0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

10 Aufrufe51 SeitenBansal

Jul 16, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Bansal

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

10 Aufrufe

Bansal

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE
- BoltShearCapacity_14-15
- Bolt Analysis
- Lecture No 2
- Weld Calculation
- Ultrastrong Magnesium Alloy via Nano Spaced Stacking Faults
- amira2011.pdf
- ISRM-EUROCK-2010-012_Determination of Direct Tensile Strength and Stiffness of Intact Rocks
- Zadatci Iz Satatike
- WJ_1978_11_s334.pdf
- Batch Testing Req'd
- CE 431 Welding Lab.doc
- Material Yield Stress COMPARITIVE DATA
- Aghajani-Namin, Aria.pdf
- 0702ws
- sfrc-aci-11
- Tivar 1000 Antistatic Glob e 19092016
- Tivar Dryslide Pds Glob e 19092016
- B444-16e1
- B-1.pdf

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 51

TARGET

JEE (MAIN + ADVANCED)

2.5 inch XIII 2.5 inch

CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

2.5 inch

CONTENT

S.No Pages

1. Theory 1 – 23

4. Exercise-3 (Section-A) 38 – 41

5. Exercise-3 (Section-B) 41 – 44

7. Answer Key 47 – 48

TARGET

JEE (MAIN + ADVANCED)

XIII

ELASTICITY THERMAL EXPANSION,

CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

ELASTICITY

Elasticity

The propertyof material bodybyvirtue of which its regain its original configuration, when external force

is removed is called elasticity.

The property of the material body byvirtue of which it does not regain its original configuration when the

external force is removed is called plasticity.

Cause of Elasticity

In a solid atoms and molecules are arranged in such a way that each molecule is acted upon by the forces

due to the neighbouring molecules. When no deforming force is applied on the body, each molecule of

the solid is in its equilibrium position and the inter molecular forces of the solid are maximum. On applying

deforming force, the molecules are displaced from their equilibrium position. Inter molecular force gets

changed and restoring forces are developed. It is explained byusing spring- ball model. Deforming force

is removed, these restoring force bring the molecule to its equilibrium positions. Thus the bodyregains its

original shape and size.

The restoring mechanism can be visualised by taking a model of spring-ball system shown above. Here

the balls represent atoms and springs represent interatomic forces.

If you try to displace anyball from its equilibrium position, the spring system tries to restore the ball back

to its original position. Thus elastic behaviour of solids can be explained in terms of microscopic nature

of the solid.When a body is subjected to a deforming force, a restoring force is developed in the body.

This restoring force is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the applied force.

Stress()

When deforming force is applied on the body then the equal restoring force in opposite direction is

developed inside the body. The restoring force per unit area is called stress.

restoring force

Stress()

Area of cross section of the body

Stress can be tensile or compressive as given below–

F

Tensile F F F F =

A

Compressive F F

Strain

Suppose we stretch a wire by applying tensile forces of magnitude F to each end. The length of the wire

increases from L to L + L. The fractional length change is called the strain . It is a dimensionless

quantity.

L

strain =

L

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 1

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Suppose we had wires of the same composition and length but different thicknesses. It would require

larger tensile forces to stretch the thicker wire the same amount as the thinner one. We conclude that the

tensile force required is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the wire (F A). Thus, the same

applied force per unit area produces the same deformation on wires of the same length and composition.

Hooke’s Law

stress strain

F L

=Y

A L

equation still says that the length change (L) is proportional to the magnitude of the deforming forces

(F). Stress and strain account for the effects of length and cross-sectional area ; the proportionality

constant Y depends only on the inherent stiffness of the material from which the object is composed ; it

is independent of the length and cross-sectional area.

F L L

Comparing equation F = kLand =Y k =Y A. Y is called the elastic modulus or Young’ss

A L L

modulus, Y has the same units as those of stress (Pa or N/m2) since strain is dimensionless.

Young’s modulus can be through of as the inherent stiffness of a material ; it measures the resistance of

the material to elongation or compression. Material that is flexible and stretches easily (for example,

rubber) has a low Young’s modulus.Astiff material (such as steel) has a high Young’s modulus. It takes

a larger stress to produce the same strain.

