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# 7 inch

TARGET
2.5 inch XIII 2.5 inch

## ELASTICITY THERMAL EXPANSION,

CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

2.5 inch
CONTENT

S.No Pages
1. Theory 1 – 23

## 3. Exercise-2 (Objective Questions) 26 – 37

4. Exercise-3 (Section-A) 38 – 41

5. Exercise-3 (Section-B) 41 – 44

## 6. Exercise-4 (Rank Booster) 44 – 46

7. Answer Key 47 – 48

TARGET
XIII
ELASTICITY THERMAL EXPANSION,
CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER
ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

ELASTICITY
Elasticity
The propertyof material bodybyvirtue of which its regain its original configuration, when external force
is removed is called elasticity.
The property of the material body byvirtue of which it does not regain its original configuration when the
external force is removed is called plasticity.
Cause of Elasticity
In a solid atoms and molecules are arranged in such a way that each molecule is acted upon by the forces
due to the neighbouring molecules. When no deforming force is applied on the body, each molecule of
the solid is in its equilibrium position and the inter molecular forces of the solid are maximum. On applying
deforming force, the molecules are displaced from their equilibrium position. Inter molecular force gets
changed and restoring forces are developed. It is explained byusing spring- ball model. Deforming force
is removed, these restoring force bring the molecule to its equilibrium positions. Thus the bodyregains its
original shape and size.

## Spring-ball model for the illustration of elastic behaviour of solids.

The restoring mechanism can be visualised by taking a model of spring-ball system shown above. Here
the balls represent atoms and springs represent interatomic forces.
If you try to displace anyball from its equilibrium position, the spring system tries to restore the ball back
to its original position. Thus elastic behaviour of solids can be explained in terms of microscopic nature
of the solid.When a body is subjected to a deforming force, a restoring force is developed in the body.
This restoring force is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the applied force.
Stress()
When deforming force is applied on the body then the equal restoring force in opposite direction is
developed inside the body. The restoring force per unit area is called stress.
restoring force
Stress() 
Area of cross section of the body
Stress can be tensile or compressive as given below–
F
Tensile F F F F =
A
Compressive F F
Strain
Suppose we stretch a wire by applying tensile forces of magnitude F to each end. The length of the wire
increases from L to L + L. The fractional length change is called the strain . It is a dimensionless
quantity.
L
strain =
L

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## Hooke’s law for tensile and compressive forces

Suppose we had wires of the same composition and length but different thicknesses. It would require
larger tensile forces to stretch the thicker wire the same amount as the thinner one. We conclude that the
tensile force required is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the wire (F  A). Thus, the same
applied force per unit area produces the same deformation on wires of the same length and composition.
Hooke’s Law
stress  strain
F L
=Y
A L
equation still says that the length change (L) is proportional to the magnitude of the deforming forces
(F). Stress and strain account for the effects of length and cross-sectional area ; the proportionality
constant Y depends only on the inherent stiffness of the material from which the object is composed ; it
is independent of the length and cross-sectional area.
F L L
Comparing equation F = kLand =Y k =Y A. Y is called the elastic modulus or Young’ss
A L L
modulus, Y has the same units as those of stress (Pa or N/m2) since strain is dimensionless.
Young’s modulus can be through of as the inherent stiffness of a material ; it measures the resistance of
the material to elongation or compression. Material that is flexible and stretches easily (for example,
rubber) has a low Young’s modulus.Astiff material (such as steel) has a high Young’s modulus. It takes
a larger stress to produce the same strain.
Hooke’s law holds up to a maximum stress called the proportional limit. For many materials, Young’s
modulus has the same value for tension and compression. Some composite materials, such as bone and
concrete, have significantlydifferentYoung’s moduli for tension and compression.The different properties
of these two substances lead to different values of Young’s modulus for tensile and compressive stress.
Elastic potential energy
It is the potential energy stored inside the body due to change their configuration. If F force is applied on
a body as shown below.
For differential change in length dx the work done by restoring force F is dw
 AY 
dw = – Fdx   F  x
 L  F F
l
AY F F
dw = – x dx
L l+x
l
AY
Welastic = –
L
 x dx
0

AY l 2 1  Yl   l 
U = –W = =     (AL)  Ui = 0, Uf = U
2L 2  L  L
1
Elastic potential energy (U) = (stress) (strain) (volume)
2
Elastic potential energyper unit volume
1
= × stress × strain
2

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The above formula holds good for any type of strain. Change in equilibrium, restoring force = external
force F
1  YA  2 1Y  
Then U=  l =  l Al  Fl
2 L  2 L  2

Stress-strain curve D
Proportional limit
The relation between the stress and the strain for a given Su
Elastic limit E
material under tensile stress can be found experimen- or yield point Fracture
tally. The applied force is gradually increased in steps Sy
C
point
B
and the change in length is noted. A graph is plotted A Plastic behaviour
between the stress and the strain produced. The stress-
Elastic behaviour
strain curves varyfrom material tomaterial. These curves
help us to understand how a given material deforms

Strain
with increasing loads. From the graph, we can see that
in the region between O toA, the curve is linear. In this Permanent set

## region, Hooke’s law is obeyed. The body regains its

original dimensions when the applied force is removed. 0
Strain 30%
In this region, the solid behaves as an elastic body. <1%
Stress-strain curve for steel.
Beyond hooke’s law
In the region fromAto B, stress and strain are not proportional. Nevertheless, the body still returns to its
original dimension when the load is removed. The point B in the curve is known as yield point (also
known as elastic limit) and the corresponding stress is known as yield strength (Sy) of the material.
If the tensile or compressive stress exceeds the proportional limit, the strain is no longer proportional to
the stress. The solid still returns to its original length when the stress is removed as long as the stress does
not exceed the elastic limit.
If the stress exceeds the elastic limit, the material is permanently deformed. For still larger stresses, the
solid fractures when the stress reaches the breaking point. The maximum stress that can be withstood
without breaking is called the ultimate strength. The ultimate strength can be different for compression
and tension ; then we refer to the compressive strength or the tensile strength of the material.A ductile
material continues to stretch beyond its ultimate tensile strength without breaking ; the stress then de-
creases from the ultimate strength (fig. (a) ). Examples of ductile solids are relatively soft metals, such as
gold, silver, copper, and lead. These metals can be pulled like taffy, becoming thinner and thinner until
finally reaching the breaking point.
While as Brittle material can not stand beyond ultimate strength
Ductile
Tensile
Brittle
Tensile Ultimate stress
stress Elastic strength Ultimate strength
limit • and breaking point
• • •
• Elastic
• Breaking point • limit
Proportional Proportional limit
limit

Tensile strain
Tensile strain
(a) (b)

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Shearing Stress x
F

L

F
A cylinder subjected to shearing (tangential) stress deforms by an angle .
However, if two equal and opposite deforming forces are applied parallel to the cross-sectional area of
the cylinder, as shown in fig, there is relative displacement between the opposite faces of the cylinder.
The restoring force per unit area developed due to the applied tangential force is known as tangential
or shearing stress.
As a result of applied tangential force, there is a relative displacement x between opposite faces of the
cylinder as shown in the fig. The strain so produced is known as shearing strain and it is defined as the
ratio of relative displacement of the faces x to the length of the cylinder L.
x
Shearing strain = = tan 
L
where  is the angular displacement of the cylinder from the vertical ( is very samll tan  ~ ).
Volume Deformation
Since the fluid presses inward on all sides of the object (figure), the solid is compressed-its volume is
reduced. The fluid pressure P is the force per unit surface area ; it can be through of as the volume stress
on the solid object. Pressure has the same units as the other kinds of stress: N/m2 or Pa.

F=PA 2
F=PA 3 F=PA1

F=PA 1 F=PA 3
F=PA2
Fig. Forces on an object when submerged in a fluid
F
volume stress = pressure = =P
A
Bulk Modulus (B) v

V

In fig., a solid sphere placed in the fluid under high pressure is compressed uniformly on all sides. The
force applied by the fluid acts in perpendicular direction at each point of the surface and the body is said
to be under hydraulic compression. This leads to decrease in its volume without any change of its geo-
metrical shape. The body develops internal restoring forces that are equal and opposite to the forces
applied by the fluid (the body restores its original shape and size when taken out from the fluid). The

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internal restoring force per unit area in this case is equal to the hydraulic pressure (applied force per unit
area). The strain produced by a hydraulic pressure is called volume strain and is defined as the ratio of
change in volume (V) to the original volume (V).
v
Volume strain =
v
We have seen that when a body is submerged in a fluid, it undergoes a hydraulic stress (equal in magni-
tude to the hydraulic pressure). This leads to the decrease in the volume of the body thus producing a
strain called volume strain.
V
P = – B (Hooke’s law for volume deformation)
V
V
where V is the volume at atmospheric pressure. The negative sign. equation P = – B allows the
V
bulk modulus to be positive. The bulk moduli of liquids are generallynot much less than those of solids,
since the atoms in liquids are nearly as close together as those in solids.
Gases are much easier to compress than solids or liquids, so their bulk moduli are much smaller. The
bulk moduli of a few common materials are given in Table
9 –2
Material B (10 Nm or GPa)
Solids
Aluminium 72
Brass 61
Copper 140
Glass 37
Iron 100
Nickel 260
Steel 160
Liquids
Water 2.2
Ethanol 0.9
Carbon disulphide 1.56
Glycerine 4.76
Mercury 25
Gases
–4
Air (at STP) 1.0 × 10

## Table : Bulk moduli (B) of some common Materials

Compressibility (k)
The reciprocal of the bulk modulus is called compressibility and is denoted by k. It is defined as the
fractional change in volume per unit increase in pressure.
1 1  V 
k= =–  
B V  P 
Poisson’s ratio
When an elongation is produced bylongitudinal stresses, a change is produced in the lateral dimensions
of the strained substance. Thus, when a wire is stretched, its diameter diminishes ; and when the longitu-
dinal strain is small, the lateral strain is proportional to it. The ratio of the lateral strain to the longitudinal
strain is called Poisson’s ratio.
l3
F l2 F
(l1, l2, and l3 are the dimention when no strain. l1, l2, and l3 are
l1
the change in length of l1, l2, and l3 respectively)
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F
A l2 l3 l1
Y = l  = =– l
1 l2 l3 1
l1
THERMAL EXPANSION
Thermal Expansion
When matter is heated without change in state, it usuallyexpands.According to atomic theory of matter,
asymmetry in potential energy curve is responsible for thermal expansion as with rise in temperature say
from T1 to T2 the amplitude of vibration and hence energy of atoms increases from E1 to E2 and hence the
average distance between atoms increases from r1 to r2.
+
0
E2 r2 T2
E E1 r1 T1
E0 r0 T0
r
Due to this increase in distance between atoms, the matter as a whole expands. Had the potential energy
curve been symmetrical, no thermal expansion would have taken place in spite of heating.
Linear Expansion of solids
To varying extents, most materials expand when heated and contract when cooled. The increase in any
one dimension of a solid is called linear expansion, linear in the sense that the expansion occurs along a
line.Arod whose length is L0 when the temperature is T0 when the temperature increases to T0 + T, the
length becomes L0 + L, where T and L are the magnitudes of the changes in temperature and
length, respectively.
Conversely, when the temperature decreases to T0 – T, the length decreases to L0 – L.
For small temperature changes, experiments show that the change in length is directlyproportional to the
change in temperature (L  T). In addition, the change in length is proportional to the initial length of
the rod,
L0
L
L0

Equation L = L0T expresses the fact that L is proportional to both L0 and T(L  L0T) by
using a proportionality constant , which is called the coefficient of linear expansion. Common unit for
the coefficient of linear expansion (C°)–1.
Thermal expansion of bimetallic strip
A bimetallic strip is made from two thin strips of metal that have different coefficients of linear expansion,
as fig. (a)Abimetallic strip and how it behaves when (b) heated and (c) cooled
Brass
Steel

## (a) (b) Heated (c) Cooled

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Often brass [ = 19 × 10–6 (C°)–1] and steel [ = 12 × 10–6 (C°)–1] are selected. The two pieces are
welded or riveted together. When the bimetallic strip is heated, the brass, having the larger value of ,
expands more than the steel. Since the two metals are bonded together, the bimetallic strip bends into an
arc as in fig. (b), with the longer brass piece having a larger radius than the steel piece. When the strip is
cooled, the bimetallic strip bends in the opposite direction, as in fig. (c).
l
d
on heating the bimetallic strip bends into an are as shown below
d

Mathematical analysis
R
 d
 R    = L0 (1 + 1) (increase in temp.)
(R+d/2) (R–d/2)  2

  d
 R    = L0 (1 + 2)
 2
On dividing above equations we get
d
R
2 1  1 
d = 1   
R 2
2
by above euqation we can find mean radius R of bimetallic strip.
d
R = (  –  ) 
1 2
Area and Volume Expansion

A0 V0

A
V
Area Expansion
Volume Expansion
If the temperature of a two-dimensional object (lamina) is changed, its area changes. If the coefficient of
linear expansion of the material of lamina is small and constant, then its final area is given by
A = A0 (1 + T), where A0 is the initial area. T is the change in temperature and  is the area
coefficient of thermal expansion. For isotropic bodies it can be shown the  = 2.
The volume V0 of an object change by an amount V when its temperature changes by an amount T.
V = V0T where  is the coefficient of volume expansion. Common Unit for the coefficient of volume
Expansion : (C°)–1. The unit for , like that for , is (C°)–1. Values for  depend on the nature of the
material. The values of  for liquids are substantiallylarger than those for solids, because liquids typically
expand more than solids, given the same initial volumes and temperature expansion is three times greater
than the coefficient of linear expansion :  = 3.

