlth come al.so kgs ltt s¡>l.iycJ m po>lurcs ol ..:xu<&I >ubm1">Jon, dr>pla) , and •cce>s. \X'c m nc1~hborhoo..i> or t<ib >ttcs ••uuro.tcJ wuh pomograph, . A )Oung lll.1Jl
from Bntltn and Luropc.11 Concrctdy. the Jl<ln>"t!raph) tnJJic tS inu:grally are n.imed .tltcr mcn-. msult• 10 ¡>Jru o! our boda-. .nJ m.icJ \mh an1 •rokc ol ~row1n~ up !!•V. lc.immg from bctcroscxual pomography rhat to
conn<-.:tcJ v.1th 1ralfíckm~ ¡.,, mtcm2tinn.tl pr0>utuuon of both 1>omcn m.1!. We are hung hke mcat ChilJr.:n are rrc><ntcJ a. uJul1 w"men: •J1d1 \,., l""cJ b) ,, m•n mc•nt to ot.cpt hu Vtt>lcncc. nnJ u • re-ul1 •cccpunp
,1nJ dulJrcn 11 Amcncan. Brru•h. anJ Luropc.m 1><>rno11raphc"' also pro· v.·omcn •tt pmcn1cJ "' ch1IJ...,n. fu.m¡i th~ \'\1lncrab1l11y of 11 chiltl v.·11h thc <k•tnt<llVC hn111l11v of h" lmt m.Jc lovcr AMther >Otlll~ man spokc
Ju« pom<'¡¡rn¡>hy tn thc rnuntn<'• <'Í ·•le (a•y Au.trnli•I.'' "·hich g1ves it me <lutti•h ea~mess 10 be ÍU<kcd ,.,J to "" nal\I rol '" the fcmale of C\·en· of h1> •trtt1·~1r 10 rc¡t(I thc thrill oí scxu•I dommJncc he leamed from
1111 ind1¡¡enou\ •nd lnc•I fod " \mrrican promo¡rrnphers ¡;ro<s btllions of •~e. <Pom~raphv exi<t• of an •duh man ottcmpttn~ to penetrase Jn ei.W~· romogr•phv anJ 1n fínd u way of lo,1n¡¡ a woman that -.'llS not pan of it
dollan n year dome<ncullv No one even trie< 10 c.tim~te the1r mtemarional momh-old girl.l Raoal hatred t> scxualtzed by mak.m¡: every racial smeo- A yuun¡r wom.m <roke oí her father usm¡: pomo¡\raph)· on her morher
gross i:ype mto •sexual f'eush. A>Jan w1>men are pn:sentcd so pa.sive they cannot and. to s1l.:nce her protci.t ·~•mst her mother's >Crcatns, threinerung to
Qualiues charattern1 ic ol but not umque 10 the Unned States-m· be slid to be ali\'e, bound •O thcr are not rcro11m,.bly humllll. hangmg enact lhc >ccncs on thc d.iu¡th1cr ti she told anyonc:. Another \'Oung womao
clmling co1nmon und cJsu.11sexu•I "olencc w1<l racism-are, 1hrou¡;h por- from trees und light fixtures .mJ cloLhc, h<>ok.. m clo;ets. Block women •poke ol lhe C><"ul•un~ use of pornt>gr•phy m her mart1age, unu,,.elrng her
nográphy, prommcJ throuj!hout thc wurlJ ..., 5'!X 1rom American are proen1cJ •• <tnunnlistic bnd><'>. brut>ed and blc>cding, •tru¡¡_¡:hn11 •df rcsrcc1 •nJ bdid In her futurc, dcmoying •ny possib1li1; of inumacy.
womc1ú sund1>01n1, the 1ntcm,1t1<'nal J'<!m"l!'"l'hY trnffic mean~ th•t "l!llln<1 thc1r bonds. kw"h womcn orllo<m m r~nJéllTlent• of dt'uth comp '1<1li11np her rh>·,icl!I 1111r¡¡r11y Shc >r<'kc of finwng the strength to Jegve.
Amcnc.m "omcn orc vi1•la1e<I .md tonu..,.J and •~rloncd th•ll pomo¡;- '° 1011Ur~ Thf' Í;t\'<ltÍtc fllCi~m (lÍ ta<:h l<"C..tlih· 1~ m.1dc into ~X 1n romo)!
4
Anothcr >"'""P "on10n •J><•kc of b..in¡t ~an~-r.1rcJ by humers who loC>kcd
raphy can !.., madr of 1hcn1 1n order 1h111 w<•mt'll m thc T<"llt of the w<>cld r.iphv In <n·oilleJ lr<h1.m romo~roph\·, womcn de:> what men ima¡:ine Up fmm their p<>n>f>¡lr>phy Jl her •nJ <;1,id. "Therc's O IÍ\'C <'OC• formet
can !.., \1ola1cd nnd 1nnurcd and cxploi1cd 1hmu¡:h it< º"° In this way ,.·ornen do when mcn are not around. <0 mcn can w.ich Pre¡¡nanr women rro<lllUtC• <¡><>ke <>f bcrng made 10 WlltCh [>Oml'~raph\· anJ thoi dupliCJlC
m1~1~yny Amcncan <tylc co1Clnl7ct thc world on 1he 'K>CUI !e,.eJ os ob- and nursmi mo1hers. Jmputct" anJ t>ther d1,;iblcd or 1U women. and men· rhe 8CI> cxactly, u'uall> >tJ.rttn~ •s duldrcn. M:my spoke of the sdf-
sa:rut' ª"' Bnu•h s11lc, ha,1n~ coloruicd the w<>rld oo tbe leiial le>'el. Wl} rcurded ~rl>. thcir condruons or stwnp> or pm>mc:>c> leushtzed.. are ttVubton, thc "'"'"n c>I mumacy. tbc unbcarable mJwuty. thc sluttcred
mako sure nothm2 r> done ilbout 11 U>CJ for "'"'~ exrnemcnt In •t>mc pomtlJ!taphi calkJ "M>uff," •·ornen ,.,u, thc ,¡.,.,,.,, anJ .¡...., thc on¡:cr and ·~W. 1.11d outug,c and dcs¡wr
To unJc,.,,tanJ ho" p<•mog,.rhy work. ilnJ,. hat u Joes. n"' DeCCS.at) <'r duldrcn •tt tunurcJ h> Jc• th (usu.alli throu¡:h Ji.n>cmlK-nn<'llt, su/ at lt\tn~ 1n • roun1n u.he-re thc1r 1t1nurc- '' m10rcd and tht."lt scteam¡. ~~
to k.no,. "'·h.tt tS m 11 \\"omm 1n P<'"'''SUl'hl •re buund b.ttcred. tOf> focation. or h""l!tn¡:l, mur.Je.red I<> m•ke • se• film h<"•rJ onh •• tl>e "1¡><.-nh· nf thnr ahuseR Thl') •rokr of, and oot <'Í
turcJ lw-JU<"<I r.IJ"·d. onJ 1umcwncs killcd Or, 1n th.- JÜo"> mcn.. en Ht'llnnl" h<ld hi tM a1y wunnl m ~Unncarohs. ~hn~• tn 1he 1he .,1,..,.-e 1ha1 pomo¡trarhy h•,I m>posal on 1hcm
tcrt.arnmmt magannn, ·mcrdy" hum1ha1<.J mol..-.tcd. <>brcculicd. anJ Unítcd '1.ic:< rn Oett~r 19,l don1mcn1eJ the 11.nn< of rom<>¡:uphY'• Thcrapiu1 tt'ld of b•ttcrcd ""mm Ut.J m lront c>Í Tidco sets and forced
uscJ In ali pomOflnrh) . th.-< ~re rmmtutcd Th" n dnnc bccause 11 makin~ anJ ~ · The <tudtct i-1 r...nrchrr; ond clin1oan• Jocumcrued IO \Ulch, th<11 1'Ar11C'll'AtC tn , act.\ ol <CllUal brutalirr J>sv~ w00
Porno1raohy'1 E11011e • 111 118 • Struules '"'~1n S11tt1 Po110111phr'S Empore • 119

workcJ "'th >wvhor> ol tlK<'>I •P<>kc <>I thc r<•lc of ¡x1mo¡tr.1phy 1n ><!xwal On 1hc hrni t•I th" cviJonu: JnJ dn,1Jy,..,, ícm1n1S1 wnter AnJrca tbeir equal11y Ul avtl ,tx1<~t1 l ur t.h1• m """rk. thc b" roust be avtl ratber
ronurcs mvolvmtt ''" "11h Joi;s •nJ elc'<:tn• •hu.el> Ono •tutly Jpcu O..mkin .111J l J,.,.1~11«1 • l•w 1h;i define! l"'""'~r•phy u• prK-ucc of th•n crururt.U. 11 Dlll>I Jchnc f'<>m<>¡tr•ph)°> h•m1> u> thc pomol'raph) in·
m<'.lltc.J more ra¡x-. mwh1,h pomo~niph) wa• 'l''"'""lly 1mplt.-1cJ than "IC'.°< J1.,(ttn11n.1tu•n \\'e:! J.th11t·d n as "hJ1 H a, tn tcrtN of what ¡, thcre Jw.tr) íoflk1> thtm 111 re.lit) , 11 mull r<u>gn11c 1ha1 pom<>jlraph} is ''"
thc 101.il numl><r <>I r~I''"' rcportr.1 •t thc tune in the rnv "·hm: thc •tuJy JnJ "h•t h.it 10 l><· thcre for 11 10 "'''" 1t••ph1c m0t<ri1h thJt <uborJioaie .hJdlMl.llJllUn 1nJ 11 muu •JJros thc m•tcrul• JnJ thc tr-Jffu: ll'dl ""
u•¡¡..; Jone Anochcr ~tUJ) c.hn\.\.\."ll c<lrrclau~~n,. 1n in .. rt"J5t.·:!f1 in thc rate of women 1hrou1th <e1uJll) oplit11 p1<1u'" .md w<>rds." :-.!01 "offensive Je. ... di •• thc onJiv1Ju.t hArm>
repomd rnf"' "11h increJIC' in • m<'ll•urc ot e<>n<umpu<>n hgures of m.IJ<>r p1<:uon' • or "1nJccm1• rcpl'<"$C:ntJc1<>n' tn ol>Kenirv's moralil)· ot tbe nghc. Smct thc <1111 n¡;h" approach 10 porno¡traphv ''"' croteJ. e.el') official
men'< cntertalllment rNRJ71nes LJoon1m" opcnmcnt> "1oue.I tbat por· or \loknt p1c1ure' 1n thc moralll\ ol 1h" lctt. but .m acrual pnicuce o! c<>mmL>.•ton oo l"'mo¡:raph1-10 thc Unur.J '-u10. Can,1da, and :-;.,,..
n0j?l'llph1 that ponn11• scxu.d •¡¡¡ere"'°" a. pk..,.ur•blc for the \1Com l.,, •ub<mlmAllOC\ 00 thc D.t.<l> ol "'" f l\C pracnca MC dCtlOlllble: coemon Znlancl" •pec1hcallv-hJ, rcc<>mmcndcJ 11, con<1Jer•uon or adopnon m
"'mu.:h pomOl!TJphy J,cJ Ulcre•scs thc ••<"<:plan<" of thc u:.c ot éUCtClon 1nto f"•mogr.phy, lor<llljl pom<>¡Z<•ph) ''" a pcnon, ._,..uh Jue to >pcalh: ~ fonn lt 1... uli"' 10 thc """"' ol 1bc pom02raphers and tbe Pº"'""
10 .aual rcUttQDS. th•I J«ept.um: <>I CUCT<l\c sexu.!111 •rrc•<> rd•icJ to pomogr.rhy. c.kt•m.it••r> 1hrou¡;h pc>mo¡;rorb), .anJ 1roifidun~ •n pomog ~ ol porn<1jtraph1'11cum> that no countl') h.1> •et C\<n muoJuu,d
k"Xual a~m..;;.100. .and th.u C!\ptl<JUfC to \ 1olcnt Jlllmn~naph" 1ncre.1~ raph) tbe 1.a.. on • tc..kr.! '"' d 11lé 1..... h... bL'Crl r.wcJ ""'-cr:d tomo 10 t.he
men'< pun1<h1n~ bchJ11Clr tnYJrJ """>ni 111 thc lahoral<>C) "Po>m<>j!TJ¡>hy \\'e Jo noc d.11m tlut M hum.' th•t h.lppcn 1hrou.:h J"'m('l!raph• e-.-er Uru1cJ !>111<1" but be.:au~ ,,¡ thc k~I mtrne1111on c.( tbc pomographcn'
~ thc pcrttrt1on1 nf mm v;ho are not prcJi1posc<I to =ual llg· happen •11hou1 11 Wc .ay th•t ~<1~ 11 is bceaUtC of pomo¡:nphy fro<m . .i h•' n<'lt )ct lxcn pcnn111cJ 10 go 1nto cffcct In 1hc coouolhng
¡:re-•inn that "ornen ...mt r>f"' and are Mt m1urcJ h) rape lt mcrea<cs tb11 thc) happen. anJ v.·hm th") do. """1ethtnl! <hould be able to be clone CllSC, ali thc ha""' that Jl<nno¡:rtph¡ J,,..,. ,...re conceded bu1 1he coun
thcir ,;~· that women .irc ,.·onhJc<,. tn'1al. nnnhuman, obiecthke. ~ about tt \\'e Jo not cla1m 1ha1 1hesc act< are the onh- tbings tbat bappeo meaurcd tbc 1·al11e <>Í thc material~. hcncc thcu ron<urunooal pro<e(TI<>n
u~ual 10 mcn bccau.e ot pomo~raphy. \\'e'ª' 1ha1 no m•uer v.bac dse bappens. tbese as speech. b1 their ettm11't'Oes> 1n clc>1n' tho<e harrns " These results are
The tesumom, taken .. • wholc, mealcJ that tb.: more pomoj!raphy Jo. \\'e also thmk 1ha1 nnc ol thc rea-..•n> eXJ.>tlDg UIV> a~aúm tbese acts 001 lq,:alh tina! m thc <en<c that tbc U.\ ~uprcmc Coun could Y"' línd a
men sce. tbe m~re abu¡11c anJ 1k>len1 1h~ '""' 1110 b..~ tbc more Ghus11c aro '°
111ctfe<111al ts th.i pomogr.1ph) ,. p.:rmmrd 10 cxlSI, .ocung as an avtl nght.> urdma.n<e "" pomo~'"ph' consuruoonal 1ll a propa c•Sc.
and \'IOlcnt 11 b«omc•o. thc mm.- thcy cn1oy 11 ,,n,J 1hc mt•rc arou><..J thcy cÍÍ<'<'ll\cl) f'C1llc<t<.J "'XII.al anJ hn•ooaJ 1n<COti1c lo pcrfonn them. In this ~leaoume the JbU>C continuo •> tht •nu.aLt> ot l.1.sc1sm. c1>loru.Jilln ra-
gt1, thc more obt"we •nJ v11>lcn1 th<"v lx..:01nc, anJ the le:.. harm they sce \'iC'll1, J'l('mn~n&ph\ IS nnt ti rr<.Jittlon {lí lll~t;ant rcrla\ Or rcprcscnt.ition '"'m, cxourn.m, onJ con4ucs1 " trathckcJ 10 the 11,,.JJ b) thc imperw
in wha1 thC) are S<~in¡¡ or J..1in~ Men nhcn 1lunk 1hn1 1hcy use pomo!' of •emnJ da» c1111cn•h1r ,1ctccl 0111 ci,.,,..h.,re. hut an acti\'C, llllCJlral pan pomo~r•phcr. •• the scxual11) ,,¡ hJ,.rou<>n •nJ <"<111.iln)
raph) but Jo no! do these thin~ The t'l1dencc •hl'I>'• 1ha1 they are poor ol the hC."re-and-nnw CXf>"nmcc .,f 'Ce<>ncl da-s atizen<hip for womcn. As \\"om•n "' m.1ny wuntncs m.• workmN 10 1n1mducc this Ja,.•. adaprcd
autborities on 1his •uh100. The u.e of J>Om<>~raphy makes 11 impossible llll excepuonallv pntcnt anJ ,..,Jc<prea<l l'th1dc lor thc <exualizat:km of 10 tbe1r •rcdfic conc:-ern• nnJ le¡¡•I f) &•cm•. Thc re<iswice 10 acrin~ a¡¡•inst
for thern m tell when sex is fom:d. 1hat womco ore hum11n, and 1ha1 rape tne<jtulm. p<lmo¡traphv pla)' a ma1or rolc-Jorcct anJ subdc-in esca· pomo~raphy ruo¡¡e< from dmial th•t pom<>j!raphv si¡mi6camlv nffects
is rape. Pomogruphv make. men h~ufc ,inJ aj!J,\<C>S11c 1owMJ women, Lumg Jbw.e anJ Ji.cnmm•11on bi• mcn U~Juht womcn arouod the world women s hves 10 eb·aun~ 1ts value ovcr women's value Counmes when:
and 11 makes "·ornen ~1lent. h 1iobtt'> human n¡¡lm. ceosorship os mo~1 dtecnve are olten thc mos1 complaceni because toJ\lllc.>
In il11S light. pomo¡:rn¡ihy. thruu¡th 11s pruJucuon, is 11 traíftc in fcmnlc Unltkc the obs<enny ap¡•ron<h, the 1m1iporno~raphy civil n¡;bts law .re most h1dJcn from vicw, but thc complnteo«y swce¡makes pomog·
scxuol sl.wcry. TI11 nul!i> 11s wn•urn1111on. pornoµru11hy funhcr in$titution w<'ulcl work Unlikc obiiccnh>· lol''. 11 is ci11I, ncu criminal. I• pu1s cnforcc· rJphy'> has m•ny tt:'mcnJcr~ Our cxf>eticncc imcm.mt'n.Uy i> thut tbc
.alit~ u 1ubhum¡1n v1c111ni7t."\.I iiLOIU~ for womm hy con<li11t')nin~ men"s rncni Juthonty in thc h.inds of vicums. om thc s1ate empoweriog vicrims . t1vil nl)ht\ •'l'Jll'l>Jch m t>om1>~r.1ph) ~·h·,1n11t.. womcn "'"''~ cultures. h
or¡tll~m 10 se> incq11.1ltty Whcn mm ll<C J>Om<>~ruphy, thcv CXf)Crience In no• thc \IJte. \YJc know how "-ell ,tate a111honrics proicct women 11nd 1dl• thc 1ruth ami ¡>lit< • 10<11 in ,..,,m,•n\ h.mJ., offering, on .\ndrea
thcir bodies. nOf JUSI m thcir mmJs, 1ha1 onc·"dcJ scx-sex be1ween a chilJren through cnm10.1I fow from 1he1r d1mml record oo baneno11. rape. O..·orkin'• ""'"'' wh.11 thc porn<'llr•phcr• h.110 1aken oway· "hope rooted
persoo (tbem) and n thm, {111-1s '<'X. that >cxu;il u,e 1! sex, sexual abuse sexu.d abuse ol chilJren, anJ prosmunon. Unlíkc obsctmrv law. 1t ,.-ouJd l.ll real pCK>1b1l11:,- ••
1s sex. sexual Jommauon 1s "'" lñ1> 1> t.hc ,cxu;il1cy tbey chen Jem.nJ, oot crrulc llll unJcrgrounJ h bnn~ thc pomo¡;raphy mto the light ol day.
pracucc. purch.ue, ""J ~ve out tn thctr e1c,,.J.11 >OCl;i) rtlJuoo• w1tb bL..:Jux tbcre •• no pla<"C whcrc pom<>j:raphi º'""
th3l u J..,.,. not mak~
otbcn. Pornogr•phy ...orlu hy mJkl.llg ocxtsm ""'}, \, • pnm.! <"Xpcneocc \lctuns L'nhkc <•bs<cru11 wv. , tln• aflf•rua<h Joo not makc pomograph)
of genJcr hlcrar<h•, pornc•gra~>hv 1$ • mJfCl1 v. J) thJt •c11•m 1> m10ycJ onJ more •11t•lll1c thr<><1Kh proh1l>111un Makin11 pomograph) actiorablr '1S •
pr.1cuceJ ., wcU u lcamcJ Throu~h th~ ..... ,,¡ pt>m<>f:<•ph" r<"'·..-r ,nJ form ot le'.'( .J1'tr1m1n.1unn und1.·muno rother lhan hc-1~htcns in. attractn-r:~
pov•crJrt,nc:s> are upcrtcneeJ ,,. ICX The 1nc.1ualtl) het"'ttn wt>mnl ncu h1 c.kftoong u; prod<U·<n a ptmf'I anJ •t•
con•ume,.. as ""' ~
anJ men t< "'hit L\ !C~\ Jbo111 pom"!lroph~ e--e" <0e1.! on~¡ualitV U· For ~ rcu'<lO' 11 15 pr<>pe'rl) a mil n¡:ht• bw, meamn~ a la...- thin
plouo:d to ho¡¡hten thc plca•ure, thc more uncqual th., ..ener. cmJ'<"'er< mcmbe,.. ol sociallv 'ubotd1na1cd group• to acr throu¡:h Ja..· for
Ser Equahty Under the Conshtu11on or lndi1 • 121 122 Strunl•s w1tb1n Sl11es

13 puical· law is 10 reilcet realicy. The problem 11 seeks ro <ol'-e is misclass1- aU. Tht- fac1 1ha1 eqwilir¡•. as ongmall1• concel\·ed m the W<:St, "as n<.-vtr de-
6ca1ion. Peopl• "ithtn a classilication are 10 be the same <lS one another; signa! 10 alter women's petVastvcl¡• Jnfeoot socul 11r1d le~.J status 10 men
Sex Equalicy Under che peoplc ui dillerent classilications are to be drlferent from onc mother ¡¡ocs a long w.t)· 1ow.uJ esplainmg wh) it h•s not done so.
Constitution of India Equahty conruts tn treating the ume peoplc \\'ho ar~ accuwcly cl•~>ilicJ UnJcrstJnJmg that thc mo>1 wiJcsprc•Ú J.Odal inequ.Wucs oí wumcn to
as stmJnr difft:rently pcople who urc: accur•lely daS>1ficJ as diffcrent In 1ncn hu\'C l-.ccn imagined ol:t '1r'Om~n '$ \1iffcrcnc~ frc.1n1 mm, hcncc not inc·
Problcms, Prospccts, rnany quartcrs, 1his lo¡¡ic p;u.o;cs for rntionubcy •mi common sense <¡u.1ltt1c•. hdps cxpl.un why equ•liry l•w hos trnditionolly not bccn used to
Without havin¡¡ bcen ¡¡i\-en much crirical thought on the l""el of fi rst •ddress vmlcncc a~ainst womcn. one oí the most commonly occurnn¡¡ e•·
and "Personal Laws" amples o( unequal tttatmcnt based on sex. Rape and banenng. it <;L'ems,
principies, this equalicy model has been explicidy or tacitly accepted as che
ol>vious comenr of equaliry in mosr jurisd1crions lha1 have legal cr¡uality have 1>tc1tly been re~árdéd a.. a fcarure of thc sex differenc<:. Lookmg across
guaraotees. lt predominares under intemattonal law and Europcan Unioo cultures. we do sec womea abused, exploitcd, 11nd violated m a range oí
1iw, guides the imerpremion oí the United Siates Equal Protcction prJcuc.:s iliat ha"e mcludcd rape, Jomouc \'tolence. prosutution. and
Clause,1 and has pnnianly defined the Suprcmc Court of lndia's appltca· >t:.xulll harasi.mem in thcir culturnlly 'P"cilic forros, with <:qu.ilit} law th"ro
The trnditional le¡;¡ul approach 10 equality rhat comes from the \'\'est is tion oí Anide 1~ of die Consmuuon. ll$ se= m thc fourtduuonal Roy•pfh1 standmg on thC' siddincs. Most cultures .,mply 'CC thcse pn1cuces as inevi·
p1tdominantly used worldwide. A promisin11 alrernative that is gainin~ rec- and DtÚnu.I cases.• Ccnainly, this moinsrream equalitJ thcor¡ can be useful table or criminal but not ª' unequal in the legal sense. Practioo; seen TO •t
o¡miúon can be found already implicit in the best of the lnclian constitu- for addrcssin¡¡ sorne inequaliry problems, prominently inducling 1hosc •Í· tach 10 differences do not ~Í\'e nse to doims for unequal treatmem because
úonal equality tradicion, as well as m sorne u·esrero equalny law Tbis OictinR elite indi,-iduals, as well ª'" some members (of1en the least mjured! the sexes '"e seen as diffetem rother chao unequallv trellted in those respects.
nhcmame ha> r<:Jll potenúal for funbering womeo'ssocial eqwtlity duough of subordinared groups: rr may. with crearivicy. be helpfuUv deploycd in Unlikes are, in Aristode's cenns. simply bein~ rreaied unalike.' So, lntle to
low, mcluJmg for rcsolvmg the diflicuh pohucal and legal quesuons pre- the hands of thos.: already comminecl to produdn¡¡ social equality throu¡\b nothmg is doneabou1 such practices, cenainly na< by equalny law.
seoted by lndiú fomily lnw tcrmed "perrona! lows." legal equabry. Aflirmam-e actioo, wh1ch m:ats unltkes alikc on the l>am oí l:lemg dofincd lb rJúfercn~-sex "' generaUy soc.lally seen as "the se~ dif-
thetr unalikeness. is entirely unAris101el1an. For this reason, 11 has been ferenc.:" -thu~ can. undcr thc: tradttional eq11al11y modcl, result in l>r:ing
1 J1fficuli, Cl-'('ll ugonimng, for this cqualky thcory (.tnd produces d1ver>11y, 1remcd wotS<: or us Jos; without that being re¡iM<led os uncqual treatmcnt.
• whoUy unAristotdrnn good}.' The subordinate status of women rcbtive Far ins1ancc, u·hen women pcrform diffcren1 work from men, 11s most
The meaninJI of equahty in law nearly everywhere dcs=d.~ in a direa line 10 mcn is noi promincnt among the inequality problem< thc Aris101clian \\'ornen ID 1hc u~>rld do, 1hcy may be p•id less for it. •nd thar is nc:>t secn as a
from ~ñstotle's dic:rum that equality meaos treating alíkes ahk.,, unolikes model hns soh•ed. The questions are wh¡· and what 10 do abou1 it. rroblem o( inequaliry because che v.·ork is diffcrcnt work This often rcm:úns
unahke, As de\•eloped througb the Enligh1enmen1, this contépUon rc- This framel'•ock. when creured. was not predicated on an undcrst>tnclia¡¡ rhe case even if the work is of comparable valuc.• Disadvamagesarear1ached
volves around sameness and difference. When pcople are seen to be: re!· rhst women are men's equals kept pervasively unequal by social ordenngs. to pregnancy because pregnancy is a dilicrence berween women aod men.
evúntly the samc bUt ate not treated che same, thcir trestn1eo1 is cons1der"d Conlinmg women to the home, excluding them from voung and public of- w1th the result that dtsadvamageoU> rreatrnem ot the actually or potenoally
unreasonoble and >rbitrury and is prohibired by luw as unequal undtr the 6ce, predudtng them from gamlul employmrot, rapmg lllld prosdtuúng pic!lJLlnt is d•»ically 001 ;een ¡\; sex incqUJ.Üt). \Xlben subordination traoo
"likes alike- impttutivc. \'t'hen thcy are sern as different, they ean be thmi-thos.e wcrc not -'<'cn as mcqualities. Bluntly pul, women '> tat:qualiry lioes o( !o<'lcUU)' recognlzeJ di(fcrencc. and it u>uaUy doo. womcn cJn be
created differently-unlikes unalike: rhnt 100 is considered 10 be equulity. 10 men WllS not > problcm that western cquahty thmking """ credted 10 subordinutcd 10 men c:ons1>1cn1 with cqualtty rulos bccouse the t.reatmcnt is
This standard, renned formal equality. is trnduion~lly rell"rded as faír soJ,-c, betiluSC it did not see women as men's fí.JI humon equals. T<> tclescopc ><:o:n .ts IXJLial trea1mem for equal differcnces. Never mind thnt ">0.11subor-
ol>jective, and neurral as well áS socially pro¡rressi'"· tt is in u sense ero· a long >toty, it imagined them as differem. which rranslated into inferior <lm.cuon i1sdf Cdfl ere.tenor onlr difieren ces, su ch ;15 I& arces< to iob qual·
when measured by the mcitly male standard for the human. Womcn were i6cation< among cxdudL-d 11roups and 1hc view that pre¡rnancy is a jnb dis·
(n 1t't: oriJtn.tl form. du~ t.tl w., dc:Lv1:tc1-I to 11w Sec-orkl ~ Golkcu'"c U'(llntn'• 'Rl,hit: thou¡¡ht. by ha bit of mind , to be not fully human b¡ vinm: oi their sex. Ooe qualüicaoon when it is not, but can al so e reate 1he perception "f diffe1tnces,
l.ruwuiw Colloquium on Josa~ tor \\omcn-• E.m~'tcmmt Th~h L11r'1·_ Guidu jUSQCe aod paradox tli1s has gC!neratcd IS that bt:twecn thc imagc of women being placed induJmg sccreorypmg and intemalizd oppress1on. Bec-Jusc unlikes can be
PC'hUU.t.I l..n.·~ A Con.stuuuunal Pi:rtpc:etr.:C. · Ncw ~lh1 Dctttubcr J.._lb 2001. 1n 11n éll.t:ÚcJ on a spccial pcdc>tal or espedally protected fot thcir dtfferences u·heo, in treateJ unahkc. indudlng wont:, dominatlnn .mJ subordmation-wlucli
ftwtn, '\lo•" J>uhli,h,rd •• ª"' ('~V h ¡~ •IM> rut-.tuhrd iD úJ11Jr1 ,..,. ,,,.J '""' Prt.pk •lnchr1
1r
re.ility, they are u1ddy violaced, e.xplo11ed, and murdered \\1th -.idespreod
.I~ cd ;-./ew l')dbi· \t'cmm Unhmítai. .2'005) md -also ..J l111crnM10.fllll 1owmM o/ Cor:p.triUlt~ forro " luer•rchy-L-an ond do CO<!.'Cbt w1tb scx cquallly rult:> arounc.1 th<
LA.· t l.CON' 20llb. Jth...nl lnJn J1tMng tur bcr f.'.1Jl1rgt.11Jn,_ .ind sup;pcM"L Jid:pful commou' .ad 1mpunuy ID connecuoo with tbc same sottings and J11nbu1cs. Thc re.uh has U<irld, 1111h male dominance ;1oc.I fcm.tle suborJinadon senmlt.,,.1) bctng
índtlh •J!.Wilil,11« '&'CU' p1-ou.!t'd h~· Ll•ll c.rJ,·n, ftt;t.cat NC'u•1r11\. '\hirlu Kecm Chotn Ot11nJ11, bcen thc rntionnlizouon of •y>tcm.uic 8ndal 1nfcriorit1• by 1erming it diífer- m•im .. incd undcr lcg•l e<¡ttaltty reg1mes.
iand s•.11 i \lcht. cnce, l'Cndcring moSl scx-b~scd subor<linaúon no1 ~n inequality problem a1 ln the main~trt'.am <.-qualit\' th('On·. d1srnmin.Ulon i~ trcannJ.l sorneone \\·ho
120 has 1he <;Jrnc unk. status. Qr qulllicies as if chcy wcre not tfre samc as othcrs
Su hualoly Undtr lht Ct•st•lutia• ol lod1t • 123 Strunto w11n1n S1at1s Str Equahtr Under tht Co••lol•I••• ol lnd1a • 12~