Hooke’s law holds up to a maximum stress called the proportional limit. For many materials, Young’s

modulus has the same value for tension and compression. Some composite materials, such as bone and

concrete, have significantlydifferentYoung’s moduli for tension and compression.The different properties

of these two substances lead to different values of Young’s modulus for tensile and compressive stress.

Elastic potential energy

It is the potential energy stored inside the body due to change their configuration. If F force is applied on

a body as shown below.

For differential change in length dx the work done by restoring force F is dw

AY

dw = – Fdx F x

L F F

l

AY F F

dw = – x dx

L l+x

l

AY

Welastic = –

L

x dx

0

AY l 2 1 Yl l

U = –W = = (AL) Ui = 0, Uf = U

2L 2 L L

1

Elastic potential energy (U) = (stress) (strain) (volume)

2

Elastic potential energyper unit volume

1

= × stress × strain

2

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 2

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

The above formula holds good for any type of strain. Change in equilibrium, restoring force = external

force F

1 YA 2 1Y

Then U= l = l Al Fl

2 L 2 L 2

Stress-strain curve D

Proportional limit

The relation between the stress and the strain for a given Su

Elastic limit E

material under tensile stress can be found experimen- or yield point Fracture

tally. The applied force is gradually increased in steps Sy

C

point

B

and the change in length is noted. A graph is plotted A Plastic behaviour

between the stress and the strain produced. The stress-

Elastic behaviour

strain curves varyfrom material tomaterial. These curves

help us to understand how a given material deforms

Strain

with increasing loads. From the graph, we can see that

in the region between O toA, the curve is linear. In this Permanent set

original dimensions when the applied force is removed. 0

Strain 30%

In this region, the solid behaves as an elastic body. <1%

Stress-strain curve for steel.

Beyond hooke’s law

In the region fromAto B, stress and strain are not proportional. Nevertheless, the body still returns to its

original dimension when the load is removed. The point B in the curve is known as yield point (also

known as elastic limit) and the corresponding stress is known as yield strength (Sy) of the material.

If the tensile or compressive stress exceeds the proportional limit, the strain is no longer proportional to

the stress. The solid still returns to its original length when the stress is removed as long as the stress does

not exceed the elastic limit.

If the stress exceeds the elastic limit, the material is permanently deformed. For still larger stresses, the

solid fractures when the stress reaches the breaking point. The maximum stress that can be withstood

without breaking is called the ultimate strength. The ultimate strength can be different for compression

and tension ; then we refer to the compressive strength or the tensile strength of the material.A ductile

material continues to stretch beyond its ultimate tensile strength without breaking ; the stress then de-

creases from the ultimate strength (fig. (a) ). Examples of ductile solids are relatively soft metals, such as

gold, silver, copper, and lead. These metals can be pulled like taffy, becoming thinner and thinner until

finally reaching the breaking point.

While as Brittle material can not stand beyond ultimate strength

Ductile

Tensile

Brittle

Tensile Ultimate stress

stress Elastic strength Ultimate strength

limit • and breaking point

• • •

• Elastic

• Breaking point • limit

Proportional Proportional limit

limit

Tensile strain

Tensile strain

(a) (b)

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 3

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Shearing Stress x

F

L

F

A cylinder subjected to shearing (tangential) stress deforms by an angle .

However, if two equal and opposite deforming forces are applied parallel to the cross-sectional area of

the cylinder, as shown in fig, there is relative displacement between the opposite faces of the cylinder.

The restoring force per unit area developed due to the applied tangential force is known as tangential

or shearing stress.

As a result of applied tangential force, there is a relative displacement x between opposite faces of the

cylinder as shown in the fig. The strain so produced is known as shearing strain and it is defined as the

ratio of relative displacement of the faces x to the length of the cylinder L.

x

Shearing strain = = tan

L

where is the angular displacement of the cylinder from the vertical ( is very samll tan ~ ).