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If a cavity exists within a solid object, the volume of the cavity increases when the object expands, just
as if the cavity were filled with the surrounding material. The expansion of the cavity is analogous to the
expansion of a hole in a sheet of material. Accordingly, the change in volume of a cavity can be found
using the relation V = V0T, where  is the coefficient of volume expansion of the material that
surrounds the cavity.
Similar (Here  3) is known as the coefficient of volume expansion  :  :  :: 1 : 2 : 3
Illustration : (The expansion of holes)
Do holes expand or contract when the temperature increases?
Figure (a) shows eight square tiles that are arranged to form a square pattern with a hole in the
centre. If the tiles are heated, what happens to the size of the hole?
Expanded
Hole hole

9th tile
(heated)

## (a) unheated (b) Heated (c)

Sol. We can analyze this problem by disassembling the pattern into separate tiles, heating, it is evident
from figure (b) that the heated pattern expands and so does the hole in the centre. In fact, if we
had a ninth tile that was identical to and also heated like the others, it would fit exactly into the
centre hole, as figure (c) indicates. Thus, not only does the hole in the pattern expand, but it
expands exactly as much as one of the tiles. Since the ninth tile is made of the same material as
the others, we see that the hole expands just as if it were made of the material of the surrounding
tiles.
The thermal expansion of the hole and the surrounding material is analogous to a photographic
enlargement ; in both situations everything is enlarged, including holes.
Thus, it follows that a hole in a piece of solid material expands when heated and contracts when
cooled, just as if it were filled with the material that surrounds it. If the hole is circular, the
equation L = L0T can be used to find the change in any linear dimension of the hole, such as
its radius or diameter. Example illustrates this type of linear expansion.
Illusration :
A thin cylindrical metal rod is bent into a ring with a small gap as shown in s

figure. On heating the system r
(A)  and s decreases, r and d increases (B)  and r increases, d and s decreases
(C) , r, s and d all increases (D)  is constant, d, s and r increases d

## Sol.  remains constant d, s and r increases.

Thermal Stress
A change in shape/size i.e., dimensions need not necessarily imply a strain. For example, if a body
is heated to expand, its volume change, as it acquires a new size, due to expansion. However, the
strain remains zero. Unless and until, internal elastic forces operate, to bring the body to the
original state, no strain exists. When a body is heated, the total energy of molecule increase,
owing to an increase in the kinetic energy of the molecules. This results in a shift (increment) of
the “equilibrium distance” of molecules and the body acquires a new shape and size, in the
expanded form, whereby the molecules are in “zero force” state. Hence, there is no strain. How-
ever, if the body is resistricted to expand, during the process of heating, then the molecules be-

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come “strained”, and even if there is no apparent change in dimensions of the body, there is
strain. In such cases, strain is measured as the ratio. In dimension that would have occured, and
the change in dimension that would have occured, had the body been free to expand or contract,
to the original dimension.
When a metal rod is heated or cooled it tends to expand or contract. If it is left free to expand or
contract, no temperature stresses will be induced. However, if the rod be restricted to change its length,
then temperature stresses are generated within it. Stress induced due to temperature change can be
understood as follows:
A B
L l


F F

Consider a uniform rodAB fixed rigidly between two supports. (fig.) If Lbe its length,  the coefficient
of linear expansion, then a change in temperature of , would tend to bring a change in its length by
l = L. Had the rod been free (say one of its ends) its length would have changed by l. Now, let a
force be gradually applied so as to restore the natural length. Since the rod, tends to remain in the new
state, due to a change in temperature, so when a force F is applied, thermal stress is induced. In
equilibrium.
F l
= (L  l ) Y [ stress = strain × Y]
A
lA
Neglecting l in comparison to L, F= Y = AY 
L
Now, if the two ends remain fixed, then this external force is provided from the support.

Clearly strain = = 
L
Expansion of liquids Z

## Like solids, liquids also, in general, expand on heating ; however, X

their expansion is much large compared to solids for the same Y

## temperature rise.Anoteworthy point to be taken into account

during the expansion of liquid is that they are always contained
in a vessel or a container and hence the expansion of the vessel
also comes into picture. Further, linear or superficial expansion
in case of a liquid does not carry any sense. Consider a liquid
contained in a round bottomed flask fitted with a long narrow
stem as shown in fig. Let the initial level of the liquid be X.
When it is heated the level falls initially toY.

However, after sometime, the liquid level eventuallyrises to Z.The entire phenomenon can be understood
as follows: Upon being heated, the container gets heated first and hence expands. As a result, the
capacity of the flask increases and hence the liquid level falls.
After sometime, the heat gets conducted from the vessel to the liquid and hence liquid also expands
thereby rising its level eventually to Z. Since, the volume expansivity of liquids, in general, are far more
than that of solids, so the level Z will be above the level X.

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## Effect of temperature on density

When a solid or liquid is heated, it expands, with mass remaining constant. Density being the ratio of
mass to volume, it decreases. Thus, if V0 and Vt be the respective volumes of a substance at 0°C and
t°C and if the corresponding values of densities be 0 and t, then the mass m of the substance is given
by
m = V00 = Vtt
But Vt = V0 (1 + t), so t = 0 (1 + t)–1

## Anomolous expansion of water

While most substances expand when heated, a few do not. For instant, if water at 0°C is heated, its
volume decreases until the temperature reaches 4°C. Above 4 °C water behaves normally, and its
volume increases as the temperature increases.
Because a given mass of water has a minimum volume at 4°C, the density (mass per unit volume) of
water is greatest at 4 °C, as figure shows.

Maximum density
at 4°C
Density, kg/m3

1000.0
999.9
999.8
999.7
999.6
0 2 4 6 8 10
Temperature, °C

The density of water in the temperature range from 0 to 10°C. Water has a maximum density of
999.973kg/m3 at 4°C. (This value for the density is equivalent to the often quoted density of 1.000
grams per milliliter)
When the air temperature drops, the surface layer of water is chilled.As the temperature of the surface
layer drops toward 4°C, this layer becomes more dense than the warmer water below. The denser
water sinks and pushes up the deeper and warmer water, which in turn is chilled at the surface. This
process continues until the temperature of the entire lake reaches 4°C. Further cooling of the surface
water below 4°C makes it less dense than the deeper layers ; consequently, the surface layer does not
sink but stays on top. Continued cooling of the top layer to 0°C leads to the formation of ice that floats
on the water, because ice has a smaller density than water at any temperature. Below the ice, however,
the water temperature remains above 0°C. The sheet of ice acts as an insulator that reduces the loss of
heat from the lake, especially if the ice is covered with a blanket of snow, which is also an insulator. As
a result, lakes usually do not freeze solid, even during prolonged cold spells, so fish and other aquatic life
can survive.

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CALORIMETRY
Units of heat & Mechanical equivalent of heat (J)
I was early 19th century when "James Prescott Joule" accidentally did an experiment which made two
very important contribution in the scientific world.And it was Herman Von Helmholtz (a German) who
later proved that indeed Joule was right.
Joules contribution bridged two major gaps in the scientific world.
i) Energy conservation principle was well grounded.
ii) The missing link between heat and energy was rectified.
Yes, heat was not thought to be a form of energy, rather it was known to be a fluid substance that flows.
And that fluid was named calorie. They would say that when an iron rod is heated at one end, the other
end also becomes hot as some calorie has flown to the rod. It was a very detailed mathematical theory.
Now, lets see the problem of energy conservation. We have seen many examples where energy in the
form of K + U = constant; but not always. We know many places where in energy doesn't seem to be
conserved. One of the examples is a box sliding on a rough surface. The box eventuallystops because of
friction. Thus, the KE of the box is lost. Where did it go? Today we can say that it got converted into heat
energy, but earlier heat was not known as energy, but heat. Thus for them it was lost. And so energy
conservation principle doesn't hold true.
A system is said to be isolated if no exchange or transfer of heat occurs between the system and its
surroundings. When different parts of an isolated system are at different temperature, a quantity of heat
transfers from the part at higher temperature to the part at lower temperature. The heat lost by the part
at higher temperature is equal to the heat gained by the part at lower temperature. Calorimetry means
measurement of heat. When a body at higher temperature is brought in contact with another body at
lower temperature, the heat lost by the hot body is equal to the heat gained by the colder body, provided
no heat is allowed to escape to the surroundings.
As heat is just energy in transit, its unit in SI is joule. However, another unit of heat “calorie” is in wide
use. This unit was formulated much before it was recognised that heat is a form of energy. The old day
definition of calorie is as follows :
The amount of heat needed to increas the temperature of 1g of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C at
a pressure of 1 atm is called 1 calorie.
The calorie is now defined in terms of joule as 1 cal = 4.186 joule.
Principle of Calorimetry
Adevice in which heat measurement can be made is called a calorimeter. It consists a metallic vessel
and stirrer of the same material like copper or aluminium. The vessel is kept inside a wooden jacket
which contains heat insulating materials like glass wool etc. The outer jacket acts as a heat shield and
reduces the heat loss from the inner vessel. There is an opening in the outer jacket through which a
mercury thermometer can be inserted into the calorimeter.

## From this eperiment he came up with new physical quantities.

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T f

## specific heat capacity: Q  m 

Ti
s d T  m s avg  T

C'
Molar heat Capacity: C (n - no. of moles)
n
The branch of thermodynamics which deals with the measurement of Heat is called colorimetry.
When two bodies at different temperature are mixed, heat will be transferred from body at higher tem-
perature to a body at lower temperature till both acquire same temperature. Principle of colorimetry
represents the law of conservation of Heat Energy.
Heat lost = Heat gained
Specific Heat capacity
The amount of heat needed toraise the temperature ofunit mass of amaterial byunit degreeof measurement
is known as the specific heat capacity of that material. If Q amount of heat raises the temperature of mass
m of a material by T, then its specific heat capacity is given as :
Q
s=  Q = msT
m
Also the amount of heat supplied per unit increase in temperature for any body is known as
Q
its heat capacity, c =  ms .