c-1 tba1 ¡.\roup. Bu1 11 'omt-'Ofle" not alrcac.h C1i that ~r-<>up. 1hev lite not relc- promoun¡¡ l'\jll.Üll\ l he h1¡;hcr up thc "nen <>I >UUltny ooe es.:enJs under m~r.uncJ ptadllc bc:twcrn nl<:n 1mJ \\<lffi<!ll, .u~·wbh p.1n ol wbJt IS called
' amh thc -.1111e "' 01h<r' in u •nd <•n be tr1:•1cJ le»" di. ami that IS not seen thc U S &¡ua.I l't<'IL"<ltcltl ( !Ju•c, thus "~n.al111- ¡:rca1cr .oncem for m- thc ><:~ J1lk1cn<c "" ""' allO\\'l.J to oh.cure thc l•a tlut u 1s A praaice
a) unrG.t..!i.onable or .ubJtr.iry lt 1-, fU'l tre111n~ tht"m •" \\h{1 thc.-v are GJ\'t"l1 O<jUJluy th.- ¡;rtJltr thl rc.!111 of .. ..._1.1J tn<-.¡u•ht1 one t~no"'•· The ob- t1I 'ºl,.)rdmat4.: t()\:1ad 11oto1tui hnu.:c: ;1n Jc.:t of un~u..J trc:J.tmmt. lf uomenºs:
th.;U llt.Ot:Jalh 1m1~c..J 1nfc-r1onty ha re.il <dllK'~U\.'tK~.,, or lt \\"tlUIJ he h.arm sc""'"'" h1 '"""'" .\1ukh11111 m l'l~J 1hJt "[t ht erare h>r \rntrican pn:c 1111J nl•-n'• t<xual J11f<im<U nl<'•n 1ha1 m<"Tl """ Jau.tll\ bar.i.-. \\omcn-
lns. h.,.. orhnra" u ti, ul11mi1d1 10 in •t ••-'mcone \\ho h.. bccn dc-J'"'cJ ed.-n1' OUI snon l'<'t:omc a •nuc"" •1•rlie< \\tth to= hen: m thc •i.n<l•rd modd's 1cnn<, ttt•t thml ddtc-rcnrl> ;h_,n th<)· Jn mcn
.,f a!ucanonal •.h anu~' a 1<~• C<luctt"f t Th1t <t¡u.W11· ap¡m,.ch thus c.1n TI><- pnmt " noc 1h•1 11 " lmJ"'l'<tble \\1th m~enuJ[\' aod hene-.-okn1 "-"'u.tll) bcca11S<.• "nm•-n •nd mcn are •cxuallv dilkrcn1~i1hc,,r ~xu.J ha-
m•r """" nnto n1•11n~ t«>ct•I h1crnrd11es, rauÍ)1n¡¡ rathc:r tlun challen1Z1l\I! dc1cnninanon ond sman la\\·yenna, 10 make th" model worl< for sorne rasqnern ... nett ~' J1"°1m1n•uon f't • ne11· \1... JM pf cqualirv as needed
thnn In tbts L~ht, 11 mak~ J'<"rle<.1 ....nse 11u1 h>nn•I eqll2hl) rould t11Snl)· cqual cnd> oo thc mor~m.. Thc poin1 " that 1h...e uc ruargínal, mJ 11 is One ctn •arce \\1th the carhc:r rouru th•1 <.crwal har.i"mcnr IS not se•
racial ~.won as ti did unJ.:r thc LquJl Protecuon <.1tu'< m 1he Um1ed JUSI ..,, po<"hlc 11 not mo"' ;o ro ""' th» th<-on 10 crnn:ndi nisuog soóal disaurunauon ' or """ that "<Xu.J hal'll».mcnt IS pm:1i.ch ...hat scx d1s-
~uies lt Jr....- hn.:. ol Jurcrenc.-e \\hcn:: '<1'1etv drc" than AD "bo """' 1n.:qu.ili11<''- e>pcdalh "hcre ,i.., ,,.,"" md will 10 produce cquaht} are cnrrunauoa looks lilic: and un~n<: • lléU C<¡u.ilil) moJd: n<.-1rhcr pn:tru>e<I
raci.illy ahkev.crc trc-•tcd alikc-1n ><:par•rc: wh..v c•n. 'lt abo rn.ikti "4:JUc l•clung. 11 an cqu.Wl\ dtl<tnnc can ~" c1tbcr ,..._, dcpcndin¡t on cxlrill>lc oo samcnc:u n<>r n<:g"J1<.J by dittrrcnce. nc:1thcr pwu.hing dúfctcn<c nor
thar thc pol100 ut Gcnn•nr" ThirJ Re,h wuld be and \\-erC' k¡;.tll) IU'ubcJ inpull, " 11 rc•ll) JO cquJllly Jcxtr1ne? lf 11 JcpcnJs on ¡:o<>Jwill aod pmJe¡:m~ urnencu. hut uri;ctmlll t<><1.al h!<'ruchv by mJlun~ mili) ac-
.., cqu.J ·~un ,-\l)ans """ tn:;ttcJ d1lícrcnilv lrom •,\eyans" by hnn¡; n pol111<•l u>mmumml to W<>rk, 1ts ..-cubr t<-nd<-nt') \\1U be to f..J cnctly 1101ubk as k'X cln<nmm.uaon • rr••11<C' throu¡¡h "htch memhe..,. of onc
1.:nnina1cd. Whm r••--i1<e> ..e '""Jwliry ..... 0()(1.J Ulutolo¡;>e>, thC) can"" for r~ peopl.- •nJ at thosc 111n.-, whm egabwun spint is ladtin¡¡, ..-hich <OCial ~p !uve bttn penn11tcd to trc-at Olhtt< 8' infcnors 16
•<
nuilied cqaal v.-ith no lo¡:u:al dd't,1 Altho11~h thc.c- mlmfZ' h"·e bttn rc- ts i= wheo 11 i< nec.kd mo<t And that, m fact_ ¡,, wh.u has •l}:Uabl)' Thus -..~ the Gord1.m knot cut th•1 ochcnr.-i<c ('rc\-cnr. cquaht\' la...-
pudiarcd. the loi:>e mat pr00uc-N ih..m h.i• not bttn happencd Scx cqwl1ry IJ11 "'~1,1 ncirly cw"-whcn:, <1J1d sex a¡uahty c:.xl>l5 lrom remedym~ "1bordina11on lt d1J. anJ dce, th1> b, coolronan¡¡ di-
So racber man betn¡t • mean< ol enJ1n¡¡ h1cruduc."21 •rrJO.:emcnr. hased vtnuall) no\\hcre. n:ctl- the problem th•t mcrnhcn. "I ><>cwh suborduwe<l ¡:rou¡» olten an:
on group r.mk. torm.il cquJhtv cm be • "•y m mJlllt.wt oocqu.J •Lllm 1101 -.1m1J,uh s11uJ1<:d"-1h.11 b, rhe 5.lllJC-JS m<lllbcrs ol soo.1fü dom-
lnJceJ, ns ouc,;c» con be 1nc:00>Mcnt \\llh •11b.1i1t1m1' cqu.altt}, "hidi u mant ¡troup.-. uhcn prc..,d, ~Jll'C ,,, thcir tncqualit) r ormal ~uJlit}
ma~ rc:qu1"' wc:ul c:h.1n¡lc [¡, mcth1...Jol<l¡t) ol .t>c.cn•uun¡; rc.u.>n•blcnc-.. c.n prcduJc >llh>t.inll\e e<111•ht) h<'<•Utc m 111 <o1kulu.. Jdlettncé-ln·
tn cuq:onuuun 1; ro rdle<t rc.J11~ '" 11 11. 11 a pcrwn hil! m.uugcJ to Gni\\·an~ 11ndcrncJth, thmu~h<'lll, ond n ·xi ltl 1hi, d<>mmant mndd has ClfU-•lm «•n be mc-tn.1) 1mnÍ\ wonc trCJ1mcn1, thu• d1uhling formal
CSC!pe 1h<ir Rroup'• h1cr•r<h1<nll> 1mp'""J •t.uus or tn•n•~c' to ·•rrcar bttn •nmhcr qui1~ 1lu1int1 cqu~lity th<'Ory or1¡:1n.11cd by peoples subor cquali"· lo~1c Ír<lm ,,J.Jrc,stnM '0(1.1! h1crarchy Mmrly bccause it cmpiriNlh
equ:il in spiie ol s<><i•I U"i~nmL-nl J< 1n unL'<.IU•I, 1he mocld work. ÍC'lr dinaccd on thc b"'" "' r;1ce and <ex, íln 11hernativc rona:ption th~t has el<ÍSts The staru• quo Jimibution of c:n1i1lemcnt• Wld rc>0t1rcc< is chus
them Bur it is not des1~ned 10 work ior rhosc who have not cscapcd 1bc1r anunate<l sorne lc¡:al work "~ª'"'' raci>m in thc Unucd States and a¡rninst buik imo 1he tradmon.il west~m cquality anal)~is m wh1ch dominant
starus. wluch by debnmon most mcmhcr< ot soc1allv subórdmawd ¡troups violence a¡¡a1ns1 wunicn \\Orldw1dc. lt 1.tk<.,. 1ht po.iuon 1hat mequaliiy is ¡:roups. who are JUSI JS Jilkn•nt lrom suborJmate<l ~roups as the reverse..
will n0< have. 11 w1ll thu, bcc:ome l'CJ«>n,1blc, nm .1rllltrllf), t<> rdlcc1 1he<r 001 pred1cn1ed on sJnicncss 01· viUJtcJ by ilitfcrcncc but is o procuce of hove not ha<l IO be hkc JO\Onc d'c 10 ¡lCl mJ keep what me) ha\'é. Thc
cx1Sdn11 su11u;-1hm ts. thc unc411al •tlllll> <1Uc>--m law l:quillny bccomo soc1.1I subot<ltnn1inn, of •ccond-cl~" srn1us, ol r~nking os mfnior. of his- ahcrnauvc rhwr) cuumtrs thi> dcq• bius b) tM¡1euog dU"<:ttl) anti in sub-
J nght thJL ili<»e \\ ho nt'al u mo•I urc lca>t wdl \llUJtcJ to d.um and l<'<ICW hierorch) In 11> v1cw, tite OJ>JK"Jtc of ct¡u.ilit) i• n<>I dtffttt11cr but •tuncc thc problcrn ul •\<Lcm1c sixml •uhurJin•tion ol groups tbat hns so
th<»C who n,..,J 11 le.1't .lle nl<l>l >UCC:l->•fuJly ('O•llioncJ 10 .!>>en hicrurdiv E•1u•l111 1hu• rc<1u1r<-. J'lomoun¡; cqu.iliiy of sutus for histori- comfon.1hh <"OC'"'"" "11 h 1h< t"'""i'c uf cquali1.- 1he law has ni•de but
Pwple who tre alrea<h cqu,11 tn 01 h,·r "''"'''· can m''" 1.-ad1lv ddlm <ally •uhordanamf ¡;rnur•. <li'ltlontlin~ ~rnup hicrnrch~ The Suprcmc Í•ilcJ to delivrr upon for '° lc•n~
miu~ when ireued •1S th<•u~h 1~l are nm cqu•I This " mll to •.1y 1ha1 C..oun C'IÍ CanoJ.1. -ccm¡¡ that l ~ Arí>totcli.m par.1d1¡¡m ~· opplicd 11·ould To p1u n sli~htl' J1Htrcnily, \\hc:n inc:-.¡ualn) •• '"cialll m5urutionalized.
pec>ple who lack qualificanon< or nicriis ,ho,JJ he 1rcarcd as thouRh the-. not dfeéuvdy pnxfucc ;ocia! cquahty an a d1ver<e •ociecy. embraccd this 11 c"'ai"' d"nnmon< betwrt'n pe<>plc that can them<d"es serve as r<'llSOns
ha\'e them lt l< IO a<k u-hen IS the c.'qllJIUV J'Uidl~ itotng 10 di,,nwnle altematl\c ronicxtuJI nnnon ª' "' ,LlncJ.rd lor measunn¡¡ 1he constnu- thltl trcaung J><-'<>ple wo..e n01 c:10lv "'11 'ppear m be, but \\ill mdeed be.
lar~ ¡rroup-b3!icd mcqualme>' \\ hc:re tloe< tlm mo..kl ká>e tbe scructur- tiooal equabry <>l lqi1'IJU<>n.u '!111> •ltcrrutll\c 1> mlluamng the ¡unspru- reason.blc and 1101 arbura"' at .tll \\"ben u-•scrnablene:.s IS esrabhsbed b1
¡¡JJ, UDe<¡ual for our purp<»c:> hcrc oo thc bll>I• t>f i<'X' Tbc roult ol tbe dcncc ol Si.>uth Afn<• • Con.,utuu<>n.U (A>un md mcn:"'11lgly m1mJung m1rror1ng ..X><:l) .- 11 1s 1ncqwtl11y is '•li<l.icd b' ~n oocqu.il natu. quo.
cXJ>ung cqu.aluy th ..·or¡ > log1C.tl appl1L11t100 lw beco il>•t thc,, dc..TC>l •nd 1ntC."mo111on.&I rulan~ 11 Thc .ahcm~U\'C' con<c:Jltton bt."Jin' Ul thc -.:c.tnh"Xt . not flf thcw ab'.\lractk'lnS
mos1 -..1dcsplt'Jd tn<'qu•lmcs, mdudmg thtl$C OÍ r.cx. 1ht1K' l1"'QU•l1t1L'S th•t S..-xual hn•ssmmt '"", \\ hi<h hni •rttuc-J th.i lx1ng m • mborJma1cJ of urncncu and J1lform«e 1><11 ni a;k1ng "hc:thcr a rnncn:tc, h1<1nnctl
mtbct thc ¡!tGllnt d.inu¡:c •nd ¡,.,.., h.-.:omc the mir>l 110CUlh mstuutJ<•n kllu.J J>O>il••n "'" noc •se• d1ffcr.-n<<c 1lu1 JU.iificJ "'1!Ual abo<e but ,.-as S<>Cial hll'ntrchy c.-x ..u On the •uumrnon 1har no 00<1al group " mfcrior
.ilird mdu.!ang thok '1rn:<>1ypcs th•1 h"c b.-.,:omc rC'Jl anJ 1ho-e or rathcr a •iobuon of sn cqualn¡ n~h11 11!11,tr.11a 1his oltcm•m·e model" to any 01htl-, u 111 mm.ben are ' I tem•nC11l1¡ 1hm lound f'l<Ullvuncqwtllv
pmsions thar h"e hc.-..--o""' m1cm.J11..-d .is "di "' cul1ur.1l •n: •ddrcs<cd 'lñat selN.ll haraS>m<"Tll, b1 ~nothcr nam<:, " a common and rulrurally ranked or rrearcd or s11uat..I, socul 1ncqualny ha< occurred md ln-s and
ka<t. Bec.o<e "' docmn,.. '' <trum1red to iÍltnn ...mene.' •• • 'lutq;y for
12• • Struulu "''"" S11i.s Ses Eqoallly Uoder lht Con>lllullt• ot lno11 • 121 1U • 1ttuules ••thl• Sll!es

pul" ta anJ 111•<11.c:.' th.i <oltibowe m the ><1<1al 1tic4U<tlil\ ol th..t l'roop lorc..h.Jov. ""J <111b0Jv 1 tUbst4nu•c e.¡wilui •l'P""'h ¡., '<-X lltc ¡u "omen un.Jc:r "'her >u<-h leg•I Joc:1nrws '"'"" mmbineJ u1th J.,.-c(op
~re ilkg;al nspn11ltn.c 11pholJn1¡1 •ex rcsenat1<llh m crnpln1mcm .1,,.,~ 1th ;om.:.. mento m rqU<ll11>· La,. m ><•n:h •'>I an .1.J..qUAtc umh111Jl rall<'nak, •urplnn~
e oum H<' w~ll ,w1cJ 10 •rpJ, 1his •rrn-•,h 1ic-,.,...., u os rr«1.d, 1>}1lllllCl11<..,.I lo..n coun n¡1wí1T rul1ngs 1xm11ttm¡; ,.¡,..¡ u 1om<1tmn • 1hron t<> llllllch IM •'Won anJ t<xt 1lti1 are alrradv there, the pi\!tt<
concm<" bistnnc.tl rnlll\ tlut t:t>m<S co cooru thro•1i:h thc fa<t• of n.n tmncJ d1S<runuut1•1<1 bvor•ble 10 womm anJ 1hc sexual lurmrncnt u1'UIJ !ali 11110 place..
rhat th<'Y are tttlted 10 ad1ud1ca1e. A<lcmg ,. hcthcr a panicular group IS ruli°" m \ 11/J..l:i" and Chopri" dmrinit on inrem•uorul Liw, along ...-uh
hi<tc>ncnlh J1,aJvan1a¡¡ed a< the aliemJm e .-on<<"!'llllfl Jo.... " • factual ~ da:a'"'"' oo <"q•ul p•.-• ami romrarable """h" ar.e •11 arunwc:J IV
1n.¡UI<) lh.u bu1ld< hi-toncd conr""t tn. lt re.¡wrcs '"""' to lt>r>k at thc by • ,ub.t.tnll•< '"' <'qlW.11\ concepL ~ 'upremc Coun , .... rcc"l!IlUes
rcJ.Lty of \(-.:1.al h1crou-'-h~ . nor 3\\.'a~ frum 1L lt a,s ~ubtc\:l ro
m•kcs 1hc rno¡;ntllon ut hbtOm:ol rc.tluy mtu •n ;J¡uJ1cJ.U>c pr111<:1plc,
C\1Jl!flcc It 1h.t1 pn..mu11un h •n•thcma ro = cqu.Wcy '>omc ot thr :,upri:mc
l~uun·~ rc.-ct·nt pr~r~J\I! Jel."L\.ion~ on rJr< nhibu .. ii.n c"'lu.alit) 8d1)1
1nd11 ' 1umpruJcn<c hJ\lng <omc thb for lor "omcn, bcanng such cn<•t
111ou promt~, <'OC m.tJOr e,_,-cpUtll'l litJnc!, t"-ll Clur t.lÍ 'ittp lS thc juJi~ial
ra1h"·r thíln oa Ju.rL"pu1.1hle t'mbi.1rr~~n1ent tu pr1nc.:1r1I(' or ;t rco1J1~t .>tratl-gt' balll\ 1hJt •w•U' 1•nh hcm~ tl0<.Lnnully "' l•bdcd rclun tncc ''' appl\ scx cqu•ltt) pnnoplt'< 111 1hc rcr<<•nJI l.1ws. To VOl)1111t
t:<•n\uJ1,,•r&1tH'n for thc: 1r,;ynic.d liugator, Tiu"' llhern.11l\1.: thcury n:t1111rl-.. that C.ni<1.1lh und lu11J.;mcntJI 10 these deci~ton• lmhú wn,11n11111nJI tc\I dc1tt'tt'I, rht f>Cr<onal ln\\'I ní ali of India< rdi¡uon< have conrnined facial
the 1111> ¡>rrnt1ntc c.¡w1lny for subordina1ed ~"'"I" h~ cn.lin11 >UhorJmJ1mg hold< ~reat potcnu"I to amelionne the sub<>r<linJt i"n ot wum<n to mtn A 11nd •Pt'lieJ scx-base<l Jistincuont 10 W001l'fl's dt<JJ«ama~e. Ye1 in the
prJcllcc' th•t pmmote ¡troup-ba..<ed disad••lnt•~e lt J,.,.cr-·c, the name of s1~nal bc,oron <Ompared with =m· \\'CStem equalir\ j\uar•ntccs, the teXJual tamil\ ltl:<I. thc rourrs often permit thcm l'\ell as the prmisioos are
•uh~1.1n11w cqualm· because 11 takes sub<unnve 111equ•lll) ;1< 1t< p<>mr of lan)!Ull~e ,,¡ Anide 15 CCCOjlIUZes m the strucrure anJ rro"''º"s of t:he 'ltJincd tsomdltnes 10 the brcakmg pumt) to pr0>1dc ao approxmiauon
Jcpanurc anJ rroduces equali~ m substance at ll< po1nt <•f arma!. Lon>CUUll<>n ol lnJra u<ell that sex has been rruade m1<.> a ,cxr.il JiuJ, an- ''' .tppc.u.u><e of >~ equAltty m ""uh In rhc employmem >dllllg, the
•"l!c l<>r u "mcn, m \10lauon ot rhe cqualiiy pnnc11,lc. \long "'"h C.Aru1J.a's J¡..,, Coun unh,.,.,ianngl\ mv.tliJatcJ • nil< 1)1.r rcqwrcJ 1 \\"omllll but
SC\:uon 11 21, lnJJú Aruck 15(3) <peolic:Jl) oug¡:t'"' 1 -.1b,,11ntnc ra: not 1 nwt mcmbcr ol thc lnd1an ft,rc1¡tn \cn1<c to obt.un ¡xmm.ron oí
m o¡;nm<>n ol \l"C><Tlt'fÚ une.¡tul '°";.,¡ '~"" !>) f'Cl1111tttng lp<'CU( pn>\1st0m thc flO\<nmtcnt lo mam C.ontcmrlmn11 1hc l•cial <ex Ji"'"'1tmJlton
lnJ1• • c.¡u.Jui ¡un'f'ruJcncc h.,. L>t1~ cxh1b11eJ mklmgs of fomul "' m:nty thnr •""'!u.lny As • re.uh ~1<1" '" ..nd 1hc hícur.h' oí mcn the!T i... u<oe l¡-,,r ...-ondered "v.-hethcr IAnu:ks) I~ ;md 16bclon¡¡10 m,~h
C<{'l•lu) • ltm1ts undcnmn, mrran'I"""""· JoJ h•cklJ"1 ¡x•tc'flt1al •nJ J.is. m-.:r u umm ar.e IK're ""' \1olarions of .an e.¡u.alit) rule 1ha1 .ire n.- cnhdc-s or realitv • \\!ten ~•larrd m thc fam1lv ¡..,.. c:oo1<xt propc:r. faciallv ,.,,..
plnrd • "¡;orom knoe 1h.c a more •ub.tanti•< n<>UOO oí equ•lil\ h,u bttn pennmrd ll«•u"' ''"h steps prooJO(e equalny. they ore noc occ¡mons uncq~J pf0\1"10ns are repeircdly ¡xrmmeJ t<> <ll!Od.
n,...J..J "' for back as 1963, lustice Rao'< Ja<S<"nt m [...,¡,;.....,,, ~r la- ro an 11111dtscnm1nJt1<>n rule: thet" are noc discnmmanon .u .U Cemunh Une ..,·on.krs wbcre thc Coun's dant\ on se• tne.¡ualit\ ha. ¡!Olle whcn
mou'I" <h•llcn~eJ d.issibauion theory as thc be-ali and enJ-all of one coúlJ not lcgJll) promote women's mequalm b, J.¡,. coo<blent ,.,di ,.,..Jm¡¡ "• upholdtn¡? m l 9'lc; ot tht: pn>pcrtv r•ruuoo pr0\1>10ll> of thc
c.¡uality He ¡1r.1speJ thc esseruial po1m: .1> bt-rw~n c<1u.Wi. o.nd ci:ISSl- Anide 1' ~u<h a ,ubsldnuve aw•ren.:ss IS l.iclun~ •• ~ b.ist> tor 'J.om.en's l ltnJu ~11c<e"100 Acr. Son> ol mle>hlto v.cr" 1hcrc .JlowcJ to urulatcr..U}
buuon, thc 1.úl has bo:én wagging the dog A ••milar f'Crccpuon •mm.a1eJ n¡uAltt) n¡:hu in m'"' 01h<r u>unmc:. in rhe world. 1w11,ulorly rn the hl1><k J"·"1on uf propcrty on ••le of • Jwdlin~ hou~ b) lmng in u re
lt1c 'cpur.uc o¡,.ntt•n by Juwcc Bbogw•u. jo1ncJ h) .lu>ll<c her. m Ray· \\"t"l. C.r ft.,¡, Juc:s u tukc lcX<wl form. Thc pr1>v"'""' 11( Art1d~ 15 offcr vmll<'I• ní mllnt.11 swius, so ¡,!Ju~h1c" wuuld mhorit nothing until h11er,
t1rJIJ, "'hcre u "ohwrwJ of the MHJ!lecl 11cw J<>clrinc thJt cqu.Juy lbº• • 1ul>\llnll\c kn. thn>ugh which ,...,mcn' e.¡11Jl11y ri~ht• <'1111 l><: tcJd. wh1lo d•u¡¡htér- c<>ulJ lin· in rhc h1111>e onlv 1Í 1he1 were unmnrried ''
~hn,1m1<; c.:c1nt·c.:r1t \1tilh OlJ.Jl'-º 1.u.p<."Cts .anJ J1n11...n1i+1on,. .1nJ u c.anoo1 be In lnJin' le~.1! tound.cions anJ cose l•w •re,¡,,,. •tron~h· prdi¡:ureJ a Ahhno¡¡h wnmcn had feu-,,r ri¡¡hts than m.-n. the 'ª"' was •llou·ed to srand
'cnhl,.-d, rnhrn<~l uncl cc>nfinrd' within tradirmnal und d•><:tnn•n·c limus."" .,r
ba"' ond • readtnc" l<>r the next • next srep • m rhe cvolu11<•n ¡uJtcial t>n ~ rauonale 1ha1 <ug,llesied u ali carne 0111 rou~hl' equal 1t1 1he end
Tlx-ir •n11.11!-11r.nnc" <tandard wa' r<'<isnn~ thc \.1me c<¡ualm 1h1nkin~ 1 c<¡ualtt\ 1hmkm¡¡-1his ttme. for v.-Q!l1en Formal equ•hr; rould be, ron- Gnh• H.r"1.aran's case. challen¡un~ a Htndu ¡¡uJrd1anshtp rule prondmg
h .. c 1<k·1111h<d thc tradUJOnal liln11s ol wcstcm equ•lll) thtnlún~ Úl11 have tmcd to Amele 14 Artidoe 15. through \nicle Ut31 tn r•mcular could th•1 ••her the liletime of the lather, thc mother 10 rhe child's guard1an,
• cnbbc:J, Cllhtned .and roofincdº c<¡uali1y ¡,,. m lnd!l, tt.¡1.111"~ 1 new prO\1Jc thc N>I> lor a >ubswiavc equ:ilm d0<1nnc rh..r •l•nJ., :l¡.\óWl.Sl !l"e> me 10 >unilar UOCISC. ºAlter""' mterprt1cJ "'mean "tn thc ab
Jcpanurc 10 be true 10 thc o>cncc ol thc pnnctplc ••>J pru..futoe equalir) .fu:idv;mi.~c· thc bía.uch¡ of mm"'"' U'Olllcll ª 'i..-x "ould m<ompsss smtc of • as ú Ibis sohcJ thc "'' 10l·..¡u.al11¡ Thc mo<her ,...., thc chilJ'>
m rcalih i:rnJ.r, 111 c-Juclikc so..bll> J,..,h.,.nugmg fonn ... rJthcr 1han brmg ron 111Urdútn onlv m ltcU oí Úle foth.:r, not 1n ha ""11 nght, her ~1nli211"1íp
On<c 1h<.' potcmi.J .h IW1ll>m inhcn:nt m thc e.¡u.dil\ roncc:rr ,, m-.:..lcJ 6ncJ to hrol•it:Jl-.1 ICll •,,..)y" or so; • •loncº in thc ruttrount 1cttsc.' onc Sl«J> bchmJ thc sitc .,( his ah.mee' l 'nul \"'&'!)' rt"Unrlv, 1hc Cbristun
m d•un• h) "1bonl11u1rd pcopb as forq;rounJ<.J m 1hc ahcmJtc con S.lfllC t'U$O not lorrm~rh C<><Ndered ~x c.¡wahry cucs <loc1ruully, such ., ¡x-rmn.tl I,,..,, prc.cnb<J Jifforml gniundt <•I Jtvmcoe for mcn and \l"'O!TICll,
rcrunn, 1 nch tuhJr¡¡nti\<! ~ualit) traJ111on I~ fC\Cllal ht-neuh C'l'U~ the ,\luthuna r.apc ca...,, m ,.·luch a siirrecn >car olJ tnhal girl >auall,- mcn bctn¡¡ pcrmmeJ 10 divorcoe on • ••n!llc !!""'"d. v. hile women b:id 10
<qu.11111 ~1mpruJC1'n' m lndta AJong v.ith thc rrom1nt"nt ca..:> l'n C;L<tC, ~<sauhcJ h) ruo policemen •ta pol1<:r: <tanon •-.1, lound h\ thc Supmne have more than one.'" ~luslun reN'ln.tl la"' ra¡wre • Muslun ....fe to be
J'<'rhar' us m"'' \lsihle oexcmpbrs. 1• <l'me c.l<o on ,.ornen'• ngh1<, by Coun 001 to hJVe bccn raped, ,..ouJJ be unJcm0<.J as \IOl•t ion> ot con mon0¡1Jm00>, whJe • busbanJ e.in h.,e up tn four 11.1\i:s ~ also allow
talun~ thc ><•<tal comext of sex·baseJ <IL<:td• •nt••>\t: clr.irh 1mo Jccount. >U1u11onal ..,, «¡u.1!11v n¡?htJ>. U rhc sa equali1, m >Ub,tan<c •<hi,-.cJ for h1"b•mls hui 001 "'"es to d"'º''" urulJlerJll\ \\1thout iaúlt,msruuuonaltie
Se• [qu1lllJ Un<ler 1he Conslllut1on ol India • 129 Su [quallly Under lhe Conslllu11on of India • 131

Ju\lier .rran~c:nicnt$ tl1J1 •1gu;bl~ JlllOunt IO . .lling '"'mcn in marria~c. ul '" c.¡u.1.l11¡ cmb<.Jll..l in 1hc Unl\trlJ.l Dctl.w1on ol Human Rights." up to be ba11ercJ. r•p....l . .inJ murJer<.J In tbi. pclliOn:il • sphcrc, across
~r-Jni nulc hc11'11 t"kc thc .h.trc ol km.11< hcm. •nJ J., nol olio" moih<n. Thc U1utcd Sut<.. •1111 hJ' not r.tttlirJ CEDA\\"; lmlLl h.s cult<lf<S, wom1.n ore <>ircn c<;cnti.tlly ><•IJ to mcn •nd º"n<.J bv tbem,
to be glLuJ1Jru ol num>r dulJrcn ' i\hth ''' tt•lot) , 1nJ<T\I l'hc c::h.1r~c ch.u '~" c~u.J11" t\ • lort1~n 1n e-rnuon
1
t"\ 1 fc-.&tu~ oí mc:n ·,_ worncn'w IJhor 1s cxplt>lltd wHh ludr or ntt 1.:muo~Jll<ll1; worncn are
fa..,n whcn le~.! Jcó<ion1 in 1hc lam1I, .,...,, I~'º' '"'mcn's <qu•lm in C11lturc m moll pi •co. lt "thc nc•r-unÍ\'él"al '""P""""' b' mcn around the oftcn •• nicn'• pl<Jmrc, kl')•t <1<1'<'"'1' 11' vmh1n • rcfo11on>h1p o.o loog.,,
outro~. " «•me h...-. from lliub 11.Ptn" tn l.1111/1. .. couru re<•~t predi· °"'"
,. 0 rJd 10 •••nrnl·n ,....,ng th"1r value m term• mcn havc dcrucd them, 11 ronunllC'I ,mJ ,h..-.orJ(.J rnto J..•,rnuuon •nJ .iv1I txile "hcn it cnJ,; In
c:ann¡¡ iM n:sults on "'-' <qu;1.biv gn>untk lt " no• unusuul in such ca_~ ,. ben ,. ,,mcn nrl"* thcir Jcno~rauon a• aU 1heir culture has to otfer. mteracti1'n v.11h thc mu of SO<.-.cty, in "hkh wnmen •re discrim.iruucJ
for th..-re to be no Ji>CU>Ston ol ~J< c.¡u.ility 111 thc lqi.J 'ICOSC at ali. Thu< :-;onwc.tcm ••ornen n.:cJ only <Ufllp•rc therr treumcnt not with western a¡uun<t on the OOSJ> .,¡ sex 1n cmplO\mem. the-· ~re tmpovensbed. Tbc
r.bc Coun w1>1eJ on • N.ttutory grownJ lur •·1>1Jin¡: tbc ..,,..,.,J m•ITLlj1e ,.ornen s but "1th roen m lhtv º"" tJtllum to ~ce th.: problem. Thc W"'1 lanuh- •> .IS<> a place -..hcre v.'Omen a...- rc:<¡U1re<l to uke rcsponsíhility for
ol • tormo: HinJu mm "bo <un,cncJ tu l<l.un,' 1 utl1cr tb.m holJm¡¡ tb.11 \\'C:.tcm lcm1111un luncuum to Jtlltify at1'<k on mmoruy rdigion. to chtlJrm anJ •re ohcn ~l\cn ¡.,.., rcsour<cs to e.are lor tbcm and hule vo1ce
po1,.,.. "*
m, 111 thc: •h,cn<c ,,¡ rulvan.11') ur mutu.il """""' ali, • \'ioltuon suppon thc wpenuruy ••I thc \X'at anJ to 111-uly 11> in1nmon has 1 loe. of m Jcet>1un> that •llc<1 thcir J<>tnt lnc~
ol on <qu.Jit, !l"o'"'"'ca <:U..ns 1ppcar more rorolonable ,-.,nsuum~ cur...-ncy, u h.. h.ip~ncJ m thc past But v.·hJt thc We<t ha> to giun m StJtc> •re f•r frum unin .. PlvcJ in th.. ,._,·c•llc.I pcrson.il sphcrc. ThC)
•1.1tutcs tn intcrpm ~....,n.J la\l-s v.i1h1n rd1gious Jicu1..-.. "'-"pite ""11C promotm~ ;-.¡u.1l1ty lor v.'Ol'llC'n m lnJi• today, 1111 equalU\' u does no< pr>e· entcr u . .mong othcr ,...,.... b) lcj(l'llaung anJ cnfomng family ¡..... that
o:nbarn.smcm 10 °""'º' '"'º'""'
ni mrcrpm•unn anJ thc mk of tunhcr ucc or .,ftcn t"H'fl prcach at home, 11 selJom <peahed h ts ~d irony efícctneh· •url"'"' the<e rractitt< Onc k1nd of c.¡uality qUC'>non t> pnsccl
cmiosm ol iM luod Sbtzh a.,,,,, ~cratN, whcn tbr Coun \\'U bmerly "°
1ha1 thc pnnople of culrural p.antrubnt\ is oíten inroked by 'll"esretDCrs 11 the sure nntr cntm •n ª"'" •t ali Bm once emerin~. under welJ.
resemed for pn:swrun~ to ro11>truc rchtJOU> conecpb m thc: lamilv arca m Jdcru.c <>Í mcn ni ,uborJinJteJ mmonuo subordlluang wocnen u'tlhm "'ublished con•11tunonal and 1n1emaoonal rnnoples, ther ha>·e ro emer
v.'Ubout the rdigiou> •uthonty to Jo so. lt appc;al'> to be more tmponmt thor °"n culturo. 1111J so lmk rn¡>e<:tcJ othcrubé ... on a >E'X~ual hb!s. C~ainl) whcn mies IC1?1Slate sex discnminatioo.
to lca\'c thc Jercmunauoru ol lmiily ble to reh~1un 1han to Jd" cr on tbc 1 malh, somcwno thc 1nong pcuplc h"c tbc ng)u iJca. C\'C21 if they roforan¡? thc suborJin.ucJ >0e1al >t•tu. ol women 10 mcn on tbe hoes ¡ust
""'""unon.J anJ 1ntcm;11011al >ex co,¡u•l11y nght> that thc Coun ha. ex pre» ·.. 111 ~ppallm¡,: "•)'• rhc hbtoncal •~amplc romo 10 rrund of Jo.:nlx.-d. mn>utuuon.I and 1mcrnauooal obh~auon> >re \iola1cJ no les.
sh.'""' n>elf capJhlc <>Í ¡¡u.ir•ntc.:111~ "' <•thcr ~rcni' anJ the ch.Ilcn¡1cs ro clC\Cn )CAi olJ l'hulm•nt 8J.1, who J1cJ In 1891 of ;;exuaJ 1ntr<COutSCWÍth !han "hcn >Wc< J<I 1'fft<J.Jl) 111 •n~ othcr arcJ OÍ soci<1) to 1.h,, dJsad\'an
famiJ,· l1ws ha\'é so 1m1>ly 1w11JieJ \\1w• her hu,b•nJ Thl" 1>arliamcnt•ry '"",."'"to raisc 1he a¡¡e of marri¡¡¡¡c from bt~C of t_\nC ICX
The decision in MaJhu l\íshwar' s case in 1'1% expre«ed <h• concem ten 10 twch e wa• ºl'f'l''cJ ewn h) m•n\ "·ho ia\'Ored 11 bccause thc Noncthcbs, wc cnrountrr J ~" ,_¡,., anJ catcgnrical reluoance to t'CC'·
thar ID\'alídatinii cxisung la" ·would bnn11 abntu 1 cha0> in thc exisrmg Br111>h-\\ ho wcrc '"'d therchv to he 1n1erfennR 'll11h rehgíous .iífaus álld o¡¡nl7c ~•• «¡ualny ri~ht< 1n thc fomilv. This reluctance is nor unique to
srate ot law • ., ll existm¡t law t> unequal. rcqu1nnp 11 to be equal u1ll no rooched the1t oh1o1C111'n in rehR1<>11> terms-were for IL Witbout doubL an) one culture but rather i~ ~h.red by riatríorchal cultures (and most ere
doub< be unsetding. bUl surdy that prov1dco éVtdcnce of 1hc P""•St\'cncss \'OUD!\ women's wdl•rc b<'C•mc a prelc\l lor colonialm culniral ll'tten-en· malc dominan<. althou~h forms varyt oround the world The Supreme
ol th< mei¡unluy to be 1Jdrc»•.J r•thcr than a rt:>><>n thJt no mcqualuy uon.' But Joc:s thot mean th.it ¡ltrlo who are raped to deu•h in mMru1ge, Coun of thc Uoit<..J Statts, lor in>t•ncc. w far looks at lamil)' law under
CxtSt> to be rcrneJ1eJ A mc>re h.tsi< rc.t><.tn bdunJ the rclu<"tantc 10 opply behavlor hJrJly conhnc.l 10 ln,h•. urc not being hormcd by ut Docs that equalny rubrtC> only for f.d•l d1s11ncuon>." when m re.1l1ty fanuly law m
;;ex equ•lity pnn1.1pb 'º rer>t>n.111........ i• thc (urcu but for írom toothless) mean notlun¡t should he du11ct Dcfcnd111g somethin~ thot huri. your own the UnitcJ S1<11e> upcmc. 11> 11 dyn•m1c m¡;mc for 1ntpoveri>hi11g women
chargc thnt se• eqcrnlit)' is • WC!llcrn •nd h<11cmomc 11.lca 1h•1 6hows m ¡x-oplc lx:<o1u'~ l"'ºl'I~ who hun you urc ·~ninll tt sccms to me • sign of iJ.nU J'lroduc:ins an<l rc1nforti11A 1hcir untquul stntus as a icx ~c.Kict)'--\\'tde.""
suf6ciem respcct tor cultural divcl"ll) A• thc i11111al un.11'"'" •howed. con· a <olt1n11L.J mtnJ t\ ma¡onty of wnmen 111 tlic Unítc.1 Si.ue< marry under l.m , .tnd most
venoonal equalicy anah,is is we.rem, •nd thc altcrnauvc conet'pnon Thc unJcrlun~ aim1"t axiomatic rc,1<0n fnr the rducrance to in•11lidate Jivorce throu~h thc judicinl prtX'C«. Rrn no •e• equality >tandnrcl, have
sketched ts not pMncul<irlv f oo. womcn are not equal to mcn m any ~' hi•<Cd f.1mih lav.·• .ippear< t1' be rhe fact that thcse laws mvolve the been applieJ to thc re<uh• nr 'tandJrd• ol cither pmc.,.•-with t:he rcsulr.
wtstcm culture knou-n Uearl' scx c.¡u..Lt) IS not vcry wcStcrn, "'"'" as l•m1lv Lrolon¡¡ m<•rc Jceph 1n cro-.s culnmi.I li~ht 2t tbe realiry of this for example. tlm tht mJrnJ¡?c comroct rcmams unscruunittd lsay. for sub
se.x C\ju.ilit¡ I> harJli unk.nown m nonwntcm culture" To ~l\é thc \X'c:.t l.m>Uy >pbcrc, tcnncJ •pcr.on<ll. .ilonj.\ \\1th attcntion to che 11-ay .,'Ornen. r°"1 vou:lmg thc r~pe law v.here manta! rape 1s 001 rccognlzcJt. anJ
equaluy oh>.;urc• "' prcscn«:, 11$ divcr.ity .uiJ Jy0An11>m •• ~n 1Jcal anJ a oub.unu\'dy hi>l-'rll<AÜ\ Jis•J, ;tntJgc.l group. are tte:uw thcre. onc womcn'$ 'tan<l.rJ ul bvmg 1> ¡.erimttcJ to plummct alter ilivon:c. • .Be-
p•rti..t ""'1uy arounJ tbe "<>rlJ le •lw J1•ll>rh anJ tn>uh1 thc 1ndi¡:cnou> M:L'S th.at 1hc: larruly is,, <ruuhlc ol wumcn'a unc..¡u.il swus anJ subordtn.uc cau.e courh ><<'ITI m>t to w1"1 to rcc<'!lnlll thJt thc famil> is J sphcre ol
tn0\·cmcnt> of womcn Íor cqu.1l11y nerywhcrc-u• 1t thcu Jc,sirr for uc.atmcnt sc:xu.illy, phrnC11llv, "'""'"mt<aU.., anJ <1v1lly. The fomih, across '"" incq""I"' und.:r '"", ""' 1ne<¡u•l1ty 1uthm tt .,.J on Jíssi1luuoo h.>.
cqualif) wac not th"1r °""" .,. tÍ 1hc.. .ore nOI 1u1on<1mOU> a<ton e11p•hlc ~ulturo 1 n a •ne oí \14..knCC' a¡J1nst V.:<Jtne\, 1ncluding ~xual use. a bttn l"ÍÍCCU\d\ c>t'ITIJ•I l'wm l<"PI scx «¡UJlll) intcf\<'l'ltion. Tn 1hc re.ult,
ot recognizmg anJ Kttn¡t on thcir ""''" intc...-s1> h al<o oi,..curc. tbetr pina: v. he...- wom<·n are \'IOl.atcJ ""h 1 J1 .. inct and .1lm.,.t inddible 1m. thc fam1I¡· '' puhhdy rc¡iul•tN to ""mcn'• Ji.aJ,;nrJ~
leidcrslup m tbe ¡¡Job.U nl<>\·cmcnt lor the bbttaoon ol women. h ns purnl}' * lt " a conté.'1 m "·htch, on tbe N•e .,¡ <a, sorne arc not per- Thc Íllnul\' is "cU rrroim11cd 1> 1 central force in thc rubhc or~iution
H.mu ~ldua. not Ek.mor Roooc-.dt, who '"" rcspon>1blc tor tbc uaces muud to be hom, are not f....:! or nunurcd, are nnt "'en allowed to JEJO". of rclanons betv.·ccn thc ''""' and. 1n all ns '"'"°u< form<. as a cruoble
132 • Struults w,1h1n Slltu Se• (qyal11y Unde• the ConsMullon of India • 133 1!4 • S11uu1es ~'•h•• S1im