Volume Deformation

Since the fluid presses inward on all sides of the object (figure), the solid is compressed-its volume is

reduced. The fluid pressure P is the force per unit surface area ; it can be through of as the volume stress

on the solid object. Pressure has the same units as the other kinds of stress: N/m2 or Pa.

F=PA 2

F=PA 3 F=PA1

F=PA 1 F=PA 3

F=PA2

Fig. Forces on an object when submerged in a fluid

F

volume stress = pressure = =P

A

Bulk Modulus (B) v

V

In fig., a solid sphere placed in the fluid under high pressure is compressed uniformly on all sides. The

force applied by the fluid acts in perpendicular direction at each point of the surface and the body is said

to be under hydraulic compression. This leads to decrease in its volume without any change of its geo-

metrical shape. The body develops internal restoring forces that are equal and opposite to the forces

applied by the fluid (the body restores its original shape and size when taken out from the fluid). The

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 4

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

internal restoring force per unit area in this case is equal to the hydraulic pressure (applied force per unit

area). The strain produced by a hydraulic pressure is called volume strain and is defined as the ratio of

change in volume (V) to the original volume (V).

v

Volume strain =

v

We have seen that when a body is submerged in a fluid, it undergoes a hydraulic stress (equal in magni-

tude to the hydraulic pressure). This leads to the decrease in the volume of the body thus producing a

strain called volume strain.

V

P = – B (Hooke’s law for volume deformation)

V

V

where V is the volume at atmospheric pressure. The negative sign. equation P = – B allows the

V

bulk modulus to be positive. The bulk moduli of liquids are generallynot much less than those of solids,

since the atoms in liquids are nearly as close together as those in solids.

Gases are much easier to compress than solids or liquids, so their bulk moduli are much smaller. The

bulk moduli of a few common materials are given in Table

9 –2

Material B (10 Nm or GPa)

Solids

Aluminium 72

Brass 61

Copper 140

Glass 37

Iron 100

Nickel 260

Steel 160

Liquids

Water 2.2

Ethanol 0.9

Carbon disulphide 1.56

Glycerine 4.76

Mercury 25

Gases

–4

Air (at STP) 1.0 × 10

Compressibility (k)

The reciprocal of the bulk modulus is called compressibility and is denoted by k. It is defined as the

fractional change in volume per unit increase in pressure.

1 1 V

k= =–

B V P

Poisson’s ratio

When an elongation is produced bylongitudinal stresses, a change is produced in the lateral dimensions

of the strained substance. Thus, when a wire is stretched, its diameter diminishes ; and when the longitu-

dinal strain is small, the lateral strain is proportional to it. The ratio of the lateral strain to the longitudinal

strain is called Poisson’s ratio.

l3

F l2 F

(l1, l2, and l3 are the dimention when no strain. l1, l2, and l3 are

l1

the change in length of l1, l2, and l3 respectively)

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 5

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

F

A l2 l3 l1

Y = l = =– l

1 l2 l3 1

l1

THERMAL EXPANSION

Thermal Expansion

When matter is heated without change in state, it usuallyexpands.According to atomic theory of matter,

asymmetry in potential energy curve is responsible for thermal expansion as with rise in temperature say

from T1 to T2 the amplitude of vibration and hence energy of atoms increases from E1 to E2 and hence the

average distance between atoms increases from r1 to r2.

+

0

E2 r2 T2

E E1 r1 T1

E0 r0 T0

r

Due to this increase in distance between atoms, the matter as a whole expands. Had the potential energy

curve been symmetrical, no thermal expansion would have taken place in spite of heating.

Linear Expansion of solids

To varying extents, most materials expand when heated and contract when cooled. The increase in any

one dimension of a solid is called linear expansion, linear in the sense that the expansion occurs along a

line.Arod whose length is L0 when the temperature is T0 when the temperature increases to T0 + T, the

length becomes L0 + L, where T and L are the magnitudes of the changes in temperature and

length, respectively.

Conversely, when the temperature decreases to T0 – T, the length decreases to L0 – L.