Latent Heat
Heat required for the change of phase or state. No chage in temperature is involved when substance
changes its state or phase. (Q = mL, L = Latent Heat)
Latent Heat of Fusion : The Heat supplied to a substance which changes it from solid to liquid state at
its melting point and 1 atm. pressure is called latent Heat of fusion. (Q = mLf )
Latent heat of fusion of Ice (Lf) = 80 cal/gm.
Latent Heat of Vapourization : The Heat supplied to a substance which changes it from liquid to
vapour state at its boiling point and 1 atm pressure is called latent heat of vapourization. (Q = mLV)
Latent heat of vapouriztion of water (LV)= 540 cal/g.
Heating Curve
If to a given mass (m) of a solid (Ice), Heat is supplied at constant rate P and a graph is poltted between
temperature and time
Temp
E
C
100ºC D
A
0ºC B
–TºC O

t1 t2 t3 t4 time
(1) In the region OA
Temperature of solid is changing with time
Q=msT

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P  t) = m s  T (t = t1 – 0, T = 0 – (–T))
P T T
 = slope of line OA
ms t t
(2) In the regionAB
Temperature is constant, here substance chnages its phase solid to liquid, betweenAand B.
Q = mLf
P  t = m Lf
P( t 2 – t1 )
Lf =
m
Lf = length of lineAB
Latent Heat of fusion is proportional to length of line .
(3) In the Region BC
Temp. of liquid is increasing with time
Q=msT (t = t3 – t2, T = 100 – 0)
Pt=msT
(4) In the regin CD, temperature is constant, so it represents change of state.
Q = mLV
P( t 4 – t 3 )
 LV
m
LV = length of line CD
(5) The line DE represents gaseous state of substance with its temperature increasing linearly with time.
The reciprocal of slope of line will be proportional to specific heat of substance in vapour state.
Water equivalent
It is a equivalent mass of water (w) that has same heat capacity as that of the given body (b). In other
words,
C  m w s w  m bs b
It is a convinent way to represent the heat capacity of the calorimeter

HEAT TRANSFER
Heat may be transported from one point to another by any of three possible mechanisms : conduction,
convection, and radiation. We study the rate of energy transfer between bodies due to temperature
difference between them.
Convection
Convection is the process in which heat is carried from place to place
by the bulk movement of a fluid. In liquid and gases, the atoms or
molecules can move from point to point. The transfer of heat that
accompanies mass transport is called convection.
In forced convection, a fan or pump sets up fluid currents. For examples,
a fan blows air, or a pump circulates waterin a hot-water heating system
in a house.
In free convection, it occurs because the density of a fluid varies with its In convection, heat
temperature. transfer accompanies
An example of convection currents in a pan of water being the movement of a fluid
heated on a gas burner. The currents distribute the heat from the burning
gas to all parts of the water.The direction of convection current is opposite
to acceleration due to gravity as shown in figure.
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Conduction
A rod whose ends are in thermal contact with a hot reservoir at
temperature TH and a cold reservoir at temperature TC. The sides of the
rod are covered with insulation meterial, so the transport of heat is
TH Q TC
along the rod, not through the sides. The molecules at the hot reservoir
have greater vibrational energy. This energy is trransferred by collisions
Heat is conducted through
to the atoms at the end face of the rod. These atoms in turn transfer an insulated bar whose ends
energy to their neighbors futher along the rod. Such transfer of heat are in thermal contact with
through a substance is called conduction as shown in figure. two reservoirs

## Steady and Transient State :

T1 T2 T3

A Q B

Heater

1 2 3
Consider a metal rodAB, with one endAinserted into a chamber containing a heater with other end B
left free and exposed to the surrounding as shown in figure. The rod is thermallyinsulated sideways with
some bad conductor of heat say cotton or felt. Three thermometers are installed in the rod at three
distinct sections numbered (1), (2) and (3). Initially, the enitre system is at the room temperature and the
three thermometers show the same room temperature. The heater is then switched on. The end A first
gets heated up and simultaneously heat is conducted to the adjacent sections towards end B. Due to heat
absorption at each sections. The corresponding temperatures start rising with T1 > T2 > T3. Such a state,
encountered initiallyis known as a transient state. In this state, the heat coming through endA, is continu-
ously absorbed at each sections with a temperature rise as time elapses. After some time when the
temperature of end B becomes equal to that of surrounding and thus becomes constant. Similarly, the
temperature of each of the sections of the rod (for example 1, 2, 3) becomes constant or steady. But
these steady values at different sections are different.
T1 T2

Area = A
L
Consider a portion of the rod of cross sectional areaA as shown in figure. Let the temperatures of the
two sections separated by a length L be T1 and T2 respectively (with T1 > T2).
T1  T2
Temperature gradient (fall in temperature per unit length) along the length of the rod will be .
L
Experiments show that the conduction rate (energy transferred per unit time) is given by: Fourier’s Law
of Heat Conduction
dQ d (– T )
H  KA (Where K : Thermal conductivity of material
dt dx
H : Thermal current
dT
dx
A : cross-sectional area of heat path)
The reciprocal of thermal conductivity (K) is called thermal resistivity or thermal specific resistance.
Substances having high values of K are good conductors of heat.
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## Temperature distribution along a conductor :

In order to study conduction in more detail consider figure (i), which shows a metal barAB whose ends
have been soldered into the walls of two metal tanks H and C. Tanks H contains boiling water and C
contains ice-water. Heat flows along the bar from A to B and when conditions are steady the tempera-
ture  of the bar is measured at points along its length.
The curve in the upper part of the figure shows how the temperature falls along the bar, less and less
steeply from the hot end to the cold. So the temperature gradient decreases from the hot end to the cold.
The figure (ii) shows how the temperature varies along the bar, if the bar is well lagged with a bad
conductor, such as asbestos wool. It now falls uniformly from the hot to the cold end, so the temperature
gradient along the bar is constant.
100°C 100

t 

O O
H H A B
A D B C C
heat heat
(i) unlagged (ii) lagged

## Figure : Temperature fall along lagged and unlagged bars

The difference between the temperature distributions is due to the fact that, when the bar is unlagged,
heat escapes from its sides, by convection in the surrounding air, figure (i). The arrows in the figure
represent the heat escaping per second from the surface of the bar, and the heat flowing per second
along its length. The heat flowing per second along the length decreases from the hot end to the cold. But
when the bar is lagged, the heat escaping from its sides is negligible, and the flow per second is now
constant along the length of the bar, figure (ii).
x dx
T1 T T2

Area = A
L
T
T1

T2
x
x=0 x=L
Temperature variation
along length of rod
At steady state, energy transferred through one cross-section of the rod during a certain time interval is
equal to the energy transferred by at the other cross-section of the rod during the same time interval.
Q     T – T2 
H=  KA   KA  1 
t  x   L 
Temperature distribution across the rod :
Let at distance x we take element of length dx having a cross-sectional area A and temperature T (As
shown in figure). In steady state, rate of heat flow H remains constant
dT
H = – KA
dx
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T x
H
 dT = –
T1
 KA dx
0

Hx  H T –T 
T– T1 = –   1 2
KA  KA L 
x
T = T1 – (T1 – T2 )
L
The variation has been plotted above.
Thermal Resistance :
The heat transfer by conduction due to temperature difference has an analogy with flow of electric
current through a wire when a potential difference is applied. In that case, electrical resistance is defined
v
as R=
i
(T1 – T2 )
Similarly, thermal resistance is defined as R
H
For a rod having length L , area of cross-section Aand thermal conductivity K,
(T1 – T2 ) (T1 – T2 ) L
R= = KA (T – T ) / L  R=
H 1 2 KA
Having calculated the thermal resistance, we can now applythe results of series combination and parallel
combination of resistors. It has been explained below.
Composite Rods :
Series Connection : If same heat current are flowing both the rods in steady state, they are said to be
in series.
Q
T1 t T T2
(T1>T2)
L1 L2
( Req = R1 + R2 = R)
i L L
R1= 1 R2= 2
K1A K2A
Where A - cross-section area of rods
T - Temperature at the juction or Interface temperature
K1 & K2 - Themal conductivities of rods having lenghts L1 and L2 respectively.

## In steady state, heat current is constant throughout the rods.

Q T1 – T T – T2
i = t  R  R
1 2

 T1 – T = iR1 ...(i)
T – T2 = iR2 ...(ii)
From (i) & (ii)
T1 – T2 (T1 R 2  T2 R 1 )
 i and T=
R1  R 2 R1  R 2
T
i = R , in series Req = R1 + R2
eq

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## Equivalent conductivity of composite Rods (Keq) :

If this rod is replaced by a single rod, then i = (T1 – T2)/Req
T1 T2

L1+L2

L1 L2 L1  L 2
 Req = R1 + R2 = K A  K A  K A
1 2 eq

L1  L 2
Keq = L L
1
 2
K1 K 2
Parallel Connection :If the two rods have the same temperature difference across it, they are said to
be in parallel.
Q1 (T1 < T2)
t
Q Q1 Q 2
T1 T2  
t t t
Q 2
t
L
L
R1=  1 1 1 1
K1A1     
i1 R R 
i  eq R 1 R 2
i = i 1 + i2
i2
L
R2=
K 2A 2
T1 – T2 T1 – T2
i1 = R1 , i 2
= R2
 1 1 
 i = i1 + i2 = (T1– T2)   
 R1 R 2 
1 1 1
In parallel, R  R  R
eq 1 2
If the two rods are repleaced by a single rod, then Keq will be
L T1 – T2
Keq = and i =
R eq (A1  A 2 ) R eq
Thus, the heat current in thermal resistances in terms of total thermal current is given by :
 R2   R1 
i1 =    i and i2 =    i
 R1  R 2   R1  R 2 

R A D I A TI O N
Radiation is the process in which energy is transferred by means of electromagnetic waves.
All bodies continuously radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. It does not require a
material medium. Electromagnetic waves from the sun, for example, travel through the void of space
during their journey to earth. Even an ice cube radiates energy, although so little of it is in the form of
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visible light that an ice cube cannot be seen in the dark. The surface of an object plays a significant role
in determining how much radiant energy the object will absorb or emit.

## Figure : The temperature of the block coated with

lampblack rises faster than the temperature of the
block coated absorbs radiant energy from the sun at
the greater rate

The two blocks in sunlight in figure, for example, are identical, except that one has a rough surface
coated with lamblack (a fine black soot), while the other has a highly polished silver surface. As the
thermometers indicate, the temperature of the black block rises at a much faster rate than that of the
silver block. This is because lampblack absorbs about 97% of the incident radiant energy, while the
silvery surface absorbs only about 10%. The remaining part of the incident energy is reflected in each
case. We observe the lampblack as black in color because it reflects so little of the light falling on it, while
the silvery surface looks like a mirror because it reflects so much light. Since the color black is associated
with nearlycomplete absorption of visible light, the term perfect blackbody or, simply, blackbody is used
when referring to an object that absorbs all the electromagnetic waves falling on it.

Black body:
The experiments described before lead us to the idea of a perfectly black body, one which absorbs all
the radiation that falls upon it, and reflects and transmits none. The experiments also lead us to suppose
that such a body would be the best possible radiator.

## Prevost’s theory of exchange:

Any body having temperature greater then zero kelvin, must emit or aborb radiation.
B

A is placed in an evacuated enclosure B, at lower temperature thanA, thenAcools until it reaches the
temperature of B. If a body C, cooler than B, is put in B, then C warms up to the temperature of B. We
conclude that radiation from B falls on C, and therefore also onA, even throughAis at a higher tempera-
ture. Thus A and C each come to equilibrium at the temperature of B when each is absorbing and

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If Q is the total incident energy on a body, Q1 is the part absorbed, Q2 is the part reflected and Q3 is the
part transmitted then
Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
Absorption coefficient or absorptive power a = Q1/Q
Reflection coefficient r = Q2 /Q
Transmission coefficient t = Q3/Q
Thus a + r + t = 1
If, for a body, r = t = 0 and a = 1, i.e. it absorbs all the energy falling on it, such bodies are known as
black bodies.
Emissive Power:
Emissive power of a surface is the quantity of heat energy emitted per second, per unit area of surface
through unit solid angle. It depends on the nature and the temperature of the surface.
Emissivity:
Emissivity of a surface is the ratio of the emissive power of that surface to the emissive power of a black
body at the same temperature.
Kirchhoff's Law:
At a given temperature, the ratio of emissive power to absorptive power of any body is equal to the
emissive power of a black body at that temperature. Thus,
E1 E 2

a 1 a 2 = EBlack body
From Kirchhoff's law, it can be deduced that good absorbers are also good emitters
An idealized body that absorbs all the radiation incident upon it is called a blackbody. A blackbody
absorbs not only all visible light, but infrared, ultraviolet, and all other wavelengths of electromagnetic
radiation. It turns out that a good absorber is also a good emitter of radiation. Ablackbody emits more
radiant ower per unit surface area than any real object at the same temperature. The rate at which a
blackbody emits rdiation per unit surface area is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute tem-
perature.
dQ
P= = AT T4 (for a black body)
dt
In equation, A is the surface area and T is the surface temperature of the blackbody in kelvins. Since
Stefan’s law involves the absolute temperature and not a temperature difference, °C cannot be substi-
tuted. The universal constant  (Greek letter sigma) is called Stefan’s constant :
 = 5.670 × 10–8 W/(m2.K4)
The fourth-power temperature dependence implies that the power emitted is extremely sensitive to
temperature changes. If the absolute temperature of a body doubles, the energy emitted increases by a
factor of 24 = 16.
Since real bodies are not perfect absorbers and therefore emit less than a blackbody, we define the
emissivity (e) as the ratio of the emitted power of the body to that of a blackbody at the same tempera-
ture. Then Stefan’s law becomes.
P = eAT4 (for a non-black body)
The emissivity ranges from 0 to 1.
e = 1 for a perfect radiator and absorber (a blackbody).
e = 0 for a perfect reflector.