ol thc 1Jcol••¡t) 111J rc.11!.<.lll••n ol m•l< domm.1n<e 1rnrlJw1Jc. ,.,. thc uttft wn.t.l"' d1cn bct.:tlmo i.' \li.J) ut 'J)U18 th.it ~'lH»c:n, J 3roup v.h(l)C stoJt~ ¡., "'101n\t1nJLt\· anlC.lfl)t rncn it,; \Upr~mc rcloul\C: tn women tlut n!'.tcho. u<.:mss
(:C,urt l'Ul 1t 10 th~ f1&1rUJ't c.:nfU~~I lO fndLl, ª (01o-hon tttx:lcty l' m.elt Jomi "' Jcc1•11'cly cvm1r11< '"J m >1n.I oí thc .ren.i' Jcoonuna1,·J pcrsorul. will >LllU• ...,J rd1~1<>n, and m•t 1hc11 ddlcrcnt...,s on 1hosc grouotb. thJt cwi
n.rcJ, hoth ccononU<"JLIV •nJ ,_,..,u, .in,l wmn<n lrc a1si1ncd, mvarfably, h•1..- "" ""'o¡:niud le~.U n~hl> 1<> ttluJl11v, The m1ur1 m" cut clo<e 10 tho he""" to ,lcrtrrn111C' "ht1ht1 1ho pcr.c.1n.1l L1"~ ..,.,u be govern..l by con
o dcf>':lkl•nt rol., orre•p«Uvc of thc d."' ol <0<1ec:y 10 wlnch <he ~­ renon, QS m.ny ••rect• oí 11rnup 1Jc-nmy •nJ laf~ Jo, bu1 when the ex 11111Jt1llnJI scx cqu.1luv sunJ.irJ, Ir ;., in 1his li~h1, men\ domÍOJncc in
long:;"• In m0<ot rdil!Jou' •nd culturnl ~n•uf", ti tn dl\-er<e tonm and ,.,th penencc IS shaml "'11h other "c>mcn, 1nduJin11 01her wCllTlcn of one's 1hc l•m1lv of <" ~n rcl1~1on 1ha1 1< a1 <rake in v.:ha1 is presenred IS reli¡uou<
unJuoo<, •he l.1m1l1 1< Jn líl'utuuon ot thlS male dommance Pcnooal relt1t1on, u becomes se•-b..<eJ h is no cmnrnlence tha1 whJt 1> <lenom1- and cultural JtH'Oll), thc 1crms c>t men's !>""'et"'"' women rn 1he hm1I'
1.,.., ollcn tel'\e '" lq;.tluc 1h1s Jom1n.1n.:c .,¡ mcn 01cr uomcn m torn» n•tcd the pcNln.il 1> often preasel1 v. htte .e• U'l"'!ualit) ol ..-amen 10 men tha1 '""'" mcn •re .!lu" 1~ ochcr mcn to <;e< oo relij?IOus !l!Ouncb U
part.Kul.v 10 •'ll<h n:l1J1on-undJh:r.U J1>orcc b) mcn m '°""'· mJJcquatc .. crudill) C'll.lctcd l'be cxcmp1aon lrom sex ~ualll) prinopks tor the pcnonal Ln.>,. ere 'ubJ«I 10 scx cqu.alm >tanduds. tbc d<al ,.-bc,rt"b)· mc:n
m.u.ntc:nanc.:c 4lter J1,11h.C' an .u101bcr. 1nhtn1a.ncC' h) mcn only m .inother. •pa<on.11• "' • w•i <•Í U)10¡t th.a1 ""mcn h.,.., no c:.¡wluy ri¡;bb unJcr mu1u.alh tolerare onc ~nocher'• Jominancc: rr.cr ,.omm, c:acli gmup oí mc:n
K'll busc.I '"'nc:nh1p anJ Cl"11rol oí ¡m•rcm anJ succcssiuo rul.s 1n l.w 1>·hc:rc thn mos1 m•llcr As thc 'iuprcmc Court oí In.fu forthragluh m thc:u OV.'11 ""'' "<aulJ hc otf for al! ni them
ochcrs. rnulurk m.arru~""' only for mc:n m 1ornc, <"\hrody oi ch1ldren ro ~nuN m 1h., \fJ11f.tm.t•1 \f,,J.¡/,.,, ""' •¡xrson.al ¡,,.., confemng m In 1hc case oÍ IC\ILll h.1usYncn1, untJ 1h1S ScJm<: Jeal '11.U c:xpootd .. a
mc:n ou)y 011 WW>IUllOO líl aíll'<hcr JnJ 10 nn Thc common bctor l'i llllllc Ím<>r •tatus nn "ornen 1s 1na1hm,. 10 c:.¡wluy • • Once u IS n-cognued lorm ,,r scx Jis<nnun•tion, •cxual h•r.iummt Jisiribu1ed <n md mooey
donun.&ncc-rhJI "" .ex lll<'<¡u.ilm-m cuhurall) ,p«itic 1111d JlO{ mire· that thc: famih· as a 1em11n ol sex 1n<qu"111y, callmg 1ho !.v. of rhat area 10 kttp control ot horh in mm'< hanJs and to koep ...-ornen poor so that
quenth rdl!Zlou'h rat10nal1ttd torm pel'lOnal 1> re\,,.Jed a~ bttk more 1"2n • ,..... ol pttdudmg womaú as- the1 had to Jd11u sexual!) 10 'urv11-c, with no lepl recourse. When .ex
1k 11--e anJ rekrcnl of 1hc 1>'\'lrJ "pc..-onal• an tlus scmnp, is remml"""11 seruon ol o¡u.illl\ thcrc cqu.1111 prinoplc. tlfC mopcrauvc:. both sexual barassmem and personal
ol 11; pl.i.cc in thc Jnc1"pmcnt .,{ thc La" ol sexual hal'llS>rncnL Sexual In this light. thc phr...., •penoruJ bv.>" m1~h1 be S<UJ 10 be !<llllethin!! l•w• J""'c ...-ornen anJ mone) 111 mcn'> bands. cbe terms ot thcu- <hstn-
lurti:>JDcnt "a. Ion~ rq:•rJcJ ,. pcr..10.i in that "ben • man >CXwlJy oi an Ol<)moron. onc thc l'>Jwu 1lr~• \f.,¡, h<>ldanJ,? of 19H 111 Bombay buuon arr.n¡:cd b) mcn amon~ une another Urilikc fonn.al cqualn). "'-hich
har.,..,J a ,..,rn,m. 11 wa. trc•tcJ as •unply bch•<'<'ll hun and her, mcaning on the Htndu B1gJm<>Ul M.tm•¡;es A<I •t1cmp1cJ IO r.1uon.ilize b) rultog un lc.11..: thi> uran~cinen1 in place, >ubu.tt1t11e cqualit) thcory hi~lighi;
pcrM•nlll ra1hcr 1h•n Jcm 11111 fr<•m th< collt-t~I\ e r<>pt-cll\c M><iil i-nions that bcc-•u~ l"'l'M>nal l•w• Jo not ckm'C' 1hcar Juthonl) from k¡u.lnt10n, "ho •• Jmn¡¡ v. h•1 1<1 "hom. "ho bt'llcfü., and •I wh<»<: cxpcruc.
ol 1he r•rtt"' ., mcmhcr> oí 1h"" _..,. or 01hcr haerorch1c. or 1mplicatinl! 1hev are not •(,,..., m force" 1hus no1 ¡.,.,JI •11 for Artack 13 ronsurunonal Sexual hJra 'nlt'lll I~" h'5 prn>cn Ji>lo 10 aJd...,.. multiple grounda of
<oe1ctV •t 1..~c h ..... e't'L-cially rc¡:arded e< pcr«>nal b1 mtue ot bon~ l'"'l'º"'"·M <h n.1'° held. in true formal equ•lil\' ft>nn 1h.i Amele I~ WB• J1>cnman1111on." • •cnrnwuv hadh nl'('<k'<l m 1he arca of pcnoiul 1.,.., a<
<exual. thu< 1nJppropn¡1e ~nd otl ·hrnn• for le~al mmvenuon Wben not offended because maktn¡¡ •pedal rules for H1ndus was -bascd on rea- "·eU A d1lhcuh '''ºº for 1 <11h11•ml'• an11h1cnrclucal th.:ory of equalil)
sexual h.r,.,,'<rn<:m "a; hN brou¡:h1 to roun •• • claun for se.x chscruru- sonablc •nd rational <:on~iderauons. ·"I Pe.-.ona.I laws are lqlislatcJ. Tho ansc< \l.11h "·ornen whordana1cd u1thm subordinared commuruties, wben
nJtion. thc coum rcJ<UOn "" prccisel) 1hat 11 ,...., personal, 1bt:re1ore srn1e may or mny nn1 be thc uhimate sour<e of 1hcir Juthonty, bu1 it has the dJtm 1> maa.lc 1h•1 the subordana1cd comrnumry would be denied selJ.
no1 >CX b.1;.,J." \\'bat they mcan1 ,..,... bccJu•c ,,,.uJI h.1rassmen1 is sexual. maJc tbcm leg•Uy aml Mlrntlly uuthoritall\'C' unJ hru. givcn 1u authoriiy to Jetermm•Uon, >O\erc1Anry, or cqu~lil\ b) in1er1cnt100 in us culrural forms
11 ¡, pm .11c. antima1c. unJ rnJ,.idm1I hL'llcc imrm•ic"1ly umuital 10 legal them. Ju" as tÍ fomtly wcre pcr.on•I in 1he 1rue>1 s.cn>C ol the "'orJ, i1 ol oubor,hn.u1n¡: wumcn Subs1on11ve cquolity has a Joubl~ potential for
tcMubuo n, wh1ch ¡, publiL. in•1il11rinn11I. 11nd cJl<:J;<>roc.11 In mpon!>C, i1 ,.ould no1 neecl 10 be ~ovcrncJ b) luw, ií 1hc •u1hon1.11ivcnrss <>Í the rcwfyinM 1h.11 .uhorJ11w1n11, '" excrn¡>lifieJ by thc imu.U cases of se•ual
\\'J' ar~ucJ th•I 1hc J<I~ inH>lved m.1~ luve hten 1niirn111e 10 1he man, but pcrwnal laws w<"re othor 1h.1n lc1111I, rhcrc wt•uld be no nc...J m legislare h~ro,m1en1 1lw wcrc lm111~h1 by womcn who drt' African American and
1hc onh sensc in wh1eh 1hc h.11·11<>nicn1 w•• imimJre ro the w(lman was 1hem lnsu:nd the •o-calleJ ¡>erS(lnru l11w~ •re defin.,J ª' off hmii. to ju 01 1he bo110111 oí tlw lab"r 111.1rke1.'" Their cOnl'erged d"':rirnination by
thJt she ",. anrim.udv <·iolm:d by 11 h rnay ha\'C been personal to tbe cLc1al m1ervenm:m when challenged bv chose they hun and are mhcrwise •c=-u.11 hJr."rn•·nt, once •ubs1anuvell' addressed. <olved rhc problcm of
perJ"cm11or 11> the •cn,c ol tnld\ m~ him as Q un1que indl\1Jual, but the otlioallv and ¡udtc1aUy enforted like •nv ochcr law '<'XiLll har•>sment Ít>r C\'Cr)c>no, •• weU as exposed rhe wav sexual access
personal "''h'"' .,¡ the "ornen "ho J1J 001 w•nr 11 "-ere not bcmg 1aken Sel! eqwlit) s1.111dllrJ. ~ovem l.tw< Or, mher, wbatever dse cbé) do or and U'< w"' anJ coulJ be •imult.neouslv l'KÍst and ,;a,xisL
uno Jccúunt. h w.Jlo .!w nol pcrwn.J to 1he >·1cum' 1n thc """"" that they aJJgM Jo, ti I> lalli~ that they g<)\CM \\'hcn they Jo 001 becd~ me laws Lél(.U cqu.Ull) ><•luuon' lor those suborJmJIN u;tbm subordin.t1cJ
nrc bcanll sub¡e<tcJ to 11 bcc•usc: thc:) v. ere \l.omcn, .. membc:n al thcu are c.illcJ penon.J." tbe 1crm 1> tl:\e.JeJ ., coJe lor "" e•cmpuon Jcal (úlDrtlUOlll<"> ch.Ulcn¡tc equ.tluy l.aw bm 1115.> prO\ 1Jc an opporturut) 10
.,,nJc:r.hJ<c:.J group \\'hcn the "'""' ""t"'nJ.:J favorobl) to th1S Jr~u rncn rn•ke ....1th one 11.norher-here, 1ha1 •ome mcn "~JI aU°" 01hc:r mcn promo1e c:.¡u•lll) .1<r<M thc b.1.1rJ. In 1h1• ¡xnpc:cti.c:. the eft<'Cllve "'"
mcnl untl c.1n1c to rl"~1&.rJ "<"'\u.&1 h tr;U.,rtk'nr .a JC110n.lb1c .as scx d~cnm 10 h.t>..: ~cce>s to W<'mcn C10 1hc11 º""' tfflns tt1 ochani:c for 1hose o<hcr cmptt<•D of lloln ~run1 conUttUlltln.ll anJ 1ntcm..iuonal ~crutlll)' \li:hm tbc}
10.JU•-.n u "h.n chn· 'Gcre e.loan~""~ rc:c.:ottnuin1t 1hJt 1c mtack no smse to mm'< allCl"'ing thr 01hen 10 hove 1ho ameª'""'' 10 thcir "-omcn on tbeir ore den<•mm•trd per1<•n•I l 1,.., 1h.i m IJCI are public •nJ inJttd polmc.!
call 1has ahaa.e pcr11<10JI. •mee 11 lul"rronl ltl v.'\'lmcn 11 womm own •erms lt ts 1> ti mni agrtt 10 mil pcocc aman11 one mocber on the m the ....,.., 1lu1 1hn ~nforce 1hc K'll\UI polmcr ol 1he relarionship ber..-..:n
\\y pomt hcre 1~. whcn law anJ 1rcatmcn1 are bascd on <n. thett is rondmoo ol respccun11 c-•di ~up's chcn<hcd mores lor mcqualiry ol the ,.,,mcn ,mJ m<"n a< • ..,., of m<nnmonalmn11 rnJlc dnmmma:. subordi-
nothin(!. prororh l'C""'n.! about 1hnn To .:all ln11ha1 ts ba....,J oosa ·per- sexo-in 0ther »orJ.. al thc cxpcn1e ol C*'h 11roup ol 'lmmen h IS rhis n.un~ ,.-,101cn by la"' ;\o< ertlnmng equalny m th" la..- of tbe lamil)· IS
St< EQoahtr U•de1 tht CooshMlt• ol lnd11 • 13~ Sil Eouatlly Undtr lht Conshtulion al India 131

thu. an ofllc1.il m"an• ol kttp1n~ w1•m<"ll '<:<onJ d.,. clllld'l> m '5Uad~. thc pn11<1pk• ,,¡ pcmmlll IJW> •pplk.iblr lo 01hc.,,, on an chust approadi in,ue nn thc bJ;1> t>I >ex •nd rd1~I01l comboncJ wuuld be a1·01dccl. Secular
Th.1> lar¡;et J)namic b h1JJcn bchu1J rd1¡11<'0 "hcn thc !'<'""-'º,.¡ uw• .irc or un cquJlny pn11c1ple, by ¡ud1d.&! •dl\1'm, is a Jifbcult .and mtnd· 1uJ""'' boJi<-. '""'Id no lon¡¡cr oflcnJ rcli111ou> comonumuco b)· cofbtrwng
ckb..1ed as J m•ucr c•l cuhural dncn.111 ..J1•nc 1h •1•1•l1rJ to 11...- ¡><:r>0nal b<>¡!1ling etfnn.""' Tu,. •">linio 1ha1 <·qualny muns umfonruty wbcn 11 thc mc•nmg .,r 1hcir rule> le wouJd •l><1 lx· far more d1ffiruh for rnun•
ª""" rhe sub.rann•c equ•hry 1ppu1a<h fr.11t1C> 1hc .¡ue>Uon ., onc nf Jj, >ht>uld he un.lt'110<><I to m<·•n nomulxnJmauon O.verse "and.rds for 10 rcÍU'4: IO !ll\'e 1he Wt"llCO <lf •11< h <Uh llfC • ••:X <:qU.lfÍC) opuon ÍM them
cntllll¡¡lmg male donunancc frnm raltur•I Hll"\l\AI, sn th•t cultur<"' con Jl\eN" commum11<-s are not rhc rrnblem. <tandards rhat subordin•tr m cxermc ehan n ha- bttn tor t h<><• '·'"'" coum rn refusc 10 srrike dov..,,
trMv lloun<h anJ wnm<"n can ton 1>'(>1Den m men are 11 chb C<¡ual111 1< too d1f6cul1 for rouns ro rontcmpLtte. aws 1h>1 are pr<">t"ntcJ •• the 'ª"" ot each rommunrrv. ,.-hether womeo
1>-omen ol each rchp'n anJ cuhure can pr0\1ck 11 tor th<:msd\'~ ..,.¡ch che ""'º had • vn1<e m Jc.;1~m11 thcm or not. Th" profX"al ts ronsistem v.-ich
V baclun11 ol thc 'e.ce. fhe "'"mcn ol e1ch rdi¡tlOfl. malun¡¡ che dtttion. Mr che 1111pulsc bchmd othcr mno\'aUons m tbc cquallt\ lr.ldmon. m whích
of thc11 culturo, "° oo culcural tmpcnal<>m 1> uwolval. ><X-unC<¡ual Law. "'" not "'"11)~ otrudo. Jown but are .omc:um.,. reaJ up...
In aso c:lull<n¡;m¡¡ ""' inequaluy LO pcrsoruil ¡..,.,., lnJian coun> •ppcar Thu. opuon for rdid ,.ouJJ be miil•bk for "hok rommuruuo to adopc AnJ u promoco C\Ju..Jll> m •ubu.incc
J'lr.JyaJ b) thc: Icor ol bcin~ t•rreJ b~ thc brush ,,f cultur.J 11ucrum\1t) but •l>0 for "'"'men ol An\ n:l1¡.!1<1US cu hure "hu ...mL.J to dL'Ct u, ooc at Th.- Jrn¡ m1Je of thc pn>r<••J IS, OIJ\loush, th.t che burcl<n to dum
ln.en>Jtmty to mmonty "'OIJlen'• """" cqualiry n¡:his, th<y appcllr •bk to a lime 11, itlf examplc, .\!11J1m "ornen Wett f~ceJ ,.,th matntenmce and ncm¡c the ri¡;ht• ,. on """""'" mJw1Juall)~ thc: wc1al COl"CJOn anJ
live 101th. :\s te> rbe i.mily and 1eltg1on, a; th<-. put u rd'onn h1.' 10 romc enJin11 ,.,,h iJJJJ" 1 •nd a un1form roJc prnv1Jed lon¡icr as a re~· for rommunU\ CO\h would be he"' to bc:•r. W11h lnd1•• bberaLzed locus
from wuhm rathcr chnn be 1mpns<"d lrom '&1Chotit In th1, 1.,lu. onc pos· ""x inequ.aht\ tn thc Íam1h JnJ in 'i0Cie1)' ," dK>Se wbo rouJd nor ruppon staocli rule<, che legial hurdm• of esubh•hm¡¡ the ngh" are te.s tban tbey
síble W.l)' out of the lcpl and polmcal 1h1cket-• rompmm1<e dw t..ces rhemo;ffles alttr J1vnrce woulJ not oced to im·alidaie 1he \1ushm ¡,.,.. or otherw1sc v.-oulJ be. thoujth. and the burckns are al<o less chan the In'<.
che Í.tct that mdlí\ or thoe la11> \1<ll.ce ~x cqu.Jn, <WKl•rJ• bur recog- have n o\'emJdc:n by thc: crurunal L,¡,.·. The\· 11>-ould srmpl) d=&, for as che\ .ue now, 1mposc Thc:rc ts risk to och womm m ekcung her scx
tUZC> che JUJio.J rdu<tmcc tho"C\'cr unpnn<1plc.J1 to mvalidare them- chemxlve. "'htch ICl!al fC1J:tme to dect. rccem.n~ m•unenancc ~ or o.jualny n~hc>. bue •he would n0t be .tlone, on tbc .,..umpuon rhat manr
could be to c:n•<t • unifonn cU<.lc ol l.tt1Ul) LJ,. pur.u•nr to O.recme Jom1111mh<>ur thc mJ1ntcn.ancc lur rc:li¡poU> rell>Olls. ,U to whahu a hu.· v. ornen woolJ 'º dt'<t. thc rcsulc. woulJ not only bc group b=d m their
Pnnciplc: -1-1 ch.u prm ,.¡.,, tor ••• cqu.Juy LO alJ ro¡""" ~.•..., womcn b.inJ coulJ mJrr) un •JJ111<>n.tl 11>1lc, pc:rhap• • untform coJc: would pro· ¡:roundm¡¡ but •l"' m thm rc>ul1>. M> c•pcncncc n:pre:.cnung MuJtm
and mm oo 1ts Íac.:c .ind 10 lilpplu..:~uon,"* \\1th 1t5 we ll¡1t1c>n.tl iat uonu.n·~ .,J., for cw<> pc:1'nn mJric.tl un1u or pcrhJf» for th.: a~rcernent of 1he womcn for ovcr • dr<•Je contirms thJI thcy knov. -.cll wh.lt ro do ,.;ch
di.cretion. mduclm~ "' rchef fnr prmcn o;ex '"'"l"·''"" m a commun11y'< c<1>tm¡; w1fc or ,. ....,. m che ex¡>Jn<ion of the fJmily. on che rarionale thst choice<. C\cn tho.e ..ich ri-k., so lnn11 11S 1hc choice. are maceriillly real ft
personal law. n ;, thcir f.1mily too \Thatcwr 1bou1 chis <phcrc ts lc:giúmacdy personal would be up to thn<e "·ho work in cach rornmunrtv to rry ro create the
Communitics coulJ aJoJ>t thc: unilorm roJc in n< enürctv But for those " i> iu•I ., pcr<onal co che \l'fltncn 10 "· Thc pnnciple adw.oced bere ts precondnions for the rc.1li<11c •~<:rcise oí che choice. W11h rhe men of each
chac clid not. "·h<nt1l!r a prov"'º" of un) reh¡:u'n" personul low was chru· rhat b<'Cause <>I -..:x 1nn¡uaL1y. wl"lmen would make che choice of law. rc:hg1ous culture no longcr doin11 aU the spcllkin¡t for Lhe culture as a wbole,
lenged md found LO dJ>.JJ\',1nta¡:c womcn undcr a substantive readto11 ol :>uch a -oluuon would be cons1~tc:n1 wltb lnilia's r=f\·anoo to CEDA \I!' "·ha1 is culcu~.tl and whuc " male ln cach ndcure would t.¡u1ckly bccome
Article 13-such llug.1uon mfusin~ hft into thc intcrprcwuon ol 11• sub- 1ha1 lamil) luws not be unpo;cJ on mlnoncy commuoiues cxcept •t tbeir vuible. More womcn woulJ li\'c uncJer c4ual luw• thun <lo 10J.y No m11gic
""ntive prov1>10n• ne die 8(1JllC tune tht wnman woulJ be allowc.J to clcct 1nurnti.c anJ no1 wuhouc cheir <"<>n•cnt. ' UnJcr clu• propo•.J, a •tx-equol bullet, 1hís hull >1c¡1 woulJ ullow the w11111cn of uU rclig1ons to vote 11.11h
thc remcJ) of J m·il code rromoon <~mlpdrable 10 thc rd1¡¡1ous k1w unJcr l.tm1ly law w1>ulJ he 11v.11l•blc l<l •11 rd1¡tious communiues JI Lhe initi;iti"" thcír feet, to walk "'" fr111n und¡·r """ b1u1>ed f•nuly '""'" pc:rhílJ>S focili ·
which hor fomil> 1sM1e "'oultl 01hoN1<e bc aJ1ud1rn1ctl Artu;lt 15 cnuld •nJ wuh 1hc '"'"'""' of chr women of those mmmuniti"5. Women of ratio¡¡ their 01111 ·~he 11w.1lid.111em, ww.irJ 1he tune when chese lo11.'S, this
onh be useJ in thJS \l'lly wherc •e• ,. made • Jisádvan1a11e. Once one no1udop11n11 <·ommunnic-. wnuld 1.1kc the iniuarive, and each womao compromise pmhablv indmlt'<l. 11111 look untcn.1blv unpnncipled.
womao bad chalkn~cd each promion, che >Jmc det'tlon would be avail- would ronscnt N<> womon 11·ho d1J n<>• "'ª"' her marría~e ~ovl'med under Bmldm~ <>n the ect1mm of lnJ1as """"'"· exemplary and renowned
able to all womeo similarl1 '11UatcJ "1thou1 liuµuon, lnsread oí m,-a]¡. 1he unil<>rm •rx C<¡ual codc wo<dJ have 11 enfoiced oh her. lt is preferable world\\1dc. on 1he rourn¡\e 11nJ prmople of its progn:sswe 1ud1dary, and
daung che sex-Jc.cnm1n.uory pro•NOns-con"'dcJh prd'erablc oo pnn- that '-Cx-uncqual 1.,., be ch.m11.cJ b1 che alfccted communwo (aod thar on 11> prop1tious o.JUJlttv tounJauoou, loJ1a 1> petfoL-tly pos1tioocd to de·
aple but appucntl1 polit1c•ll1 mcxpcdtcnc"-J Jc:duauon would J»U• the t.LOAW "'"'"'""'"be w1tbJra"'"'· Other ..:cuons of CEDAW that •dop 'ub,ranu\'c <e~ L'<¡UWll) le \'Jiu<:> milividu.i. but l<.'I:> group mero·
thru •n) ""llUll who so ch<»< wuld thcrcalcer be g<,..cmtd by ~ rodc: are unrcscf'\c.J m•1 <<>tnJ'ICI thc wmc: rouh. lluc ch1> comprollllSe i. con· bcr>hip •• con.li111mc ol hum.o J1¡1011y rather thao in ldlMOn w1ch 1L lt
pron>1on '""'""d uf cht' rd1g1<>0• one, m orJer ro rrom<"<' KX C<¡u.i.hl). ...1~1cn1 v.-·uh lnt.lt.a'11n1cm•uonal ol'hJr.iltkHl). rcsen.o.l or not.""' unclcntanJs th.u therc ,. na «>nlrJdtct1on be""'""' «'<'nomoc .nd socml
Scx equah" would nvc be 1m1-..d "'" •nyone \\'omt-n who v.'llllt<.J to Th1' pro¡"""I \\<mlJ pr<>m<>lt d1on~c: lrom w1thm Li" would noc be n¡:h1> "'ºh •• Í•mil) m•mccnJncc 1ml J><>l11ical and ci"I n8hu such a•
be f;O\ ern«l by the pet'M'nal l•WI of thcir c:ommunmc:s "'OulJ be But om hclJ not ¡...,,. C1•un• would no< apply fKtollv sex Ji5<nmrnaron lc:¡:iswion cquali11, k001'1n~ chai cronom1c •nd ~ial ri¡zhJS makc •ce= t<> ri~h"
woman, of u"1ate\"r rommun11y, "&-ho ..,...,,.,.¡ to cho.lSC <ex C<¡u.Jic• rould. " 11 11 11 ronmtmc •·uh rormuu11<>nal •nJ mtern>Uonal ..,, c:qualu)· ~ar­ ot ouzensh1p meamngtul le " • councry thar under<taods chac equali11
Cowts ha,.., found rha1 "1udiaal1' entornn11 on feach rcli¡m•n or culcun:l anl<"L'> Tonun:J >lllUIO<J rnccrprctauon.• that ratmnalíU' b""' ch:u discmn- and lre«lom are noc oppc><ed, but .. ork togethcr. Bv c.,penmentin~ ll'l1h
138 , Struul" w1th1n States

oew p.¡nne<Sh1ps bt'twtto lcgislacive onJ judicial brnnchcs, Indio JS wcll


>llll•Uetl to cxerci>e lcuclcr:.!Up to prmnu1c >ubstunuvc «qu1t!uy uncler law
bct\V\.-~n unt.I .a.n1ong womc..'fl ltnd mcn-C\1en if lnlualJy 1hruugh le~S·than
ideal solution•-in 1he so <:11llccl l"'"onol re~lm as well os everywhere clse.

part three
through the bosnian lens
142 ThJOu¡b lh• Bosm1n Ltnt Cnmes. or W1r Cumt• of Pe1te .. 143