For small temperature changes, experiments show that the change in length is directlyproportional to the

change in temperature (L T). In addition, the change in length is proportional to the initial length of

the rod,

L0

L

L0

Equation L = L0T expresses the fact that L is proportional to both L0 and T(L L0T) by

using a proportionality constant , which is called the coefficient of linear expansion. Common unit for

the coefficient of linear expansion (C°)–1.

Thermal expansion of bimetallic strip

A bimetallic strip is made from two thin strips of metal that have different coefficients of linear expansion,

as fig. (a)Abimetallic strip and how it behaves when (b) heated and (c) cooled

Brass

Steel

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 6

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Often brass [ = 19 × 10–6 (C°)–1] and steel [ = 12 × 10–6 (C°)–1] are selected. The two pieces are

welded or riveted together. When the bimetallic strip is heated, the brass, having the larger value of ,

expands more than the steel. Since the two metals are bonded together, the bimetallic strip bends into an

arc as in fig. (b), with the longer brass piece having a larger radius than the steel piece. When the strip is

cooled, the bimetallic strip bends in the opposite direction, as in fig. (c).

l

d

on heating the bimetallic strip bends into an are as shown below

d

Mathematical analysis

R

d

R = L0 (1 + 1) (increase in temp.)

(R+d/2) (R–d/2) 2

d

R = L0 (1 + 2)

2

On dividing above equations we get

d

R

2 1 1

d = 1

R 2

2

by above euqation we can find mean radius R of bimetallic strip.

d

R = ( – )

1 2

Area and Volume Expansion

A0 V0

A

V

Area Expansion

Volume Expansion

If the temperature of a two-dimensional object (lamina) is changed, its area changes. If the coefficient of

linear expansion of the material of lamina is small and constant, then its final area is given by

A = A0 (1 + T), where A0 is the initial area. T is the change in temperature and is the area

coefficient of thermal expansion. For isotropic bodies it can be shown the = 2.

The volume V0 of an object change by an amount V when its temperature changes by an amount T.

V = V0T where is the coefficient of volume expansion. Common Unit for the coefficient of volume

Expansion : (C°)–1. The unit for , like that for , is (C°)–1. Values for depend on the nature of the

material. The values of for liquids are substantiallylarger than those for solids, because liquids typically

expand more than solids, given the same initial volumes and temperature expansion is three times greater

than the coefficient of linear expansion : = 3.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 7

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

If a cavity exists within a solid object, the volume of the cavity increases when the object expands, just

as if the cavity were filled with the surrounding material. The expansion of the cavity is analogous to the

expansion of a hole in a sheet of material. Accordingly, the change in volume of a cavity can be found

using the relation V = V0T, where is the coefficient of volume expansion of the material that

surrounds the cavity.

Similar (Here 3) is known as the coefficient of volume expansion : : :: 1 : 2 : 3

Illustration : (The expansion of holes)

Do holes expand or contract when the temperature increases?

Figure (a) shows eight square tiles that are arranged to form a square pattern with a hole in the

centre. If the tiles are heated, what happens to the size of the hole?

Expanded

Hole hole

9th tile

(heated)

Sol. We can analyze this problem by disassembling the pattern into separate tiles, heating, it is evident

from figure (b) that the heated pattern expands and so does the hole in the centre. In fact, if we

had a ninth tile that was identical to and also heated like the others, it would fit exactly into the

centre hole, as figure (c) indicates. Thus, not only does the hole in the pattern expand, but it

expands exactly as much as one of the tiles. Since the ninth tile is made of the same material as

the others, we see that the hole expands just as if it were made of the material of the surrounding

tiles.

The thermal expansion of the hole and the surrounding material is analogous to a photographic

enlargement ; in both situations everything is enlarged, including holes.

Thus, it follows that a hole in a piece of solid material expands when heated and contracts when

cooled, just as if it were filled with the material that surrounds it. If the hole is circular, the

equation L = L0T can be used to find the change in any linear dimension of the hole, such as

its radius or diameter. Example illustrates this type of linear expansion.