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## Hot object placed in isothermal enclosure:

Consider a body at a temperature of T0 and Te is the temperature of the room or enclosure containing the
body. IfA is the surface area of the body and emissivity (e).
Since the body is in temperature equilibrium, the energy per second it radiates must equal the energy per
second it absorbs. then, from Stefan’s law,
energy per second emitted (Pemit) =eAT04
energy per second absorbed (Pabsorbed) =eATe4
Pemit= Paborbed Te=To
Now suppose the body X is heated electrically by a heater of power W watts and finally reaches a
constant temperature T. In this case, from Prevost’s theory,
energy per second from heater, W = net energy per second radiated by X
The net energy per second radiated by X = eAT4 – eAT04. So
W = eAT4 – eAT04 = eA (T4 – T04)
Newton’s law of cooling
For small temperature differences, the rate of cooling, due to conduction, convection, and radiation
combined, is proportional to the difference in temperature. It is a valid approximation in the transfer of
heat from a radiator to a room, the loss of heat through the wall of a room, or the cooling of a cup of tea
on the table.

## Figure : Verification of Newton’s Law of cooling

Suppose, a body of surface areaAat an absolute temperature T is kept in a surrounding having a lower
temperature T0. The net rate of loss of thermal energy from the body due to radiation is
u1 = eA(T4 – T04)
If the temperature difference is small, we can write
T = T0 + T
or, T4 – T04 = (T0 + T)4 – T04
4
 T   T T  4
= T0 1 
4  – T 4 = T 4 1  4  higher powers of   T0
 T 0 
0 0
 T 0 T0 

3 3

## Thus, u1 = 4eAT03 (T – T0)

= b1 A (T – T0)
The body may also lose thermal energy due to convection in the surrounding air. For small temperature
difference, the rate of loss of heat due to convection is also proportional to the temperature difference
and the area of the surface. This rate may, therefore, be written as
u2 = b2A (T – T0)
The net rate of loss of thermal energy due to convection and radiation is
u = u1 + u2 = (b1 + b2) A (T – T0).

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If s be the specific heat capacity of the body and m its mass, the rate of fall of temperature is
 dT u b1  b 2
= = A (T – T0)
dt ms ms
= bA (T – T0)
Thus, for all temperature difference between a body and its surrounding, the rate of cooling of the body
is directly proportional to the temperature difference and the surface area exposed. We can write
dT
= – bA (T – T0)
dt
Cooling curve:
The law holds good only for small difference of temperature.Also, the loss of heat by radiation depends
upon the nature of the surface of the body and the area of the exposed surface. We can write
dT
– = k ( – s)
dt
where k is a positive constant depending upon the area and nature of the surface of the body. Suppose
a body of mass m and specific heat capacity s is at temperature . Let s and To be the temperature of
the surroundings and body respectively. If the temperature falls by a small amount dT in time dt, then the
amount of heat lost is
dQ = msdT
 Rate of loss of heat is given by
dQ dT
= ms
dt dt
from equation
dQ dQ dT
– = k (T – Ts) and = ms
dt dt dt
dT
we have – ms = k(T – Ts)
dt
dT k
T  Ts = – dt = – Kdt (where K = k/ms)
ms
On integrating, temperature of body

 T  Ts  T0
ln   = – kt
 T0  Ts  Ts

## T = Ts + (T0 – Ts)e–kt time

enables you to calculate the time of colling of a body through a particular range of temperature.
Wien's Displacement Law
The wavelength corresponding to highest intensity m is inversely proportional to the absolute tempera-
ture. Thus
b
m =
T
where b (= 2.89 × 10–3 meter Kelvin) is known as the Wien's constant.

When the temperature of a black body is increased, the contribution of low wavelength radiation in-
creases. This explains why a body on heating first appears red, then orange, then white and finally blue.
This law also helps us in determining the temperatures of the stars.

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## Energy Distribution in Black Body Radiation:

The radiation emitted by a black body at any temperature is a mixture of all wavelengths. The graph
shows qualitative variation in intensity wavelength, at different temperatures.

E
T3 > T 2 > T1

T3
T2
T1
m  m m 

## Spectral emmissive power:

To speak of the intensity of a single wavelength is meaningless. The slit of the spectrometer always
gathers a band of wavelengths the narrower the slit the narrower the band –and we always speak of the
intensity of a given band. We expressit as follows :
energy radiated m–2 s–1, in band  to  + = E 
The quantity E is called emissive power of a black body for the wavelength  and at the given tempera-
ture ; its definition follows from equation  to  + = E  :
energy radiated m 2 s 1 , in band  to   
E =
band width , 

## power radiated m 2 in band  to   

E =

In the figure, E is expressed in watts per m2 per nanometre (10–9 m).
The quantity E  in equation  to  + = E  is the area beneath the radiation curve between the
wavelength  and  (figure). Thus the energy radiated per meter2 per second between those wave-
lengths in proportional to that area.
Similarly, the total radiation emitted per metre2 per second over all wavelengths is proportional to the
area under the whole curve.

Em

area = energy
E in band

m   + 

## Figure : Definition of E·m and Em

The curves of figure can be explained only Planck’s quantum theory of radiation, which is outside our
scope. Both theory and experiment lead to three generalisations, which together describe well the

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(i) If m is the wavelength of the peak of the curve for T (in K), then
mT = constant ... (2)

The value of the constant is 2.9 × 10–3 m K. In figure the dotted line is the locus of the peaks of the
curves for different temperatures.
The relationship in (2) is sometimes called Wien’s displacement law.
(ii) If Em is the height of the peak of the curve for the temperature T, then
Em  T5 ... (3)
22 × 10–9
T = 1650K 20
18
16

–1
relative intensity

watt metre nm
1450K 14

–2
12
10
1260K 8
6
1000K
4
2
2
10 20 30 40 50 60 × 10
violet- -red
visible
Figure : Distribution of intensity in black body radiation

(iii) If E is the total energy radiated per metre2 per second at a temperature T, which is represented by the
total area under the particular E –  curve, then
E = T4
So in figure, which shows four E –  graphs at different temperatures T, the total area below the graphs
should be proportional to the corresponding value of T4.

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## EXERCISE-1 (Subjective Questions)

Q.1 A light rigid bar is suspended horizontally from two vertical wires, one of steel and one
of brass, as shown in figure. Each wire is 2.00 m long. The diameter of the steel wire is
0.60 mm and the length of the bar AB is 0.20 m. When a mass of 10 kg is suspended
from the centre ofAB bar remains horizontal.
(i) What is the tension in each wire?
(ii) Calculate the extension of the steel wire and the energy stored in it.
(iii) Calculate the diameter of the brass wire.
(iv) If the brass wire were replaced by another brass wire of diameter 1 mm, where should the mass be
suspended so that AB would remain horizontal? The Young modulus for steel = 2.0 × 1011 Pa, the
Young modulus for brass = 1.0 × 1011 Pa.
Q.2 Asteel rope his length L, area of cross-sectionA,Young’s modulus Y. [Density= d]
(a) It is pulled on a horizontal frictionless floor with a constant horizontal force F = [dALg]/2 applied at one
end. Find the strain at the midpoint.
(b) If the steel rope is vertical and moving with the force acting vertically up at the upper end. Find the strain
at a point L/3 from lower end.

Q.3 An aluminium container of mass 100 gm contains 200 gm of ice at – 20°C. Heat is added to the system
at the rate of 100 cal/s. Find the temperature of the system after 4 minutes (specific heat of ice = 0.5 and
L = 80 cal/gm, specific heat of Al = 0.2 cal/gm/°C)

## Q.4 Two50gm icecubesaredroppedinto250gmofwaterinto aglass.Ifthewaterwasinitiallyat atemperatureof

25°C and the temperature of ice –15°C. Find the final temperature of water.
(specific heat of ice = 0.5 cal/gm/°C and L = 80 cal/gm). Find final amount of water and ice.

Q.5 The temperature of 100gm of water is to be raised from 24ºC to 90ºC by adding steam to it. Calculate
the mass of the steam required for this purpose.

## Q.6 A substance is in the solid form at 0°C. The amount of

heat added to this substance and its temperature are
plotted in the following graph.If the relative specific heat
capacityof the solid substance is 0.5, find from the graph
(i) the mass of the substance ;
(ii) the specific latent heat of the melting process, and
(iii) the specific heat of the substance in the liquid state.

Q.7 A steel drill making 180 rpm is used to drill a hole in a block of steel. The mass of the steel block and the
drill is 180 gm. If the entire mechanical work is used up in producing heat and the rate of raise in
temperature of the block and the drill is 0.5 °C/s. Find
(a) the rate of working of the drill in watts, and
(b) the torque required to drive the drill.
Specific heat of steel = 0.1 and J = 4.2 J/cal. Use : P = 

Q.8 An ice cube of mass 0.1 kg at 0°C is placed in an isolated container which is at 227°C. The specific heat
S of the container varies with temperature T according the empirical relations =A+ BT, whereA= 100
cal/kg-K and B = 2 × 10–2 cal/kg-K2. If the final temperature of the container is 27°C, determine the
mass of the container. (Latent heat of fusion for water = 8 × 104 cal/kg. Specific heat of water = 103 cal/
kg-K)
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Q.9 Asolid receives heat by radiation over its surface at the rate of 4 kW. The heat convection rate from the
surface of solid to the surrounding is 5.2 kW, and heat is generated at a rate of 1.7 kW over the volume
of the solid. The rate of change of the average temperature of the solid is 0.5°Cs–1. Find the heat
capacity of the solid.

Q.10 If two rods of length L and 2 L having coefficients of linear expansion  and 2 respectively are
connected so that total length becomes 3 L, determine the average coefficient of linear expansion of the
composite rod.

Q.11 A clock pendulum made of invar has a period of 0.5 sec at 20°C. If the clock is used in a climate where
average temperature is 30°C, aporoximately. How much fast or slow will the clock run in 106 sec.
(invar=1×10–6/°C)

Q.12 A U-tube filled with a liquid of volumetric coefficient of 10–5/°C lies in a vertical plane. The height of
liquid column in the left vertical limb is 100 cm. The liquid in the left vertical limb is maintained at a
temperature = 0°C while the liquid in the right limb is maintained at a temperature = 100°C. Find the
difference in levels in the two limbs.

Q.13 Three aluminium rods of equal length form an equilateral triangleABC. Taking
O (mid point of rod BC) as the origin. Find the increase in Y-coordinate of
center of mass per unit change in temperature of the system.Assume the length
of the each rod is 2m, and al = 4 3  10 6 / C

Q.14 An isosceles triangle is formed with a rod of length l1 and coefficient of linear expansion 1 for the base
and two thin rods each of length l2 and coefficient of linear expansion 2 for the two pieces, if the
distance between the apex and the midpoint of the base remain unchanged as the temperatures varied
l1 
show that 2 2 .
l2 1

Q.15 An iron bar (Young’s modulus = 1011 N/m2 ,  = 10–6 /°C) 1 m long and 10–3 m2 in area is heated from
0°C to 100°C without being allowed to bend or expand. Find the compressive force developed inside
the bar.

Q.16 The figure shows the face and interface temperature of a composite slab
containing of four layers of two materials having identical thickness. Under
steady state condition, find the value of temperature 

Q.17 In the square frame of side l of metallic rods, the corners A and C are
maintained at T1 and T2 respectively. The rate of heat flow from Ato C is
. IfAand D are instead maintained T1 & T2 respectivley find, find the
total rate of heat flow.

Q.18 Two spheres of same radius R have their densities in the ratio 8 : 1 and the ratio of their specific heats are
1 : 4. If by radiation their rates of fall of temperature are same, then find the ratio of their rates of losing
heat.

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Q.19 A solid copper cube and sphere, both of same mass & emissivity are heated to same initial temperature
and kept under identical conditions. What is the ratio of their initial rate of fall of temperature?

Q.20 A vessel containing 100 gm water at 0°C is suspended in the middle of a room. In 15 minutes the
temperature of the water rises by 2°C. When an equal amount of ice is placed in the vessel, it melts in
10 hours. Calculate the specific heat of fusion of ice.

Q.21 The maximum in the energy distribution spectrum of the sun is at 4753 Å and its temperature is 6050K.
What will be the temperature of the star whose energy distribution shows a maximum at 9506 Å.

Q.22 A liquid takes 5 minutes to cool from 80°C to 50°C. How much time will it take to cool from 60°C to
30°C ? The temperature of surrounding is 20°C. Use exact method.