14 mmcs or dropp<xl hom planes UllO the ocean. "'hen \\'Ornen 's skulls are
"""' from Auscb\\ ltz to St:n1Sbour¡1 for experimems-th1s 1s noL reconl.;<l
¡¡round human flllhlS princirles and fill rhe fucn1al repons of Amnescv
lnt=auom1.l,• ronsiJcr tlus é"tlmmunicauon from o researcher c:>Í Bosruan
Crimes of War, "' the lu,,tory of humnn rig)us auocmes tt> womcn. Th•1 are Argcnunian and Crofillilll desccnt gatb.:ong intoan•uon m Croacia und Bosnia-
or l lonJurJ.11 or jéwlih \X'hm 1h1ng• happcn to "'"nen thdl •4<> hurpen HenegovJna;
Crimes of Peace t<' men, hkc being [,.,aten and Ji,,..ppcared •nJ 1orturcd t•• dcruh, 1he foct
thru <hey hílppened 10 ,.-ornen Í> nol nntcd in thc rerord books c>Í human Scrb1m forces ha\'e exterminoced O\er 200,000 Croaoans and Muslims
thus tor m -an openuion the¡ 've ro111ed "ethme deansrn¡?.' lo tbis t!"UO·
<ufferin~. When no wor h•• l:>cen declared ~nd still wo1nen •re bea<en bv
men ~"üh wh<>m chcv are clo&4', '"hen ,.;ves disappear ITom supennarkec aJc, m Bosnia·l lorzeg<wuu alone "''-' 30,000 MU>hm onJ Cto;tian ¡µrls
parlcm¡¡: IO<S. "·hcn prostitutes tloat up in rivers or rurn up under piles ol
ruiJ WllDl<!ll J l'C P"'llDant frwn ma"' r>pe. or ihc lOO S<!rb••n-run C()O-
rags in ubandoncd builillngs, tbeSé arrocicies go unm:arked ennrely in rhe cen1r.ti<>n NmJl". 1bou1 lO "'" .old) r.p<Y,leath cnmps for Mu•hm ,inJ
record of bwnan suficring bcc.ausc Lhe '1cum; are womcn and 1t smclt. of Cmo1ion women llnd ohUdren (Thcre an:) """, report• and P"'11.1tcs
\\;'hett• .dtcr JIJ. Jo uflt\t'tul hunlan r1~h1.. hcgin? In imull pLt:~. t·I~ .ex. IJ('but happcno 10 womcn b drhi:r too parucular to be univcrool or here of Serbfon tanks plilStereJ with pornogrurhy-[luid rcports thot
those who) carch the eye of the inen lookin¡i: at the porno~niph) :m:
tn hOllTIC" too una.ces.ti to be p•n1cular, mcanmg cnhcr too hum1m lo he femalc or
-fll'.aDur Rcir.,.....t'"b t0<1 fem,Je to be humun.
kilk.J.... Sorne massacres m vJlal(es as well as nipes and/or exctutions
m camps are bein¡¡ videotaped as rhey're happening. One Cro-•tian
Women Jre violtned in manv \\'UYS that men are not. or rarcJ, ~ man~
oi these violatiom are ~xu~I 3nJ repmdncrive.> Ran¡tinii from objeccili- '"ºtnan Jescnbe<l bcing IOrtured bi• electroshocks and ~an~-raped m a
aunp b) Serbian mcn Jr.,.,cJ in Croaúan unlfonn:. whu 6JmeJ !he r.ipo
cation ro k.illing.' from dehumanizarion and defilement to mutihuon and
onJ forccd her lll "c:onf"'' • on 6Jm Lhu1 C10011;n, r11pcd her In thc
Behmd o.Il low 1s someone's story-someone whose blood. if you look torrure 10 sexual murder. this abuse océurs m forms and stnings and Jeg.tl
11trcc1:\, oí Z111greb. UN trt)('lp.s oftdl d>k l<><:.al 'vomcn liu,v much thcy coi;t
cfoseJy, Jeaks mrougb thc lin..s. [t is OOl only in roe common Jaw that the poSturt'S mal O\'erJap every rCCO!tOlled human ~bt> COO\'Cnlfon bul 15
. . Thcre ore repons oí refu~ee worn<.11 bcm¡; forceJ to ""'""lly .avicc
li(e of the law is experience.1 The lofuest legal abstracuons, however ~tren· addre;:.al, effccuvely und .. >uch. by none. \\'hJt most oftcn lwppi:ns. to
them co receive aid. Tomorrow 1 rn.lk to twO sunT;ors of mass nipc.
uously cmpty of socml spedficit) on tbc surfoce, are bom of social lifc: women escupes thc humHn rí¡;hLS ncL S<>mc1lung-¡urisJkuona~ eviden·
thmy men per doy ior over 1breemon1hs . The UN passed a re;olution
amid rhe intcrcourse oí pnrtítular groups, in the pre>ump1 i\'c ense of th~ tial), substantive. customnry, or h.1bi1uol-i• alwuis wrong u·llh i1. Ahuses
t>Í womcn >S womcn rarely S(."'111 10 fil whm these bw< and 1heir enforcing to eollen ""1derice. u lirsr step for a """ e-rimes r:rtiJ, but 11 IS S;1Jd tben:
dcciding dassell. through 1he traurno oí spccific nrr()Ciril!S, a1 1he expense
is no prcccdc:nt for trying sexuiJ atroc1ries.>
of the sílem and exduded, ns• \Íctory l usuolly compromised, somerimes boclies hav~ in mmd. the more abuses there are. me more they do nor ~t
pyrrhid for rhe rowerless Prindple bej!ins in realiry. Law does nor ¡¡,row Whethcr in war or tn wru1t is called peacetime. at home or abroad, in Human rights "-ere b<im in a cauldron, hut it was not rhís one Rape
by syllo¡¡isric compulsion; n is pushed by the social logic of dommarion prirnte or m pubüc. b)' our síde or the other side, man's mhurnani¡y to foreed modierhoo<l, prostlrurion, porno¡¡rnphy. and sexual murder. on 1he
and challenge to dominat1on, forged tn tbe mceracrion of change and rc- u•omaa i; igno•cd. basis of sex and ethnicit)' lOf!et:her, ba,·e not been the horrors thm w
sistnncc to cnangc. Tcx1 does Dot begel text; hfe does. Thc quesnon-a \\'omro'• ab>encc >hapo human tigbl!l in subsWlcc and m form. cffec· "ouua¡ted the consoence"• of tbe relevant legal world .,_.,to unpnnt thcm·
question of poüúcs :10d history and tberefore law-is whose cxpenence. uvcly dcfuung whJL <1 hum.u1 ;md a dght are. Wha1 <k""' it mean to rcc- sd'"" on the mcernauonnl legal order
Hwn.m rights principies are not base<l on the expcrience of womeo. Ir ognlZC a principie calleJ hurnJn raghts thaL doeo not r.:.tlly appli to 1hc º'
Form.Uly iUegal or not. ~1olicy or mere!¡ as what is system~ticilfü done.
11 not that women's hwnan righis havc nen b""n viola1.d. Wh<n women wsremic and sys1ematie violu11nn• oí th~ dignity ond inL'1:fllY und secum)· prncrices of S4'XUW und n:rrodoctivc .1b1Ue occur not only 111 wornme but
arr vie>bu•d likc men who bu1 for se\ 11rc like them-when women'• arms and !ife of over half 1he human race? Tt menns thill wh~t violaws the Jilltlil)· olso on a daily basi~ in t1ne fonn "' nnother in cvcry rountry in thc wl'lrld
and 1~~ bleed whcn SC'.\'ercd, when women are sho1 in pits and i:assed in of t11hers is di¡;niry fnr them· whar violare; rhc inte¡¡ri1-. of other<; is inte¡,lritr Undcr domesác and imernational law, u·hethcr "' not pmhibírcd pn their
vans, when wt>moi 's hodies are salced awar al the bonom of abandoned for them; whst 'iohue.< the securaty of otbers is "" much secumy as 1hey facl!. tht$e practices ate widely permined as the libero<~ of Lhdr p<rpetra-
are 11oing 10 J!t'l. Even death to a lull human b.:mg is lcss serious for them. tors. undcrstood as cxcesses of passioo or spoils oi vinory. lcgall) nttion-
Th.ls koutt\\~~n.it Od(')rd Unrvc-rsnyoa Febru;uy 4, 1'19},ecl bn1 publübc:d&l'I O. l-l11nt~n Hall ol humanlt~ ls cífecU\cl} defin<.J .,. nonhuman, subhuman, properl¡· iilized or of6ciall¡ wmked at or formall¡ concloned; Eveo wbere ullema-
ltJ,).•:• TIH Ch/t1t-J A•lft'l.l't LtdukJ '" i 8l (~('lvn Shutt An1J ~llMrl l lurkl. t'dt. , JY'.H • l°hc' nglusless crt:Jturcs, bcmg~ wh°"" rc:ahty ot Holauon, to the exrcm ll is u(lnal mstru1ne11l!l rotdd be Lntcrprcced 10 prohib1t such prucuces, u is
h.:1p J.11d cr;'ln1nburion• of Nataliie> N.:l'litJi( .\Ji• Amunda, Sutannc B«r, .ldfrq ~Wson, JC&Sict
'\ltuWtnh. J~ ~1n;pau1c\~ <.:.S..S Sons~. Andrb Dwomn. !U.ch.ir~ 1Wny. l\cnt 1-1"'"1' J\l1.1 ..,n,.,how tcmal.,. lloo" beneuth tntcrnouon.tl legal •P-JC<" telhllj! thnt thcir cultural suppom""' more likdy to pro,1Je the b•s1> for
RrnJdi, ~nd die- .......nJ.:rful .. wr .s 1hc Unl\reolt} ol /\1Jc:b1~.u1 1..1"' Llb-r>1ry .11(' 1t•'J1t-r.h1t1~ •t íor J rompr<..-.ed illusira11on ..,f sorne currcnt reuluies tha1 •re at onee exempunp >tate.\ irom their rC'.icb thnn the found.1tion for .1 claum nf <ex
1w,...~ • hair• breadth and • ¡¡endered l111ht·y<iir oway from the Jtrocities 1ha1 discrirnlnarion."
141
Cnmu of Wt1 Crimu of Puce • 14S IH • Th1ou10 the 801n1an lens

Th.- war a¡¡ain>t Crroatia and Bosnia-HerURffiina c•cmpWics ~ ex- But thc f1c1 lha1 thc:.e rapes are pan ot an cthru, "'"' oí extennm.uon \'out apanment. h " ra~ tor rcproducunn •• c<hmc laqwdaucm; Croman
"º~ • J>J>rNch"' to human n¡iliu C'dl\ U'l>rk to co'"' up mJ coofuse who beU\i m"'cpracntt.J ,. • cl\11 ..-ar amon~ C<jwil •~gr•"M<>n • meaos thn and \tu.lun "omcn .u" rapcJ lo hclp malr.e • "erbwi •tate by malung
IS oomg "b.i to 1' hom aoJ díccrwch ronJone atn>tl!ICS. Ali Sta!C parncs \11uhm JDJ (r<,.lldl\ ""'mm....., lac:mg 1"1ce •• m.an) r•pnh wnh Nltc 'icrbtm h•b1cs."
.re ,'O\..,rcJ by thc rdc:-.'llflt arucnuuon.J hum..,, nghu ittt.ar>ntCC> la-.'S el as 111<1nv c>tl.da, """ U)cn oi mcn on top of thCJll uthcr th•n une, Jnd Tlw L• c<hru<' rJJ"C lf 1h1> 'ft're ra.;1.il r•¡,.., u WtJulJ h., purc palluuon
"u JnJ <"Wtom.&r} antcrnauon.J la"'• But ru>1h1n¡c h.a. >"'
lx-cn ln\'oltcJ N Cl fa)'<'!'I OÍ IOlJ'WUIV temng LO iusnÍ) thc l'Upd ¡usi U'll anJ ¡lill lifc die chJdren re¡:ank.J » du1' anJ <-mlam1oatctl thetr mo1hcri" bahie<, ..
t•• ltl>J• thc Jbu...-. .kscnbc:J 10 t~ rommunac•tlun or 1<> holJ thc pcrpc 11kc •JI rapn, 1h..-.e ra(>C' Jre panicular u "di "' l?t't>Crt<, •nJ 1hc in 1h<" \mmcan <;,.uth unJcr ,1., <'n . SI.el< Nhle"> 8ea11SC it is eihmc
1ra1nr' ª""""'Jbi< ~ru h thc problcm) Thc í.c1 of S.,rJ,1,1n •W<"•Í<m pan1cuhnt-.. m•ne1' 1lus " ethmc rape as •n ofhcial ¡><>l1n oí war:' not tlJ'<', thc chtldrcn att r~rJed as clcJn •nJ ¡>unhnl· thetr fathers· b•b1e<.
" l'OC')ootl <¡11r,11nn, IU'I a.< 1he fact ,,f malc •l!M'"'""n •Ratnst womm is ooll a pol1<7 e>Í the ple.isurc of male pou'Cr unlea<hc:J; nn1 only • pol¡C\ ~rh1Jn f,ab1c:>. as dcan as an\'O°" "11h J woman s blood m 1bem and on
bcvood <jUC~unn hcrc and "'"l")whcre "Ethmc clClln<tnj( is n Serb1an to Jcfilc. torture. hurrulwtc. dcwa<le. nnd demoralm~ thc 01her <ade: not them can be. The idea Sttnu to be 10 crc•le • hllh column wuhan Cro211an
¡><>l1cy ol cxtcrminauon of non-Scrb• "1th thc ~rul of nll Serbs tn one onk • poli<)' uf men posturiog to grun Jdvam;¡ge Jnd prounJ over 01hes- .nJ Muslim >0acty, duldrt:11 tnll son>fl "hu w.U nsc up •nd jo1n thcir
n.uion, " "Grcatcr Serbia" encompaS>mg wnat Wl\> caUeJ Yugostw1a. m,•n h '"I'"
is unJcr ordtrs: not out of control, unJcr rnn1rol. lt 1s rupe fJ1hcrs. Mu<b Scrb1ao 1tfoolo¡¡y anti pr•t11<c iokcs • pagc fr<>m thc N•u
. cthn1< d.,arumit" is a cuphcmism for gcnocaJc. Yct 1b1> genomlal war unto dc.11 h, 1'flC 11> m11>sacrc, rapc to kili or muke lhc v1w1H• wl'h thc} h.~,k. CombUllng -.·1th it the J1'th,11c v1cw 1h•1 1hc &pcrm cnrries all thc
of •AA"'"""I h.- rcJ"'ate<lly bttn construed "' btl.ucr.J. a t1vtl war or nn "'ere <lNJ h '" N J'><' M un instrumen1 of forceJ exalc, 1n makc you lc•ve ~rncuc m11eri.U, 1hc Serhs hove ,1<h1cvc,l thc ul11muic raci<Jixation of cul
clhnu.:: t.:t>ntlu.:t. tu thc iic.companiment oí muc;h 1ntcrn.auonal \\'Ondcrmc:nt )1lur h<•mc anJ ncvér come back. Tt is rape to be <e<-n .,,J
hc.rJ b1 others. 1urc 1hc (rine hopes! final cond11>ion of Nni•m: no"' culture is ~cnetic,!l
tha1 pcu¡>lc c•nnnt l!"I •long and p101,. cl11ck1np '1 thc bch mor c>f "aD 'ªP" •• <r«taclc h JS "P" to <hatter a peoplc to dnvc • "rd¡:e 1hrouRb The >f)<'ctade of the UN ""'°ll5 »nlaun~ thc rorulauon they sur·=
ú,li:s • u m • m•nncr reminiscent of blammi¡ wmien for ~tunR 1hcmsdvcs a panicular rommuruty. h is the rape of mi«>ll)'TI)' ht...,rated lw xcn<'rhobía prn.eJ to protect adds a touch of the pcn·crsc:. \h corre<pODderu observes
rarcJ ¡,., mm t~ lmow To call thlS • cl\11 war b likc callmM thc Holc>- anJ unlca<hcd b1 olhoal <0mmand.1 h IS rape ¡;mOCJ.k ª' 1hat • therc are .• . rcpons of U:>. Lfnlll'> parnopa~ 111 rapmg ~tuslun
ca1M • "'11 ,..,.r betwccn German Aryans and Gennan '"'' h 1s rap<! m~dc: SCX) for che perprtrators bv thc deknscJ.,,.,nos and anJ Croman •·ocnen from thc Scrb rape/Je.uh catnP> Th= pn:sence has
Onc '"'uh ol th1s equalizauon of ~rcsS<>r u11h •AA=-«l-~ami.t 1s rh•t )'Outh .,¡ many ol the \1roms ruiJ che rap1>t>' ab,olute powcr to !iCkct upparcml> mcreased ll"lfliclu~ an -.ornen and !!irf, tluougb the opcrung
th<:S<' <•pes ore ooc grasped cithcr a> an m,1nuncmalm of ~cnociJ., or ., \1cum' .i • 111 h " rape nlJkle more U0US10g by thc c<hn1, ho>tilit) agaan'1 ot brt>thclo, brotbd-mibSa¡!C parlon, pccp lhov; >. anJ the local producuon
• pr.ac-tu.:t" of m1\C.)li!\'11)'- far lcss as borh 11 once. C1)nunudll) at onct' ... uh • <.lo1¡u>.1tc.J cnem)-• For S..rbia •-and m•tlc m >«ro n11ht b¡ lan about oí pomo11uph1c film<.,. A fonncr CnatcJ N•11.- Protrct1on for""
th" <"lhn1< "'"' of .1¡i¡:ro.1i<W> and thc gc-nJcrcJ war ol J¡tgtc:>•1on of C><1)· 1he bch.v1or PÍ th•t cncm) h IS r.ipe made e"1tin~ lw kn"'""~ th.r thcre UJ\PROf(lR1 comm.ndcr rcponcJly a<ecpte<I oítcn from Sabi•n com
J •y l1fr Th" w•r 1' lo cvc:r;day upe whJ1 thc f lolocJu,1 "" to t'\'CryJa) are no hmn< on "·hat can be done, that the women can t..., rapcd lo d0>1th m.mJcrs 10 bnn~ him Mu<lim ~"l' from thc nmps for or¡pes." This par-
anu Scmm'm .\tudun anJ CroociJn womcn 1md ittrl• •« rnpcd, then mur M05t ot alL it " r•¡>c madc <cxuallv irre<1s11hle by the foct 1h.i tbe women •<hl!lllillc mstance of the male b<Jnd acro<s offic.U lmes pomtedlv poo;es.
tlcml, by \crbrnn military men. regulars and irrCAulo1', m 1heir h(lfTJes, in are about to be ucn6ced, by rhe ulmnate pou'Cr of rcducm11 a person 10 in thc ~ender contex1. Juv.:nal's quesuon o! "·ho shall ¡tuard the guard·
m1>eldca1h camp>. oo hillsides, everywhere. Thetr rorpscs are raped as • corpse, by the po.,erlessness of che womcn and ch1ldrcn in lhe fuce o! 1.u1s-dlpecially wben the guart!Llns are olrc3dy there to guard the 01hcr
wtU " When d11S is noticed. lt 1s ettber as ¡:enocule or as rape, or as thc11 imm1ncm murJer al che bands of tbd r rnpM. l 1 IS murJcr JS lhe ~u~rJ1ons. rhé N:ws took p1uurc:s. bu1 in it> sophJsdCJtal cmploymcm
fcm1tide bu1 not ~enoode. but oot as rape as a form ol ¡:enoci.Jc d1rcc1ed ulum•lc ><:xu.J •<1. Do not Sa) i1 is not sex for 1hc mcn \\'hcn tbc mcn .,1 mcdi.1 t<"chnology, in thc opcnnn> <1Í ns use t1f pornogr.ph). 1n ita
•p~ulically at women. Ji 1t is seen cnber "" p.u1 of • camr•iiu> of Sérbs •re tolJ to 1uke 1he wumcn •way and no1 bnng lhcm b.ick. th~y "''"' thcm, «>Nctnu• malung of poroograph) oí u• •trorn•c•, 1h1> 1> pcrhop• the 6m
•g•m" nt•n ~rl» or •• an ollllaugb1 by coml>•tont• a11a1n•t m1l1ans, 1t "' tbe,, kill 1hcm, 1hcn omcumcs rape thcm •RllJO, cu1 off thc11 f.rea<L\, anJ trul\ m<xlcrn u·ar :-'
no1 ~"' ,,, an a1tJck b) men agolJJllot -.-omen Or m 1hc fcmm,.1 v.hncu..,.h, np ou1 1hc11 v.'Omb' u Onc woman was allov.·ed 10 lJ\'C so l<W>ll ts •he ker1 \\lacre do m1emation•I human righu I•"· and humanitarian f..., stand
11 hn t>m.. 111•• 1no1hc:r '"'''""" e-.! a¡:icrcu1<'" b, •11 ~n .t¡¡"n•t •ll women her -...rbian capt<'r hard aD nidn onlly, niRhr aftcr ltlllhl ahrr n1¡;h1." <m th1,> In real tl'rms. the rule< 1hai '°'"m thc 1...··< uuuncru of "'otnen
ali lhc umc:, ra1hc:r lhan wha1 11 ;., "'hJCh 1> r>pc b\ n:nJin mcn •g.aanst ThJS IS rapc •• tortUtt and rape as ~tcrnunancn ~e ""meo "'"'ºare el,,.,,. lwre penam here as v:cll: A hum•n L• not ooe v.·ho is sexuallr and
""'"'"v. ornen Thc pomt SC<'lllS to be lo obscure. b1 ""' mca1u a\ailible. not kilkJ <¡>ca]t of ,.'llflWlg IO cake d!cir O\\'D in.,,. h b at ooce m.u> r•I"' 1cprnducnvely ,'JOlared. Ooc t> 11<~ human •J,,,.n thcrc. • :\ot ts a hamao
aactl\ ,..¡,., "' doÍillt -.nat 10 wlmm and wlw ." .nd scn.J r;tpc 1nili.tmgwhable from pro.uruoon h b <00.:dltrauon riglu ~hmg • = m soo•:t• or 1n a stttc ol ruuurc wkcs au"S> lrom
\\ hcn thc u omen SUJ\we, die mpes lend tt> h., rcir.rJcd as an anC'\"lla- c•mp u brotbd womcn 1mpounded to k p......,J •round by mcn llln<>ng )"" ~nJ othrn hkc )<>U In l•a. lhcrc are no othcn hkc you, becau.e "a
bdnv ol armc:J rnnlhct. pan ol che ,.;rol .JJ "l!•mst JJI or .., • ,onunu mm'° h IS •lto r•J'<' "' • P"iit) oí cthnac un1formny and cthnl< con4UC>t m.in• defines ulut "m 1nJJ\1Ju>I" m<"lln• and hum.m nghl> are 1n<>0tlv
•t111n 1•1111'.' hnoultun ol O\il life, ol ali mcn 11rJ1n•t ali -.omc:n IUI"' Joco annC"xa•a<ln n_nJ c'.\raruton, acqui~rion b~ ont~ nJt"m ,,.t tHhrr1 c."t>lc.,.n11:~11on •mJl\1Ju.Jº nghts. Men h.l\'C thcar humJo rtghu ,,..J1Ued, r.thtr, "hca
occur in '\L1.1r .amnn~ and bcN1 ccn al! '1"'lc1; r.a¡x: '" 1.1 d.111~· Jet by mcn
1
of -.omen \ t-h.- •• coloniz•tion of the culcurc lhcy '~"''lx'li"' ancl = snm<''"c'' hum•n n¡ihti nre rc:cogm1cJ •• \'lolJtt.J, he is probabl' a man
•M·lln"IC WC1mc:n anti Íf\ afway:- .tn act of ilnminacion h)' mt.•n uv~r womcn bodv a< wdl u o! 1ht' tcrritory 1hev occupy. lt 1• rape hc<·•u<e .1~rb "'ª""
Crlmes of Wn Crimu of Pe¡ce • 10 1'8 • lñrn&h lh• e••• ,•• lens C11mes of War C11mes ol Puce • 149

Men are permmed 10 be 10d1v1duals so can be v1olated as ind'"iduals. lf suuaure. social force is ofcen eoo~ to depri\'C them of human righis on
1T
you are hun a$ o mcimbcr ol a group, thc odds that thc group will be a mass scale. Even so. swces do collalxmue clabonuely, not 1us1 by ulxli·
recogntz<OJ as violalcd, con>idcrcJ hum:i.n, .irc U1'lprovcd ií 11 induJes mcn. catln!! .oc:iJ11 lúe bu1 by ltltervcniog legally 10 cnmlt mcn m much of thc The ~..xi,'éd concepi:s at work hcre h•vc ,, compltx history. mosily 11
UnJcr guaranL= of intcm•uon:tl hum•n ngh!l, "" "·ell •• in C\·crydoy lifc, f"lWCr thc¡ socL1Uy cxcrcisc. lcgiumuung what mcn e11t gc1 .iw•y wiLb "' western onc, wluch c•n be reJd and c~>mpmscd llS follows. The rontrnc ·
J u·om1111 is "'not )~ n name for o \\'"Y oí bcin~ huni.tn ""2• Í•ct Bul C\en recogniiing 1his fairly active sl.ttc 1nvolvcmcnL, m051 women t>lrian liberul., building on Gr.-ek .mJ R.1m•n .mtcccdents, oppo,,.,J me
A ñ¡¡)11, as this legal delinicion is lived in realicy, becomes somcthing nu ure no1 direcrly rnped, forcibly imprewia1cd, •nd trafficked by scare policy, d1eval "ª'"" n01iMS rb.11 miw>ed human V'1 lue within a rigid hiernrchy
woman, as a member of rhe ¡voup womeo , has to lose. A right is also a1 least nor most of rhe nmc. Althou~h che srare m sorne way stands behmd b3sed on b1tth. Seekin~ to secure humao freedom against scatc ryrnnny
someihing only an ennry ""th the power of a nacioo can violare; it is a mos1 of whar meo do 10 women, men typrcally bave enough power ro ihe" posned rhe rndical noaon rhar eacb person. qua human, had, mcarunl!
dury of ¡¡ovcmmem no• ro imerfere wirh ctvil and polmcal hberues as thev conrrol and violate women \\othout che scate's exphcitly mrervenmg ro bad by narure. irrevocable nnd equal encitlements to hfo. liberty, secutiiy.
soaall¡ ex1sL The role of intemauonal law has been L~ely, m lsaiah allow ir. A.\ n resuh, womcn att not seen as sub¡ected by the state as such, dignuy, propercy. and so on. Through rhe Amcrican nnd frencb re,'OIU·
Bcrlin'• sensc,'' ncgauve. lt cou!J bc so much more. but ir 1cnds 10 fosrer so Lheir condiuon is regardecl as prclegal. social and hencc namrol, md so tions. this u.lea of in•licnablc human wonh called indiv1du:U rights was
humnn ngbts lcss Lhrough mand•ting g<1vcmmcnt.il tntel\lention thilD llll'{!cly out>1de mtcm•tional bumnn rights accounubihty. entrenchcd, cht-:king org11ni>.ed powcr in thé forn1 of go'''"nmcm. Sub·
through cnforcing RQvernmenwl abs1inencc. In othcr words, if your hum•n Now considcr th•• mos• humnn rígh1s instrumenrs cmpowcr SllltCI 10 l;C<(Uet11ly, romc tr(1nsna1ionnl Jg~nents fun her ele\'ll1ed and enshnned
rí~hcs nre goin¡t to be viola1ed, prav ir is by somconc who loob likc J nct a¡¡ninst stare1, rnther chan mdividu"h or gmups to iKt on rhcir own the sume recognicions as binding among sta1e pames.
gov<mmem. nnd that he already acted. and oc.red uTOn~. bchalí. Givcn rhar only state •iolations of human rights are recoj!tlized. Tben thc Third Reich unerly violo1ed nll such righ1s-inter alia by ma
ln Eumpe. ~orne ba~ts exists for mcerpreun~ imemadonal law ro require 1his is \'Cl1' odd. Srare11 are rhe only ones reco¡rniied as vioLmng bu_mao nipularing rhc pre·l~5 system that left mlnonry procecoon ~duStvdr to
rhat govemmcnts aa m Sttuaoons Ltke these; rhe affirmau\'e sta<<' 1s more ~ts, )'el srarcs are also tbe only ones empowétcd LO redress tbem. le is stares" - isoladng and liquidaring those it saw as inferior or poUucin¡? or
congenia! co the Europcnn legal tt"•diuon m any c:ise.... Somerunes mter· oot only tbe fox guarding rhe henhouse. it tS tbe gW1rdums guarding thc oppositional. In P"tllcular. the official aucmpted extcrmmauon of the jews
nruiorutl bwnan rlghts law is strctched 10 coumenance acoon against pri· guar<llans. Not only are meo 's so-callcd pnvaté ncts ugainst \1-'0men left as a peopl.e galvaniud 1he nocion oí supranational guaramees of hwnan
vate víollllions, hui tbi< is pursu<J sdoaivdy. l londurns w;s hdd rc'Spon out; powc1 to act aga1t1st public nCIS i~ left cxdusivcly in tbe bonds oí tbosc tigh1s wlr.h o surviw l ur¡¡cncy. This organiz~ geoocide by govemmeot
sible for murdcrs by priv•re deuch squaJ~ th•t lxuh 11cted •• if 1hcy were who commll thosc acts. No •lllLe cffecu\'cly gunr.inttts women'• human policy indelibly m3rkcd unJ fun&uncnully shaped the ron1ent, príotitte&,
ofiicial nnd were officiaUy permi1ted 10 operote." "Muinstrc.tm humilD ríght> withtn iti borders. No si.ate has an inccn1i'"' to brenk ranks by s<:1rín11 sen~itiviLi<S, anJ deep si ructure of the receired lnw of human righll> in our
rlghts ¡¡roups have rnken on rhe pbenomenon oí 'disappcarances' in Ar· a human ríghu st.indurd for "'Ornen 's srnrus nnd tteatment tbat no SbllC time. ln o reading of this realicy, more than ony other, conrempomry
gemina, murder of indi¡¡coous rubber rappers in Brazil. and raciaUv- ye1 meets. lntemationally, men's srares prorea ellch orher rhe wav men human ri~rs linds ÍIS principled ¡tround.
motivated hatc cnmes-all abuses perpeuaced by pnvate iodividuals. • protecr each orhcr from accountabiliry for violations of womcn within Largely beneacb notice m rhis tradition has been rhe status of women
oores Loo He.se, "but when it ~"Ornes to the beuttng :wd murder oí aullions siates. At leasr this is one explanation for tbe failure of mtemational human as sucb. socially subordma1ed ro men and excluded or ígnOted, marg!Oal·
of womcil eacb ycar, thdr hands are uecl.""' nght5 Ltw cffccti,'C!y to cmpo"•er individuals or groups of women to en- ized or subiectcd by suuc policy. Womcn's enforced inec:¡unhty has been a
The violariQtu of tbe human right• of mcn bcuer 6t thc pJraJigm of forcc tbdr own human nghts ag81tlSt individua.Is and pa1cs .Jtke. 11 Whicb icahty on which all these •ySt""1S urc mJLerially predlcatcd so seamlcssly
human rígh ts violurions bccause tbat paradigm hJs b«n bJ>cd on thc ex statc is m a pos1tion to cballcngc another •tate on women's human nghts? it h.is been i1ivisible Wo111en were not atizcn~ in Greck democrncy: they
petionccs of men. Mole reality lh1s bero1ne hum•n righ!l principie, or •t \\'htch sutLe evcr will? were wives, slnves, prostirutes" l n this sening, Aristo1le formulo1ed his
leust 1hc principie ¡¡overning human ri11h1s pr11aice. Men hove and takc Wartime is excepuonal in rhat atrocities by soldicrs agaiJUr dvilians are equ_ality priociple as trearing likes alike nnd unlikcs unalikc-u conccpt
Uberáes as n function of cheir ~ pou'er as meo Men have ofren necded always essenrially s1a1e acl$. But mcn do in ""ª' wbat they do in peace. fundamenrally unquestioned since. includin¡¡ in the intemational human
su.te force to ger away wirh sub¡ecttn¡! other men: sLwery and SC¡lrel\'IOOO When it comes m ...'Ornen, at lcast to civilian c:asualties, the complacency n ghlS conrext_ In this 11pproach, it does not maner ">herher one was bun
m che Urured Smtes and Hitler's p"'5eCUl10ns were explicitly Jegalized. So tbat surrounds peacetimc cxtcnds to war. bowever tbe la.-'S read. And rhe or hclpcd. pcrmmed to domin.itc or kept subordmated; all thar maners is
the model o( human rights violauon ¡,. bascd on state •crion. The resuh is more a conilict can be framed as u:ithm a suu;,. as a ovil war. as social ns cbat empincal condinon. no mau cr how created. 6.ts oormüri,,e rrearmcn1.'
whcn mtn use 1hclr ubem~s soclally 'º dcpm-c women ol thdrs. lt docs Jornesuc, ihe less human ríghts arr reeognized as beiog '1ob1ed." l.n other Tiiat women wtre apparcntly so Jifferent 10 AristoLle .ts no1 to be treated
not look likc ,, hiim•m rigbt< violauon. Wh<n 1nen are dcpri, •.J of lhoirs "·orJs, 1he closcr a light comes Lo home, rhe more ·feminiz~-d" ihc vicum• uncqually unde1· hi> pdnciplc wben excluded írom ciuzcnship h"' nor bcen
by f(O\.,,mmenl5. i1 doc.. bce<>mc no mau<'.r thcir gender, und rhc l..s likcly m1ernationnl hum.10 ctmsídcrcd • drawb•ck or an cnd1cation 1hat somc1hín¡; is omiss.
Tn 1he cuse of "'Ornen. bccal,ISC m.tle domirumce i< built mm rhe '50d:tl ngh1s \\"lll be found to be violoted. no mnucr "'bar \\..S done. Building on 1his rrodition, thc original líberals fom1ula1ed rheir social
rompaas in and for sociecies in wbich \\'Ornen could no1 C\'en vote. Wirh
150 • Througb 1h• Busnian l.tns C11mts of War, Cromts ol Puce • ISI IS2 • Throuih 1he Bosni•• Leos

thc cxccpuon 1>1 John Sruilrt Mili,•• th<-y did 001 s<:e a problcm ta ihls, stntes' 1'1ck of •Cllon and agamst pnvace pomes ma¡ be poss1ble in pnnaple •pm, becausc thcy bu\c nanc. lf society g1ves you no nghis, >Ucb that a
pro1ccung thor purponcJly univer•.tl nouons o[ whnL have conlt! Lo be but os \-ir1u.illy obsenL m puC'Uce For 'vomen. llltcrnacional hum!ln rights >t.t1c nttcl ncvet deny them to keep you from having them, 1L DlJIY do you
called hum.m ri¡¡hts in woys 1ha1 Jíd nm cxplic1úy indudc womon •nd pr"""1l the b1gges1 g¡ip bcrwten ¡irinci¡>lc nnJ praCLkc in the knO\m lcgul lutle goo<l 10 have chem formally guamntcod in i.ntcma1ional law. Frte of
cffc.-ctÍ\-ely kcpt most \\•ornen Írom ticcé~ ll' thcm l lumons own proJle'rty W<;lrJU. this esserulAlist circuJar1ty. thc tnsk is to ~mund u claJm to trimes .igam.st
women mostl)' cnnnot: mon: llftcn 1he~ nrc propcrty Humans are cqual Many e•isnng rnternotion.11 ins1rumenl' J!Ullr~nrce sex et¡ualily." Yet so hum•niry clearof nnniral ri11hts, which are not n:co¡¡nized to exist in nomre
because they can kíll; u-ornen are s<>cialized not to kili and are punished litde nf women's expcrience of violation of human rights hlls b<= brought unl"'°' they are rernplittd 10 c.xist in socicrr In othcr words. aU disrouri;e
not ~lorified, when they do. Humans consent t.o a regime or lmve it; under thcm ~al it becomes necessary to inquire into 1he foundanqns of about namrc is n sooal discourse,
women ha.e no voicc: lo diss(;[lt, no place to go. and no meaos oí leavmg.' human ri¡¡h1s LO explain why. The pnmary foundaiion of human ri¡¡htS has Horror ac th~ Holocaust grounds modcrn mocahry. No onc knows what
At the samc umc, guaranltcs woruen spcafi<:ally nced because oJ sex in- been natural law, a secular rehg100 tha1 moves only those wbo bcltC\1' m ís ¡¡ood. bw ncarly ~eryonc knows rhaLthc Holocallbl was éviL \'('e may
equahty LD soae1y, morder Lo lwe t.o o SLandord ddioed as huroan-likc 11. !LS contenr tends to redescribe thc social SUlLW t¡uo llJld 1mnbu1e 1L to oot know whoL human i.~. but the Hnlocausr \\'3Sllthuman. Jew!Sh women
freedom fcom being bought and solJ as sexual ch>tLel, au1onomous eco· nuturc. (,Emphatic use of 1he cxistenriol verb 10 aflinn loudly .uiJ of1cn \\ere distmctively ubused in ways thut conncct 10 anú-&miLic mísogyny to
nomic mean$, reproductiv~ ron1rol, personal security from 1numnte inva Lh•t wom•n ·11n:" human bcings carrios only thc dout of ¡¡, SP<'akcr's this Jay ami minlingl¡· r"'emble 1he 1orum.•• of Croauan and Muslim
sion, a crediblc va ice in public life, a nonderivutivc pince in 1he world- decibd le\-c:l.I Positivc luw hdp> linlc more, sincc women huve had littl• wc>men by Serbs The horrilic tonures Jnd extenninution of million< oí
were no< considered ot aU. ''Dice in iis formularion in mos1 places. Morality. an ahernaríve ¡¡round. Jews of borh sexes hecause rhey "-ere Jews has oversh~dowed everythin¡,¡
\\"lb.ar women need for equality \\'3S not only nor guaranteed: much of can be movin11. but does noi mean an~one has 10 do nnyrh.mg, as illustratcd then ond since.
women 's inequalicy was guaranteed in the Corm of men ·s indMdual civil by the use of the phrase '"moral vicrory" 10 refer ro an acrual delC<lt. Ali Considered ín terms of equality theocy, the Third Reich can be seen to
bbenies." ln r.hese r.heorics. abuses of \\'Ornen were tacitly if not explicidy r.bese grounds come dou'tl ro social power m the end. 1f you havc u. you foUow an unbroken hne from Ansroúe through Amencan segre¡iauon of
conJoned as mdividual righ1s. Who1 \\'Cre called indh1dual nghts have can meeL r.be tests for "human"; bu1 powcr IS exacúy what women are [feaung "likes alike and unlikcs unaUke"-Jews hu"ng been rendered 'un-
becomc, in life, riglus of mcn •~ a i¡roup ovcr women individuall) and ns socially dcoicd, whkh is why 1heir lnumn nghtS cu11 be vioLttcd and wby lrke • Aryaruo. • Yet human ri¡¡h1s low srill uses the same equnliry conccpt.
a closs. \X'omcn'$ rape becomcs men's libeny, l(an¡¡ rupc their fra1cmi1y, they nced them recogni>cd wiLhout rea!l~~menr. Thc dominnn1 le1son 1ha1 !!«ms 10 have hecn
pr0<ti1u1 ion 1hcir propeny, forc;:d pn:gnan1.-y 1htir fomily and thcir prlvacy, At its philosophic1l foundations. Lhc n•rur11ll•w tr•dition on which lenmed in<icad wa< that Jcws could be and wcre annihilated bec;1use chey
pomo¡trJphy 1heir spccch Put another W•Y· whacever rheir rebdlions ac- human righ1~ remain primorily based has never been deor on whcthe1 were "diffcrent." nm tha1 something is wrong with an equallt)• standard
complíshed for hum8IJ freedom, and ir was subscanlial, the American Rev- women are 1nenºs natural equals. Rarher, ro oversimplify a complicued that pennits extermioocioo for "differences." The Jews failed r.he equaliry
oluüon did not Cree the slaves, and ebe F'rencb RC\:olulion did free the debate, it has been relatively dear that they are not and has providcd no test-not the equalil) tese failed the Jews. Nor thaLa bener equality theocy
Marqws de Sade-facts conneceed by legiumaring a uaffic LD human be- mechod for resolving dífferem cooclusions. each equally 6 rmly srud ro be would have stopped Hitler. Bur wha1 is oue en make of an equalit)' prin-
LDgs and the sexual abuse of women for economic gato.. Tu.is ts whar the predicared on t.be Jaw of oature. Nor has it reconaled its obscrv•uon that aple apporenúy logically consment 1'1Lh. and undisrurbed by, genocide?
rece1ved con~pt of ct¡u:úity meanc and lurgcly still meaos. sex is u natural diffcrencc wuh •ts viow tha1 equahty is prtdicnctd on lf equofüy's nbsrraclions are receptil'e to Nazi substancc, ore they pcrhaps
Bccausc \vomen are a gtoup \\1hos<: clnim 10 human status is tc.nuous natural iden111y. To th<>'C who ¡;rouod hu!lhln righ1s in the oppon unicy 10 a tlawcd \'Chicle for social justicc? Thc foct th•1 imcmaúonal law pcrva
ani.1 Jenfod, 1he attempt 10 opply hum.m rights luw lo womcn a.~ such livc ou1 onc's life projcct r•tionully, 14 tt should be pointed ouc 1hn1, sociilly •ivcly ~'"'r.>fllC<!ll <ex equ.1lity, yet there i$ no &ex equulity, while mass rape
m.1kes rwo more general problems -u'Orse, Humnn ri¡!hts hove no J!round speaking, women os womcn hove nen been permined n liíe project" and and for~d childk•ring go on both in pencuime and in w•r. including in
and no ieeth As to 1eeth, human ri¡¡hr< are enforced imemotion.Uy pri are widely considere<! as nor possessed of nuionJliry, or <>Í \1°ha1 passcs f(lr genocidal war, suddcnly be¡¡in$ 10 make sense.
marily berween s1ates, s1a1e> thar a¡¡ree 10 them. Many. such as the Unued reason '1lllnng roen. Ot.bers groond human nghts in basic personal libcrty"
!>tates, do not a¡!'ree to many of them.. Enforcement is mainly through or in fundamental human dignicy,41 the problem bcing that you airead)
m
reporang, meunmg moral force, mcani~ cff~i'"" nonL-nforcemcnt. Sig-
natoty cOun[nb are t.'\·en pcrm1ued formal c."Ccus~ fram con1pl.Wn~1 a
practitc drsproporuonaLely u""d lO cv•Je scx cquahty provi>ÍOLU. •• The
ha'e 10 have them to havc a humll11 righ1 violatcd when you are derued
them. So, it's back to nJturc.
Morum~r r\iUcr e.xemplifics rnthcr th.m aposes thU circuLriry whcn he
[TJ~ relusal to dénnnd _. onc •fnolutc standMd oí hul1Wl
t.hc greau:st utumph of tnufcmuusm º"ª
•!)' 1$
che -.ill co hberanon. , .. A un1·
covenun1s ugainst tr•fficking womcn for cxnmplc, 11re mony and vcncr >;\ys, "lf there •r• no n•tural rights, 1hcre ore no human righL~¡ ií th•n: Me \-crt.ial 1t.and11td oi llunum dlgltU)' l f tht ouk pnnciplc. 1hJ1 co1np1ctdy te·
•ble;"' yet the tr.1f6c continue• unabared, untouched, llourishing. Thail•nd no human righrs, rherc cunnol be any crim~ a~uinst humanity. ,.,,.. Women's rudwrt'!f 'l<'X cl3~, cxplCJHiJljon and .Jso prupcl• all cf w JntO • fururt'
even rraffics rn women by policy," Chrna may officially force abortlons 1nd probll'm has bcen that .socitty .ind law do not ·~= tbat nature made them where 1Ju, fond111ncnr>I polmcal qu0St1oa i• !he qualuy .,¡ hlc Íor 1111
~tcrilizations," y~ notliin¡¡ is done. Enforcemmt of human ri¡;lns •~alnst human, so no1hing r.hor is done to tbem 1s a cñme agains1 humaniry, so 10 humm be-in~
-Aodrta Dwc:idtin. Ri11.t.Wt1JZ Wo""'n (198li
Cnmn 01 W11 Cromo ot Pntt • 151 1H • 1hrou¡h tht Bosn11n ltns Ctomts o! Wu C11mu ot Pu<t • 155