Illusration :

A thin cylindrical metal rod is bent into a ring with a small gap as shown in s

figure. On heating the system r

(A) and s decreases, r and d increases (B) and r increases, d and s decreases

(C) , r, s and d all increases (D) is constant, d, s and r increases d

Thermal Stress

A change in shape/size i.e., dimensions need not necessarily imply a strain. For example, if a body

is heated to expand, its volume change, as it acquires a new size, due to expansion. However, the

strain remains zero. Unless and until, internal elastic forces operate, to bring the body to the

original state, no strain exists. When a body is heated, the total energy of molecule increase,

owing to an increase in the kinetic energy of the molecules. This results in a shift (increment) of

the “equilibrium distance” of molecules and the body acquires a new shape and size, in the

expanded form, whereby the molecules are in “zero force” state. Hence, there is no strain. How-

ever, if the body is resistricted to expand, during the process of heating, then the molecules be-

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 8

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

come “strained”, and even if there is no apparent change in dimensions of the body, there is

strain. In such cases, strain is measured as the ratio. In dimension that would have occured, and

the change in dimension that would have occured, had the body been free to expand or contract,

to the original dimension.

When a metal rod is heated or cooled it tends to expand or contract. If it is left free to expand or

contract, no temperature stresses will be induced. However, if the rod be restricted to change its length,

then temperature stresses are generated within it. Stress induced due to temperature change can be

understood as follows:

A B

L l

F F

Consider a uniform rodAB fixed rigidly between two supports. (fig.) If Lbe its length, the coefficient

of linear expansion, then a change in temperature of , would tend to bring a change in its length by

l = L. Had the rod been free (say one of its ends) its length would have changed by l. Now, let a

force be gradually applied so as to restore the natural length. Since the rod, tends to remain in the new

state, due to a change in temperature, so when a force F is applied, thermal stress is induced. In

equilibrium.

F l

= (L l ) Y [ stress = strain × Y]

A

lA

Neglecting l in comparison to L, F= Y = AY

L

Now, if the two ends remain fixed, then this external force is provided from the support.

Clearly strain = =

L

Expansion of liquids Z

their expansion is much large compared to solids for the same Y

during the expansion of liquid is that they are always contained

in a vessel or a container and hence the expansion of the vessel

also comes into picture. Further, linear or superficial expansion

in case of a liquid does not carry any sense. Consider a liquid

contained in a round bottomed flask fitted with a long narrow

stem as shown in fig. Let the initial level of the liquid be X.

When it is heated the level falls initially toY.

However, after sometime, the liquid level eventuallyrises to Z.The entire phenomenon can be understood

as follows: Upon being heated, the container gets heated first and hence expands. As a result, the

capacity of the flask increases and hence the liquid level falls.

After sometime, the heat gets conducted from the vessel to the liquid and hence liquid also expands

thereby rising its level eventually to Z. Since, the volume expansivity of liquids, in general, are far more

than that of solids, so the level Z will be above the level X.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 9

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

When a solid or liquid is heated, it expands, with mass remaining constant. Density being the ratio of

mass to volume, it decreases. Thus, if V0 and Vt be the respective volumes of a substance at 0°C and

t°C and if the corresponding values of densities be 0 and t, then the mass m of the substance is given

by

m = V00 = Vtt

But Vt = V0 (1 + t), so t = 0 (1 + t)–1

While most substances expand when heated, a few do not. For instant, if water at 0°C is heated, its

volume decreases until the temperature reaches 4°C. Above 4 °C water behaves normally, and its

volume increases as the temperature increases.

Because a given mass of water has a minimum volume at 4°C, the density (mass per unit volume) of

water is greatest at 4 °C, as figure shows.