Q.23 Hot oil is circulated through an insulated container with a wooden lid at the
top whose conductivity K = 0.149 J/(m-°C-sec), thickness t = 5 mm,
emissivity = 0.6. Temperature of the top of the lid in steady state is at
Tl = 127°. If the ambient temperature Ta = 27°C. Calculate
(a) rate of heat loss per unit area due to radiation from the lid.
17 8
(b) temperature of the oil. (Given  = 10 )
3

Q.24 Aparallel beam of radiation is incident on a highly conducting sphere of unknown emissivity. Incident
radiation intensity on sphere is 1944 W/m2 . Stefan's constant 6 × 10–8 W/m2.k. What is temperature(
in °C) of sphere in steady state.

incident

## EXERCISE-2 (Objective Questions)

[SINGLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE]
Q.1 Overall changes in volume and radii of a uniform cylindrical steel wire are 0.2% and 0.002% respectively
when subjected to some suitable force. Longitudinal tensile stress acting on the wire is
(Y = 2.0 × 1011 Nm–2)
(A) 3.2 × 109 Nm–2 (B) 3.2 × 107 Nm–2 (C) 3.6 × 109 Nm–2 (D) 4.08 × 108 Nm–2

Q.2 A solid sphere of radius R made of of material of bulk modulus K is surrounded bya liquid in a cylindrical
container.Amassless piston of areaAfloats on the surface of the liquid. When a mass m is placed on
the piston to compress the liquid, the fractional change in the radius of the sphere R/R is
(A) mg/AK (B) mg/3AK (C) mg/A (D) mg/3AR

Q.3 A cylindrical wire of radius 1 mm, length 1 m, Young’s modulus = 2 × 1011 N/m2, poisson’s ratio
 = /10 is stretched by a force of 100 N. Its radius will become
(A) 0.99998 mm (B) 0.99999 mm (C) 0.99997 mm (D) 0.99995 mm

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Q.4 Auniform rod rotating in gravityfree region with certain constant angular velocity. The variation of tensile
stress with distance x from axis of rotation is best represented by which of the following graphs.

## (A) (B) (C) (D)

Q.5 The load versus strain graph for four wires of the same material is shown in the
figure. The thickest wire is represented by the line
(A) OB (B) OA (C) OD (D) OC

Q.6 Arigid square frame consists of four side barsAB, BC, CD and DAand two diagonal barsAC and BD
which are only touching each other freely at centre. They are hinged at the joints. By some arrangement
AB is kept under tension so thatAB has tension T at its ends as shown. Assume symmetry.

A T T
B

D C
(A) AD and BC are also under tension. (B) AD and BC are under compression.
(C) AC and BD are under tension. (D) CD is under compression.

Q.7 You do a very precise experiment to test the properties of a piece of wire. You stretch the wire by
applying an outward force to each end of the wire and measure its change in length. If you then precisely
double this force and the wire still remains elastic but is beyond proportionalitylimit, the change in length
of the wire
(A) will exactly double (B) will just slightlymore than double
(C) will just slightlyless than double (D) will decrease by exactly a factor of two.

Q.8 Ahighly rigid cubical blockAof small mass M and side Lis fixed rigidly on another cubical block B of
same dimensions and of low modulus of rigidity  , such that the lower face ofAcompletely covers the
upper face of B. The lower face of B is rigidly held on a horizontal surface. A small force F is applied
perpendicular to one of the side faces ofAat the top. The side of B turns by an angle . Now the whole
arrangement is turned upside down so that lower face ofAis rigidly held to the horizontal surface and we
apply a small force F perpendicular to the side face of B at the top. The Side of B now turns by an angle
(A)  (B) /2 (C) /3 (D) zero

Q.9 A thermally insulated vessel contains some water at 00C. The vessel is connected to a vacuum pump to
pump out water vapour. This results in some water getting frozen. It is given Latent heat of vaporization
of water at 0°C =21 × 105 J/kg and latent heat of freezing of water = 3.36 × 105 J/kg. The maximum
percentage amount of water that will be solidified in this manner will be
(A) 86.2% (B) 33.6% (C) 21% (D) 24.36%

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Q.10 A block of mass 2.5 kg is heated to temperature of 500°C and placed on a large ice block. What is the
maximum amount of ice that can melt (approx.). Specific heat for the body = 0.1 Cal/gm°C.
(A) 1 kg (B) 1.5 kg (C) 2 kg (D) 2.5 kg

Q.11 Heat is being supplied at a constant rate to a sphere of ice which is melting at the rate of 0.1 gm/sec. It
melts completely in 100 sec. The rate of rise of temperature thereafter will be
(Assume no loss of heat.)
(A) 0.8 °C/sec (B) 5.4 °C/sec (C) 3.6 °C/sec (D) will change with time
Q.12 1 kg of ice at – 10°C is mixed with 4.4 kg of water at 30°C. The final temperature of mixture is :
(specific heat of ice is 2100 J/kg/k)
(A) 2.3°C (B) 4.4°C (C) 5.3°C (D) 8.7°C

Q.13 Steam at 100°C is added slowly to 1400 gm of water at 16°C until the temperature of water is raised to
80°C. The mass of steam required to do this is (LV = 540 cal/gm) :
(A) 160 gm (B) 125 mg (C) 250 gm (D) 320 gm

Q.14 A 2100 W continuous flow geyser (instant geyser) has water inlet temperature = 10°C while the water
flows out at the rate of 20 g/sec. The outlet temperature of water must be about
(A) 20°C (B) 30°C (C) 35°C (D) 40°C

Q.15 A solid material is supplied with heat at a constant rate. The temperature of
material is changing with heat input as shown in the figure. What does slope DE
represent.
(A) latent heat of liquid
(B) latent heat of vapour
(C) heat capacity of vapour
(D) inverse of heat capacity of vapour

Q.16 Ablock of ice with mass m falls into a lake.After impact, a mass of ice m/5 melts. Both the block of ice
and the lake have a temperature of 0°C. If L represents the heat of fusion, the minimum distance the ice
fell before striking the surface is
L 5L gL mL
(A) (B) (C) (D)
5g g 5m 5g

Q.17 The specific heat of a metal at low temperatures varies according to S = aT3 where a is a constant and
T is the absolute temperature. The heat energy needed to raise unit mass of the metal from
T = 1 K to T = 2 K is
15 a 2a 12 a
(A) 3 a (B) (C) (D)
4 3 5
Q.18 The graph shown in the figure represent change in the temperature of 5
kg of a substance as it abosrbs heat at a constant rate of 42 kJ min–1.
The latent heat of vapourazation of the substance is :
(A) 630 kJ kg–1
(B) 126 kJ kg–1
(C) 84 kJ kg–1
(D) 12.6 kJ kg–1

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Q.19 The density of a material Ais 1500 kg/m3 and that of another material B is 2000 kg/m3. It is found that
the heat capacity of 8 volumes ofA is equal to heat capacity of 12 volumes of B. The ratio of specific
heats ofAand B will be
(A) 1 : 2 (B) 3 : 1 (C) 3 : 2 (D) 2 : 1

Q.20 Find the amount of heat supplied to decrease the volume of an ice water mixture by 1 cm3 without any
change in temperature. (ice = 0.9 water, Lice = 80 cal/gm).
(A) 360 cal (B) 500 cal (C) 720 cal (D) none of these

Q.21 A rod of length 2m rests on smooth horizontal floor. If the rod is heated from 0°C to 20°C. Find the
longitudinal strain developed? ( = 5 × 10–5/°C)
(A) 10–3 (B) 2 × 10–3 (C) Zero (D) None

Q.22 Asteel tape gives correct measurement at 20°C.Apiece of wood is being measured with the steel tape
at 0°C. The reading is 25 cm on the tape, the real length of the given piece of wood must be:
(A) 25 cm (B) <25 cm (C) >25 cm (D) can not say

Q.23 If two rods of length L and 2L having coefficients of linear expansion and 2respectivelyare connected
so that total length becomes 3L, the average coefficient of linear expansion of the composition rod
equals:
3 5 5
(A)  (B)  (C)  (D) none of these
2 2 3

Q.24 A thin copper wire of length Lincreasein length by1% when heated from temperature T1 to T2. What is the
percentage change in area when a thin copper plate having dimensions 2L × L is heated from T1 to T2?
(A) 1% (B) 2% (C) 3% (D) 4%

Q.25 A metallic rod l cm long with a square cross-section is heated through t°C. If Young’s modulus of
elasticity of the metal is E and the mean coefficient of linear expansion is  per degree Celsius, then the
compressional force required to prevent the rod from expanding along its length is :(Neglect the change
of cross-sectional area)
(A) EAt (B) EAt/(1 + t) (C) EAt/(1t) (D) E/t

## Q.26 A cuboid ABCDEFGH is anisotropic with x = 1 × 10–5 /°C,

y = 2 × 10–5 /°C, z = 3 × 10–5 /°C. Coefficient of superficial
expansion of faces can be
(A) ABCD = 5 × 10–5 /°C (B) BCGH = 4 × 10–5 /°C
(C) CDEH = 3 × 10–5 /°C (D) EFGH = 2 × 10–5 /°C

Q.27 The coefficient of apparent expansion of a liquid in a copper vessel is C and in a silver vessel is S. The
coefficient of volume expansion of copper is c. What is the coefficient of linear expansion of silver?
(C   c  S) ( C   c  S) (C   c  S) ( C   c  S)
(A) (B) (C) (D)
3 3 3 3

Q.28 Asphere of diameter 7 cm and mass 266.5 gm floats in a bath of a liquid. As the temperature is raised,
the sphere just begins to sink at a temperature 35°C. If the density of a liquid at 0°C is 1.527 gm/cc, then
neglecting the expansion of the sphere, the coefficient of cubical expansion of the liquid is f :
(A) 8.486 × 104 per 0C (B) 8.486 × 105 per 0C
(C) 8.486 × 106 per 0C (D) 8.486 × 103 per 0C

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Q.29 The volume of the bulb of a mercury thermometer at 0°C is V0 and cross section of the capillary is A0.
The coefficient of linear expansion of glass is g per °C and the cubical expansion of mercury m per °C.
If the mercury just fills the bulb at 0°C, what is the length of mercury column in capillary at T°C.

V0T  m 3 g  
V0 T  m 3 g  
V0 T  m 2 g  
V0 T  m 2 g 
(A) A 0 12 g T  (B) A0 12 g T  (C) A0 13 g T  (D) A0 13 g T 

Q.30 The loss in weight of a solid when immersed in a liquid at 0°C is W0 and at t°C is W. If cubical coefficient
of expansion of the solid and the liquid by S and 1 respectively, then W is equal to :
(A) W0 [1 + ( s – l) t] (B) W0 [1 - (s – l)t]
(C) W0 [( s – l) t] (D) W0t/(s – l)

Q.31 A thin walled cylindrical metal vessel of linear coefficient of expansion 10–3 °C–1 contains benzene of
volume expansion coefficient 10–3°C–1. If the vessel and its contents are now heated by 10°C, the
pressure due to the liquid at the bottom.
(A) increases by 2% (B) decreases by 1% (C) decreases by 2% (D) remains unchanged

Q.32 An open vessel is filled completelywith oil which has same coefficient of volume expansion as that of the
vessel. On heating both oil and vessel,
(A) the vessel can contain more volume and more mass of oil
(B) the vessel can contain same volume and same mass of oil
(C) the vessel can contain same volume but more mass of oil
(D) the vessel can contain more volume but same mass of oil

Q.33 A uniform pressure P is exerted on all sides of a solid cube. It is heated through  t  in order to bring its
volume back to the value it had before the application of pressure. Then
P B B
(A)  t  (B)  t  (C)  t  B  P (D)  t 
B P P

Q.34 A rod of length 2m at 0°C and having expansion coefficient  = (3x + 2) × 10–6 °C–1 where x is the
distance (in cm) from one end of rod. The length of rod at 20°C is :
(A) 2.124 m (B) 3.24 m (C) 2.0120 m (D) 3.124 m

Q.35 A glass flask contains some mercury at room temperature. It is found that at different temperatures the
volume of air inside the flask remains the same. If the volume of mercury in the flask is 300 cm3, then
volume of the flask is (given that coefficient of volume expansion of mercury and coefficient of linear
expansion of glass are 1.8 × 10–4 (°C)–1 and 9 × 10–6 (°C)–1 respectively)
(A) 4500 cm3 (B) 450 cm3 (C) 2000 cm3 (D) 6000 cm3

Q.36 Two vertical glass tubes filled with a liquid are connected by a capillary
tube as shown in the figure. The tube on the left is put in an ice bath at
0°C while the tube on the right is kept at 30°C in a water bath. The
difference in the levels of the liquid in the two tubes is 4 cm while the
height of the liquid column at 0°C is 120 cm. The coefficient of volume
expansion of liquid is (Ignore expansion of glass tube)
(A) 22 × 10–4/°C (B) 1.1 × 10–4/°C
(C) 11 × 10–4/°C (D) 2.2 × 10–4/°C
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## Q.37 A liquid is given some heat.

