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1) Large masses of air which may extend upto tropopause. Fairly same vertical
gradient of temperature and moisture
2) vertical gradient of temperature and moisture are responsible for weather
phenomena associated with them
3) Homogenous conditions
4) Conditions of formation
1. Large area
2. Homogenous area
3. Air stationary over a large homogenous area for a long time
4. Subsidence, anticyclonic air movement
5) 6 major source regions
1. Polar oceanic
2. Polar continental
3. Tropical oceanic
4. Tropical continental
5. Equatorial
6. Monsoon lands of SE asia

6) Heat transfer mechanism/role

7) Heating of an air mass from below causes decrease in its stability and vice versa
8) Types: Geographical classification: trewartha: P and T
1. cP
2. mP
3. cT
4. mT
9) Thermodynamic classification
1. Warm: whose temperature is greater than that of the surface of the
area visited
2. Cold: opposite of above
3. Stable and unstable
4. Total 16 combinations : cPKu etc
10) Kold ke neeche Warm to unstable (c and s)

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11) Table in CN 7/07/2011.. imp

12) Tropical areas: continent hotter than oceans

Polar areas: oceans hotter than continents
13) Modifications :
a. cP winter
1. When cP reaches tropical regions, it becomes cPKu
2. Cold waves in India
3. Blizzards
b. cP summer cPKu

1. wide spread rainfall

2. may pick up moisture from oceans, lakes which are not frozen
c. Marine Polar (winter)
1) mPmPWs : great relief, Chinook
2) mPmPKu : fog over west coast of US #chk
d. marine tropical
1. mT mTKu: heavy rainfall
2. mTmTWs

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1. the SLOPING boundary between 2 air masses is called front

2. when 2 air masses with different properties meet, they do not readily mix..
they maintain their identity for some time
3. front is a 3D entity
4. there is abrupt change in temperature, pressure, wind direction as one
moves across a front
5. warm front- symbol-fig

6. cold front-symbol-fig

7. stationary front: no movement.. climatically insignificant

8. the process of formation of fronts, thus setting in, the formation of

depression is called frontogenesis. A depression is formed because of lifting
of warm air along the front
9. frontolysis: general dissipation of front. Effected by horizontal divergence and
10. conditions for frontogenesis
1. contrasting temperature of air masses
2. opposite direction of movement of air masses.. Fig 38.1F SS
deformatory circulation

3. Fig 38.2 i.. the creation of fronts depend upon the axis of dilation
and isotherms which should not exceed 45deg. As the convergence

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of air continues, the angle decreases and isotherms try to become

parallel and frontogenesis is activated
11. Classification of fronts:
1. Warm front
a. Warm air invades
b. Gently sloping
2. Causes moderate precipitation over a large area for long duration
3. When the warm front advances, there is sudden change in weather
conditions as the area come under the influence of warm air mass. The
temperature rises, pressure decreases and clear skies
12. Cold front
1. Cold air invades
2. Steep slope
3. Precipitation is accompanied by lightning and thunder
4. When the cold front advances, there is sudden change in
weather conditions as the area come under the influence of cold
air mass. The temperature rises, pressure decreases and clear

13. Stationary
14. Occluded: when cold front overtakes warm front and warm air is completely
displaced from the ground surface .. fig 38.3 SS

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