Onc appm.ich tn th1< rmbkm m1~h1 be to rnrerpret c.'Xl<URR mr<mauonal an~. anJ ""cdhh "'amen or¡!anu.., Jl8"'"'' thc '"" tmk \\~omen in mcnt l'ht, equ.W11· is nm conlined m equal Je<c" to othcr n¡dus. .is 11 ts
sex equahry guarante<:> ª' ¡imunded m the global "<>m<·n , m<l\Tmmt l'apWI :"cw Gumd mJ thc Urutcd Si.in anJ •orlten at thc UnucJ m 1011:matk1nal hwnm righis law" illlU mn•t doolC>tlC <qu;l¡ty lau, but ~
a(am,1 ~• tnc.¡u•lm. mcl~ 1>CJ<wl anJ rcproducu1c abuses. and •ppl• :"Jtion• ''"""t scxu.il har.is.ment. Bru1lwi anJ lt•h•n wom<n prolé>t oo 1 prtn<lplc.' in n• ''"'" ~ht. Tht> <quahl) h•lu to >0<1.J umt,.,.t, brooJh
r.hc rcsul111111 con,-.:pts in ¡>e•ce .inJ m •ur A njlht to C'!'J;.111\ boch u • mottc b.mct) JnJ 'honor .. 1 nwl<' .,_,...,,,... lur killinM thcm. lndiJn anJ an <.1ch p.artu.:uUr. ttl d1m1n.uc rrn1JOSCJ .ir.aulic.:otru.m lt cn\1urms an
nght 111 1uclt anJ •• • h.tsis lor c..¡u.J JCC1'>> to oth<r n¡:hts, ",,uJJ ~round "''mxn pro1<"$l J.'"'IJ anJ suttee a • m.ak exrn•c lor killint1 them Amor IKllH' n•lr fo< cqualU) la" in unplcltlénttng thc -ru.tn ch•n¡:e>
IU dchnllt<lfl of mt•qu.Ju1 md In 1mphc.uon 11< wn<e¡>t <>I thc hum<tn h.:.in w'"""' prot~t J.;>~u"· bJUC-í) .an,I mmanth. lovc ª" • mate excuse In <"•n.tdJ the arrro.,ch t.ike< thc fnnn ,,¡ r<qumn¡: tlut "'" "rmmote
m 1hc.' unÍH'D.11-nt<'.mmjl \\'<'rl<.t..;dr and ei.'Cl)"'hcrc.' >p<>nhllt<'011•h m tor kilhny thc.'m Canadi:m 1''0Jllen prot<>t the uu ot lemml'm as a m.ale «¡1ul11, Th" "<nt.til< the promorion ot a •n.ien" ni equ•I dr~mcv •nd
dí~ennu.•-m.wemcnt for wnmen's rii!l>1s Cl<CIJ>e tor k1Um¡¡ 1hem. \'Comen even·wherc.' n.,. up 1111aum rape e<:en Ul ~r«t In the wurds ot the Supreme \.oun (lt C..tnada. "[Tlt hJS a br¡¡e
Thc rcal1ty reco~tzc..1 b) th1s mO\"ement ís J1encro11n~ ncw prlllCJpb culture' whcre women bave re.:emly been re¡¡•rJi:J ~ ch.me!. \Vomen m remcd1.J t'<lmponent "• lt recn¡in12es that S((C1;t) 1neq1tJli1> .:mts and must
ne\\ m comcnt, lorm. re,tch, opcrnt10n. and rcbuon t0 "°c1al hk In '""· tltc UnncJ S1a1es, &anJino1v1a, ancl thc: Ph1hppmcs rcSl>l pomography be chan~cJ. rJther thnn assuming a neutral and eqUJI so<1.U world .md
r.hc principies ol thl; mol'ctnent are bcst appro.xunatcd 111 North Amcncun 1"'""J motherhooJ as opposeJ from 1rtlan,I to Gcrm.111y to Banglade.h. •vo1dln¡¡ lc¡;11I J1lleren1wio11 h) prc~rvc lt lt• appr1..1th I• ba.cJ un no·
cquallt~ law. pion•"<:rcJ b) tbc Blllck civil nghts movcm•-nl tn thc Urutcd 1cmalc 111fanudJc .1nd objecufymg .1d\c111.,11¡¡ are lc111>l.nc<I lllaJn>t in ttdn¡¡ thc rcJl1ty of inc4uilh1y m ordcr tu cml tt, rathcr rh•ln <ln euforcing
Statn m thc 1%0• .nJ 1970s and the \\'Ornen s mo' cmcnt m <.anaJ;1 m lnd1• Evcl)"hcrc womcn 'Ct'k •«<''' to lncr•<Y· whith thq h•vc oftcn • _.,JorlillnJnc's and gcnder nctn rJllty. \\ hich h.vc <1Ítcn mcant • blmdncs.
thc 19!.0s .md l 9':111• n.,..., cquah1y ngh<S are 1mplemcn1cd bv UlJmJu.tlJ bc<·n <k-nicd ª' women, and ro SUJVl\'ll hasetl on 1hc ""rk thcy Je,, •S "di 10 thc unet¡u•I "'"lmes of color and ~cnder Thi' m•ndJtc " mtcrprcted
•H""" as to •ccc•• to dom~ all kinds of v.•ork "
•nd grours n¡:•m>i <llhcr ínJ"1duals •nd ¡uours as \\'tll •• h\ anJ
¡:n1emmcnc• They ali°" ¡;mcmmem< to procttd hm d,1 Mt hmit tn pw
cmmcnt> thc •b1hn to •et a~ain..<t <fücnmirumon ~ •11°"· c<>mplami.
(>ne leaturc of •hi< movemenr" 11< comhmaunn of ""°""'
p.on..,,n-men are not treated th" "·av-\l11h ns rcfus.J to be limued 10
sptt:i6c rom·
\\11h panicular scnsitivuy 10. and prior111 upon, d1minatm~ 1he mequalil)·
ol ~roup< th•t hn·e tradirinoallv been <ocio.111' dt<aJnni.~ed
Tht< cqwlnv loo~ to "cm! soaeiy' on thc 1... c1 of <>r<lin•n irmsaeb<>ns
tor mdm:ct and <\ 1cm1c mn¡ualítv. To~ fulk rcal12ed, thq call lor rcltd 1m11J1Urt¡1 or miulaunl! mcn. \'<'ornen'• di<cr>11\ b extr2<>nhnaty, \tt t'\'Cl)· anJ m1crac11on;. bunng and sdhn¡l. work anJ eduuuon and accommo-
~aw,1 'liuc macuon .a. wd.I a. aCllon. Such Jc:,.1co .JJ cnforn·mcttt po- ,.hcre, 1rnh -ui p.amcuLuit). bd""· ,.,..,,., m.tn Thi> proJUCd iln 31>· J.111on., home 11Dd thc •t:rttl. ccmmuntcauons JnJ an>urJn•c . .., •·di as
tcnual rar.hcr than lct >t.tto olf thc hooL pm.'l.lllon lor thc ÍJct th.it diflcrcncc by 11.dt " ccn¡¡nl) not thc """""' '"ting, dct11u11>, and 1urio. lt encomp.IS>CS pn1hib1t1<>n ol rJcull) >qr10·
In thc r«cl\'cd mtcriuuun;t) human ngbrs tudmon, b) <ontrl\t, cqu.al.uy h>r 1C«"1U dllil utiurulup u hJ, h..'\.'Oltlé, but th•t 1m¡""""1 mJcnomy " ~•ted ll•il<t> md tc..:hing ucul hJ1rcJ >au•I <óNCJnn b) dn<t<m. omd
b.i• bttn more ol,,.troet thm concrete. more tr=\c<ndcnt than Kcul.tr ncr¡thm~ 11>e mo1em<n1 cri11dics "'<1411~ or~•mted IK''"·cr u,.,Jf, as ,...,u <kn1Jl llÍ P"'~nJnt) bcnelirs. h i< rootcJ m <''t'l')JJ) lile, k..>km¡¡ b."}ond
mo"' daC\'llJ.-J lrom nJlllr~l IJw th.an aJmmc.Jlv 1<>c1•ll) ha.,cd Thc l m "-' it" c.~1.·c.. ~ 1he l~~~I formoli<m of formol equolny lO 1no•I <0n«•4uence. Ir under-
'"'""ª' Dedar•non of l luman Ri¡¡hts ¡¡rnms cqualin· ·w11haut Ji<uncti<'n ot Th" mo1ertk'nt has produced a rich concc1>t ot cqu.1litt n(l( a< <ameness <1<mtl• tha1 although Ulequaün• buns md1viduols, i1 hum them as members
an)· kind,"' ª' it dminction wcre rhe pmblem • nd lnck ('f dmmcunn rhc bu1 ., lack ot h1erarchy. Irs e1erywhere rel.mvc 11n1versahty. irs refusal to ol social groups. lt addresses rbe most sys1e.•m1c íncqu•h~es a< "·eU ;is ones
solutíon 'fñc Convenuon on tbc Eluninarion of Ali Fom" oí D1;cnm1 «:ttle for anythmg less than a single standard ol human di¡¡n1cy and emi· 1h111 huppcn onh· to a feu· individuills. l 1 practire• J social. contexroal.
n.1uon Ag.,n>t \\:'ornen ddines cliscnnuna11on a¡:amst \\t11ncn m lar¡¡cl1 tkntcnt. llllU it> demand for elevation in that s1.mJarJ have leh Arisiotle rdot1(JJUI, •n11h1crarchicul cqualicy 1uri>prud.:ncc.
geoder-ncutral anJ rderenu•I terms. gwuaniecm¡¡ en¡o) mcnt CIÍ 1111 other m thc Ju>1. !ne >COpe and depth of 1hi> uprí,in¡¡ l<ir wcw c.¡ualu¡ offers A• <UJ rcnúy Jdincd. intcmauon•I hum;n r1gh1> •re ><> "b,1r.ct that
np.hts "on • bJ\h ól e4u.al.ny of meo and womcn. ' n,;, hao "''"th bcen A nc~Jc<tcd g1ounJ for >c.'X C<JU•fit> o• a hum.in fl~ht Íht RlOVé'lnCRl pro pctlplc who t:\1l1L:rctdy bchevc pt)IJr <'lppo~uc~ tun ·•1-trci.: t'n thL-m vn pru"I
ín1trprctcd nun,uh•tJnuvdv, hJ> oot .UO\\·ed cLiim• b, mdi' 1du.U. or Hdt" .1 pnnnpb.I hasi• m soo..J ,.,,1Juy for w<mit-n'o hum~n ril'.hL' for t llJll< i>nd gl\< thcm equall\ to no onc Boih • St•hn .inJ a Solzhem1>yn
@:«XJP'- cl.atm\ ..ep1n,1 ,.,'\l\'éfnmcn1 in1CUC1n or ..-1;.Um' .. ~1nst l'"'"'c p,.t J'l"lll\'C cqu.1111¡· 11< principies mdudc 11 "'" Jo not d11 11 to cach other emhrJO! tht'm That ne.,her would likelv 'ª'º'civil ri~ht' J< de.cribed
tics 11lC" rommllt('C.· th.tt f'r\i"fNn.~ u is commg 10 rn-ngn111C", h._l"toC\'C'r rh.u )'OU cannot do 11 to us. anJ mdíng thc 1uhordma11oñ oi '"omm bttau.~ he"' '"AA"''' thc ten•ion beN'\X'fl <uch "c1vtl ngh1' onJ "human ri,:hts"
0

•ioknce ag-Jtn.i '"nx-n " a form of su di>Crimmaum an,1 sn-b to makc 1hc) are "'Omttl. ._, curremly c<>ncen.eJ, m panicular heN'rt'D alxtract ºhum.tn nghrsº
<tates rcspon.-.hlc for f'nl'llc.' aru" tÍ they faí) to p=cnt, 10\'e'Ug;llC Of ºCl\'il n~t'' b.tve beco CO!htdertod • <ubpru•'llk"C ol hum.an ~rs. lfP· cqualuy anJ ,,.,i,.WUJ,.., "avtl n¡ihrs' equahl\ <.1nl n¡zhr, bqDn ar home
0

puru>h d1.cnm111<1t0<) aru of '-íolcnce." But repon:Ul¡t ,, ns pnmar. toul icallv W.~W>hcJ Jrom poliucal. so.:1.J <<onomic, md culrunl riglns. as ér d.- 10 11. human ~ Sttm to improw thc tunhcr onc gc:b Jrom
tor dll."Ctu..uon.' 1'cll J> ritiht> ol pct><>nbood. A more mibracmg !ICIUC ol C>jUilit) b Je. home By• prdcrd\cr lor Jm:u a\il n:mcd•c> 1n r.hc h~nJ. of thc uncqual,
A•• b•m t..r an c,¡-.nded e.:¡ual1cy pnnc1ple, "~'m<-n's r">1>1mcc to 11ex 1tlc~•tng anJ bc:mit •ppbcJ Ul Nonh Amer1<•, <•11¡.:m.mng m 1hc en il ri¡ih<> civil n.:ht> J1m1butc Jl<>"'CC from gO\crnm<'flt to l'<'•rlc ••ti"" redutnbutc
mcquJln~ IS
ub1qu11ous •nJ ncrywherc concrete Jn1I ""''.Jlv opc.,lcc !t llru!ll(le ol Bl•,b for >ocíal eqti•lny throu¡:h lc~.11 e4u.1luy m thc Unucd J'(•\\tr :.amon~ (14.."np1c- Jlum.1n nghts u:n"f ltl '« 1hc \loltC' "ª' th(' cnem., ot
lJ nol b.l\C\.l on l'l<'1n1<
thc '-Jme 1lS mcn hut on re'1't•nt;c 10 \'1tW.1t1on ¡¡nJ S1.111,.., 11nd CXlc:nd1n¡c [O lt'\ c:urrml p1nn.u;ll· forrnu1u11tln 1n rhc Suprcme <<¡11•111" mil rt¡ih~ 'l<.'C 11 as thclf potcnual promo1cr l lum.m n~bt> lo<nte
ahu'-C iand ~c.·conJ t..:1.a,\ ciu1en,hip becausc one is .i \\'Om.tn lt l'h•rt" t:luw c·ourc c,f C:1n-ida·"' equillity 1un~ruJenc.:c.• nn~1n;atinJ1 in tht< \\'Ornen•!\ move· e<¡u•litv 1n d1minJlln~ irrallon.J Jiffcrcn11u110n; t1\'1I ri~hi. •ce cquJlif\· us
to home Afncan womm oppo:;e 11enital murilation Ph1l1pp1nr, Th•1. Jap
15& • lhra•¡h the Bosnlan lens C11mes of War Cramtt ol Pe.ce • 157 158 • Thro•gh t~• Bosnia• lens

much m uihrmam·• cfouns of cultural paruculan[), in enJin~ oppress1on con<edmg geoocid.u condiuons m die construction ol die equalny prin- won. In C•nJdu, sorne of the real1cy of mequahty " bccommg tbc bas1s
"heiher b"'cd on rc-.il differc;11ces or no1. nnd m J!tcnn¡¡ thc mJi0>tre.im ople. \\1th the re.uh tl1Jt, '°far<'> ah.o "'IU•hty principie 1s conremed. wc for tht legal t!qual11> principie.
ro ucc.:ummudJu.~ m u.ncompromiscJ Jiven;jty. wJI ""'"' live unJcr •ny bu1 ~enodJ.tl c<>ndi11<.>ns
Thc curttni polit ic.11 forre oí 1hc m.linstrc.1m huninn ri¡\hts '11.'W 1akcs llow ct¡11Jl11y is ddincd 1n 1hc Nc;)rth Amoric•n muv~"""'"" b¡ n>ntr""t IV
u~ dce¡> 1ex1, on my •n.Jvsi<. from .1 reodin¡: nf the Nazi «pcrience: Sur- " sdf respectin¡¡ b111 not 1soh1ionls1 :.elí-detcrminoni but not >CKrc~n
,;,.u] lies in blendm~ in, in bcin¡? indisnnguish•ble from one's surround- tionis1, 11ncomp1·omlsed but not obsolurist. solid a1 thc core but for11.hin11 /\¡.lillnsr thtS b•ckdrop, what wíll become of the Mushm and Cro•nan
in)?s, m nondiffereminuon. Cast m equnlity tcrms, ms1ead oí criricizmJ? die •t 1he ed~es. lts equaliC\ is not 3bsolute bm relorh'e ro the bestj;()ciety has women vlolated b" che Scrbs? The basis ln a women's movement for a
\'l<!W diat lalled YQll for bcmg .L.ffercnt, vou lígbt for die right 10 be rec- 10 oiter. insisang on an expanded role for die subordinated in redelinio~ mearun¡?ful equahty exists, but ioterpreung \\'bat lsw( Smce No,-cmlx:r
o¡lmzed ru. the same and to bccomc the ;ame because tl will keep you .Wvc. stanJards trom the poim of view ot 1hose livtng uoder them. Sucb a cheory 1'191. lem1rus1> in Za¡rreb in parucular hu\'e been workmg with rdugcc
So m.m> Polish Jews die<l, ll 1s said. because tl1ey only spoke Y1dduh may appt.'<lr to luck princ.1pl~d ddininon. grounded as it io in response m Sllf'l'OJ'S uf thc 5exual otroo1k.,; ot gcnoc1de 1hrough w:u The11 nccount·
Thc} ~nulJ not "p<lss· •~ nu1 Jcws. Ary.tn •ppcnrin¡t German je\\..,. werc on unpnnaplo..I $<>Cl.U "·or!J. 8111 it> n:bti\ tSm ¡;!,.,,, 11 oub;uncc 1hot J~- abilit~ to 1hc ürnm• hes 1"'cn continuuus and "bsolute: thctr Jocumen
more likdy to •urvivc. lt should follow tlw assimilniíon-<Jmcness- gu.ir 6n0$ rnthcr than unúermin"" it> princtplc Pcrhu¡,. ií whitc mcn h•d been taticm and rolieí dfort, comn1i11cd und occuru1c.' lí jurisdit1ion nui be
antc'd an equal riRht to live. no• to be exrerminured héCllu<e oí who \'Ou lynched, as Black men \\'ere 1n che American South. sub.,1,amiw rcla1wc sernred. and it shouJJ be able to be. luws do cxist 10 cover many of the
are This is nonnrbi1rar; <CCOIU'Ícinn for meeting che dominan! <tandan:I ri¡:hts would be more of o problem: thc foct is. dicy wcre 1101. Givcn diot atrocctics.'" Rape, enforced prostimrion, and indecrnt assault are already
in1e¡m1uon over sdf-<letennination Do not think about wh"1hcr inte¡tra· no SOCÍet}' sys1em•rically traffics meo as men for sex. rapes men at \\'ill and rccc~nized as "·ar crimes.., There IS C\-en preccdcnc for u;ing diem:· Alter
uon is ulcimatcly possible: do not tbmk abouL those who will at.-ver be: wi:tb impunirv. forces roen to reproduce, baaers meo in homes, sometimes \\'orld \X1ar U. fapanese generals \\'ere uJed for se.,ual atrociues commmed
permmed to meet die standards; do not challen8e the standar<ls tbem- t0 deadi, on an C\'eryda: basis, pays meo as a group less ch.an women, or undcr tht11 command: rape. 1111pnsonment oí girls m botds and sub¡ecnng
sclvcs. presencs ma.le sexuaht)' in demeaned wa~-s for emertainmem .md pro6t on thcm to repca1eJ rape, mass t'ltpc. cuu:in¡: off brc'3Sts, killtng women ctvil
An llll1tlogy <oulú be Jrawn to 1hc psych<>fog~ ofbnucro<l women. wluch g lurgé ><:ale, the comp3ruuve Junension to the SUU1darJ hns a lot 10 ofier. ians ~nd .-ping lheir eorpSéS: Othcr 1han 1hc bi'eét.lm¡; uspect, 1his has
is Hlw • d1mension of femininny more gcn•rally. Thc only realily is lhe lt •bo hdp• •Votd imP<J>1n¡¡ foreign t'ultural st•ndllrd~ in divc™' sucial luppcno<l in v:urs hdon:, right down to tonurcs of fingcrs ruul Íccl
power of 1he •buser kecping ynur he.id low kecps )OU uli\'e, Thi<. !OO. setung~. ~ince \Vt1n1cn are,; not s'-t:king cquJ.lity \\1fh forc:ign \li omcn but Therc an: m•ny more cxamplcs in which no1hmg wu donr, a> nmtl)7.:d
acq111esces m tho dc>minanr stancbrd and concedes the pennnnem pow "'i1h men of their own cuh1lral group!, by Joon Firzpatrick, "thc m°'s rapes oí women during che war for inde-
erle$Sness of an underdass. Thc shame oí being who you are-as if that Cn le¡tnl pracrice in C.mada. chis 1pproach has proven capoble oí ad pendeoce in Banglacksb. the svstemauc r.cpe of women suspected of com-
1s validlv a.nd forever the reul .reason for •"Our subordmaaon- leads to dressin~ o substancial number of re-alities of sex mequality diat ba,•e cluded phcu;y in the insuf)lenc¡ m Kasbmir. and tbe belated but growmg scandal
i!lwavs w;mun~ und trying to b"come who you are not. wh1ch women know prior anemprs. A woman has been peonined ro sue her ciry police force coocernmg thc 'comfort women' who were abducted and forced mto pros·
is a livmg lic unul thcy betomo it. Tbts is die victim-side adaptauon to the ior failurc to wam of a serial rapist.'" Sexual harassment' and pregnant) muuon b) the Japanc.,;c ;any during tbe Second \~'orld War.'" füidence
pcrpctr•<or-ddiac<l rcahty. lt ronvcrges witb lhe final solu11on to thc in d1.>cnmina11on • have becn rccognm:J a> human righcs '·iol•tions. Und"r on rape w•s prcscnt<.J by thc Frencb anJ So\'1et prosect1tol'> ut l\umn·
equol11y pmbl<rn: .1nnilúJ.1uon th~ tutd;gc if not 1he Jtrc<1 t'on1rol of chh .1ppro.tcb. conunon law rcm bcr~ ' &xu.11 forms o( tortur~ were documcn1"1, but >CJ<ual •»uul1 w.á
This ~ th< cquali1y oí Aristotle. oí the Enlighienment of thc NJ~is. oí eilics for s~xu.\I :abu'-C havc: rct.vgn,,cd lncqulhlich of IX'''·cr, uncl 5'..itutc~ n<11 ch•r¡\c..J in the 1ndicrments. One can (.lnly spccula1e lh•L ll WJ~ not
che mmnscrenm U.S equnbry 1unsprudence toda" and of intern•tional oí hmitatíons for inccsr h•ve been rt.'\·tsed based on thc expcriencc oí ~ccn "' be within the trihunnl's emphn,•< ·nnt on inJi,,idual bJrbarities
human rights law. [1 seems rather late in the pursrnt of t-quality 10 seek ,;ctims ., Criminal law< a¡tainst u'Ífc-banerin¡: havc becn intcrpreted 10 onú pcrversion.<" bm only oo the Nazi "Common PI.in •rr Rape has so
fau condiaons of eKtermmation on 1he basis of speakiñg Polish or lookin¡t recognize che u•oman's realny."' and public.uion oí die oame< of sexual ofteo beeo rreated as extracurricular. as ¡ust something men do. a.s a
German lt is hke a bartered \\'oman's seeking not 10 be bea1en by servmg :issault ,;cnm< has becn probibited... Afcer die Courrs refusal ro rerognize product rather tbu.n a poliC\· of wnr.
dmoer on time and providm¡: regular ''"'- Such cqual11y dOcS notlung womca 's "'{UalllJ ri11hts to keep dietr sexwil histories out ol rape trials,.. Proceedmg chrough u-nr cnmes tnbunals on bebal.f of Muslim 1md Cro·

abou• th.: anruhil.uion mJChtne lt$CI(, long lb 11 SorlS !Jko í rom u.nhkes a wholc """' rape l.i\\ ,,,... introduced. • S1gnüican1 deasions h.we also been atian women woulJ creaic Jccountability, but 11 would no1 rcJiwibu1c
ee.:cur.udy It may n'cJn ~urvj\·.J ior wm~ undcr un1..-qual i.::ond1uans, bw llLldc in light of th1s •pproach in th• •rea ol reprotlucuve rigl11s, prevcnung power 10 U'(.lmcn tn 'ltUJUQO.\ othcr th.in Wílt, On the i:ívil su.le t.'Í hum.tn
Jo not call 11 c:<¡UJht). Such equ.1li1y mtons conc.oúing 1he ""nd.rd~ unJcr mcn fron1 gammg J. \cto o\cr \Vomt'S'l's nboruon.S-' jnd ~ognizing right'i, thc!-C' atrociúe... violatc C\·cl)' ~ex ~u.a.lit) guilrunl'-'1! in 1ntcrn.11iont1.I
wh1ch onc is meusureJ. monnonng only their reco¡miti<'n ""hout irwit>nol women's nghts in and ovcr their fomses.» Perhaps mo.<1 tcllingly when l•w, p1uperly 1111crpreted, ond thcy do not fml to da so bc<11use this is
distincuoo One can undcrscaod lfYIOll 10 consm1c1 an equality pnnctple die rights tn frt-ctlom of expres<1on of ami.Semnes ond rorno11raphers \\'artin>e. Surely these ore crimes RF(:J.ln!St hun1anit-y, o "'coosistent panern
to ensure sul'\ival under cond1tion~ of 11enodde: vel this 1s vcrv dose to u-ere balanced 31!8Íl15l thc equalitv righ1s of cheir rarj!etcd victims. equalítv ot mass violanoo of human ri~ts ·,. Pcrhaps this would be • good occa·
C"mes of Wai C"mes ol Pta<e • 159 llrn••l Rapt 1n10 Pornotrapb1 • 161

!t.Wil to u~ t:qoJ..l1t~ gu.arJnfe'---.. to JJJreu \lOlcncc J..:-JIJtst \\umcn, tlkr~


,. no •LllC'-l<IK>n pruhl. m S1..:h .t11 •ppro•.:h roulJ ..1.bl1"1 prccr..knu
15 h>t<n J.,,.mbcJ 1>hat he saw mcm Jo. lrom Va¡:.1n.i~ 1n Scr!Jian-ocrnp.:d
eru.u. 10 G r.bcz ~WMX:Cupu:d & ..nt.L • E\'Cl)1hing
tn m.11\ Mu.wn
for me b) v.·urru.·n 1n pc.&ecurtk: 11' \\'Cll Turning Rape into Pomography or CroauJn, thq ,!Ju¡;htcr. ltill. set on lire. l\'oth111g's >urp<>tcd 10 rcmam
,\1 a prawcJI m•tter, 11 hdl" mJt ~ mci<lcn11 happmal m a,.., 11.1\-e, nuc "'"" • ch1tken, cat. or buJ, tf thq lrnov.• 11', \lwl1m or <'1""111m
\lm ""'"' mm hun mcn 111 "'"'·so mavhe therr 1< •n analogy> h Jocs Postmodem Genocide Onc utJ, ·~·. a do¡¡: 1t's ,\luslim. kili u '• Thc rarcJ "'""en, che
oot hdp tnr n:<Oll"•nn~ them oow, or tor creaon~ a rn."CNm1 th•t cnuld filmcd "''flmrn, rhe prcgmnr u-ornen, and pwl-•hl) 1he murd<·rcd Vi'Omefl
atlea "°º"'"' mrrrprcrauons. mat similiir acrs are common C'\crvwli<rr rn .. "di ª' thc mcn ruffer no1 onl} irom thc<c anocrucs but al"" from
pca<-cum< .onJ ••< u1Jcly uadcmood is sex Yu¡;o-)J\U\ porn<>¡;raph' kno"1ng 1h•1 1h<') •re intendcd to be me la.c ol thcir pcople there
mark~1 w..,"1he lr<-e.I 111 thc wcrlif before 11lli m•lc popul•U••n "'·" l'h15 !?<'nornhl war ha> rcpeatedly b.,en mochauctcnzed as• "ovil wor, •
offi,1JU. rnvh1J.,cJ 10 c1>mm11 rhc air0<1uc• mci h•tl .1Jrc.oJy bt't'n '<•u•lly •AArC>W• <"!U•letl w1m ucnm, • all sides blJnJly bliunc:J lor cheir "ha-
ro11J11it>neJ 1u cn¡o) h Ll<1C1 hdp rh.11 men Jid tlw.c •ll•
in tk·d•rcd tred Yet Serbian •ggrc>SIOD agam>t non Scrb. 1> ' " mrnntc>rnblc and
milii.t"\' R'""I''· in~• e•J oí one on one evcrywherc ot unte u11<l ull 1hc 111ne O\'eN hdmmgly onc " deJ as male uggre,sion ugains1 women in CV<l')IJ•y
or in sm.ill p•ck,, murderin~. rapm¡¡, pimpin¡¡. and hreedm11 bur no1 ttc- "facrychina "'"' d.irk. but the bcd on which 1hcy were rapinA was lit up, hfc. Wttl"I alw•).. pwJucc ntrocirjcs copern>ll)· 11~.tinst u11mcn milhtns. Bu1
Oj!naed as Jn MmV Of OCCUpat10n. \~ilJ mere he rommanJ fCSJ'<'llSlbWt\' likc whcn chcy mierrop;ate you and po1m che li~hc only on you Only mat 1herc i• no ~U$lim or Cro.tfon p<>lio· of 1crri1ori•I cxpaMmn of exter·
lor me<e ral""'> Will women have co idennly cacb 1Dd1\1du.1I m.m ohen beJ wu• 111 up wi1h a spodi~h1. . 1 baJ a fcdm~ 1ha1 1h~ wcre someumes mmatm~ S.:rb> oí rapin¡¡ Serbian wt>mcn. Th" i• not u rearrocul 11eno-
nwnherm11 m 1hc hundreJs, ll'ho rapcd mero? In k~.il rcrms. 1t Jocs no1 tc<:orJm11 or lilmmg · In wbat is calkd pcacdtmc. porno~upbv is made 0Je. The rductance co "'Y wbo is domg what IO whom 1> remmrscem of
bdp th•t no ~Wtc rJ¡'<d choc ,.'Ornen anJ ~ m"m P"'¡:n•nt. 11 Joo hdp lmm r•pc m lilm >tu.ha., oo seis. ID pmatc bcJroum>. 1t1 ba>cmen1s. tn the mcnuhiy 1ha1 bLunes v.-omen for gemn~ oundvcs rapcd by men we
thJr .a '\tJtc•1 mcn J1d "°' .u.,. . m prison cdb. .mJ m bromds h >houlJ be no surpnsc 10 lind lt know .nJ 1h<n clúdes us fue bavtng a b.lJ 111muJc t<>ward mcm. As¡a
\\'tll 1h.,., arr.... mco be ICctl u hunun nghr. .buso? 11 1hc Mu•hm• l1<:1ng m;adc m • • ral"' matcr • m • Serb1an· ron contenrranon c.&mp lor ArmmJ.. ot me l\areu f<:mlllist Group ID Zagrcb, 1hcorucs ch.11 m"
""re J.,...., wuuld rh., world be .illov.iztil mi• co h•rren> Muu • ~""'P 61>1 \luJ1ms .1nJ CnunolflS m Bo.ma Hcr1c~nnn.1-a• ttp.>ncd •\>o..., by one clo$n IO home atf<XlllC> COIDé, me moro mcy Att Jomnlle41ctl, m>tk inCO
sun1'e 1tm<xiJc fot 11 co be rero¡mized nex1 time> \\-.U prm<irlc t « sunnor, a l\lefll)"ei~h1-)ur-old C:moill•n •nd Mu<hm W<>mon SciU ir lmc ~<>ne\\ rong. Thc mo"' •fcmmu:cd" me nct1111; 1hus bnomc, 1he more
rcalnw \\ ill 11 eon11«1 1>im <íntilar ara in e--en·da1 lite> Thc murde<' como ,. 1 <hock. a clarifyin¡t ioh \X'hcn l 1nda "ul\-elace" reponed her hn11ant 01h.,r m<n are 10 in1e:rvcnc m a fam1ly quarrd, •nd 1hc more
mJ\-be: rhe rape> P<"•1bh. and rJ so. prob2blv hecausc they att c1hnic, cncmon mm the pol11Ql(raph1c li.lm f),.ep JJ.mat.' Gl1ma S1emmi re- human n11h11 can be violatcd and a.trociucs condoll('d
hurung a iiroup chat mcludes men: the pregnances, les; Lkely lanJ wha1 uorJed the essence of che dtsbehel an<l hlamc Linda eneoun1ered as The r•pes ID me Serbian W3f oí aure..1on 81ll110.1 Botmie Hene¡rovina
to Jo w11h thc ch1ldreMl: the prostirutioo. lor •ll me C"'<lll} 1uu Cr•'llllCS am,>ununj\ to a<lung her, "What m you 1 b11ck¡;munJ lcd you m a ronccn- anJ Cl'()Jltia att to everyday rape wba1 che H1>locau.i wa• m C'\'cn:day ann-
;guinsi u, h11lc <hantc: ch~ p(lmogruphy nC\"cr, mc.u11n11 d nea, pmbJhl) tr.111011 c;111p~ U chr; wus cvcr only •n Jlldl<>llY· 11 i>n't •nymo...,. !>cm1usm: both l1kc 1t anJ oot !tke Jl at ali, both con11nuou; u1m 11 an d a
nut \O('ln Ex¡1lt><li11¡¡ thc Sll'•ICS)' pion<"efcJ 11 y<""t 01rl1e1· un Cmotin Scrbian mil wholc """' depunure, a umque a1r0<tt)' ye1 tU>o • p111nadc momem m
Or \nll chi1 'ilu.111on .mJ thc>e w<>men. ~ere JnJ nnw, lw thc 1íme aml n•ry Ít>r(<" in B0>nia 1lcr>.egovin• h•vc lwen, "" che w1>rld now knows. wmctlun¡¡ th11t ~- on JU the time. As 11 JUdl in 1h1> """ cihmc rape.
plao;c in which th.: worJ ""ornan• like me worJ ".lcw." will lin.111, comC' '""Y"'ll out • c:amp.1111n calle.! "e1hmc clc.m•m¡1." Thi' 1s • cuphemism h•ppc1u c'cry dJ\" A> 11 Is in this w.r, pr..,.mu1ion is forccd on woni<n
ro sc.nd, amonM 1c• meaninjlS. ÍOr a realitf oí abll't' 1hoi c•nnm be for lnr ¡t<ll<><:iJc. h m~ans removal or liqu1J.1t1un ol •ll non·Sttbs from me ewl') clai~ "·hai is• bromd bu1 • C-•puve ''"ll"M for orgJmlf:d sena! rnpe?
¡roncn, • mumph of <unwal n3lDS< all mat wan1ed \'OU JeaJ. a pnnciplc cerr11on thiit ..-as call.:d Yll,11os.l.ivia Tht> camr••jln ol exp-.lllsion through ForttJ prrgnanC) is íamili3r too. bcyinnang m r•¡'< •nd procecdin¡¡
ol wha1 cannoc be Jonc to a human bemg> \\-ill ..-ornen • .i 1..,c, ¡?el atn· <thn1c nl<tmll1Jtion has 1Dcluded rape. tomblc tmpttft1m1on. mrture, and m,,,..h che denial of abonions; tlu:. occurttd durtll¡! ,f.--en· .,,J <nll hap-
l'IC>f\! murJcr ol ,\luillm .mJ Croau.an "'(}lll<O, "lor Scrb1J • A Bosru.o Mw.lun pcn' 10 wom<n who cannOl attord ahomons--v.·ho m 1hc t.: mtcd ~tares
><.•ld1cr-nll htm "H•t1>" m prutn~ b1> 1Jcn11<)-who sp1cJ on Scrbr:111 are Ji.proporuocurdr Airian American or uUN Abo fmiiliar"' thc use
o( mcJ1a tcclmology. rncluJmg pomo~~aph), 10 m.ike lutr"1 '4'x}. \\'ornen
'l\n _,, ... ~ pobl..i..l on ,\1, 14 (Ju!, A._ 1..,1 As¡. ~ .ad :-.0....t.. ""' abuscJ b) mcn in di= ""Y' C\CI') <li) In C'\CI)' wunU) m thc .. odtl.
~- Q;1111ri>.1tal to 12.a rac-an-h ~. and dwtt)i 1\.rt 1h~ Mtd4 l unUllA l4U141 l.orit-a Scx h.. •l1<> l'l<'<'O usnl beforr 10 crea1e. mub1h1e, anJ mJmpuL.re ethnic
'rol111 ....J thr ""''""' •uh ..OOm 1h., ...,..¡. ....i. 1hc $0)' pooslbl<. AQ ..,.,,..¡ .-...... lu1reJ, ln>m thc \\·orld of che ThirJ !k1th lo th.. unrl.l t>I Pr11/~"""' Yct
ur: f1am 1cshmonin ptl1CRJ ui o~ rctr.1.t<b 1.'Uftd~ttJ 1nJ u.1111.L.uof bf N..u.l.ic !\~
lt1kl A~1• Annan.l• l 01 110..""Wtl'f feih<'ll'. 'H'º'""1" ~u.1h'fil •'" nc>C n.uorJ 11l1hut1;:.h 1 ~ •h•) ¡he worlJ h•s nC\·cr <;een ..,x used thi< con<cio1t\ly ch .. C)111a1.U,. tlm
thtv &fC;' elabnr.1el)', ch1> openly, mis <ystemacic11Uy, w11 h 1h" <lcgrtt of cechnolog-
160
162 • Throu&h the Bosnlan ltnf T•rn1nc Rape mto Pomo¡raphy • 163 164 Through U.e 8osn1an leos