Statement A: Some liquid evaporates.
Statement B : The liquid starts boiling.
(A)Aimplies B and B impliesA (B) B impliesAbut Adoes not imply B
(C) Aimplies B but B does not implyA. (D) NeitherAimplies B nor impliesA.

Q.38 A cylinder of radius R made of a material of thermal conductivity k1 is surrounded by a cylindrical shell
of inner radius R and outer radius 2R made of a material of thermal conductivity k2. The two ends of
the combined system are maintained at different temperatures. There is no loss of heat from the cylindrical
surface and the system is in steady state. The effective thermal conductivity of the system is
k1k 2 1 1
(A) k1 + k2 (B) (C) (k1 + 3k2) (D) (3k + k2)
k1  k 2 4 4

Q.39 The wall with a cavity consists of two layers of brick separated by a layer of air.All three layers have the
same thickness and the thermal conductivity of the brick is much greater than that of air. The left layer is
at a higher temperature than the right layer and steady state condition exists. Which of the following
graphs predicts correctly the variation of temperature T with distance d inside the cavity?

## (A) (B) (C) (D)

Q.40 A rod of length L and uniform cross-sectional area has varying thermal conductivity which changes
linearly from 2K at endAto K at the other end B. The endsAand B of the rod are maintained at constant
temperature 100°C and 0°C, respectively. At steady state, the graph of temperature : T = T(x) where
x = distance from endAwill be

## (A) (B) (C) (D)

Q.41 Aring consisting of two parts ADB andACB of same conductivity k carries an
amount of heat H. The ADB part is now replaced with another metal keeping
the temperatures T1 and T2 constant. The heat carried increases to 2H. What
ACB
should be the conductivity of the newADB part? Given = 3:
7 5
(A) k (B) 2 k (C) k (D) 3 k
3 2

Q.42 The temperature drop through each layer of a two layer furnace wall is
shown in figure. Assume that the external temperature T1 and T3 are
maintained constant and T1 > T3. If the thickness of the layers x1 and x2
are the same, which of the following statements are correct.
(A) k1 > k2
(B) k1 < k2
(C) k1 = k2 but heat flow through material (1) is larger then through (2)
(D) k1 = k2 but heat flow through material (1) is less than that through (2)

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Q.43 A composite rod made of three rods of equal length and cross-section as shown in the fig. The thermal
conductivities of the materials of the rods are K/2, 5K and K respectively. The end A and end B are at
constant temperatures.All heat entering the faceAgoes out of the end B there being no loss of heat from
the sides of the bar. The effective thermal conductivity of the bar is
A B

K/2 5K K
(A) 15K/16 (B) 6K/13 (C) 5K/16 (D) 2K/13.

Q.44 Three rods made of the same material and having the same cross-section have
been joined as shown in the figure. Each rod is of the same length. The left and
right ends are kept at 0°C and 90°C respectively. The temperature of the junction
of the three rods will be
(A) 45°C (B) 60°C (C) 30°C (D) 20°C

Q.45 A black metal foil is warmed by radiation from a small sphere at temperature 'T' and at a distance 'd ' .
It is found that the power received by the foil is P . If both the temperature and distance are doubled, the
power received by the foil will be :
(A) 16 P (B) 4 P (C) 2 P (D) P

Q.46 The rate of emission of radiation of a black body at 273°C is E, then the rate of emission of radiation of
this body at 0°C will be
E E E
(A) (B) (C) (D) 0
16 4 8

Q.47 The power radiated by a black body is P and it radiates maximum energy around the wavelength 0. If
the temperature of the black bodyis now changed so that it radiates maximum energy around wavelength
3/40, the power radiated by it will increase by a factor of
(A) 4/3 (B) 16/9 (C) 64/27 (D) 256/81

Q.48 Star S1 emits maximum radiation of wavelength 420 nm and the star S2 emits maximum radiation of
wavelength 560 nm, what is the ratio of the temperature of S1 and S2 :
(A) 4/3 (B) (4/3)1/4 (C) 3/4 (D) (3/4)1/2

Q.49 Spheres P and Q are uniformly constructed from the same material which is a good conductor of heat
and the radius of Q is thrice the radius of P. The rate of fall of temperature of P is x times that of Q when
both are at the same surface temperature. The value of x is :
(A) 1/4 (B) 1/3 (C) 3 (D) 4

Q.50 The spectral emissive power E for a body at temperature T1 is plotted against
the wavelength and area under the curve is found to be A. At a different
temperature T2 the area is found to be 9A. Then 1/2 =
(A) 3 (B) 1/3 (C) 1 3 (D) 3

Q.51 If emissivity of bodies X and Y are ex and ey and absorptive power are
Ax and Ay then
(A) ey > ex ; Ay > Ax (B) ey < ex ; Ay < Ax
(C) ey > ex ; Ay < Ax (D) ey = ex ; Ay = Ax

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Q.52 An ideal black body at room temperature is thrown into a furnace. It is observed that
(A) initially it is the darkest body and at later times the brightest.
(B) it the darkest body at all times
(C) it cannot be distinguished at all times.
(D) initially it is the darkest body and at later times it cannot be distinguished.

Q.53 A black body calorimeter filled with hot water cools from 60°C to 50°C in 4 min and 40°C to 30°C in
8 min. The approximate temperature of surrounding is :
(A) 10°C (B) 15°C (C) 20°C (D) 25°C

Q.54 A system S receives heat continuously from an electrical heater of power 10W. The temperature of S
becomes constant at 50°C when the surrounding temperature is 20°C.After the heater is switched off,
S cools from 35.1°C to 34.9°C in 1 minute. The heat capacity of S is
(A) 100J/°C (B) 300J/°C (C) 750J/°C (D) 1500J/°C

Q.55 Water is heated in an open pan where the air pressure is 10+5 Pa.. The water remains a liquid, which
expands by a small amount as it is heated. Determine the ratio of the heat absorbed by the water to the
work done by water.  for water = 10–3/°C, S = 1 cal/gm°C.
(A) 4.2 × 103 (B) 4.2 × 105 (C) 4.2 × 102 (D) 4.2 × 104

Q.56 Figure shows three different arrangements of materials 1, 2 and 3 to form a wall. Thermal conductivities
are k1 > k2 > k3 . The left side of the wall is 20°C higher than the right side. Temperature difference T
across the material 1 has following relation in three cases :

1 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 2

a b c
(A) Ta > Tb > Tc (B) Ta = Tb = Tc
(C) Ta = Tb > Tc (D) Ta = Tb < Tc

[PARAGRAPH TYPE]
Paragraph for question nos. 57 to 61
Solids and liquids both expand on heating. The density of substance decreases on expanding according
to the relation
1
2 
1   (T2  T1 )
where, 1 — density at T1
2 — density at T2
 —coeff. of volume expansion of substances
when a solid is submerged in a liquid, liquid exerts an upward force on solid which is equal to the weight
of liquid displaced by submerged part of solid.
Solid will float or sink depends on relative densities of solid and liquid.
A cubical block of solid floats in a liquid with half of its volume submerged in liquid as shown in figure
(at temperature T)

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## S — coeff. of linear expansion of solid

L — coeff. of volume expansion of liquid
S — density of solid at temp. T
L — density of liquid at temp. T

## Q.57 The relation between densities of solid and liquid at temperature T is

(A) S = 2L (B) S = (1/2)L (C) S = L (D) S = (1/4)L

## Q.58 If temperature of system increases, then fraction of solid submerged in liquid

(A) increases (B) decreases (C) remains the same (D) inadequate information

Q.59 Imagine fraction submerged does not change on increasing temperature the relation between L and S is
(A) L = 3S (B) L = 2S (C) L = 4S (D) L = (3/2)S

Q.60 Imagine the depth of the block submerged in the liquid does not change on increasing temperature then
(A) L = 2 (B) L = 3 (C) L = (3/2) (D) L = (4/3)

Q.61 Assume block does not expand on heating. The temperature at which the block just begins to sink in
liquidis
(A) T + 1/L (B) T + 1/(2L) (C) T + 2/L (D) T + L/2

[REASONING TYPE]
Q.62 Statement-1 : The leaves of a tree will look black when illuminated with green colored light.
Statement-2 : A good emitter is a good absorber as well.
(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-1.
(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for statement-1.
(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.
(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true

Q.63 Statement-1 : A dress made of cloth takes the shape of the body beneath.
Statement-2 : The cloth has low shear modulus of elasticity.
(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-1.
(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for statement-1.
(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.
(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true.

Q.64 Two explorers inAntarctica are wearing a suit that looks similar but one of them is warmer than other.
Statement-1 : The warmer suit is hotter on the outer surface.
Statement-2 : The rate of heat flow through the suit is directly proportional to the temperature
difference.
(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-1.
(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for statement-1.
(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.
(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true.

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## [MULTIPLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE]

Q.65 A composite rod consists of a steel rod of length 25 cm and area 2A and a copper rod of length 50cm
and area A. The composite rod is subjected to an axial load F. If the Young’s modulus of steel and
copper are in the ratio 2 : 1.
(A) the extension produced in copper rod will be more .
(B) the extension in copper and steel parts will be in the ratio 2 : 1.
(C) the stress applied to the copper rod will be more.
(D) no extension will be produced in the steel rod.

Q.66 The wires A and B shown in the figure are made of the same material and have radii
rA and rB respectively. The block between them has a mass m. When the force F is
mg/3, one of the wires breaks.
(A) A breaks if rA = rB
(B) A breaks if rA < 2rB
(C) Either A or B may break if rA = 2rB
(D) The lengths of A and B must be known to predict which wire will break

Q.67 A body of mass M is attached to the lower end of a metal wire, whose upper end is fixed. The elongation
of the wire is l.
(A) Loss in gravitational potential energy of M is Mgl
(B) The elastic potential energy stored in the wire is Mgl
(C) The elastic potential energy stored in the wire is 1/2 Mgl
(D) Heat produced is 1/2 Mgl.

Q.68 When the temperature of a copper coin is raised by 80°C, its diameter increases by 0.2%.
(A) Percentage rise in the area of a face is 0.4 %
(B) Percentage rise in the thickness is 0.4 %
(C) Percentage rise in the volume is 0.6 %
(D) Coefficient of linear expansion of copper is 0.25 × 10–4 C° –1.

Q.69 One end of a conducting rod is maintained at temperature 50°C and at the other end, ice is melting at
0°C. The rate of melting of ice is doubled if:
(A) the temperature is made 200°C and the area of cross-section of the rod is doubled
(B) the temperature is made 100°C and length of rod is made four times
(C) area of cross-section of rod is halved and length is doubled
(D) the temperature is made 100°C and the area of cross-section of rod and length both are doubled.

Q.70 Two metallic sphereAand B are made of same material and have got identical surface finish. The mass
of sphereAis four times that of B. Both the spheres are heated to the same temperature and placed in a
room having lower temperature but thermally insulated from each other.
(A) The ratio of rate of heat loss of A to that of B is 24/3.
(B) The ratio of rate of heat loss of A to that of B is 22/3.
(C) The ratio of the initial rate of cooling ofA to that of B is 2-2/3.
(D) The ratio of the initial rate of cooling ofAto that of B is 2-4/3.

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Q.71 Two bodies Aand B have thermal emissivities of 0.01 and 0.81 respectively. The outer surface areas of
the two bodies are the same. The two bodies radiate energy at the same rate. The wavelength B,
corresponding to the maximum spectral radiancyin the radiation from B, is shifted from the wavelength
corresponding to the maximum spectral radiancy in the radiation fromAby 1.00 m. If the temperature
of A is 5802 K,
(A) the temperature of B is 1934 K (B) B =1.5 m
(C) the temperature of B is 11604 K (D) the temperature of B is 2901 K

Q.72 Three bodies A, B and C have equal surface area and thermal emissivities in the ratio
1 1
eA : eB : eC = 1 : : .All the three bodies are radiating at same rate. Their wavelengths corresponding
2 4
to maximum intensity are A, B and C respectively and their temperatures are TA, TB and TC on kelvin
scale, then select the incorrect statement.
(A) TA TC  TB (B)  A  C   B

## Paragraph for question nos. 73 to 74 dE T

The figure shows a radiant energy spectrum graph for a black body at a d
temperature T.
O m 
Q.73 Choose the correct statement(s)
(A) The radiant energy is not equally distributed among all the possible wavelengths
(B) For a particular wavelength the spectral intensity is maximum
(C) The area under the curve is equal to the total rate at which heat is radiated by the body at that
temperature
(D) None of these

Q.74 If the temperature of the body is raised to a higher temperature T', then choose the correct statement(s)
(A) The intensity of radiation for every wavelength increases
(B) The maximum intensity occurs at a shorter wavelength
(C) The area under the graph increases
(D) The area under the graph is proportional to the fourth power of temperature

Q.75 A black bodyis at a temperature of 2880 K. The energyof radiation emitted bythis object with wavelength
between 499 nm and 500 nm is U1, between 999 nm and 1000 nm is U2 and between 1499 nm and
1500 nm is U3. The Wien constant b = 2.88 × 106 nm K. Then
(A) U1 = 0 (B) U3 = 0 (C) U1 > U2 (D) U2 > U1

Q.76 A bimetallic strip is formed out of two identical strips one of copper and the other of brass. The coefficient
of linear expansion of the two metals are C and B. On heating, the temperature of the strip goes up by
T and the strip bends to form an arc of radius of curvature R. Then R is :
(A) proportional at T (B) inversely proportional to T
(C) proportional to |B – C| (D) inversely proportional to |B – C|

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[MATRIX TYPE]

Q.77 In column-I, certain situations are depicted where steam at 100°C is used to melt ice at 0°C by means
of a conducting body which is insulated to prevent heat losses to surrounding. Match the numerical value
of question asked in each entry to the corresponding entry in column-II. Symbols have usual meaning.
Column-I Column-II

(A) (P) 10

## Find temperature of interface of two rods in °C.

(B) (Q) 20

Find total rate of heat transfer through the two rods in SI units.

