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Chemical Oceanography

Filtration to separate particulate and dissolved matter in Chemical Oceanography.


13 de Junio del 2018
Acuña Merchán Belén Stephanie, Cárdenas Condoy Jefferson Wladimir, Rivas
Cáceres Sully Edita, Sarmiento Tapia Johara Elvira.
Facultad de Ingeniería Marítima, Ciencias Biológicas, Oceánicas y Recursos Naturales (FIMCBOR)
Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL)
Guayaquil – Ecuador
belstacu@espol.edu.ec, jwcarden@espol.edu.ec, serivas@espol.edu.ec, johelsar@espol.edu.ec

FILTRATION TO SEPARATE PARTICULATE AND DISSOLVED MATTER


What is the filtration? Filtration is a solid- During a dynamic filtration the collected
fluid separation operation based on the solids on the filter media are continuously
retention of particles of a size greater than removed, mostly with a tangential flow to
a value given by a filter mesh. (López, the filter medium (cross-flow filtration).
1984). Cross-flow filtration is a standard
operation with membranes as a filter
-Filtering is the process of separating solid
medium.
particles from a liquid using a porous
material called a filter. The technique
2. Application:
consists of pouring the solid-liquid
For example, water filtration, beer
mixture that is to be treated on a filter that
filtration.
allows the passage of the liquid but that
retains the solid particles.
3. Location of particle retention:
It is used both to take advantage of the The particles can be separated on the
solid present in the suspension to be external surface of the filter media (surface
filtered and to reduce the turbidity of a filtration, cake filtration) or inside the
liquid or to eliminate particles suspended filtration medium, for example, depth
in a gas. filtration, deep bed filtration, that where
solid particles are retained in a deep filter
The filtering processes can be classified layer. This takes place for example in sand
according to different criteria, we mention filters for clarification of drinking water,
the following: which retain even colloidal particles. The
1. Discontinuous, continuous, almost typical effect of deep bed filtration is
continuous operating mode: adhesion of solids to the grains of the filter
Dynamic filtration and static filtration layer. Only rather big particles are retained
(normal). In case of dynamic filtration, by the screening effect. When the filter bed
mechanisms are activated during the has been saturated with solids, the solids
filtration process that help reduce the concentration in the filtrate leaving the bed
accumulation of a filter cake. For example, progressively approaches that of the
the most common dynamic filtration incoming suspension.
process is cross-flow filtration.
4. Generation of the pressure difference:
Pressure filtration, vacuum filtration, There are filtration systems that can
gravity filtration, centrifugal filtration. eliminate most protozoa, bacteria and
viruses (if coagulation is used). Usually,
This last filtration process is one of the bag and cartridge filters do not eliminate
most important, and we will mention the viruses and very few bacteria. What are
four types of filtration that this process these filtration systems and how do they
includes. work?