real aod p>ycholo¡;i<al sophisucauon, •• a m~> ol <lcstroying a wbolt Serbun technique Anothe1 sud> mcidem of >wuched v1ctíms and mur- prh1lcged und«r tbc G.>oununisr regime, and who proentcd thc:m:.clvcs ib
people. cleren was dismis"'d as·, shumelcss ue" by rclte( ofllcrals, nccording 10 o s¡1eakm¡¡ lor women, rcgularly puhli>hed tberc •nd cven ocwi<>nally
\X'ir h 1hi, w.r, pomogrt1phy cmerg.,. as o tool of ~c.-nociclc:. Natalte Nen- UN •pokc•pcrson in Sarn1evo.' One womnn copturcd by the Serbs dcscribed •cn-cd a< eJitors. JThc presc:orntion oí pornogniphy n.s" modcl of fcmmi<m
•<lit. an Americon oí Croo~n and ª'""'ª" heritagc, wri1es from Zagreb hm" .be w.is forc<.J 10 p•rttcip•re in wch lics b¡· rcodrnH • •cripred JJ.!sc repcllc<l mom· \\-Ornen from fcmmism, 1 Wben pomo¡cmphy 1s e.bis normal,
rhat <he le•rned from l\loslim s<>urc:e> rhnt "sorne massncres in villages as "ronfes~1>n- ahout her 11cth~ties as a "tcrrorist" for 1 TV N<wi Snd camera a whole populunnn of men is primed to dehumanize women and ro enjoy
"'eU ns rnpes andlor executions in c:amps ore bein¡: "ideotnp<:d os they're She koC'll· thac the fabrication aired becausc.she was rerowiized by a Serbian inO.ctin~ assault sexually. The Neu: l'ork Timer reponed that "piles ol
b:tppeomg." O ne wornan who survived tbe Buqe rape/deatb camp in Ser· guard who said rhat be had seen her on Bdgntde TV. poroographic magazincs" we:re found io the bedroom of Borislav Herak.
biao-occupied Croaua reports the mak.ing of pomography oí her rapes rh1s Serbian propaganda moves culwral markers wir.h posunodem alamty, the captured Serhian sol<lter who calmly ad1mttcd to seores o[ rapes and
way: "lo fronr of the camera, one beais you and tbe othcr-cxcuse me- muk.ing cthnicity unrcal and al! too real at the sam.e ume. Signs and sym- murders.• Ai h1s war cnmes ttial in S..tal<'""· "·hen asked wberc he leamcd
lucks )'OU, he pulS has rruncheon m )'OU, nml he film> al! tha1. ... We evcn bols, wor<ls, im•¡;es, ond 1denthics are manipulnted to mean llDything and 10 kiU. he describcd bcmg tramcd by killing pigs.' No onc o>k~d him whcre
had to sing ScrbMn s<•n~s ... in fron1 of rhe comero • :\ccount aft~r oc· ilJ opposite-nll in che servicc of gcnoc1do. a single renliry that meuns only he leamed co rupe, although be restilie<l th•t hrs 6rs1 rape m th1s wur w.u
coum d<1cumtn1s tho1 Scrbiun force~ film n• they rape. As they do 11, they one tbin11 \Then humon beings are • rcprescnccd" out of CX1Stcnce, pl•yrng his 6rst <exuul cxperience. P<1rnogn1phy 1> the pcrfect preparJtion-mo
wnrch, fau!lh, cncouroge each 01 her. ancl spew ethnic CUl$CS and epithers. realiry as n Jt•me emerges ns " smnegy of foscism. riva1or .md in<rn1crion manual in on.,._for thc sexual ocrocities ordered in
·Usta./'a whore• is particularly commooplace. "U.rtaia" is a dero¡¡a1ory po- ActUal rapes of Muslim nnd Croatiao \\'Ornen by Serbi:tn solclier.<, 61med this genocide.
utical tenn ihar refers to the fascisr regime in Croacia ! then iocluding "' they happen. nave beeo showo oo tbe evening oews in BllDja Luka, a Pomc>¡¡raphy, koown to dehumanize women for irs consumers, pen-ades
Bosnia-Herzegovmal thar collaborared wirh Hitler. Secbtan soldiers use u Serb-occupied ci1y in western Bosnia-Herzegovina. The w'Omen werc pre· sorne rapddeath camps. according to survivors. lo one roiluary prison. tbe
for Muslim and Croatian \\'Omen-mosr of whom were not C\'Cll boro umil sonkcl a:> Serbran, and as being mped by Muslim or Croatian roen. J.n pomography was customIZed to surt thc guards' saual w1cs. in •Ch\><'
afrer World \X'ar Il. Septtmbcr 1992, ooe woman :uound agc fil ry, enurel)' naked with visible Jnd parallcls to the aets they pcrformtd. Ont woman in her mid·thm1es,
In u miluury trial in SJrajcvo in March 1993, Borisfov llcmk, a Scrbinn bru1ses, wa• showo be1ng rup<!d on television. A Serbi:in cross hung nround • mother of two, rccalls how sorne mcn drcw l.tttle peruscs next 10 w1>mcn
solclu!r, cc..Ufic<l thur che rapes he commi11..J h.1d bec.-n orc.lered for •Ser· her neck: the npisc-using • u:rm for Strbian fo.scisr rollt1borJtor that has in che pomogrophy with whom rht)· wnmed to havo se<. ond wrotc tbcir
bi:m mornle." A• nn in.rrumenl for chcir mor.tic building, thc Croutian become a badge of pride umoo¡¡ Serb forces-curscJ her chN•1i¡,. mother; nnmes on 1he peni..,., Next 10 thc: mcn in che macerials, <orne wrote "l
Muslim survivor quoted earlier-one of whose t\\in son< wos decapicaccd S<>meone was vclling "harder." The \'erbal abuse was dubbcd-and un· ha\'C • longer one tbon yau" ;ind si¡med their oames. One Serbian guard
in her mns-repom that as they rnpcd her, Scrbian soldicrs "were tellin11 mi~bly Serbian in intonarion and word usage. The m;tn's face w11s noc "draws a picnire of his own click and an arrow showing whcre he'd ¡:o
rhem 'Croacia needs m be crushecl again &li¡as need to be crusbed tom- visible, but the woman's wAs.. In another tele\ised rape a few days later. a with iL" In other words, tbese roen do ro womeo m the matc:tials "·har
pletely. You are half this and half that. You need to be crushed to tbe woman ru:ar agc tbirLy·fivc, "'rh shon dark hatr. W3S showo on theground; they do 10 women m th" camp: • ... the women werc cu• out, but tbe man
end. Because you're Croatian, you should be rapéd by five dúferent men- her bJtlds wcrc sprcad and ucd to • tree, her I~ -..·ere de<l to her hands. remains whole." And spoaking of personahzed \\'alponry, sumvors m the
.w<l bccause you're •Bula, you should be rapecl by fi"' roo~'" Bahja ond M;10) men wa1chc<l ber raped in person: thous.inds more warched her Bosnht-llcrzego\1na Refugee Women's Group, Zene B11L 111 cxile U\ Z..
Bu/" •re <lcrogu1ory tcrms for Muiliros. Xenopbobiu an<l misogyny merge rnpcd un tdcyision. This time, in i10 apparenc 1e.:hnical lapse. obout four grcb, n;port 6ncling 1he n•nle of Jovan Tintor, • chtt111lt commnndcr in·
here. crhnic h.urcd 15 >exualize<l¡ bigouy becomes org.1sm. \Vhntever this or fivc seconds of thc acturu sound trnck was ,1ired: "Do you wJnr ,.,, scribeJ <>o thc rcm•ins oí projecnles that were .1imc.i at, and hit, a Saraíe'-o
rape does for the ropisc, the pornogniphy of the rope moss·produces. The Ustaia? Do you likc • Serbian sl\ld horse?" Eorlier in 1he war, accordin¡¡ matemity \Vard
llY.lteriols becorne o porenr ad•>ertisemem foro wnr. 11 pcrfccr m1>tivaror for to Asia Armandii of the KaretJJ Feminist Group. a news reporr showed Wbcn pornography is tbis common ond this accepted. the lines dh1ding
torrurers, who rhen do wh3t thev are ordered to do 'ii.nd enjoy ir. Yes. ir Serbian raoks rolhng ID 10 •cJeonsc" a ,,ua~e. The taoks were plasrered i1 from nc:ws. emenainmem, and the rest of life an: sb blurred thst womcn
unprnves 1hetr morale. wuh pomography. mav know no word for u. The woman who surv1ved tbe Setbian military
Sorne ot the rapes that are made imo pomography are clearly intended How <loe. genocide become S-O expliculy scxually obsessed? 1-low do prtson descnbed a thick sex book that m•de the rounds. lt showed. she
fc¡r maS> eonsumption as war prop..ganda. Onc eldcrly Croalillll woman who real rop...-s becomc ordmary on the evening ncws? srud, •men wiih ootm•I< .md wornen with orumals, bow )'Ou get AJDS."
w•• CUmc<l being rupeJ w~ Jl>o iorturcd by clcctric shock> •nJ gang·l'llpcd P<1moj<rophy S<lturatcd YugoslJvio bcfore the war lu mJrkM, nccorJing Thc book "·.is ·s., rcad tho1 ir "'"' rompl<rdy íalling ap.irt." Ano1hcr
m 1hc Bué1c co11cenmui<>n cump by Serbian mcn d•eMe<l in gencnc mm· to YuRoslav criric Bogdan Tirnanié. was "thc freest in the world. ••A m11jor woman •pokc of sccing "tho:.c mugaiines wich che nudc ''"'°'""•
the sex •
ouíl•gc unifom» She w11s forced m "confcs;• on film thot Croo1i:10$ rope<l news magurine, Starl, wirh 11 'ittc.rt1't't'.l."likc formal and the policics of rhe The womtn in 1hc milir•ry prison grasped for word.~ to dC<Cribe 1hem:
her This <lisinforrnonon-<wirchm¡; die ethmc lobels-is especially casy Natt()n, had Pl11V/>o¡o.rype cO\'ett and a cenrcrfold seccion 1howin11 m1kcd "e11her 1hcy rcm11in sclltlding :ind ore nudc or . you have a womnn lyin¡¡
"·here there are no rocial markers for eiho1c disrincuons Ir is a standard women in posrures of sexual display and actess. Sdect womcn who wcrc on a woman or a 1''0man lyin11 on a man. ali those poses that are done. 1
lornon¡ R1p1 1nto Porno¡raohy • 16S 166 • Throu¡h lht Bosnl.. Ltns Turno•& hpt lnto Pornocrapby • 161

don·1 know wha1 those m•¡¡umc• •re c•.Ucd A>kcJ whm wa> on ihe walls blym11 her." tor noc bcm¡t •ble co "force .1 smilc out ol her," becau;e shc counm· repon thc wne s~l..J sexual atr0<111n endmg m saatltcc. Sorne
ot lhc room whcrc thc gUJnli ,lept-pteturcs ul pol111eul leJJcrs J"'r· "nut .llowin, ""11'" ol lmc. lncy be.e her ond .l>k il 11 1s goo<l for her. uy the><: ·,nuff • .ceno. Loo. "'e mk-oupcJ
h.ap.?-Jnothcr wom.m JtuwercJ, "I can't ••V 1 ' " " M1l0>C\1< or Tt10 Thc $Uf'•""" who ;, orJtrlllR til<"fll '-1)" "Shc ti ... to knov. thJt wc Jre lbc Nrus 11.crc pre<octous wuh ihc mcJ1• ll"Chnok~· of lhétr umc.
Th""' pic1url-.. '"'e m;unlv n•kcJ -.ornen • 1h·~ u'u•I p1c1urcs from rl:.-t~1¡, Sht· hJ' tt> kn<>v. 1hll t' <>ur Lnd Shc ha, co know that wc'rc They Uied t1 10 creatc un;gi:s of evcnu 1h.. nt-vcr 1ook plJ<c Thcy mo
S1arl and lh<>K thmll' Malc thmp. • comm•ndm11, 1hot th" "our Grc•ttr '\erbia. th•t u'll be chis for everyone 1ook p1<ture> of -ame <•I th<ir hornfi1 mc:<h<-al opcrim~nt• JnJ cxc.:utlOtl•
The condioom in thc camps 1hroughout 1hc <>cruru:d •reas of Croatia "ho d.,.,.n·1 httcn" o..,. ti ~cr <>ecur m 1hem lhac 1he "'Ornan is a human They 1mpn;oncJ w001cn 1n bruthd•. for.-cd •h•mcn in camps m run naked
and Bosni1-Henq¡o.,n1 are <ubhuman. Sorne peacetl111c br0thd> havc bc- bettll!' ·1 J.>n t kna..· il they e-.-er tven 1htnk thtS IS prrson; Haris sa>'S bo!fore om"'"' .and parodcJ nakcJ "'°"'en Í<>< p1crurcs just bcfore lheir
come ..-anime rapc/dealh c=ps-a kinJ oí rum:-.al camouthl!" lhrOUJ!b ls there a reJ.11<>n<htp bt'!wttn 1he pom0trraph\ conswned. the sexu:ili- ~llOO• ThC\· pubU.hed sexual!\· exrlicu ano-Semmc bate prop~•-­
bl.itanC). !>orne are outdoor peo> nngcJ v.ilh barbcJ v.uc. ~e are: arumal uuon of tbc cmironment ol 1onurc •oo pred.mon, and che sexual acis Smce tbcn, ,,,,ua1 1tthnol~ 1ha1 U>CS human beinl?S as ll\-e 1ar1l""5 has
sulb.. ~me wcrc ¡,¡r<na>. fa.iorto . ...J>uob \\ornen •re typ1cally alloncJ tb•1 ..re pcrlonncJ• lb1> ,. not an ilcaJcmi< quc,.uon. becomc cbeap. mobilc, and .,~ble. !'\cul} h.dl a tcn!\11\' ol dcp~mcn1
one thm ili<c oí bread • OJ\ Humant1v " 1ammcJ mio dooct >lle cooc"'1c Onc Wtllllon reponed th•t .he ""' don<: to a woman m a pom(lftraphy ci. pornographv ,.odJ11.1Jc h•' <><:•l•tcd tts cxpl1cttne». mlN>J\cn<:S>. >nd
cdJ,, bcg¡ting ""cn for i-r.h 10 skcr on. V.'&i!Uljl for !he '"'' m be sclc:ct«I m•ll'""'" ,. hat v. u al'lo c.lnne U> her DacnbtnJl ma1crúl• m lhc c•m¡», ~1oknc< \\.tih 1lus ui b.u>J, thc. Sc:rt.. mokt !he :-<~1u' effon• loolt com
out ior oystcmauc 1orturc, 10 be ukcn 10 thc room• ,.,.h thc bcJ. •n1h she "''"· •Tu...._. p1<tu""' wt1h 1h....: thtn¡¡j \'Ou hu 1hcm wilh • . lilte )'OU pltlU\'d)· pnmtU\ e
the blood) sheet• "'"-"hm n1gh1 carne: •• onc <ul'VÍ\'Or pu1 ti, -Jonh in hi\'c a cha1n hice 1hi> •nJ like 1h1> 1hc,y han~ you to a bed He hmi.tS her Rapt' ,,.., no1 char~cJ 1n thc r<»t-\\'orlJ War íl tooiamena of lhe
lifc carne • Tu><e who att allo..-.O 10 11\-c ohcn mu.1 -exuallv semce tb,,ir from thc. cnhn~ - \\'t1hout mmin• a beat, ~ rnO\·es from dcscríbin¡¡ the ~ .... al J'\urcmbcr11, althou¡th "''"') fnnns of tonure. indudin¡l rape, were
captors One ...-aman was forced 10 kc:cp her Scrhoan captor'5 pcn1> lurd im1criol> to dcscnbm¡¡ v.•hat was done 10 her. -¡ know there was some clocu=1ed at !he mal< Perhaps thB omm1on was a casualiv of lhe m-
m hc.r moulh from m1dnígh1 10 5:00 A.M for founccn ni¡:hts m a Scrb-run lcind ol wooJcn board on lhc ''de, • woman ued 10 11 by chains. sbe had bunal's cmplu.s1s "not on mdmdual barbanues and pel'·ersions" but on
con"'"1r.uon camp m Voi-oJina. • M)• ¡ob W11$ to pldl>e hun, 10 o:.•ale a mask º'"'her C)e> and he".., ht1ung her wuh some kind o{ tluck whip- tbc Nazi "Common Plan: Rape m war hll> so oltcn bccn ucined as ex·
hun tha1 wbolc ume, so th•• he -.oulJ be ablc to c¡.m1!.1c. . ~mcumes crop. 1 mcin dm v. h1¡> crop rctmndcd me of tbc Begqa concenrration tr•cum<ular, as ¡uM somcthing mcn Jo, •s a produet ralher than • poli'1
1 began to >UÍÍOCate. •nJ wbcn [he,] beg1111 to •run ou1 on thc cro>rnt ht ump. becoui.c: 1hcrc u1 Bc¡:cjc1, lhc) haJ • thick wlup, • crop moJe like o{""' Yct ihc propog1nw>1 Juhu• .,1rc1chef< -edi1or of thc anti·Scnuuc
"-ould bon me up. 1 haJ to rcm•in kncdtn8 • 1h.11 one-frnm ltJthc1 .tn.J tht) hcat the capli'"'' in thal way 1 mean, nev...paper Drr Stu,.,,,rr. whích coni.onrJ p<lmo~r•rhic anu Scmnic lwie
Often the att'(>Clllts are •n.. ngcd 10 bc wotchcd by other 10ldiers In 1 wa< whippcJ likc th•t once tn Bc~cjci wuh th•1 whip-crop. so 1 know prop•11andA-WR\ indietctl for "cromes a11..n~t humanily" for incitemcnt
tel"'-iscd rapes. the \1e»..,r con sce nthcr boots. s1•nding oround, wolkin11 thot tt hun• • 10 hatred of thc Jcw•. 'º St rekher. <lcocribed b) prosecuuon documentS a1
around The Croa1ian-MwJtm woman quoted earlier SO)"$ of her expcri- Many t<'nl•re• tn th~ ramps are or~anized as -exual spectacles. rirualized ihc Nurcmber~ tri.U• as • bnn•I saJi<i who c•med a louher whip attached
roce: "These soldm-. would lnvue 1hcir lrlcnds to com~ wa1ch 1hc rapes. act> of sodtsm m which mfl1cun¡t extreme p.11n and deaib are sexual acts, 10 hos wris1. was fountl Awlly anJ condcmned to dearb by hanging.' In
That was Wcc in ihc movic iheuicr. Ali sil arounJ while olhers do thdr perlormeJ 11nd wJtchcd tor sexual en¡oymcn1. l laris. hidmg in a tree, ob· tbe war crime. mals lor ihe 11cnoci.Ja1 war agamst Bosnia-Hcrzego,'Ula and
¡ob. . . Someun1cs !hose who werc w1ucbing pu1 out o¡:arcue buu& on thc ...:1vcu a ~mall concen1tJtit1n c<lmp in Scrbrnn-occupocJ Cruau1 in Apnl Croatia. wtll tbo;e who tnrned tu gen(IC1de 1hrougb rape, scx11•l 1omirc.
bo<lies oí 1hc women being rapl'<l. • The Scrb1J11 soldicr BorlJav Henlk 19~2 lt w•s whnlly t>ut.Joor., wioh "hun11r¡ 1onurcd people, beaicn, illld murdcr-thc Scrblan pomti¡;r•phc~ •• well a. h111h poucymakcn and
describe<l how othcr solJicu wut<hcJ h1m r11pe <>ne youn~ girl nfter ,m. blo.xly. • l lc w11td1cJ 11 m11n und • wom•n who appcortt.1 10 be sc:vcn or 1he undcrlong,--gcl what thc¡ """'""?'
0ther-oll of whO!le nnmes he rcmcmbcrcd · This is livc pomo~r:iphy. e1~h1 month> p'<'¡¡nant hdn¡c i.kcn 1a • cltJrin¡¡ in the woods. The Womcn hctttutc to rcpnrt thJ1 pam<>11r•phy ,. m.1dc of cheir rapes cvcn
We will nC\-er know wha1 hopp<:ncd 10 mO'<c o( 1hc womcn who ""''° womJn wa• 110.I vcrti<•lly to • "''"' lc-i:1 prc<1ed tOl(eiher and arms ex- more than 1h<'Y hc.. rnte to rcport thc rnres themsdveo Oisbelief from
k:illed-until ""' uncovcr 1hc. mass graves or thc pom<>11raphv A gang-rape 1cnded They ri¡>ped her pre'1"ont bdl) o¡~n wilh i knife º11 "'llS alive ou1S1de combmeo "'ith humih•1ion. <hame and • sen-e of powerlessness
observ«I by Hms, tbc Bo>man soldier. ¡uves a rare 11lunpse in10 ihe sexual • ti movc<l fhc v.·om.ln 1ook •boo1 lifreen mmu1es 'º me. The man. ms1de. h 15 unbcarable to kn°"· thar cven alter \OU are dead-maybe soon.
specrades sugcJ lor pr~ate v1cwmg, proc:eeJ1n¡i on orJcrs from a supmor apporemh her hwb<111d unJ fJther of lhe baby, was bound 10 a nearby on upe--th00>.mds w.U sec you ih1~ wav. The Jep1h ol despair •• sioppmg.
11 Ltlko Pel!ovo Seto, a v.Ua¡.:c m Scrbim ·oc<-upocJ Crom~ Thc woman tree md torced to -.Jtth Ibc Jtuckcr. •nemp1eJ to force him 10 ou ihe lhc: "'!"' becomC$ an 1nhnoty ol hopdes.nesa •t scoppmg ihc pom<l!lraph~
1aas ued 10 four 11.akcs m the gtound ·m • 1""8 l""""'n but su.¡x-ndcJ." b.ib¡ •• arm. 'Thcn "thc) h...kcJ lum up, cut ihc íloh on hun so 1hat he of u.
While they wcrc rapmg her. thc. s.>ldotro u1d "1h.11 Yugt><l.-1• ,. 1he1"' •• ,..,uJd bl~ 10 Jt.uh • \'<'hile they -.<rc ,1,,.n~ 1hi'. lhq -.ere l.wghmg. faro thou~h •ornen m r.pc/Jc-..h campi1 know th•• thc uro• things
that tl>c) fought for 11 m World \\~ar ll, ponwm for Yu"°"b'U. Thai \'l:'e'rc ~tlUlll h• hm11h1cr ~u of you Th1> is our Set-bu·- 1-Liris 1> •re bem11 done 10 0thc:r 11.nmen, and somcnmc> are C\'cn forced to wa1ch
thC\ l!Jl''C CYCl)-ih•n11 for Y~<>J.-u • Thc 11.1110n.! polme> att fu...J .,.,.h cen..in 11 ,.,. lil=d tbcm, .iiU 1hc sense of ooliuoo tt wcal A}w.,, 1hey fcar rcpm>l. apc-
sex Ha.ns repons tha1 the mcn bugh and chodc each Olher for ·oor u1- Chantte 1he "'~"'"' or reh~1on, and •ietinu oi ritual 1onure m this dally for spcalún, '''" aga1n>1 1hc pom°'"'ph\, C\'Ctl wbm ihe-, are v.-hat
ltiB • Throu1h lh• Bosnl¡o len• 170 • lhrougn the lklsmn lens

os called lrce-mcm1mg they and thctr lamohts are not lucra! captoves of
mned men.
16 ,mies lftat r.pc 111 m.irr:hlge-anJ 10 Lirge parT bccause 11 was treateJ thot
way now the 1nternauonul communny has 11s ovil war, or elemen~ of one
\\'hat Jo "eº"'" them, womóll Cor whom "»ºº were lucky ú rhey only Rape as Nationbuilding w1thu1 1L·hu1 ~.uns mtemJtionnl ;\l!llression
rapcJ )ou·? Wh.i will m.Jkc 11 posilblc for thcm to speak ol wbJt wai. Tn rhe genocide that is the cn~ine oi 1he nnslaught, ~u non·Scrbs go.
.Wne to thcm' As one •ul"\ivor put u, •r have no u-e for telLlng ¡-ou the dend or aliv~. To rhis end, systcmatic rape has beco a prominem weapoo .
rc.t r h•ve no securiry 1 hove nothmg." When the film., of her r.ope ª"' plnnned 11nd ordered from the l<'P as well as permined on a widc scale.
sold ilS porno¡¡raphy-emblem of democracy and libernnon m past· \ luslim nnd Cro•t we>mc:n and girls are taped, sometimes killed afrerward.
Communist Easrem Europe and mcre(lSto¡¡.ly protected as •peech world- somerimes their coll™!S are se.'<ually violated by Serbian roilnary roen, reg-
wide- she wtU have even less ibnn ibat. ulars and uregulars 111 '.irlous formations, ao<l ulso by oeighbors, on their
doorsteps, 011 hillsides, 111 can1ps-camp1 that werc faetones. m111es. sport>
•r<:oas, re;iaurunts, animal stalls. Someumc. meo are r•ped •s wcll on thc
The coníl~gration in Cro:11fo anJ Bosnia·HerzegO\ina has beco ¡:cun¡¡ on b.sis of 1heir ~thnic11y. Somo oí the rapes are 61mc<l and phcitogruphcd as
for more 1han thrce years. The bo<lies of 1he raped rontinue to pile up in pnmo¡traphy and prop.agando The womeo ore rapcd to dcnth or capt.- d
public view. \'(IJ131 is going on here? Argm1bly, we are witncssing a for- and made ro live \vith ha,ing been raped. This is rape us forcd cxilc: to
mative intemaciooal as "'ell as oational govemance process with profound roake you leave your home end never RO back, lr is rape as spccr~dc to
implications. be seen and hcard and watched and told 10 orhers. !t is rape as.,bumiliation:
The conllict in thís region os a ¡tcnocidc éuphe1nized •s "ethnk for cenain roen 10 take plC11Sure t"rom -.olaung ceruun women, or cenaln
deansing."' This campalgn oí cxrcrminatlon. of non-Scrbian pcoples b roen, or ro take pleosure watchmg certam mw be forccd to \'lObte. certrun
bcing carried out by a phnlanx of Scrbi:m íasdsts m coUnboration woth the woroco or girls. This rape 1s 1onure; it is .ex and i:tltruc Jiscriminotioo
r.:gimc in Belgrnde for polidcal cxpansion and hegcmony 1hrough t rhnic combincd. lt is rupc os ethnic expansion through force<l pregnancy ond
unifonnity, ro ad1iC\'C thc ·G...,ater Serbia• rhey havc long plnnned. lt is chilclbeuring. h is r•pe te> csrnbli<h dnminunce, co •hnner u communiry lt
a gcnocidc through war lt is nota wor in rhe usual ;ensc ofarmies fi¡:hñn~ is rape tO Jcmoy a peoplc: rape as ¡¡enocide. lt is rape as nationbuilding:
ugainst other annies ret:reating aod advancing over territories, or guerrilla to crcruc a sute.
bands froro one side raiding troops and mvn1s of anoth"r sidc. The sides \X'hat has the world's response been? To \\'llrch. let ir go on No doubt
are de6ned not by place or go,-eromental aUeginnre or poliucs in Lhe coo- sorne people are horri6ed. But at the saroe time. these rapes seein 10 have
vennonnl sense, but by ethnioty. l11e objective. what is to be con4uered fu.llcn meo some deep "·ell of uuderstaod.ing and empadiy, mm the arms
and possessed ond subJued 1md sub1u¡¡ared and ruled by force, is J !anti of de fllcto world condonation. Call it hlstocy, call tt gcopoliucs or real
grob. but the tnrgers are people. Nlnety percenr of the cnsualúes are ci poliuk. call 11 compLi~cy. c.tll 11 isolatiorusm and !.ck oí o nacional in
,;fion.' This is a wur :ig•inst pcople. t<rcst, caU it fc;ir-whutcvcr it is, J lot oí other mcn havc • lot oí respec1
fn the $tnndarJ lexicon OÍ \Var, the cJosest term WC nave for lhis kind for ir and gi,.., ít a lot of rope. Tolemnce is.,,,.¡,.¡ emerges from thc foot·
of war is "ci\'il "•ar." In Croaria and Bosnia-Herzegovina, tbou~h. it is a dragging reluctance, the excuses. the jockeying for po.<ition, thc vncilla-
misnomer if it meaos two sides fighñng each other. Or it was unril after rio11S. the evasions, the denials, the cover-ups. the slippery·sloped sover-
sorne years of describing i1 that way-y= of m:atlng a war of aggression ei¡¡:my ar¡(Uments, the doubletalk, thc proceduml morasses,• as thousands
agamst people who bavc oo armed forces and are forbidden to arm them· upon thousands ol rapes smk beneath public VIfW wbile being carried out
selves, as iÍ this wcre equo.I and reciproca! aggression, ycat> iil which thc 111 plain soghL lf you read what the world°s leaders do ruther th:in listen
m1crna1ional communil)' triviaLlzc<l the attacks ond distancetl itsdf Írom to what come> out of thcir mouths, what you SL'C ts that many of the meo
them os if rhis were n domestic dispute, yean oí t...,arin~ it the wav mos1 who run thb wnrltl rcrognitc somcthlng, 1dcntif) wirh somcthtn¡¡. in thlS
ronílict ír rcmin-4 thcm pf son1ethmg. l11c Serb> coold win This is how
1lu11 tlilk WIU dcbw1ftl C<• tht' GlOO.d Scrut1\lro: Com'<'4.11lwn 1n WotJ=~ton, D ( (In F~hrui&n ""'es are made.
S. 190.I. Emma 0r<urc and Anoa &ldwm prm-.kd ,....,ch mut.mce .O d>e Mgho.•t <¡Ualny, The foct is. the more rhe Serbs rope md kili. the more respect they get,
169
R•P• as Ha1tonbuild1ng • 171 112 • Througll th• Bosniao le•s Rapen Hallonbu1ldon¡ • 173