1
k= W/mK
32

## Find thermal resistance in SI units.

(D) (S) 40

Hollow cylinder of k = W/mK
10
Find temperature gradients in SI units.

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EXERCISE-3
SECTION-A
Q.1 Liquid oxygen at 50 K is heated to 300 K at constant pressure of 1 atm. The rate of heating is constant.
Which of the following graphs represents the variation of temperature with time? [JEE' 2004 (Scr.)]

## (A) (B) (C) (D)

Q.2 A cube of coefficient of linear expansion s is floating in a bath containing a liquid of coefficient of volume
expansion l. When the temperature is raised by T, the depth upto which the cube is submerged in the
liquid remains the same. Find the relation between s and l, showing all the steps. [JEE 2004]

Q.3 Three discsA, B, and C having radii 2 m, 4 m and 6 m respectivelyare coated with carbon black on their
outer surfaces. The wavelengths corresponding to maximum intensity are 300 nm, 400 nm and 500 nm
respectively. The power radiated by them are QA, QB and QC respectively. [JEE' 2004 (Scr.)]
(A) QA is maximum (B) QB is maximum (C) QC is maximum (D) QA = QB = QC

Q.4 Two identical conducting rods are first connected independently to two vessels, one containing water at
100°C and the other containing ice at 0° C. In the second case, the rods are joined end to end and
connected to the same vessels. Let q1 and q2 g/s be the rate of melting of ice in the two cases respectively.
The ratio q2/q1 is [JEE' 2004 (Scr.)]
(A) 1/2 (B) 2/1 (C) 4/1 (D) 1/4

## Q.5 One end of a rod of length L and cross-sectional area A is kept in a

furnace of temperature T1. The other end of the rod is kept at a
temperature T2. The thermal conductivity of the material of the rod is K
and emissivity of the rod is e. It is given that T2 = TS + T where T
<< TS, TS being the temperature of the surroundings. If T  (T1 – TS),
find theproportionalityconstant.Consider thatheat is lost onlybyradiation
at the end where the temperature of the rod is T2. [JEE 2004]

Q.6 2 litre water at 27°C is heated by a 1 kW heater in an open container. On an average heat is lost to
surroundings at the rate 160 J/s. The time required for the temperature to reach 77°C is
(A) 8 min 20 sec (B) 10 min (C) 7 min (D) 14 min [JEE' 2005 (Scr)]

Q.7 1 calorie is the heat required to increased the temperature of 1 gm of water by 1°C from
(A) 13.5°C to 14.5°C at 76 mm of Hg (B) 14.5°C to 15.5°C at 760 mm of Hg
(C) 0°C to 1°C at 760 mm of Hg (D) 3°C to 4°C to 760 mm of Hg
[JEE' 2005 (Scr)]

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## Q.8 Three graphs marked as 1, 2, 3 representing the variation of maximum emissive

power and wavelength of radiation of the sun, a welding arc and a tungsten
filament. Which of the following combination is correct
(A) 1-bulb, 2  welding arc, 3  sun
(B) 2-bulb, 3  welding arc, 1  sun
(C) 3-bulb, 1  welding arc, 2  sun
(D) 2-bulb, 1  welding arc, 3  sun [JEE' 2005 (Scr)]

Q.9 In which of the following phenomenon heat convection does not take place
(A) land and sea breeze (B) boiling of water [JEE' 2005 (Scr)]
(C) heating of glass surface due to filament of the bulb (D) air around the furance

Q.10 Aspherical body of areaA, and emissivity e = 0.6 is kept inside a black body. What is the rate at which
energy is radiated per second at temperature T [JEE' 2005 (Scr)]
(A) 0.6  AT4 (B) 0.4  AT4 (C) 0.8  AT4 (D) 1.0  AT4

Q.11 In an insulated vessel, 0.05 kg steam at 373 K and 0.45 kg of ice at 253 K are mixed. Then, find the
final temperature of the mixture.
Given, Lfusion = 80 cal/g = 336 J/g, Lvaporization = 540 cal/g = 2268 J/g,
Sice = 2100 J/kg K = 0.5 cal/gK and Swater = 4200 J/kg K = 1 cal /gK [JEE 2006]

Q.12 In a dark room with ambient temperature T0, a black body is kept at a temperature T. Keeping the
temperature of the black body constant (at T), sunrays are allowed to fall on the black body through a
hole in the roof of the dark room. Assuming that there is no change in the ambient temperature of the
room, which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
(A) The quantity of radiation absorbed by the black body in unit time will increase.
(B) Since emissivity= absorptivity, hence the quantityof radiation emitted byblack body in unit time will
increase.
(C) Black body radiates more energy in unit time in the visible spectrum.
(D) The reflected energy in unit time by the black body remains same. [JEE 2006]
Q.13 Column I gives some devices and Column II gives some processes on which the functioning of these
devices depend. Match the devices in Column I with the processes in Column II and indicate your
answer by darkening appropriate bubbles in the 4 × 4 matrix given in the ORS. [JEE 2007]
Column I Column II
(A) Bimetallic strip (P) Radiation from a hot body
(B) Steam engine (Q) Energy conversion
(C) Incandescent lamp (R) Melting
(D) Electric fuse (S) Thermal exapansion of solids

Q.14 A metal rodAB of length l0x has its one endA in ice at 0°Cand the other end B in water at 100°C. If a
point P on the rod is maintained at 400°C, then it is found that equal amounts of water and ice evaporate
and melt per unit time. The latent heat of evaporation of water is 540 cal/g and latent heat of melting of
ice is 80 cal/g. If the point P is at a distance of x from the ice endA, find the value of .
[Neglect any heat loss to the surrounding.] [JEE-2009]

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Q.15 Two spherical bodies A(radius 6 cm) and B(radius 18 cm) are at temperature T1 and T2, respectively.
The maximum intensity in the emission spectrum of A is at 500 nm and in that of B is at 1500 nm.
Considering them to be black bodies, what will be the ratio of the rate of total energy radiated byA to
that of B ? [JEE-2010]

Q.16 A piece of ice (heat capacity = 2100 J kg–1 °C–1 and latent heat = 3.36 × 105 J kg–1) of mass m grams
is at –5°C at atmospheric pressure. It is given 420 J of heat so that the ice starts melting. Finally when the
ice-water mixture is in equilibrium, it is found that 1gm of ice has melted.Assuming there is no other heat
exchange in the process, the value of m is [JEE-2010]

Q.17 Acomposite block is made of slabsA, B, C, D and E of different thermal conductivity (given in terms of
a constant K) and sizes (given in terms of length, L) as shown in the figure.All slabs are of same width.
Heat 'Q' flows only from left to right through the blocks. Then in steady state [JEE-2011]
0 1L 5L 6L
heat
A B 3K E
1L

2K C 4K 6K

3L
D 5K
4L
(A) heat flow through A and E slabs are same
(B) heat flow through slab E is maximum
(C) temperature difference across slab E is smallest.
(D) heat flow through C = heat flow through B + heat flow through D.

Q.18 Steel wire of length 'L' at 40°C is suspended from the ceiling and then a mass 'm' is hung from its free
end. The wire is cooled down from 40°C to 30°C to regain its original length 'L'. The coefficient of linear
thermal expansion of the steel is 10–5 /°C. Young's modulus of steel is 1011 N/m2 and radius of the wire
is 1 mm. Assume that L>> diameter of the wire. Then the value of 'm' in kg is nearly. [JEE-2011]

Q.19 Three very large plates of same area are kept parallel and close to each other. They are considered as
ideal black surfaces and have veryhigh thermal conductivity. The first and third plates are maintained at
temperatures 2T and 3T respectively. The temperature of the middle (i.e. second) plate under steady
state condition is [JEE-2012]
1/ 4 1/ 4 1/ 4
 65   97   97 
(A)   T (B)   T (C)   T (D) 97 1 / 4 T
 2  4   2 

Q.20 One end of a horizontal thick copper wire of length 2L and radius 2R is welded to an end of another
horizontal thin copper wire of length L and radius R. When the arrangement is strectched by applying
forces at two ends, the ratio of the elongation in the thin wire to that in the thick wire is [JEE-2013]
(A) 0.25 (B) 0.50 (C) 2.00 (D) 4.00

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Q.21 Two rectangular, blocks, having identical dimensions, can be arranged either in configuration I or in
configuration II as shown in the figure. One of the blocks has thermal conductivity K and the other 2K.
The temperature difference between the ends along the x-axis is the same in both the configurations. It
takes 9 s to transport a certain amount of heat from the hot end to the cold end in the configuration I. The
time to transport the same amount of heat in the configuration II is [JEE-2013]

Configuration I Configuration II

2K

K 2K K

## (A) 2.0 s (B) 3.0 s (C) 4.5 s (D) 6.0 s

Q.22 The figure below shows the variation of specific heat capacity (C) of a solid as a function of temperature
(T). The temperature is increased continuously from 0 to 500 K at a constant rate. Ignoring any volume
change, the following statement (s) is (are) correct to reasonable approximation. [JEE-2013]

## 100 200 300 400 500

T(K)
(A) the rate at which heat is absorbed in the range 0-100 K varies linearly with temperature T.
(B) heat absorbed in increasing the temperature from 0-100 K is less than the heat required for increasing
the temperature from 400 - 500 K.
(C) there is no change in the rate of heat absorption in the range 400 - 500 K
(D) the rate of heat absorption increases in the range 200 - 300 K.

SECTION-B
(JEE Main Previous Year's Questions)
Q.1 A wire fixed at the upper end stretched by length  by applying a force F. The work done in stretching
is – [AIEEE-2004]
F F
(A) 2F (B) F (C) (D)
2 2

Q.2 If the temperature of the sun were to increase from T to 2T and its radius from R to 2R, then the ratio of
the radiant energy received on earth to what it was previously will be – [AIEEE-2004]
(A) 4 (B) 16 (C) 32 (D) 64

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Q.3 A radiation of energyE falls normally on a perfectlyreflecting surface. The momentum transferred to the
surface is – [AIEEE-2004]
(A) E/c (B) 2E/c (C) Ec (D) E/c2

Q.4 The temperature of the two outer surfaces of a composite slab, consisting of two materials having
coefficients of thermal conductivity K and 2K and thickness x and 4x, respectively, are T2 and
 A (T2  T1 ) K 
T1 (T2 > T1). The rate of heat transfer through the slab, in a steady state is   f, with f equal
 x 
to – [AIEEE-2004]

## (A) 1 (B) 1/2 (C) 2/3 (D) 1/3

Q.5 If 'S' is stress and 'Y' is Young's modulus of material of a wire, the energy stored in the wire per unit
volume is [AIEEE-2005]
S2 2Y S
(A) 2S2Y (B) (C) (D)
2Y S2 2Y
Q.6 The figure shows a system of two concentric spheres of radii r1 and r2 and kept at temperatures T1 and
T2 respectively. The radial rate of flow of heat in a substance between the two concentric spheres is
proportional to [AIEEE-2005]
  r1r2
(A) (r2 – r1)/(r1r2) (B) ln  r2  (C) (r  r ) (D) (r2 – r1)
r 1  2 1

Q.7 A wire elongates by  mm when a load W is hanged from it. If the wire goes over a pulley and two
weights W each are hung at the two ends, the elongation of the wire will be (in mm)– [AIEEE-2006]
(A) zero (B) /2 (C)  (D) 2

Q.8 Assuming the Sun to be a spherical body of radius R at a temperature of T K, evaluate the total radiant
power, incident on Earth, at a distance r from the Sun – [AIEEE-2006]
(A) r0 R  T / 4 r
2 2 4 2 (B) R  T / r
2 4 2
(C) 4 r0 R  T / r
2 2 4 2 (D)  r02 R2  T4 / r2
where r is the radius of the Earth and  is Stefan's constant.