Maximum density

at 4°C

Density, kg/m3

1000.0

999.9

999.8

999.7

999.6

0 2 4 6 8 10

Temperature, °C

The density of water in the temperature range from 0 to 10°C. Water has a maximum density of

999.973kg/m3 at 4°C. (This value for the density is equivalent to the often quoted density of 1.000

grams per milliliter)

When the air temperature drops, the surface layer of water is chilled.As the temperature of the surface

layer drops toward 4°C, this layer becomes more dense than the warmer water below. The denser

water sinks and pushes up the deeper and warmer water, which in turn is chilled at the surface. This

process continues until the temperature of the entire lake reaches 4°C. Further cooling of the surface

water below 4°C makes it less dense than the deeper layers ; consequently, the surface layer does not

sink but stays on top. Continued cooling of the top layer to 0°C leads to the formation of ice that floats

on the water, because ice has a smaller density than water at any temperature. Below the ice, however,

the water temperature remains above 0°C. The sheet of ice acts as an insulator that reduces the loss of

heat from the lake, especially if the ice is covered with a blanket of snow, which is also an insulator. As

a result, lakes usually do not freeze solid, even during prolonged cold spells, so fish and other aquatic life

can survive.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 10

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

CALORIMETRY

Units of heat & Mechanical equivalent of heat (J)

I was early 19th century when "James Prescott Joule" accidentally did an experiment which made two

very important contribution in the scientific world.And it was Herman Von Helmholtz (a German) who

later proved that indeed Joule was right.

Joules contribution bridged two major gaps in the scientific world.

i) Energy conservation principle was well grounded.

ii) The missing link between heat and energy was rectified.

Yes, heat was not thought to be a form of energy, rather it was known to be a fluid substance that flows.

And that fluid was named calorie. They would say that when an iron rod is heated at one end, the other

end also becomes hot as some calorie has flown to the rod. It was a very detailed mathematical theory.

Now, lets see the problem of energy conservation. We have seen many examples where energy in the

form of K + U = constant; but not always. We know many places where in energy doesn't seem to be

conserved. One of the examples is a box sliding on a rough surface. The box eventuallystops because of

friction. Thus, the KE of the box is lost. Where did it go? Today we can say that it got converted into heat

energy, but earlier heat was not known as energy, but heat. Thus for them it was lost. And so energy

conservation principle doesn't hold true.

A system is said to be isolated if no exchange or transfer of heat occurs between the system and its

surroundings. When different parts of an isolated system are at different temperature, a quantity of heat

transfers from the part at higher temperature to the part at lower temperature. The heat lost by the part

at higher temperature is equal to the heat gained by the part at lower temperature. Calorimetry means

measurement of heat. When a body at higher temperature is brought in contact with another body at

lower temperature, the heat lost by the hot body is equal to the heat gained by the colder body, provided

no heat is allowed to escape to the surroundings.

As heat is just energy in transit, its unit in SI is joule. However, another unit of heat “calorie” is in wide

use. This unit was formulated much before it was recognised that heat is a form of energy. The old day

definition of calorie is as follows :

The amount of heat needed to increas the temperature of 1g of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C at

a pressure of 1 atm is called 1 calorie.

The calorie is now defined in terms of joule as 1 cal = 4.186 joule.

Principle of Calorimetry

Adevice in which heat measurement can be made is called a calorimeter. It consists a metallic vessel

and stirrer of the same material like copper or aluminium. The vessel is kept inside a wooden jacket

which contains heat insulating materials like glass wool etc. The outer jacket acts as a heat shield and

reduces the heat loss from the inner vessel. There is an opening in the outer jacket through which a

mercury thermometer can be inserted into the calorimeter.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 11

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

T f

Ti

s d T m s avg T

C'

Molar heat Capacity: C (n - no. of moles)

n

The branch of thermodynamics which deals with the measurement of Heat is called colorimetry.

When two bodies at different temperature are mixed, heat will be transferred from body at higher tem-

perature to a body at lower temperature till both acquire same temperature. Principle of colorimetry

represents the law of conservation of Heat Energy.

Heat lost = Heat gained

Specific Heat capacity

The amount of heat needed toraise the temperature ofunit mass of amaterial byunit degreeof measurement

is known as the specific heat capacity of that material. If Q amount of heat raises the temperature of mass

m of a material by T, then its specific heat capacity is given as :

Q

s= Q = msT

m

Also the amount of heat supplied per unit increase in temperature for any body is known as

Q

its heat capacity, c = ms .