che more dlgnity uad sc:ríousaess the dcmands of chese mrema1ioruil war or xenophobia. the culprit is oftco said to be nacionalism. When roen be¡nn A pnnaplc!d vision to animate a ncw iniemauonal ordcr could be¡¡in
crimmllls are accorded. the doSér they comt to bcing able to get awuy behav1ng 10 sorne othtr men and womeo che way thcy hu''C been bcha,vig here: oot only that rape woulJ cnd, but ch.t 1L siops workmg. Tlut men
with it ..U, 1uid thc cleurcr IL becomes that this is onc Wüy communnics nre to "thcir own " women ali alclng, it is 001 cuU~-d mule donunnncc, 11 ¡, callcd scop UWJg vtolat1on ol womeo to get w.hn1 t.hey want úom one >Ulothcr
Je•.UO)'Cd lllld StJLe> urc creoted: by whom you can rope. The ••me ac· na11onalmn . Scrb1.1n lu>cists .ire calleJ Scrbían nuuo11alists, Js lÍ chear vic· bccause it 1s no longer funcuonal ar dfecuvc Becousc u get• contempt
quicsi;ence in d11s procus uoderlies Lhe much-bcanl pallfativc response nms obJ<?Ct m 1hctr h•vin¡t ~ nauon, 1111hcr Lh11n to 1hcir having a ¡¡eooc1de rnther thlln resptt1. B<:<ousc the world mobilizes 10 gel in úie way of 11
thesé days beyon<l c:vcn the ooe that it a happenmg on t1l1 sides hcre.• Tt in order to have "ne. fa'Cry notic>n hos it> ["scis1s: the qu<l'tion is. are they msieud of stlmdinA uround .ind wiuching it ond réwurding it with terntory
is: rape happcns in "11 wa<S nlJ the time. Relax llús is no difkrem from nunnin~ your ~overnment? Mv clien1s are called nacionalists for describins and rule. &en use 1hose whó do it are CllSt out of thc human cummunl1y
usual, why ge• so exercised? Wdl, docs onc ha\'C ro be surprised to be their rapisis in 1he terms in wbicb the tapists describe themselves: as Serbs. instead of being treared Llke diplomats. Violation of W(Jmen should violare
,.;olated? Perhaps i1 is more um'llrnished, uncliluted. uoashamed, undis- \'\'ornen survívors of Scrbian genocide are c'1iled naúooalists, che same as the real rules. oot jusr che rules oo papcr, nubcr thao being a pan of thc
guised, imenuooal, blaWlt 1his rime. This ume, women rcfuse to be silent their tonurers and killers, for thinking they sbould not be 1onused and un"«itten nues, so that s1J11es are built on die backs of womeo on thcir
•bout it. But suppose it 1s ialways there. They alwap do this? Gcttlng away kille<l beeausc of chcir ethrucity. In thb dJ.cu.s;ion, JÍ ) 'O ll own )'OUrsdf, backs oo more.
'1•it.h 1h1s crea1es tho1 legítimntc monopoly on force of wh1ch aatioo·siat.,, daim your.elf .uul idenufy wlth )'Our own con1muruty. aod pubLcly rescm
are said LO be made? This puts mi¡¡ht m~kes right in o whole oew llghL being rupcd because you ore a member of u, you are cnUed ~ n.111onalísi
In this system, vio!Jrin¡1 other mtn's women is plnnting n ílag; i1 is a wa¡• 1 havc never heorJ N:uive Americons callcd nationalisrs far nb1ectin¡t 10
sorne rnen say to oc.her men, 111 What \\·as yours is nmv mine ... He \vho gers: being subjecred to ~enocide and for wantin¡i thcir own nation lrJd<.
oway \\~th this, runs chlogs. Doing this instltutlonalizes rho nulership of The charge of naáonalism. likc callin!f this a "civil war: is onc more
sorne meo over ocher men evco as i1 establishes thc rulcrsh1p of iall men '111Y 10 avoid calling it what ir is: a genocick. Thc •civil war" cover-up is
over ali women. You caonot govern che tlead. Bettcr that those you rule the lates< symmecrv rnip, equalizing aggressor aoJ aggre.~scd-against-as if
hv~ m terror, knowing you have something over thcm, knowmg wbat you a will to elnennii;ia1e LS the same as a will Lo survÍ\'e cxtcrnunauon. as ti a
cnn do 10 them nt any time. Thls makes the pow~r oí gO\'eromt:nL look fas051 concep1 of nauon is 1he sorne as J mulucthnk onc. lt is as if those
like u forin of tl>e powcr of rhc rapist ovcr the rnpcd. Is this u dynam1c in ""'ºare rupcd nnd k11lcd becnusc oí the group 10 which they beloog should
how stores ore run intcmally os wcll. in between their inicmationnl con 6nd sorne hi11hcr, mc>re cnligh1cnc-d, less pJn:iculnrized grounrl from whith
ílicts? There, roo. men define who thcy are in rehuion ro 01her men •nd 10 object 10 thcir rape ond murder Objecting ro ir on the ground on which
over ali women by "·hich womeo tbcy 01J1 get away with violaring. ln this it is happening npparently is not 1t0<ld enough.
li¡¡hr, perhaps rape in peacerime, wbich no state does an¡~hing serious lf rhc pr0ccss wc are wimessiDJl is a parr of a process rhrough which
about. which is seeo 10 violace human righis oowh<r<" bc:."01use hunumiry is nation·statcS ha.ve ohen been crea1ed, it also ouses die quescion whether
not somcihing women as such are thought ro bavc, cspecially scxually- ihe mccrnatiooal order has becn builr. and will continue 10 be bu1lt, oo
perh•ps this is a wly 10 keep Stale power a1 once out of the hands of tbc S.1lllc bast>. No nauon, noc even any democracy. is accoumable to
women and over nll women. as well ris away from sorne mcn. Pt.rhaps women. Will inccmauonal !.w be? Auscbwnz raise<I thc qucslÍon "·h"1her
pcrminmg rape of women by men, or uU women by sorne mcn, is a device pocuy surnved u.• b Lhere lntcmatioo.J law afrcr Bosnia? Or will 1hese
of interna! order withfo st~tes, of delining hícmrchy of men over women r.pes and the hnmllín¡¡ of thosc chnrsed wíth 1hcm set off o ncw 1·ound of
and otbcr men, just as it is berween srntes. more of rhe S<1me cm th..- ground, 01 rhe ncgotiating lllble-wherc roen
ln the male sysiern, rape of \l'Omen becomes an act by sorne mcn again~t make deals nnd there nre no women-and in imcrn:uional tribuoals? Will
other men. Women become e way meo esrnblisb iheir pD\\'CC among onc these Vl(llations of women only imcµsify as authontannn regimes fall and
another. For rapetl womcn, it is always an act agitinst women. often b) dcmocfd<:.Y spreads, opening opponunities Cor yet more meo 10 more &eely
tenain meo ugainst cenaln women. In other words, u may be a s1gn J.Od '1ola1e ,.-ornen along Unes formerly supprcssed but alwa}'S there? \Xlill ali
form of exprcssion 10 men. :.t w.iy mcn eommun1cat.e wnh one n.nother, but thc"" mped und Lortured ond murJer~d womcn bccomc ¡us1 unoLhcr b>r·
10 u•cunen u is a rcol v10lauon. As ofteo happc1u when men plum íl•11s. g.tinJng chip 1n buildmg J stntc, sutkcJ !DIO mcn d.omg thcir bu>ines> ns
someone '1·as alreody lhin¡¡ there, usuul, u:i1h even thc m1crn.1rional 1djudíc11ion of 1hc crimcs og.tinst women
ln the 13osoiao siruation. mstcud ofbein¡¡ understood ns male •mpremacy h.:rominA 111.i Jnothcr move in men'< politi~ 1'Vi1h onc onother?
flom A11schw1t1 10 Ommka • 11> 116 • fhto•I~ lht BH•len ltn•

17 ond precise than che Naih' w•~. 11 is eaw in 1den1ih in survi'""' rerorrs
trom llosnia and C.ro-Jtia facts rcmmi=nt of thc Nurcmbcrg ond1ctmenis:
•peaking oí Jc..1<h ,.·omcn und ch1JJren spcnfially. sutcd diat ·di=
\ 'olk \"<'n Jer Erde \'Cr<1:h-.1ndcn ztl l.s'Cn 1hc>e pcoplc ,.,..u be madc- to
Í'rom Auschwitz to Omarska, thc uuru;poru, selcruUO>, subhum,10 conJ111on>. >y•tcmatlc beaungs. so- dis•rp..-ar trom thc cmh .' ~rb, call what tbe> are Join~ ·ethnk
t..Ut:d 1111ecrO&Jt1<"'•· burrun(!> IU>tnll prec:xblin~ cr<!mJlon.1 tn Brtko), J!•S· dc-.m>1ng."• In l ~2. l lunmlcr >álJ • h "' "'lh anu-Sem1rism as u-uh de-
Nurcmberg to The Hague Slllg (CO, m bUM:S, wbi<h is how 1hc: f\:Jm >Wr1all, humú1JL1on, dcg~.i lomlnM. Kanovm~ ""' " not J mJllcr ol world \LCW, 11 1> a m111cr of.
ÜJlinn. s:ta.rvauon. anJ syi.tm1.1ru.. ccrror .inJ h'lu1J..111on. Th~ grounJ.s .t.re d~ulC'Ss.., Pmoncrs lrtim 5<-rb1Jn run ckath Clllllpo n:p0rt • curuunt
abo pdr.Jld: Scrb. oc:ck Jo1ruc11on ol non Serh< on 1he baU> oí ethmci1y Jc:manJ 1lu1 1hc:y •mil a ><lllR 11.·nh the ttfr•in "\\"ho sa¡·s. ,.-ho lics. •·ho
and rcli$ion (~IU'lims ,.. Mu~hm , <:m.1111n1 •• <:11holid ''"~ Scrbi• is mal! • Ji wcJ 10 be callcd /,tt....,.,"",..
In carly 1994, SUí\1\"t>l"I rcpmtcd torrure an 1hc: rq¡íoo. Onr Croanan Tbc Hol.xaus1 ¡, 11<>1 only precnl<'111 and panlld Au<ch,.;12 lr.n on in
IJl;Ul descnbcd to me thc boJio he,..., forced 10 d1g up by his ~rbian Bo-rua Tbc m<><I common cp11hc:t used agamst non-Serbs. íocludmg as
aptors from a bolc ihC\ b.J apparc:nth becn m lor ahoot • month: ·w., ihq are bcinR tonurcd .ind murdcred. 1> urtaia, a l<nn that rrltts to th.,
Thc biggCM Jiffcre0<-.: bc:tt.ttn 1hc l\urcmbcrg Tnbun•I af1cr World War baJ to ~ uff ali ihcu clulh<>. w., cO\'crcJ tht: clotho "'th cartb .nd l\ui puppt'I Croau.an rq¡1me. (Tha1 there ...-.. also a~= puppct rq:imc
ll anJ thc ln1cm•tK1n•I Cr1m1nal Tribunal for thc l"ormcr Yllj!OSU•1.:1 brougbt thc rorpoa 10 thc ruad. Thcrc "'" had 10 "uh thcm .nd put on tn !lcrbia, onc C'\'Ctl more cf6cic:n1 m >hUl!h<cnn¡¡ J.,..~· """°"' to bavc
,lCTY' i> 1ha1 1hc 1cn·, "hich "" 1n thc Haguc, is in pbcc •<
thc ,.hirc .hect;. 1 "'"" chorpcJ hc:•d• \\1thou1 ey<s. choppcJ arms, scorcbcJ bc.-c:n ÍU<MO!Jc:n.I This \\uulJ be l1ke alling a frcnch penan •\rich¡." Onc
~noc1ck ~ on Thi• Rl\"C11 11 1 chancc 10 cnJ thc impuniry of 1hc rcr· •-ounds, i:cnit•ls tied -.1th •tnn~ anJ 1•11llcd 001 , C\11 1hm•1s ond C\"ny m•n tolJ me: "Thcy <J1d Crn•1uns wcrc • .lldlc:>cJWI pcopk anJ conncctcd
pctra1ors bc:forc thc las1 \1Cllm d1cs and 10 he part of the peacc proccss. ihin~ Thcy made phc>1oa of 11 ., 01hcr sur.·imrs 1cll of si-mbolic u~ of •11h 1l11lcr ThC\ ,111 1he thn..1 of my fricnd bcawc be: u-u blood and
a crcatn-.: ch•ncc 1hc Nurembc'll Tnhunal JiJ no1 h"'" fe also creates blood for dq.ira<btion: "\X'c wnuld hnd piett!> of hrcad <oaked in blood h.1d frttklc. Thr Scrb< d1dn·1 like 1ha1 • AnNher uid, ·r lwd • narne, a
diflicul11cs thc Nurcmbcr~ Tnbunal d1d no• face. mdudtng problems wUh We had 10 tale.e a and c1.t 11 lñ<; sa1d, 'Your blood" diny and )'(>U ha'-e tirs1 and la>t namc. Thm the '"" broke 001, aod I bad jusi one name.
defendan1> comtng 10 thcir tnals and oppOrtumues Cor uu:im1dalion ol. 10 cat cha1 diny blood. • Man) rc¡><)n C\-cn mon: cxphci1 symbolL~m. such 'u,Lb.i ' "
w1tn<0>>d, givtn¡.i risc to n corrcopondmg nccd for >cnOu> ond t000vari'<e as four Cynllic C.• cut mto m • man"$ back b) h" Scrb1an capton. wttb • However ""l""p=d or pancrncJ nipc has been ID \\"lltS and geooodes
tccurrt) 111ca!\urc..-,.1 ~anee írunllu~s and c.:on1p11ur1ot~ oí \·1cums and v•un~scs broken boulc. a <roH carveJ tnlO .1 \\'Omon·s check wuh a knút:, an c:m· bcforc, ID Bosnia 1hcrc " cv1dcnce 1.h:u u is ordered as u·ell as orgaru:zed.
con "ill lx in 1hc control <>I thc ind1e1cJ cnnunal» broiJery uf• mu>quc in o \\Om.ln ·1 home J<iu«'cl by J en"> cm acros. i1 in anJ <'UI oí thc r•peidcath c.imps. Rape lO th1s conihc1 has a role. by
Ahhoul!h e.ch ~tn0< 1dc is 11n1que, the annlyuc•I •nd factual parallds Pogroms 1¡¡11111>1 Mushms unJ CJI holics -.ere umcd for R.1m•don :md an.Uog~ in wh.tl thc Nuremll<!r~ md1c1menu. c.tlled the Common Plan
bc1ween 1hc l loloc•us1 by 1hc Naiis ond thc ethmc dean<ing by rhe Serbs Bnyram and \.Jrholic holidays. S.,,mc coinm leJ wi1h Serh1Jn Onhodox "iul"Vl\'t\n, c~1·uur-c1d 1ok!1cn1, nnJ '°me extrin,ic n1dcnce support che ,;e-.·
are many and d~e. Both are genocide on ethnic grounds \\'Ílh a relí¡¡ious holid~y.;, •pparentl¡· cclcbratiMs. \\7i1h nd1ustments for 1hc pamcnlnrs. th.11 11 " orJeretl-not 1hR1 11 h<ls m be ordored 10 hoppcn or 10 be crim
dimcnsion, tonducted 1hrough a.11Rression and mvasion, using war as a 1001 none of this \\·ovJJ bavc beco out oí pfocc in 1he Sho.1h mol bu1 1hn1 hcre, 11 is Thc sy<1cma1ic and instrumental nature of thesc
of the genocide. Both ore long plunned, with deep roots m perpe1ra1or Smkmg parallds cxis1 m thc ways the on,lough1 devcloped on the rJJ)e' marks 1hem. POj\roms were one chm¡¡, dcs1¡¡ning and 6dding the gas
culture, cynically curricd out 10 win and dircc1e.J from tbc 1op .,.;th offidal ground. Reminisc:eni of the Nurember~ L.iw., s1~1» tlO slQrcs in some pan• chambers was anoihet. Rape as mos1 women gencrallv knov• it and these
smc involvemcm. Both sharc un ob.ess1on w11h •bJood." • \lo/k1sh de6- ol Bosnw·I leriegov1Da havc baJU, • No Muslim> or Croowns allowed" for r.po have " ~1mil.r d11fcrcncc. Auschwiu: wAS indusmal murdcr. Omarsu
nmon of ,,.tlon, anJ 11 long nufl<...I sen•• oí griev1mce and persecution from """'" orne. Once thc more ocuvc v1c:ilcncc siancd. 1hef1 of prop""Y was h•• mdu>tn.il rape: m11:ndt:J, pl•nncJ, m•ss-produc..J, scnall} cxecuted,
the pu•t rromo11n¡t • 1ense uf 1he lc¡¡11i1nJq, cvtn SJl\CLily, of 1hcir mission lcgahzcJ. owncrs bcini! forcetl 10 "Pº 11 ovcr m <!xth.mgc for bcmg allo... ~J uu1rumcn1.tfücJ lt comes cl<l>dit 10 1hc c.<pcricnee> of prosu1utcd womco.
in thc pre'4:ni Bn1h huvc hMoric•I e.cu..:~ Rn<h lovc symholi<m and ha,•c IO ¡,,.,_e ahve Prctnlll•I chu,r1 of 11roc111c:a ore levdt~l •M•mst members sc:ri•ll¡ r.11~d in "hat ,. c.U.,d pcitceumc.
• ílair for an,I commitmcn1 in the u~c of pmpa¡¡.and;1 Bo1h líe-a In< oí targcted group< Oc:icton h_.c lx= killcJ for •llc¡:edlv invcnrin~ • way o..11nc11•el" th<lugh <Orne of thi< rape is 1n1cnJed 10 be reproduct1\-e.
B1¡:otn •nd terror mark • common fasci<m As • post-Communist left- to s1erilize Serbian "1'men, a psych1a1r1s1 for Jll~cJly bramwaslung 'ierbs. Onc m•n who mcu~ra1eJ hi• Muslim wnman net~hbor oí seven )'elrs for
\\Wll insu~cncy comci. 10 rC1'CITlblc a pos1dcmocro1ic ri¡?ht-Wing ooe. fas- Muslim and Croauan doctors fe.ir e11,h shih al 1hor hosp11al; iJ a Scrbtan momhs in • <hnck, ,.h<re she "-as rapcd near!y daily b'" manv dtffcrcnt
rum emerge> JS ncuhcr lclt nor n¡1h1 bu1 • pol.1110 111 1t>df. poll.ICllL dio, ihq will be killed ~rbian <olJ1m uniil sJ,., e<cared, said the tir<1 dav he rapcd her: "\\'c\-e
Altbou¡ili thc ~rb1Jn l...:1'>!>' o¡x:r•tion 1> ¡.,,, >tn-.unhnéd. systemaoc. Socnc p.ualld> •r<' •Wrtlm¡ily prc<b<'. R..Jo..n Ru.uliié, bc.td ol the becn ,.-ai1tn11 lor 1h" for n.cniv ~· lor .\luslim 11.'0llleD. el~ womeo.
Bosruan Sttbs, swcJ m Parh.mcnt thóll 1! 11 J1J no1 tenwn pan of Yu· to nukc cltt1n:lt chi!Jren .. )UO will i:i•-e bmh 10 a boy cht:tmi< "ho wíll
TU r. • cdilcd Ullftknpt ol • 1.4 ¡OW"n .af • \ '.lir L.. Xhoal pmd litkJ •f,_. ~'ta
~vta, ooc nauonal11~ ,..,,.,JJ be m..Jc to J1••rrr-•r .• Tbi, su1c:men1 ....,., 1i.a,.., • mm on hu brvv.· aoJ v.·ho v.ill kili Mu.,lmu ..-hm be: gro\\~ up. •
• llomU" oa \pnlZl I~ undcNood as a thmn 1n .,-.crm1n•1c 1hr .\ IU>l1m na11on•l11y. fl1mmJ<,r, In 1h11 "ar, rthruc r<>lu1,.. are ,,,.wJ.,cJ Tbc "º"""' uc \'iol.i1ed ..-11h
11~
ftom Auscnw11Z 10 Omarska • 177 178 • Throu&h lht Bo•n110 Lons from Auschw1t1 to OmaJSh · 179

echnic and sexual rerms rombined, the ubiquirous "ll!toitl wbote" and rhe ICTY l'{anne dms marks a signal dis11nttion lxtwcxn Nurembcr¡; and For tht survi\'ors and those alive coday wbo "~U no1 swvive, tbe fact
•&/¡10 whore." both degradmg 1erms for ethrucuíes' combined wi1h J de· the ICTY. Th1s time. cnmcs a~ainst the humanity of women, such as rape tba1 lbe JCTY comes :tfcer Nu1·ember¡¡, esrablis.hed as tbe genocule goes
grnillng term for • wom.tn Serb1an mcn spou1 men'$ poliúcs a. thcy r•pc JS1J cnforccJ prostiwuon, are up front, at it:OSt initially. Tbcy are not on, ddds a new depth to despair. l..1•iog after Nurembcrg, th<') once had
"'"'"""' "Fuck you uctbcgovic. ·ruck your God The fucku1g Cod 1> OD enurdy •itlc:<¡u.ucly Lhet1!, but 1.hoy •re thorc. ln cbc foundtng •tatute of the hope, Tbis gen(lddc gocs on "" 1he world wutcho. i\u;c:hwlCi w¡ro n<>l on
our ~idc, • ·Fuck )·ou. Alija fuclcs you " "Fuck ytm, Fro1njo Tudjmun • Thc1 ICTY, rape and enforced prosti1ulion are menuoned, if nol expressly CNN. As rhe lloloc~ust's Jtrociues cnmc out, ando srunncd world lookcd
¡creim chis as thcy ropc. The French prosecutor submined sorne <-vidcncc under ¡;enocide. In ns evidcnnary rules. Rule 96 providcs tha1 in sexual upon what 11 swd it hntl not reAlly known, thc quesüon loomcd; if 1he
of sexual assault at Nuremberg, 1• bu1 nothin~ in this depth or Jernil was assaults. no corrobo.-.tion is requ1red, conscnt 1s not allow<'d as a defense world had really known. woulJ it have aUowed th1s ro happen? Fifry years
presentecl by anmne. The Bosnian genocide, with irs ecltoes in the Nazi and no evidente of prior sexual conducr is allowed." This is wha1 a rape larec, Bosnia has gh'<!n u.s tbe answer, and ir is yes
past, forclronts 1rs sexual obsessions. law might look like when a contexr oí force is legnlly acknowled¡;ed.
Rt:llunisc<tU oí tbc Nazis lOO is thc demasculmi:ution o{ meo of the Tbroug:h interpretation, che rapes may lcgall)• come to be S<!t:n as wbat they
•ubordmated ethnicity. Onc Scrbiao man \lho 1onu.re<l • Musltm woman are in this conflict: genocicW acts. int<!gral to the destrucuon oí a peoplc
Sd<uully in u bousc for t\VO 1.L.ys and mghr• srr•ighr ~.1id cluring the r:ipe: ~ such. 111e ICTY stands pois<:d to dcvdop an mternational ¡uruprudeoce
"You Turkish women, your g<ni1.1ls are very goo<l, but so for you wtrc oí >exual as:.tiull as integral to the L1w of nS1ions for the first tlme
fuck<'Ci by h:Alf a penis, now we \l'Íll fuck you with • whole p~'Dis, For Will Nurcmberg and 1hc ICTY fonn porentheses in 1he humnn and legal
Serbs. it's fuck or kilJ " Some Croatinn mcn from CJIStem Cro3tia heard history of thc search for internacional jusúce tbrough law, not war. for
reports that Mt1slim men are being raped and sexuaUy tonured in sorne buildin~ suites on consent. nor rape? Will the fCTY be a step in womeo's
camps. usually former pri(rons. in sorne tnstances being forced w rape one becoming citizens of rhe "'orld, or will ir berome a sire for revisionism
anotbcr, atting out u ,.¡cious sr:igmatizauon of Muslim meo's sexuality as befare there is even a history to revise? Holocausr revisionism llourishes
homosexual." 1í. insread oí tracing thc Ausd1wi1z in Bos01J. wc look for fifty years .úrer Nuremberg. \X'hat has made it possible 10 SllY 1oday that
the Bosow in Auschwiu. sbimng • light back on the Holocaust from wha1 the acl:> documen1ed and uied rhere did oor takc place? Does thar process
is known from the Wllr ng:m>st Croaun und Bosnia-Herzegovina, the role tell us .nythiog about the denial of the geoodde m Croaua and Bosnia
oi 11Cx11.1l abuse stands our as disunct. Rnpe was not contained in 1he in· Hericgovioa even as is happenlng before our ~? Todoy, • le¡:..J rcvi
dictments of the ma¡or war criminals a1 Nuremberg." Ti seems incredible sionism auemprs 10 recest rhc role 1hat an1i.Semitic haic propngaoda had
tha1 al! 1ha1 abuse could go on withour rape; there had ro ha,,e been more during rhe Holocuust. ron1endin¡¡ that i1 was wroog 10 hold irs publisher
than reported, if only becsuse rhis is \'ÍrtUaUy always crue. Likely. se.'<Wll responsíble for incitement ro genocide, as he wus al Nurcmberg. The role
assauk was minimized both quantítatively and in terms of its genocidal of pornography in Bosnia shows that Nuremberg was nght, Tdford Taylor
ímportance. Maybe thc Rassemchand• prohibition on intergroup sex ""'ong when ~ later implied from a comfonable dlsrance Lhar publislung
workcd, but 1 profoundly doubt 11. Pcrhaps r.hat oppli~-d only ro ~x. and thc~ materials \\'as not m mtcmatlonal crimc. 1
rape was con.s1dercd something eh.:. 1 To bavc a revised hisrory, you fim necd u blsrory to cevJSt. \X'ill tbe
\X'h•te'"' the place oí ropc m the ac1uafüy oí tbc Holocnusr, ns abscnce hisrory of this war be wrincn by those te".tl VJctors, the bystandcrs, the ones
ar Nurcmbcrg has had a mojor impnct on che developmenr of incemndonal "·ho sar ir out? Will ir say, as 1hey •ay now to ¡ustify rheir inactton, rhat Í1
faw. Nurembcrg gavc human ri¡¡hts its princípled ground in our time. Thc ,..., a "civil war" wirh anciem hacreds ancl imrlacabl~ nationalisms? Will
tact of, and fC\'lllsioo a~ainst, rhe H<>locau<t iar¡iely 1mpelled and shapcd 1hey condemn ar rocities on all si des, equaring the few and rhe many. policy
1he srrucrure and content of intcmational human rights as we know rhem. and larse of policy, official planned octs and a few exrremíst indi,~duals
Rnpe \1-.S promineruly included in the Tokro táals. but those cmús do not runníng amok, to avoid takmg sides uotil ÍI is all over? \\1 ill chcv say cape
occupy thb signa! place. Tbe facr thaL lllJUO<'S 10 womcn as sucb ""''e happens in all wars, not a$ a foct to cnd staning here, but as a boys·u'ill·
invrnble JI Nurembcrg, the fon thar gender '" .1 Íéaturc of hunwnity thnl bc·boys clcnl(l] ol thc spccific uuocuy thut u¡ hcrc und now, a cover-up
could be S)sremaricully viola1cd v. .a not rccogntz<-d 1bcrc. has hdped keep somer.imes evcn par:ided, obsccaely, under f=uusm? lf th~ nt best balf
women from being fuUhumnn bc:in~• undtr in1cm•t1anal law. tnnh•,"' worsr gcnocide dcnials, bccome 1hc <iílici•I stot\, revisionism will
Thc incipienc recogmcion of sexual crimes of viC'lcncc a11wns1 womcn in look good They pose o challmRC for rhe TCTY: could Nuremberg have
mude today's real and papcr Echmanns•• impossible?
Rapt, G1nocld1. t•d Vtom~• s Human Ro¡Ms • 181 181 • Throu¡h tht 8osn11n l ..1
l
18 human ri¡¡hts violaiions, 1htir \lCllms •~ thc dnJr•rcaJoJ of cveryc:Liy life. look .u 1hc rt'.t!ot\ ni wom~n'• hv0> anJ hold human n¡iht.S lau· accounuble
In the record <>I human righ1s violauun• thcy are ovcrlookeJ cnúrely be- 10 what womcn na..J ilnJ d<1 1101 ha,e.
Rape, Gcnoci<le, and c.iuse the \1cums are "')mcn and whot wa. done 10 tbc:m wclls of .ex l'ur&UJn~ tloto rc.ilny b.L...J appm.1th, con.tdcr onc '11uat1on of thc m•»
\1Chco • "º"'JO 1> tonured in ~n l\r~cntuic pn>on cdl. cvcn "5 ll rs for- \'u1l.itH'n ol \\'t,mcn ':t hunuan nght, nnw lXcumn~ in thc heart oí Europt".
\Xfomen's H uman Rights goucn 1h~1 >hr " .1 ,..om.in, 11 " oc:<.1l 1h•1 her human nghi; •re ,,.,Jaicd In th" <'•mp4Jjln ••Í cxtcrmonotmn, "·h1ch ~an "'th 1he Serhim inva.'1<>n
bccausc what is done tC'l l>tr " ,,¡,... .tc>nc 10 mcn ! ter •uffcrin¡¡ h.s the of Cro.ua in 1'191 anti expl<><kJ m the Serboan •llJ!rnsÍOO against &snia
di~ni1y. •nJ her Jearh 1he honnr. and htr )q¡al 'latus the reco¡:nition of a and Hcr7C'gm1na 1n l'Wl, ~ideoet" docwnems tlm woroen are bein11 ..,,._
crimc agaum humarury Sur when a ,.1lman is tllnut<J br her husbanJ in ualh anJ reproducmeh •1olated oo a ma.<s .cale. as a maaer ot cooscious
her home, humanny ,, 001 l«ll tC'l be '1<>Lned. Here .Jic is a woma~lflT pohC), m por;utt of a ~cnoc1Jc thr~h '""'· In Oc1ober l'J92, l recaved
a woman. lntemauooall\, her \10111100 ooua~o the COQ.SCleoce of tcw bc- • communr<••l<lll lrom •n \menan rcsearcher oi Croanan aoJ Bosniao
yond her fnenJs ..k.-...=1 worlun¡¡ ,.,,h rdugc<:> 4nJ gathennl( mformaoon on thb "-ar. Shc
Human n~ts ha"' not b«n ..·omco's ngbt>-D<X 10 th<ory or m reahl) , Put mott S<hemJUc11lly, 1n 1h., J>Cl"pcclJVc ol human righi... whar " donc: "''d th.i Serlun Í<>r<<'> haJ otcnn•n•t<d Croau.an• anJ Mu.Jun. in 1hc
not leg•ll) or •oo.Uy, noc Jomouc.JI} or unemat~I\', Right. 1ha1 10 "vmcn 1> ttthcr roo 1pc<;1fu; 10 ..v1n<·n 10 b.: ll«tl .u hum.in or IDO hunJrals o{ 1ho11sanJs "1n •n opcrauon 1hci· \'c cooicJ 'cthnic dc-""'in~·-.
0

hunun bcm~• ha•-C br ''"""' of bcing hum.n h.-c no1 becn "Rht> co which ~cric 10 hum•n bcings 10 be t«n •• .1bou1 womcn . Atro<lltCS rommmed thai in 1htS i:m•1C1<lc thousanch <lÍ Mu'bm and CroJtian ¡¡iris and womc:n
wornC'n h.-. h..d •cce,•. nor h•,~ •íol.i1<1n' of "·omcn .u •ucb bccn po.rt 111l•1ns1 wocncn are nrhcr 100 fcm•lc in lit 1hc concq>I of human or 100 ~re rapcd onJ m•clc forcrhh pre~nant in ><:tunR' mcludÍ.nlt S.:rbllln-run
of the dclini11<1n of 1hc •ie>buon <>Í thc human u such <>n whkh human humm m lit rhe idea <>Í femalt •11um•n" and "femalt·- •re mur:ually cunccnrruuon camp< of u·hich -about rv•rntv are soldy rape;d.,,.th camps
righo bu· has rr1d111ono.lly bccn predicated exdusi\'e by clcnmm>n; onc cannCll be a woman •nd a human bemj! a1 the lor ~lu hm and Crc>auan "·om<:n and childrco ., Sbe had retti,cd repons
11us 1s nor bec:iusc women 's humm n~ht> h..vc not btto violared. The same nme. Womcn '5 rr~hts utt, in otber word>. noc vc:1 human right.S. nor ol Lhe malung and use of pomograph} as pan of tbe gcooode.. ·0nc
cbdmg of womcn m the human n¡Vii. l>Clllnl( happens m 1"0 ways. IX'hen are human rjpm yet womcn's rr¡i)m. Croau.in \\ornJn Jt">cnbcJ bcing tonured by dttuí~ .bodes and gang-
womcn •re violoted Wce m<:n who .re 01he.....1>c Llke thcm-\\hcn womcn's Ccn1mly, womcn •re v1olJtcJ m mam Wl)'l< u1 which men ore \1ola1ed. rJpcd m • c.rmp by Serb1Jn rnen dtu.scJ in CroJU.tn unüorms wbo 6Jmed
orm> onJ leg, are cut and blccJ l1kc th., .irms and l<"gS o( meo. \\-ben But womcn •re also viobtcd m parurnlir "ºª>' rhat men urc not, or that 1ho r•pc, •nd for<cJ her l<l ·wnfc• ' on lilm that Croauans h"d rapcd
womcn \\1th mcn, •re shot m pttt •nd ~·•sed m VJns: when "'()mcn's an: cxccpuonal for mcn 1\1.my 11f thcsc scx ·~p«ific viobtions dre sexu:ll her <;he ,1Js.> repc>nctl oh•t wme UnhcJ 'louons rroops were 1argeung
bod1es •re h1dden \\1th mcn's 111 1hc houom <>Í •band<>ned mines; when ond reproducuvc Womcn 11rc roulincly v1olo1cd tcxu111Jy and reproduc- wC'lmen "In the <trccl~ oí 7..i¡¡reh. UN rrm>ps ofocn ask local womcn how
women's and men's skulls nrc sent fmm Auschw11z 10 Strasbourg for ex- tively every d~y m cvery cuumry m rhc w<>rld 1 The idea rhar 1he<e acts much thcy co-.r There Jre re¡ions of refugec \\'Ornen bein¡i forced to seJ<-
perimems-1hcse mrocnics are not marked m rhe hisrory of violations of violare women's hum•n ri¡¡hls hns bttn creoled by women. nor by states ually serv1ce the UN 1rOOJ>$ to reccive wd. Tomorrou• 1 talk to "''º survi-
women's human ri¡¡;hrs. The "-ornen ore counred •s Argennnian or Hon- or ROVemmems. Netional luw1 sddom effecLively recognizc t:har women vors oj mass rapc:-1h1ny men per day for O\'er three months. \Xle've heard
dtlfan or je\\•rsh-which, o( coursc. thcy ore. Whcn whar h•ppens to are viola1ed in thcsc ways Jnd somcumcs cven make them cnminals for the UN pllSSc.J u rc>0luuon 10 coUect evidmc-e as tbe fus1 step for a "'ar
women also happcns LO men, hkc bt:lng bcaten and d1S3ppeanng ond belng bcing raped (havrng scx uut>idc marriage) 0 1 ha\mg obo1uons (redstmg <rime~ trlal, hui ll i; Mud hcrc 1ha1 therc b no prccedci11 for uymg sexuiÚ
1onured to dcath, thc lact 1.hal 1.ho~ 11 happcned 10 are women is not forcc<l mmhcrhooJI Womcn •ero,. culture> huvc <rcotc<l thc Idea thot :1troc1tu.·!>."'
rcg1srercd 1n rhe rccxll'd of humiln 111ruct1y "·omcn hove hum.111 ri¡¡hlh, rdu~ing ro bdocvc thJI l he rcJUty of \'tOIBtion \'\'h<1h<'r <>r nu< tht"c ¡ira<UcC• an: fonn.Jly J.lcg.J-unJ 11 is CQSY 10 S3}
The othcr w.11 v1c:>l.11ions til w<>mcn 11re <>bscurcd 11 rhtS· When n<> war 'fi.T lrvc wnh as ~ hat i1 mC"'-05 for U1' to bt hun\itn-as our l!OVC"mments "·ilh compl.t·l'l1C\ oh.a rore prmmuuon. rom<>¡;raph.-. and se>rual murder
hJ.11 hct:n drdared. and ltfe gO<"S <>n in • ll~le <>Í cveryd~y hosulities. womcn seem lar¡¡dv to helicvc. Wc>mcn h•ve CreJled the idea <>Í wc>men's human are 1llttal ·thcy are wiJcJ, pcnnmcd undor both d~mcstic .u1d interna·
an: katen •nd rapcd by mcn t<> "·hC'lm wc ate do..:. Wives disarpear from rights by n:fusing tn abantl<'n c>urseh-cs and eme another. out of a1tachmen1 toonal l•w They are alJnwt'd, whethcr understood. onc man 10 anotbcr, as
supcnnarket parlnng l<>ts. Pr<>St1ru1es íln.it up in n\'ers or rum up undcr to a principie of our O\\'I\ humaruty-one dchncd agam.i our context and an cxcc.s oí Pª''t0n m ¡x-acc: <>r thc: spoils ot .ict<'I} m war. oras tbe
piles ol ~ m abanJmed buildm¡¡, Thcse aU'OCl.ues are 001 countcd a. our expenenees. They 11.ve bttn dehneJ no1 by tr'1D.<tcndtn¡t tbc realm, hberuo, c1\ll or othc,.......,, ol thc:lf pcrpetr.uor... They are legally raooo-
ol oor ,,ola.oons but by rcfU>mg 10 dcny thc:m In thii. proicct. \\'Ottlen have .JizcJ. olh,1ally wmkcd ai, and in >nme llliLrn<b formally coodoncd.
I..rt.a ~ Gl t.hb a:acctllil ~ Jdiwrtd 1111 1hc- l'nfttd l'lri•UGftl 'f:odd t:.oruamcc •
Kiol..._ \"""' .., ,.,. 17 l ..}, mJ • 1i.. 7....., t,......._ U.-<..~ 74ni>, nn
11.....,
lcarncJ th~t ooe day o( '"'°'
C'Xpenen<c: " .. onh "''lumo of ..U thnr thc- Whethcr en 001 th<i· ~re rcg.irJ<.J u. .nm.,,.. 10 oo COUDUJ are they ctkt•
orico. IJ "-e bclin-cd cx1.ung •prn•-.ha 10 human n¡¡ht., "'" would not
,_ n. 19'!1 n.........,...
..i _ . , ..,..._.,"' "•'""' ~ ..i As,. .'ummda.
bcliC\'C wc hikl any. Ra1her than )ooltin~ •t human nt<ht> l.aw 10 <ce hou
tl\dy prvh1b1t<·d .md oo place are rhn re..'<lp1ized "" m•l.tuons of the
.......... "'m111i...,..¡
~"'
. i;:.,... · - ..¡ ................ ""'"""" .,._¡¡,¡._ h ........
(¡......
..._.., u,.,.,._i, 11"" much oí WP<ncn's t;...,. can be lit mt<> it," .... are tallj!ht 10 Jo as lau'\-cr<,
humin nAf>t• of tht"u \1C um'
Thi, gcnoodal .... r cxcmrltlic- hov.· t•Í·nn~ •rprt>lltbcs l<> \'>Olaoons oí
110
Rape, Cenot1de. and Wome•'s Huma• R1ghts • 183 184 Through the Bo.sn1a,. Lens
Rape, Gtnocido. t•d Womt n' ¡ Hum~n R11hts 185