Q.9 One end of a thermally insulated rod is kept at a temperature T1 and the other at T2. The rod is composed
of two sections of lengths l1 and l2 and thermal conductivities k1 and k2 respectively. The temperature at
the interface of the two sections is [AIEEE-2007]
T 1 l1 l2 T2

k1 k2
(A) (k2 l 2 T1 + k1 l 1 T 2 ) / (k1 l 1 + k2 l2)
(B) (k2 l 1 T1 + k1 l 2 T 2 ) / (k2 l 1 + k1 l2)
(C) (k1 l 2 T1 + k2 l 1 T 2 ) / (k1 l 2 + k2 l1)
(D) (k1 l 1 T1 + k2 l 2 T 2 ) / (k1 l 1 + k2 l2)

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Q.10 Two wires are made of the same material and have the same volume. Howerver wire 1 has cross-section
areaAand wire 2 has cross-section area 3A. If the length of wire 1 increases by x on applying force F,
how much force is needed to stretch wire 2 by the same amount ? [AIEEE-2009]
(A) F (B) 4 F (C) 6 F (D) 9 F
Q.11 A long metallic bar is carrying heat from one of its ends of the other end under steady-state. The
variation of temperature  along the length x of the bar from its hot end is best described by which
of the following figures? [AIEEE– 2009]

(A) (B)

(C) (D)

Q.12 The thermally insulated vessel contains an ideal gas of molecular mass M and ratio of specific heat . It
is moving with speed v and is suddenly brought to rest.Assuming no heat is lost to the surroundings, its
temperature increases by : [AIEEE-2011]
(   1) (   1) Mv 2 (   1)
(A) Mv 2 K (B) Mv 2 K (C) K (D) Mv 2 K
2(   1)R 2R 2R 2R
Q.13 A wooden wheel of radius R is made of two semicircular parts (see figure). The two parts are held
together by a ring made of a metal strip of cross sectional area S and length L. L is slightly less than 2R.
To fit the ring on the wheel, it is heated so that its temperature rises by T and it just steps over the
wheel. As it cools down to surrounding temperature, it presses the semicircular parts together. If the
coefficient of linear expansion of the metal is , and its Young's modulus is Y, the force that one part of
the wheel applies on the other part is : [AIEEE-2012]

## (A) SYT (B) 2SYT (C) 2SYT (D) SYT

Q.14 A liquid in a beaker has temperature (t) at time t and 0 is temperature of surroundings, then according
to Newton's law of cooling the correct graph between loge( – 0) and t is: [AIEEE-2012]
loge ( – 0)
loge ( – 0)
loge ( – 0)

loge ( – 0)

## (A) (B) (C) (D)

0 t
0 t
t t

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Q.15 If a piece of metal is heated to temperature  and then allowed to cool in a room which is at temperature
0, the graph between the temperature T of the metal and time t will be closest to

T
T T T
(A) 0 (B) 0 (C) 0 (D)
O t O t O t
O t
[JEE Main 2013]

Q.16 The pressure that has to be applied to the ends of a steel wire of length 10 cm to keep its length constant
when its temperature is raised by 100°C is : (For steel Young's modulus is 2 × 1011 Nm–2 and coefficient
of thermal expansion is 1.1 × 10–5 K–1) [JEE Main-2014]
(A) 2.2 × 109 Pa (B) 2.2 × 107 Pa (C) 2.2 × 106 Pa (D) 2.2 × 108 Pa

Q.17 Three rods of Copper, Brass and Steel are welded together to form a Y-shaped structure. Area of
cross-section of each rod = 4 cm2. End of copper rod is maintained at 100ºC where as ends of brass
and steel are kept at 0°C. Lengths of the copper, brass and steel rods are 46, 13 and 12 cms respectively.
The rods are thermally insulated from surroundings except at ends. Thermal conductivities of copper,
brass and steel are 0.92, 0.26 and 0.12 CGS units respectively. Rate of heat flow through copper rod is
(A) 2.4 cal/s (B) 4.8 cal/s (C) 6.0 cal/s (D) 1.2 cal/s
[JEE Main-2014]

## EXERCISE-4 (Rank Booster)

Q.1 If you drill a hole horizontallythrough the branch of a tree, you risk weakening the branch. For minimum
weakening, drill the hole through the

## (A) upper part, A (B) middle part, B

(C) lower part, C (D) makes no difference.

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Q.2 Along solid cylinder is radiating power. It is remoulded into a number of smaller cylinders, each of which
has the same length as orignal cylinder. Each small cylinder has the same temperature as the original
cylinder. The total radiant power emitted bythe pieces is twice that emitted by the original cylinder. How
many smaller cylinders are there ? Neglect the energy emitted by the flat faces of cylinder.
(A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6

Q.3 Ice at 0°C is added to 200 g of water initially at 70°C in a vacuum flask. When 50 g of ice has been
added and has all melted the temperature of the flask and contents is 40°C. When a further 80g of ice
has been added and has all metled, the temperature of the whole is 10°C. Calculate the specific latent
heat of fusion of ice.[Take Sw =1 cal /gm °C.]
(A) 3.8 ×105 J/ kg (B) 1.2 ×105 J/ kg (C) 2.4 ×105 J/ kg (D) 3.0 ×105 J/ kg

Q.4 A wire of cross-secitonal area 4 × 10–4 m2 modulus of elasticity 2 × 1011 N/m2 and length 1 m is
stretched between two vertical rigid poles.Amass of 1 kg is suspended at its middle. Calculate the angle
it makes with the horizontal.

Q.5 A cylindrical block of length 0.4 m an area of cross-section 0.04m2 is placed coaxially on a thin metal
disc of mass 0.4 kg and of the same cross-section. The upper face of the cylinder is maintained at a
constant temperature of 400K and the initial temperature of the disc is 300K. If the thermal conductivity
of the material of the cylinder is 10 watt/m-K and the specific heat of the material of the disc in 600 J/kg-
K, how long will it take for the temperature of the disc to increase to 350K? Assume, for purposes of
calculation, the thermal conductivity of the disc to be very high and the system to be thermally insulated
except for the upper face of the cylinder.

Q.6 A vertical brick duct(tube) is filled with cast iron. The lower end of the duct is maintained at a temperature
T 1 which is greater than the melting point Tm of cast iron and the upper end at a temperature T2 which is
less than the temperature of the melting point of cast iron. It is given that the conductivity of liquid cast
iron is equal to k times the conductivity of solid cast iron. Determine the fraction of the duct filled with
molten metal.

Q.7 A lagged stick of cross section area 1 cm2 and length 1 m is initially at a temperature of 0°C. It is then
kept between 2 reservoirs of tempeature 100°C and 0°C. Specific heat capacity is 10 J/kg°C and linear
mass density is 2 kg/m. Find

(b) total heat absorbed by the rod to reach steady state.

Q.8 A highly conducting solid cylinder of radius a and length l is surrounded by a co-axial layer of a material
having thermal conductivityK and negligible heat capacity. Temperature of surrounding space (out side
the layer) is T0, which is higher than temperature of the cylinder. If heat capacity per unit volume of
cylinder material is s and outer radius of the layer is b, calculate time required to increase temperature of
the cylinder from T1 to T2.Assume end faces to be thermally insulated.

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Q.9 Water is heated from 10°C to 90°C in a residential hot water heater at a rate of 70 litre per minute.
Natural gas with a density of 1.2 kg/m3 is used in the heater, which has a transfer efficiency of 32%. Find
the gas consumption rate in cubic meters per hour. (heat combustion for natural gas is 8400 kcal/kg)

Q.10 Ice at -20°C is filled upto height h = 10 cm in a uniform cylindrical vessel. Water at temperature °C is
filled in another identical vessel upto the same height h= 10 cm. Now, water from second vessel is
poured into first vessel and it is found that level of upper surface falls through
h = 0. 5 cm when thermal equilibrium is reached. Neglecting thermal capacity of vessels, change in
density of water due to change in temperature and loss of heat due to radiation, calculate initial temperature
 of water.
Given, Density of water, w = 1 gm cm–3
Density of ice, i = 0.9 gm/cm3
Specific heat of water, sw = 1 cal/gm 0C
Specific heat of ice, si = 0.5 cal/gm0C
Specific latent heat of ice, L = 80 cal/gm

Q.11 The apparatus shown in the figure consists of four glass columns
connected by horizontal sections. The height of two central columns
B & C are 49 cm each. The two outer columns A & D are open to
the atmosphere. A & C are maintained at a temperature of 95º C
while the columns B & D are maintained at 5º C. The height of the
liquid in A & D measured from the base line are 52.8 cm & 51 cm
respectively. Determine the coefficient
of thermal expansion of the liquid.

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EXERCISE-1
Q.1 (i) 50 N, (ii) 0.045 J, (iii) 8.4 × 10–4 m, (iv) x = 0.12 m
Q.2 (a) (dgL)/4Y, (b) (dgL)/6Y Q.3 25.5°C
Q.4 0 °C, 125/4 g ice, 1275/4 g water Q.5 12 gm
–1 –1 –1
Q.6 (i)0.02kg,(ii) 40,000calkg ,(iii)750calkg K Q.7 (a) 37.8 J/s (Watts), (b) 2.005 N-m
Q.8 0.5 kg Q.9 1000 J (C°)–1 Q.10 5/3
Q.11 5 sec slow Q.12 0.1 cm Q.13 4 × 10–6 m/°C
Q.14 Q.15 10, 000 N Q.16 5°C
1/ 3
6
Q.17 (4/3)  Q.18 2:1 Q.19  


## Q.20 80 k cal/kg Q.21 3025 K Q.22 10 minutes

Q.23 (a) 595 watt/m2, (b) T0  420 K Q.24 27°C

EXERCISE-2
Q.1 D Q.2 B Q.3 D Q.4 A Q.5 C
Q.6 A Q.7 B Q.8 A Q.9 A Q.10 B
Q.11 A Q.12 D Q.13 A Q.14 C Q.15 D
Q.16 A Q.17 B Q.18 C Q.19 D Q.20 C
Q.21 C Q.22 B Q.23 C Q.24 B Q.25 B
Q.26 C Q.27 C Q.28 A Q.29 B Q.30 A
Q.31 C Q.32 D Q.33 A Q.34 C Q.35 C
Q.36 C Q.37 B Q.38 C Q.39 D Q.40 B
Q.41 A Q.42 A Q.43 A Q.44 B Q.45 B
Q.46 A Q.47 D Q.48 A Q.49 C Q.50 D
Q.51 A Q.52 D Q.53 B Q.54 D Q.55 D
Q.56 B Q.57 B Q.58 D Q.59 A Q.60 A
Q.61 A Q.62 D Q.63 A Q.64 D Q.65 AC
Q.66 ABC Q.67 ACD Q.68 ACD Q.69 D Q.70 AC
Q.71 AB Q.72 D Q.73 AB Q.74 ABCD Q.75 D
Q.76 BD Q.77 (A) Q (B) R (C) S (D) P

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EXERCISE-3
SECTION-A
Q.1 C Q.2 l = 2s Q.3 B Q.4 D

K
Q.5 Q.6 A Q.7 B Q.8 A Q.9 C
4eLTS3  K

## Q.10 A Q.11 273 K Q.12 AD

Q.13 (A) S, Q ;(B) Q; (C) P, Q; (D) Q, R or (A) S, (B) Q, (C) P, (D) R
Q.14 9 Q.15 9 Q.16 8 Q.17 ACD Q.18 3
Q.19 C Q.20 C Q.21 A Q.22 ABCD or BCD

SECTION-B
Q.1 D Q.2 D Q.3 A Q.4 D Q.5 B
Q.6 C Q.7 C Q.8 D Q.9 C Q.10 D
Q.11 B Q.12 D Q.13 B Q.14 C Q.15 B
Q.16 D Q.17 B

EXERCISE-4
Q.1 B Q.2 B Q.3 A Q.4 1/200 rad

l1 k (T1  Tm )
Q.5 166.3 sec Q.6  Q.7 (a) –100 °C/m, (b) 1000 J
l k (T1  Tm )  (Tm  T2 )

a 2s b  T T 
Q.8 log e   log e  0 1  Q.9 104.2 Q.10 45°C
2K a  T0  T2 

Q.11 2 × 10–4 C

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