4.1 Pressure filtration: typically Filtration Systems


requires a pump for delivering the
suspension to the filter. Conventional filtration system: It is
elaborated in several stages, briefly; first,
4.2 Vacuum filtration: requires a a chemical coagulant such as iron or
vacuum pump. Suction filtration is a aluminum salts is added to the source
chemistry laboratory technique which water. Then, the mixture is stirred to
allows for a greater rate of filtration. induce the binding of the small particles in
Whereas in normal filtration gravity suspension to form larger lumps or "flocs"
provides the force which draws the easier to remove. These coagulated
liquid through the filter paper, in masses, or "flocs," are allowed to settle out
suction filtration a pressure gradient of the water, so that they carry away many
performs this function. contaminants. Upon completion of these
processes, the water is passed through
4.3 Gravity filtration: this process filters so that the remaining particles
allows the liquid to flow through the adhere themselves to the filter material.
filter medium only by gravity. This is
the most common method of filtration Direct filtration system: This is similar to
and is used to remove an insoluble solid conventional filtration, except that after
material from a solution. The solid adding the coagulant, and after shaking the
could be the required product or an mixture, there is no separate phase for
impurity or an additive such as a drying sedimentation. Instead, the particles in
agent. suspension are destabilized by the
coagulant and thus adhere more easily to
4.4 Centrifugal filtration: is done in the filter material when the water is
perforated centrifuge rotors subsequently filtered.
(Centrifuges filtering).
Slow sand filtration system: These systems
There are other types of filtration, such as: do not have a coagulation phase and,
Tangential filtration, which is a continuous usually, they do not have a sedimentation
process with the minimum deposit of step either. The slow and descending
solids, in addition there is a greater passage of water is induced through a bed
contribution of energy (tangential of sand 0.6 to 1.2 meters deep. A
displacement and gradient of P). biologically active layer is formed along
the upper surface of the sand bed, so that it There are different types of filters, then we
traps or collects small particles and will mention the most used.
degrades some organic pollutants.
Paper filters: It is round in shape and it is
Biological sand filtration system: inserted in a funnel, with the purpose of
(Biosand) is a filtration system at the point filtering insoluble impurities and allowing
of use analogous to slow sand filtration, the solution to pass through its pores. They
but its effectiveness is much less are also used for the exhibition of samples
established than the latter. on the. They exist in different sizes and
proportions. First, make sure you use the
Filtration system with diatomaceous appropriate size filter paper. Second,
earth: this system uses as filter material folding the filter paper. There are two
the fossilized shells of tiny marine ways to fold filter papers, the
organisms through which water is passed "conventional" method and "fluted".
without treatment. The earth physically
filters particulate contaminants from
water.

Cartridge and bag filtration systems:


Illustration 1. Make a paper filter
simple, easy-to-use systems that use a
woven bag or rolled filament cartridge or a The steps to the filter paper are shown.
shirred filter to physically filter microbes First, fold in half; open and fold in half at
and sediment from the source water. 90 degrees to the first fold, Next align
adjacent folds and make new folds
Ceramic filtration systems: they are bisecting the previous folds until a fan-like
mainly used in point-of-use applications. arrangement is obtained Pleat into a fan by
In developing countries, these are folding each segment in the opposite
manufactured locally, sometimes in self- direction to its neighbors, in accordion-
financed microenterprises. like fashion When opened out the
complete fan-like fluted paper results.
Most filtration systems clean the system
using "backwash". This produces Fluting the filter paper maximizes the rate
wastewater that should be handled at which the liquid may flow through the
correctly. filter paper by increasing the surface area
and by allowing air to enter the flask along
Types of filters its sides to allow rapid pressure
equalization.
What is a filter? We call filter a porous
matter, such as fieltro, paper, sponge, coal,
stone, etc., or mass of sand or small stones,
through which a liquid is passed to clarify
the materials it carries in suspension.
sediment filter can only be filtered or
reduced once or only the sediments, and
why it cannot filter or reduce the amount
of chemicals or heavy metals in the water,
nor is it apt to treat the taste and smell of
water.

Illustration 2. Using paper filter

Membrane filters: Its differential feature is


that all the solid remains retained on the
surface of the filter. Its use is very varied Illustration 4. An example of polypropylene filter
and includes modified forms of cellulose
Waltman GF filters: This type of filter
(acetates and nitrates). Recall that paper is
offers fine particle retention and high flow
formed by a network of cellulose fibers,
rate, as well as good loading capacity.
lignin and other components that generate
Recommended for gravimetric
a structure of pores and irregular internal.
determination of airborne particulates,
When using a paper element, it is protected
stack sampling and absorption methods of
inside.
air pollution monitoring.

Illustration 3. Membrane filters Illustration 5. Waltman GF filers.

Polypropylene filters: The polypropylene


serves to stop the solid material that is
transported by a stream of water and is
deposited as a layer of solid particles at the
bottom of the water. For this purpose is the
polypropylene filter, which acts as a screen
to filter and eliminate these particles. It is
essential to take into account that a