Latent Heat

Heat required for the change of phase or state. No chage in temperature is involved when substance

changes its state or phase. (Q = mL, L = Latent Heat)

Latent Heat of Fusion : The Heat supplied to a substance which changes it from solid to liquid state at

its melting point and 1 atm. pressure is called latent Heat of fusion. (Q = mLf )

Latent heat of fusion of Ice (Lf) = 80 cal/gm.

Latent Heat of Vapourization : The Heat supplied to a substance which changes it from liquid to

vapour state at its boiling point and 1 atm pressure is called latent heat of vapourization. (Q = mLV)

Latent heat of vapouriztion of water (LV)= 540 cal/g.

Heating Curve

If to a given mass (m) of a solid (Ice), Heat is supplied at constant rate P and a graph is poltted between

temperature and time

Temp

E

C

100ºC D

A

0ºC B

–TºC O

t1 t2 t3 t4 time

(1) In the region OA

Temperature of solid is changing with time

Q=msT

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 12

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

P t) = m s T (t = t1 – 0, T = 0 – (–T))

P T T

= slope of line OA

ms t t

(2) In the regionAB

Temperature is constant, here substance chnages its phase solid to liquid, betweenAand B.

Q = mLf

P t = m Lf

P( t 2 – t1 )

Lf =

m

Lf = length of lineAB

Latent Heat of fusion is proportional to length of line .

(3) In the Region BC

Temp. of liquid is increasing with time

Q=msT (t = t3 – t2, T = 100 – 0)

Pt=msT

(4) In the regin CD, temperature is constant, so it represents change of state.

Q = mLV

P( t 4 – t 3 )

LV

m

LV = length of line CD

(5) The line DE represents gaseous state of substance with its temperature increasing linearly with time.

The reciprocal of slope of line will be proportional to specific heat of substance in vapour state.

Water equivalent

It is a equivalent mass of water (w) that has same heat capacity as that of the given body (b). In other

words,

C m w s w m bs b

It is a convinent way to represent the heat capacity of the calorimeter

HEAT TRANSFER

Heat may be transported from one point to another by any of three possible mechanisms : conduction,

convection, and radiation. We study the rate of energy transfer between bodies due to temperature

difference between them.

Convection

Convection is the process in which heat is carried from place to place

by the bulk movement of a fluid. In liquid and gases, the atoms or

molecules can move from point to point. The transfer of heat that

accompanies mass transport is called convection.

In forced convection, a fan or pump sets up fluid currents. For examples,

a fan blows air, or a pump circulates waterin a hot-water heating system

in a house.

In free convection, it occurs because the density of a fluid varies with its In convection, heat

temperature. transfer accompanies

An example of convection currents in a pan of water being the movement of a fluid

heated on a gas burner. The currents distribute the heat from the burning

gas to all parts of the water.The direction of convection current is opposite

to acceleration due to gravity as shown in figure.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 13

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction

A rod whose ends are in thermal contact with a hot reservoir at

temperature TH and a cold reservoir at temperature TC. The sides of the

rod are covered with insulation meterial, so the transport of heat is

TH Q TC

along the rod, not through the sides. The molecules at the hot reservoir

have greater vibrational energy. This energy is trransferred by collisions

Heat is conducted through

to the atoms at the end face of the rod. These atoms in turn transfer an insulated bar whose ends

energy to their neighbors futher along the rod. Such transfer of heat are in thermal contact with

through a substance is called conduction as shown in figure. two reservoirs

T1 T2 T3

A Q B

Heater

1 2 3

Consider a metal rodAB, with one endAinserted into a chamber containing a heater with other end B

left free and exposed to the surrounding as shown in figure. The rod is thermallyinsulated sideways with

some bad conductor of heat say cotton or felt. Three thermometers are installed in the rod at three

distinct sections numbered (1), (2) and (3). Initially, the enitre system is at the room temperature and the

three thermometers show the same room temperature. The heater is then switched on. The end A first

gets heated up and simultaneously heat is conducted to the adjacent sections towards end B. Due to heat

absorption at each sections. The corresponding temperatures start rising with T1 > T2 > T3. Such a state,

encountered initiallyis known as a transient state. In this state, the heat coming through endA, is continu-

ously absorbed at each sections with a temperature rise as time elapses. After some time when the

temperature of end B becomes equal to that of surrounding and thus becomes constant. Similarly, the

temperature of each of the sections of the rod (for example 1, 2, 3) becomes constant or steady. But

these steady values at different sections are different.