=men's human rights can S<TI• ro contuse wht' ts doin¡t what to whom \\bat is hupperung bere, m fact. 1s fu:st u gcnoc1d.,, m u•h1ch ethnicu:y 1s the whnewasb-chese arrociaes are presemed as ¡ust onother 1nsrancc ol
and tbus can cover up and worx to condone ~trodtles. lñese Juooaes a 1001 for pol1ti<-ill hegemony; 1he WM is 111'1 instrun1l!ll1 of the ~ocide: rht aggression b\• ali men a~amst aU women all tbe ume. Lí this were the
olso lll\'C an urgency, lf •ny WJS nec<le<l. to tbc pro¡ect of red!Vl,toning rapo un: JI1 in>1rumcn1 oí bo1h . Thc Ba.nion S.,rh> under 1hc ~ommJnJ of
opening •-olley 1n a countc:roff<!llsiv~ ag:unst rape as a war >1gatns1 aU
humJn ngh's ro that v101nuons of hum..init)' are sccn to cnco1np.t..'' wh~n R.idov.m KaruJzié do ""'' romrol 1hc sm e; 1hcir wnr is agJin~t 1hc l"-"'Plt wom"" aU tbc ume. 11 woul<l be one t.bmg. But tbe way Jt works bere IS
happt'ns ro women. and thc dcmocrnncally oleeted govemmen1 of Bosnin-Hen.egovin3. Tf )'llu thc opposito; to makc •urc thut no ono wbo CMCS nbout rape ukc. a •idc
'The war •1tains1 Croauo and Bosnfa-Fferze¡!ovina, and their panilll oc· c<>ntrol che state and wam tn rommit genocide. ns 1he Nazis did under the "' thti W3r ogaill>t tbé'J< r.rucular r•!J<'S· lt <loes not so much gidv~nhe
cupation, is beinll. carried OUI by '><:rbfan forc.-; in coltaboration \\1rh the Third Reich, you do 001 need a wur. You do it wnli the SHtte mecbamsms opposínon to rape \\'henever .1nd \\•hcrc..•cr i1 occurs u:, co\.·cr up thc foct
Serbian regime in Bclgl"Jde, gO\'emiog what remains oi Yugosla\'ta. Tius is at b.nd. 1ñis 1s bcing done n<>w, qu1etly. to Hun¡zana¡is aod Croaoans in tho1 these rapes ore bein¡¡ done by some men a¡¡ainst c.rlam womcn for
so intemaáonal war. Ali the stare parr:ies bavc adopted relevam laws of occup1ed easu:m Croaua and m Vo1,·odina, formerly an amonomous rey1on specific reasons. here and now. The point secms to be to obscure, by ruw
natfons tbat prohib1t mese acts; they are CO\'ert-J in any case b)• CUStOlll:JI'}' now ann<.'.l<cJ 10 Serbia, \'irtually mvmble to thc world. meaos •vailable., exacily who is dotn¡t wbat to whom and wby.
1nremauooal J.w and jus cogeos.' Y«L ;;o far notlung ha• beco mvokctl to Tht AJbJJlians in Ko~va uré in u panicul.irl)· precariou$ situ.ttion , ti\Jr-
Thc result 1s tbat these rapes are gra!peJ in eitber their ecbnic or reh·
stop ¡h.,,., .buses ot 10 holJ their pcrpctraton .1Ccouni.blc. Thc excu.'e> roun<led, wi1hin • stutc. When Sc:rbin m(>Vc> on thcm militanly. ¡tomg gious partieulanty. as attacks on a cultllft, or Ul tbeir sex spedfi.city,
offered for this lack of •cuon are tlluminJtmg. bcy1md 1he segre~nrion Jnd oppression rhe>· suffer now, it may not look meaning ~s auacks on women-nc\'et botb at once. Attacks on women, u
In th1< wnr the fact oí Scrbinn n¡:¡¡ression is bcyond question, ¡11s1 as hke a """' 10 anyone else. 11 will nor cross imcmational borden;, thc wn~ scems, umnot delínr anad<s on a pcoplc. 1f thcy are gcnder..J artacks, thc")
1he foet of malc a¡¡grcssion against \\'Ornen i• heyond question. both here much imemaaonal L1w wams ro see before tt feels viola1ed. But it will be are not <thnic: if thC)• are ethnic • ttacks. they are not 1Jcndercd. Onc ciln·
and in everyday üfc "Etbnic deunsing" ís a euphemism for ~enocide. lt is another facet of me campargn 10 elimmate non-Setbs &om ateas targeted cels the orhcr But whcn rnpc is a ¡.icnocid.J act, as it i• hcre, it is nn aet
1t policy of ethnic exrerminaúon of non-Serbs witb tbe aim of "ali Serhs for "cleansmg." a genocide: To call mese campa1gns to extermtnate non· to destroy a peoplc. Wha1 is done to women defines that destrucuon.
in one nation, • a clearly announced goal of "Greater Serbi,1,• of cerri1orial Scrbs "ovil wur" is likc calling the Holocausr a civtl war between German Bes1des. aren't u-ornen .. people?
conqu<>t and .iggr,mdizcmem. Th31 this is " w.ir ag3.lllst 1100-Scrbi•n CJ· AryJn$ •nd Gorman Je\\'S. lf ond when tbc realuy in Voj\'o<li.nu comes out, These rapes are aJso w1dely treated as an memable by-produet of anned
\'tfüns, 001 beiweco ad"ancmg and retrt-aling arnues, 1s also bc}-ond qW!•· or Albaniún$ are •cJcan<c<I,• pcrhaps thot too wiU be padwgcd for \X'eMem ronllic1. Evet)· ame tbere ís a \\'ar, tbere lS ra~ Of course, rape d0<!$
11011 Yot 1!W. war of aggrcssion-once a<lmine<l to cxist 01 11!1-has re· con•umption u ancicrtt ethnic hatred•, • bog likc Vietnam, or ¡ome e>ther occur in aU wars, botb witbin ond bcrween aD sides. As to rape on one's
pca1e<lly bttn constmcd as bilatcrJl. as a CÍ\'ÍI war oran cthnic et>ntlict. 10 formulnrion to justif'.)· dom¡¡ nothing about it own si<le, aggrcssion outside borders is customaril} sus1;1i.ncd b)' corre·
the accompanimcnt of rnucb imeroarional he-Jd scrntchinf( ahom whv [n this gcnocide through war, mass rape 1s a tool, a racric, a poliq. a sponding •upprdSion and manipulation ut home \'Qhcn the ormy c<>me11
people cannol seem 10 get alon¡.i and • lm of pious clucking abour che plan, a s1nuegy, and aa inStrurncnrality, as wcll as a pracnce. Muslim and bnck, it visiu on the womc:n al home thc C>Ctllatcd 11:>-cl of a$,~ault the m""
human ri¡¡hts viol11tioos of "all sides" as if thcy wc:re comparable. This Ccoauan \\"Omen and girls are raped, then often killed. by Serbian milita!'}· were uu.i¡¡lu and proctlccd on women in tbe w.r zoue. The United States
threc·pronged maoeuver ís familfar ro thosc wbo wotk witb the issue oí meo, regulars and irrcgubus in a •'!lr1cty of form.Juons. in rheir home..., (>n knows this weU from the war in \'ietnam. Men 's domesac violence a¡?ains1
rape: blamc women for gemng ourselve$ rapcd by roen.,.•• know. ch!1$tisc hillsides, in cnmp~-camps thut used 10 be, fot1orics, schools, forms, mines, women escaLued- induding cbett skill at i.nilicting mnure \\'ithout leaVlllg
us lor not llluog tbem very well afterwar<l, •nd tben criudze ou r lack of sporu arenas, p06! of6~. rC!>t.turunts, hotel$, or houses of prost:uu11on. '~stble marks. Sexual aggression agruns1 Asian "·omen tbrougb prosrirutioo
ncu1rality m not considcring rape$ of 01en LO ¡,., a comparnblc cmcr11ency The camps can be outdoor enclosure$ of barbcd wire or buil<lings. There, s nd pomography exploded in the United Swtes during this penod Amer-
The obscuring of thc e1hnic spec11iciry of rape is rommon ourside U'llrume pcople are hcld, beaten, ond killed; women, •nd somcumes men, are rored ican mcn got • particular 1aste fot violatmg thc:m ovcr 1here. Thi~ mu.t be
<etrm¡:s as wcll. Some w(lmen are also raped after they ore killed Sorne of thesc c:unps are h.1ppcnin¡? 10 Scrbian U'Omen now.
One result of this approach is thar rhe rapes m this war are noc !!f•sped rapeldeatb camps exclusively for women. orj!anized like the brothels of Rape ita dail) nct by men a~ain>t \\'Cinten; ir is .1'\\·u¡~ 110 aet tof dvmi·
as <ither a straregy w gcnocide or a practice of misogyn)'. far less borh at what is called pcacetime. someumes Ul locanons that were brotbels before naáon by men over women. But thc role of these rapes in thi• ~enocidal
once. ThC) are not undemood as conanuous both with this particular the war. war of agg:ressloo is a maner of fact. oor of ideoloAlcal spin or theoreuc.J
aluuc wnr of aggrcssion and \.-tth the gendcrcd war of aggresslon ol ...., el')· Lo thr \\'cst, t.be <l<!xwl ;urociue!ll m this conHiet ha\'t been discussed analys1s. M"Ushm and Croman women are facing two layers ot men on 1op
day tifc. Genocide does nm come from oo••be:e, nor d0<!$ '"P" .t.\• rcad¡ largd) as mpe '" <U gonoc1de, nm a. wlM they are, v.hich is r•pe •• of them rathct than on,;, one layer en¡¡aged in exrcrmmanng rhe other, and
and convenient tool oí u. Nor lS a continui1y an cquotion. Thes.c napo urc ¡:cn<1Cide, Npe <lirecte<l mw;rd w(lmer1 bc:c•u>e 1hey ;re Mu<ltm ot Cro two layers of ju.1uliution-"¡ust war" and · ¡u,1 life • A<l<l thc nusrcpre·
10 cveryday rupc whut 1hc l!olocaust was to cvcryday ann -Scmill•m . .irnn h 1s ,. if pcople cannot think more than onc thou~ht ut once. The senwlon oí tbis war •• • cl\ll war mnong "'JUM aggrcSsors, illld t.besc
Withou1 cvc..,.-day on1i·Semitism • Holocoust is 1mpossible. but anyonc v.•ho mnss rape is pan of a campoijln by Serbfo a¡¡ains1 non-Serbia, or 11rt on· womcn are facing three t imcs tbc usu11l number t'f rensons for the world
ha< lived 1hrough a po¡¡rom knows the difference slauidit by combata.nis af!ainsr ovilians. or an anack by men apainst "' da nathing •bout i! .
women, but n~er all at the same time. Or- dus is the feminist \'Crsion of Ali 1he covcr·up• si~nnlly 1gnc>re 1ho Fact that thi~ i< u ¡;cno<;.idc. Thc
186 • lhrouch thr 801n l1n lrn1 Ropt 0fOOCldt, 1nd Wo11•n' Ham1n R•&hll • 187 188 • Throua~ 1~1 B11n11n ltn•

"civil u~r cover up olncure~ 1he role nf Bcl~.-.de m mncling firs1 Croacia. Likc ali íaJ'<', ¡tcnomiaJ ropc 1' r•n1<11J.r a.• wcll as r.1n ni I~ ¡¡cncnc, "''" .1llowc.I to l.-~ Mlv .- Ion¡¡ 1ts •he kept her 5erbian captor harcl ali
thcn Bosm• Herze~ovm•. and m occup)in~ parts of bo1h. A m'll war IS and its p.arucularnv mmcM< Th" '' cthmc rai-: ~' an otticul pol1cv nl uar m~ht 11rnlly, 1'111\ht allcr n1¡th1 ah<'f m~h1 , frl'm midni¡:ltt to):()() A.M. \\'ha1
nor an 1ma.ion bv anothc:r rountrv. U' th1~ " • o,,J war. n6U..,r Croa112 m a ¡:enoddal cim¡>:u~n tor pohucal comml llt.i rncans oot ooh a poli~ he f!OI \\ .1> """ 1M hm1. 1ltc a¡t~rc>!J<•n wa. thc :.ex.
nor Bo-ma· Hcrzq¡0\1111 IS• n•Uon. bu1 bo1h are recogruzcd a. such. 1n a of thc pkasurc ol malc pD\l'Cr unlc.i.<heJ. wluch luppcns áll the ume Ul Thu~ 1:-t rJJ~ ~ conurc ;u "i:U .u r~pc .a~ cxtcnn.ublUon.. ln the: ClllD~, u
cw1I u Ar. ~!t""""'n is murual Th1> ,. nol a r«1prual ¡:<nOddc. Mll5!tim so-calleJ pcacc; n1>1 only • poli11· 10 tldtle, tonwc, hunuliAtc. dc¡;rade. anJ 11 JI on.c m•.. ••!>< ~nd K'n.d r•J"' u1 • w•1 tlw ,. md1'un¡;u1>hablc from
and Croauaru are 11<11 aJ-.n<m~ anJ rc1rcaun¡t mto .,,J out of Scsbia dcmoraluc thc ochcr 1JJ,-, uhirh h•rJiall .JI me UIM Ul U"lt, ianJ not only pms.CJIUllOl'I J'ro•lllU11Clf1 lt thAt 114111 of nt:nJ.ay ft00'4il."3r lifc th11t is clOS<..'Sl
Thcy •re 001 car~1ng 001 11...-noddc ogamM Ser\,. on 1hor °""' 1cm1or1cs • pohcy ,,f men ¡>0>1un"ll 10 ¡¡.un ••h an1.agc •nJ ¡tnlunJ "'" <'thcr mm 111 "hal "e $« Jnnc lti WOllt(-0 ITT lhl\ V.'Or Thc daJ!)' UÍC of prostÍtutcd
Thc:rc are no c11occn1raucm OtmJ'I for \crbs in "•íll~O or Zqrcb. Thc h is •P<'<'tli,lllly rape unJcr onk" Thl\ L< 001 r•f'<' out of «>nttol h ;, "'>mcn <1>1111•11 oí Krtal r•I'<'· r<'CO¡.¡m7<..I V.'lr or no war Thc hro.bd-likc
1crm "civil 1A"lt 1ran•la1cs. in ali langwgcs. sn1n "oot rn\' problcm • J1 1rran~m1 of 1hc r•pc/ death camrs parallels the bro<hels of so-called
0
rape undcr romrol h Í• •lsn rape umo dca1h. rape u m"'s.tctt, rape m
mal<"" 11 domesnc. 1he ,.•., wha1 mcn 10 do u'Omcn evtt)..-bett e\'Cn~ kili 111d m makc 1he \1ctuns wi.sh 1hc, wcre dcad h " rape a. an UlSCfU· po!<CllDl'" Clptl\" '&Ornen 1mpoundeJ tO be rasscd lrom man lD man m
IS ~uc In con<irum).1 thb <nuaucm •>a civil u-ar at bonom, tbc in- mem ol forttd cxJc, rapj' to makc '"" ka'c vour home: md De\'Ct W'<llll ordcr to be upcJ
tcmauon.J communll)' has Jchncd 11 m temu of v.·bat u has so far bcen 10 110 back. h "' r.pc to be M!'Cn mJ he.uJ •nJ "atdicJ ..00 1old to odicrs· Th1> " a4o rape u a polil'v uf cthm< un1torrm1y anJ etbmc conquot,
•-illing to Jo about 11 no1h1ng. rape 3S spn.udc h u rape to Jmc • 11cJ,.:c through a commuruty. 10 oí ilf\JK'XJtl<>n .inJ c:xpm,1un. QÍ .H:ljlJISlt•nn b) onr nmon oi oWr nauons
lt "' not 1h•1 1hel'l" .re no clcmcni. of common mhur<' amoog IM p.ru.s i.luucr a "°""'"" 10 ~11\') • pctipk. lt " ropc .. i:enooJe lt is ,.pe bcc•u.c u ~rb w•nu your •r~nl1'<'nt Thi< is •l-o upe a> rthm.
her< at la.1 ª' 1mpnonl 1hru11Kh Jc.:•,lo oí Cornmulll>I rule, mouung h 1> •ho r:tpe m.Jc 11a• lor iltc P.:'l"'lrJlo<> b, thc p<>ll'Cr oí thc rapt.1, npan""" thmu¡;h lo"cJ rcrruJut11C>n Afnc•n Americ•n uomcn "'"""
<;.,rb1an hr:¡¡cmon• . h is noc 1hJt 1hcre •re no conlllCtS b..N·cm or ,.,ihin \\hich is ab.oluic. 10 ..,1cc1 1hc '1•lltm •I "'11 TMy "'"'"' in1n m<>m• of fnmbti 1mrrc11rui1td thro<1¡ch rape undcr <l..ery. Thc :O.:azi> requircJ
<1d.s. or sh1fun11 of MdC"I 1n e<>mplcx "•Y'- tl...i promlc elemcnis oí civil captl\1' womcn •nd romt, "You, 'º" Jnd '"" • •nd take ¡-ou nu1 ~11111y (J<tem Í.uropclln u-ornen m ~et <pccial f"'tml.$SÍOD for abottions íi tbq
W\lr h is no1 1ha1 1he mcn nn onc ~idc r•pe ond the mcn on che orher sidc rw:er rewm h ,. upe mJdc more •rou<in¡¡ hy the cthmc bostility lll!illnSI were 1mpre11na1td by (,erman IU\.11.u ln 11cnoode. 1t is more usual for tbe
do 001- 1t IS, rarher, 1ha1 none of th~-.e factors defines dllS emergency. nooc the des1¡:na1cd ·mc:rm," made to fttl 1u•nfied hv thc nouon ma111 IS "lor bab1es ''" 1he othcr Mdc 10 be killcJ. CtOJuan and Muslun women are
oí them created 11. none ot 1hcm is Jm1n¡i 11, and none of rhem explains Serbia.· which thc~ ,,.v ª' they 1hrus1 mto thc ••ornen anJ make them sm¡? bean¡t rJpcJ, Jnd 1hcn Jcn1cJ aboruon>. to help make a ScrbWl sca1e b1
1t. Thesc ate •moke screcn>, propJ~anda 1ools. smcere or cyruetl. behínd Scrbian p• triouc sonp.,. h 1> rJfk m1Je m ><-'Ctn ngh1 b1 Je.:ades of hes makm¡t wh.11 tite pcrpctrniol'll lffiJgtnc llS Scrb1Jn bab1es."
u·ruch ~rbía conunuci. to e~pJnd •l• 1cmtory by ektemunaang people and about the suppo>c<I bch.vtor t>I th.11 cncm)-)Cll.tll anJ vcars uf propa U 1h" v.crc rarnJ ra¡>c, as Amcncdll> nrc f.anullitr w1th 11. thc chJJren
raptng women en mJ...,~c g.uitl• <amp•i11ns. full ,,f h1.t<>r1c41 hrs •nd Í•l<i6cJ tl•1•. 1ndudin1l tn would be re¡:.r.led ib ¡><111111<.J, dtr1), •nd con1nmma1cd. l'\'cn as thc' are
Thc fcmin"l 1cr.1on uf the <t>vcr up i• c;pcc1ally u~ful to the perpc- school" In 1his cffort. rnp<'• .111J murdcrs c11rracd out h) Scrb• upains1 non- <omc1ime< i:i,cn rnm1)•r11t1ve privaleMe> ba"'d on •white" bloocl. But be-
""'º" bec•u~ 11 g«nu to acknowlet!Ae the u1roct1i<1-which are hard 10 Scrhs ure presente<! to 1hc Scrhi•n rn¡ml.11 1c>n nn tcle\isaon •$ rape¡ and ceusc 1his Í< cthn1c mpc, lackm¡: nacial morkers. rhe children are regardcd
deny lalthou¡¡h 1hcy do 1hat 11wl-and nccupi· the ¡cround on which out· murdel"I of Serbs by Mu•lim• and Cro.1ts The way m wh1ch porno¡irapby by 1he tj).A<CS<ol"I n< <omehow cleon and purified. as "cle¡¡nsed" ethmCJlly.
ra~e a¡¡ninst 1hcm ha< bccn cffeccively aroused. But •Is function is 10 ex· is believed m 1hc mcn'< bodit-s as well JS m thcir mmds ¡!tves lhis \\'Jr The babies mJ<le 1111h Muslim und l.roatlan women <1re regarded ª'Ser·
onernie the nipí"s and m drilca in1erve111ion tí all men do thls ali thc propaganda a special potency. btan babies. The ideo -.eems to be 10 cre•te a hhh column witlun Muslim
ame. C5pedally 1n U"lr, ho" can onc pick a side m this ooe? And sme<" all Tlu. 1> also rape nuJe csp<:t1all1 cxdtm~ Cor the perpetrators by and <..roo11Jn SCkl<'IY c.il chilclren-•11 Klnsl-who will risc up and 1010
men do th1s all the umc, war or no war. u·b) do anytbm¡i spcci.J about kn0\l:u1g th•t lherc Are no lunn• on u hot thcy un Jo, by knou'lllg 1ha1 1heir fo1hcN1. Mu<h Serb11m fa,c1.i idrol<1gy •impl) 11dopts unJ a<lapts Nw
i!t1s nowt Such an•ly•t> ,. oftcn acrnm¡l;llllcJ by L blankct cnaquc of thc"" womcn <Jn, •nd 1n many 1n>Uncc• "UJ be ro¡.....J "' Jc11h \lthou~b ,;..,..,. Tit1• t•llt'" 1hc ulum.llc 11<hi<'\cmc111l•Í1h<' N~zi 1tloology thJI cu1
·nauon.J"m a. if 1Jenultcu11on "11b the ",¡¡ to c~tcrm1na1e can be the ordcrs rrmtdc mtil,.Jllon en<>Uwh. lh<' r.1><.. .uc m.ide 'º'ually <'OioY· 1urc i~ ~t·n4,;Ci<
c4u31cJ "·11h 1tk-nlificuuon "llh thc w1U to <UJ'\1\'C cxtcnnmatwn. •• IÍ 1111 ohle, irresi•tahle "'""· b1 1ht' lact tlu1 lh<' .. ornen are •hout 10 lit-...crificed, Th" ¡X"Cta<k of th~ UI'\ 1nw>1» \'101.mn~ 1hO'e 1hq ore 1herc to pro1ect
c1hn1c conce¡>1 ol naw>n •lakc 1he Sém1•n fase"' onel is i!tc •:une J.S 1 b1 1he P"""'I""'º"' nf thc "·ornen 11nd ch1ldrcn in thc facc oí theu tm- •dJ, • ll•uch (IÍ 1he J"'l"I"""" My correspondem a<lded thar sorne UN
muhirthnic conccpt nf naucm !hke the Bo'nian oncl; and as if those ,.iJo msncnt murJer a1 1hc hand< ni thnr np1<!\ Thu 1< murde:r os tbe ulamate 1roops are pan1etr•11ng m raron~ \1u,lim and Croanan \l'Qmen takcn trom
are bon~ lúJled hec:a- ol 1he natK>n 1her b..lon¡¡ 10 should 6nd sorne <exl121 act. Scrb-run Upél J..-.uh um¡'> ~he rc:poru thJ1 "the UN presence has •p-
loltier 1usnhcauon for su11n~ ala-e and rncnun¡¡ the bai!S on ,..hich rhey 11 v.'ill noc hdp to say tha1 thb L\ v1"1cncc, not ~. lor IM men mmlvd. parcn1h &n«<'•'<.J tbc ualhdunR m 1"'0mcn anJ prls throu¡ih the opmm~
are beinfl extcrmma1cd th.n n•uooal >un11 al TilC up.bot b. tbis coofüa \\ñcn thc men are 1ulJ 10 Wtc 1hc \H'ftldl av.'a\ anJ 001 bnng thcm badt, ol hm1hds, hw1hd"11•""'gc 1'4rlo" pc:ep ohw-.. •ntl thc IC>Ul! proJu,1100
bc.:omc:. IU>t • form oí b .... ncsa u U>u.L• Bu1 gdloc'tJe IS 001 bU>Ulcss .. hn.1 1hcy upe thc:rn 1hcn th...-) kíll 1hen1, ..nJ thcn """""""" "!'<' thcm ol pomugraph1c hlm1 ... nlt'tC .,.., abo f<'J'""' tlut • iormcr Unutd
11>ual-noc e\"" for mm ega10 anJ mt olt 1hdr hr~u ~nJ l<"lr '"" 1hcir ,..,.,,,¡.,." Onc ,..,,m.:tn :>lath•ns l'rolftl!OO 1mee1 Ul\PROI ORI comm.mJer .1cc.-p1c,J offns from
Rapr Genoe1óe and Women's Hu1111n Ri¡hlS 189 190 fhrouah lh Bosn11n lens R1pe, Genocidt. ••ó Women·~ Human R11hls • 191

a Serbian commander to bnn¡¡ h1m J\t1'Slim ¡¡1rls tor sexual use." Ali mis m wlnch primanly >1atcs can violatt bwnan nght5, most rape is lcft out. Formally, wamme is an exceptson ro <he pan ot thts picrnre rhat exempt5
tS an example of the male bond across offimtl lsnes. lt posntedlv poses • Thc role ol thc >tate in pcrtruruog womeo to be rapet! with impwnt¡· can mo;t rape. bccause auociues by soldiers a~nrns1 ovrlians ntc always con-
problem \\'Ornen ha\'e always had u•th male protcction: Wbn is gotng to be e.xpose<l. but thc structural problem lll a<ldressing it remains. sidtred sme Jcts. The tt0uble bos bceo that mcn do in war whur they do
1i111di thc mei 1>·hu urc suppo;,cdl)• wat<htng out for us? Eucb !ayer of lhe con•ergence bcre between W3)'ll ol 1hmk111g about womeo abd 111a>>s lll peacc, ool~ more so, so when it comes to womon, tbe complactncy thut
m•le prore<.tion adds J Liycr to viol~ce ugamsr wrun~-n. Pcrhllpo tnk'.t"\·cn ul thinking ubout rntc1Tutlionlll la"· ..nd poluk-,, is this'. thc more: a coniliL~ Surt'Ounds pcaCt'lime exreod. 10 wartimt, no mancr \l'hJt thc bw >.1y>.
tion b) • force of urmed worucn should be cons1dercd. c.1.n bt! frameJ as \\1rh1n u stnte-"'$ a civil war, as tlomesuc, as pnv.uc- [,-ery country in this worlJ :trguably had u ¡us cogcns oblignttott "' pre\~nt
Neow. rh" use of me<lia rechnoloJlY i• hi¡:hly dtvcloped. Bcfore 1he Nazi• the l.,;; effecuve rhe human rights moclcl bec<'m"' The more it looks l1ke gcnocid" by stopping rhc Serbian ag¡¡ressors from doing whos thcy nrc:
took pictures of women in aunps. forccd women into bmthcls in c•mp~. the consrrucuon of rhe oppression of women. the [.., can >1ructumlly be doing, but until Bosnia·Hcrzcgovina went to rhe íntemnóonal Court of
and took pictures of naked womcn runntn~ ro therr deaths. They ulso done ahout ir. The closer a fiithr comes to home. rhc more "fem1nizcd" Justice and sued Serbia for genoadt. induding rape. no one did a thio~."
Created e\'enr< 1hat did not happen through media marupufacion. lo this tbe '"ttms bc<:ome. no m•ttcr tbcir gen<ler. and the lcss likdy tt 1s that ln so dorng, Bosnia-Herzegovina is standing up tor women m a way 1hat
u'l!r, rhe oggressors have nr band tbe new ché'.tp, mobUe. üccesssble, and tmemauonal human ngbt5 wtll be found violart:<l, no matter wbar was no state e\'er has. The su.v1vors l work wnh also filed their own civil suu
sdl-conLIÍm:d moving·p1cture tecboology. The >aturation of wlut was Yu- done." Croaua and Bosnia·Hcrz..:govm1 are being treatcd likc \l.'Omen, tn New York agamst RadovJn Kar-.diié, le.1der of th" Bosnitl11 Serb Í•SOSts,
gosl.via w1th pomogruphy upon tbe dissolutíon of communism-pomog !tke womcn bcmg ga11g-ruJ"'d on • m•~• scalc. This 1S not .m analogy: far ior JJ• in¡unnion ngams1 genodde, rape, totturc, forct'<l pregnancy, forceJ
r;1phy thar u•;15 Lrgdy concrolled by Serb•, who lud thc powcr-ha• le» i.~ tt o1 sugg~don tbut tltb rape i~ \\'rong only bcctlu>e.: the women prosci1u1ion, .lnd othcr se" untl crhníc <liscriminntion and •trociues tbot
created n population of mcn prcpnred to cxperiencc scxutil plcaMJte in belon~ to u m•n's st•te lt rdentifies the rreotmem of a \l'hole polit) by thc violate women·~ tntematíonal human ri¡lhf5."
torturing 1tnd killing women rr al<o p~ved thc u•y for tbc use on tclcvislon tte3tmen1 of che women there.~1 A war crim.,; tribuntil ro enforce accounrabiliry for mass genocidal ro pe
of foora¡Ie of actual r~pc:s, with the ethnicity of the \1crims and pcrpetrators In the structure of intem3tiooal human rii1bts, based as it is on the ís being prepared by the Unitcd Nations-" There are precedems in r:he
~witched. ro mílame Serbs a~amst Muslims and Croatians.1• ln the ron· rnrerest oí srares m tbett soverei¡:ncy as sucb. no srare has an rnceorive to Tokyo trials after World War 1I for command rcsponsibility for mass rape.
soous an<l opm use of pomo¡irnphy, m makmg pomography of acrocmes. break ranks by going al!er anorher state ior bow it rreats women-thus lle)-ood precedem, the voices of the victuns havc bem heard in the srruc·
ID ché sophisticate<l use of pomngrapby as war propagando, this is perbJps Scmng a srandnrd of hWllllll rights ueaunem for women that no state ts tunng of tbe ne11.• tribunal. To my knowledge, no one aske<l jewish sur·
tbc litst truly modcrn "'""· pr<!pare<l to 01ee1 wtthio irs own bor<lers or is willing 10 be held 10 intcr- \'rvors ho"' thc mals a1 Nuremberg sbould be conduttcd, nor do 1 tbink
Although thesc ~cb !Ligrantly vrolatc provision aftcr provision of intcr- D•Uon.Uy. \X'h.cn meo sh ín rooms, berng Sl3tc>. they are l"rgdy being thc women raped itt Nanking wcre asked whut they ru:cdcd in ordcr ro be
n.uional 1.,.•. Virtual!~ noth1ng hns bcen done abo111 them for y~.tro Thcn mcn Thcy pro1cct e•ch mher; thcy 1demify wnh .,.ach orher; thc)' I'> nnr •ble lo tcs1if)' about thcir rapes. The issue of 11Ccounmbiliry to victims hllll
tbe mtcmational machinery $<emccl iin.Uy to be l11mbcrin~ into •ction. to limir cach tlther tn ways rhey rhcmselvcs do not wanl to be limrted, In beco rujsed hcre formally for thc firsr time: How can • wu crimes tribunal
evcn as more meo. wvmcn, nnd childrcn wccc ltquida1ed daily. To explaio orher u•ords, th<.'Y do not represent \Ji'Omen. There is no sracc wc can ¡:x>int be created rhat is nccessiblc to victims of mnss sexual acrocity? \'Char will
rhis slow response. 1t is importanr to consider tbat most human rights to and say. ·Tuis state effeaively ~uaramecs women's human n¡!hts. There mal<e n possible for \1ictims of genocidal rape ro speak 11bout 1heir viola-
1nstrwnent5 empower mues ro act al\IÚnSL states. oot mdt\iduals or iroups we are free and t:qual." aons?'*
to act Jor themsclves. TblS is parriculacly odd giveo that international ln thts Stált>l structure, each state"s lack of prOtCétÍOn of women's human The 8''11ocidlll rapes oí r:hlS war presem tbt world ""h a historie op·
human rights Jaw recognizes ooly \·tolatioos of human rights by s1are actors. aghts ts intemauon:illy protcctcd. and tbat is rnllcd proteruog state sov- ponuru1y: That thls bccomes the time and pillee, anti these thc "'ornen,
In otber words, onl)· enrities llke rhose who do thc bJrm are m1powcred crcrgnl)". A SimllJ.t structure of tn.Su1.ttion bct'\\'Ccn \l.'Ofnen J.nd ac.:ounta· whm tbc world recognizcs that violcncc .igainst wom.,, violateS human
10 :1ct to MOp thcm. lt \\'Ould hove seemed cle:ir .lfter 19-15 rh•t >htl<> of1cn biltty for rheor violations exists JomesticaUy. Rape<l u:osnen are C'OmpdleJ rlghcs. TI1~t \\•hen a woman ís roped. the humnnity of • human being is
\iolo10 thc ti¡¡h1s oí rhn.c who are no1 staro un.! who ha\'c no Slute m dct ro go ro the srnre, men makc rhe laws nnd decide if rhey wíll enfor<.., rhem recognW.ed co be violared. Whc:n 1he world •ay> nevt>r aggin-nor in war
for thcm Thc cxisting structure oi intcmationlll law w