T1 T2

Area = A

L

Consider a portion of the rod of cross sectional areaA as shown in figure. Let the temperatures of the

two sections separated by a length L be T1 and T2 respectively (with T1 > T2).

T1 T2

Temperature gradient (fall in temperature per unit length) along the length of the rod will be .

L

Experiments show that the conduction rate (energy transferred per unit time) is given by: Fourier’s Law

of Heat Conduction

dQ d (– T )

H KA (Where K : Thermal conductivity of material

dt dx

H : Thermal current

dT

: Temperature gradient

dx

A : cross-sectional area of heat path)

The reciprocal of thermal conductivity (K) is called thermal resistivity or thermal specific resistance.

Substances having high values of K are good conductors of heat.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 14

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

In order to study conduction in more detail consider figure (i), which shows a metal barAB whose ends

have been soldered into the walls of two metal tanks H and C. Tanks H contains boiling water and C

contains ice-water. Heat flows along the bar from A to B and when conditions are steady the tempera-

ture of the bar is measured at points along its length.

The curve in the upper part of the figure shows how the temperature falls along the bar, less and less

steeply from the hot end to the cold. So the temperature gradient decreases from the hot end to the cold.

The figure (ii) shows how the temperature varies along the bar, if the bar is well lagged with a bad

conductor, such as asbestos wool. It now falls uniformly from the hot to the cold end, so the temperature

gradient along the bar is constant.

100°C 100

t

O O

H H A B

A D B C C

heat heat

(i) unlagged (ii) lagged

The difference between the temperature distributions is due to the fact that, when the bar is unlagged,

heat escapes from its sides, by convection in the surrounding air, figure (i). The arrows in the figure

represent the heat escaping per second from the surface of the bar, and the heat flowing per second

along its length. The heat flowing per second along the length decreases from the hot end to the cold. But

when the bar is lagged, the heat escaping from its sides is negligible, and the flow per second is now

constant along the length of the bar, figure (ii).

Steady State Heat Conduction :

x dx

T1 T T2

Area = A

L

T

T1

T2

x

x=0 x=L

Temperature variation

along length of rod

At steady state, energy transferred through one cross-section of the rod during a certain time interval is

equal to the energy transferred by at the other cross-section of the rod during the same time interval.

Q T – T2

H= KA KA 1

t x L

Temperature distribution across the rod :

Let at distance x we take element of length dx having a cross-sectional area A and temperature T (As

shown in figure). In steady state, rate of heat flow H remains constant

dT

H = – KA

dx

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 15

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

T x

H

dT = –

T1

KA dx

0

Hx H T –T

T– T1 = – 1 2

KA KA L

x

T = T1 – (T1 – T2 )

L

The variation has been plotted above.

Thermal Resistance :

The heat transfer by conduction due to temperature difference has an analogy with flow of electric

current through a wire when a potential difference is applied. In that case, electrical resistance is defined

v

as R=

i

(T1 – T2 )

Similarly, thermal resistance is defined as R

H

For a rod having length L , area of cross-section Aand thermal conductivity K,

(T1 – T2 ) (T1 – T2 ) L

R= = KA (T – T ) / L R=

H 1 2 KA

Having calculated the thermal resistance, we can now applythe results of series combination and parallel

combination of resistors. It has been explained below.

Composite Rods :

Series Connection : If same heat current are flowing both the rods in steady state, they are said to be

in series.

Q

T1 t T T2

(T1>T2)

L1 L2

( Req = R1 + R2 = R)

i L L

R1= 1 R2= 2

K1A K2A

Where A - cross-section area of rods

T - Temperature at the juction or Interface temperature

K1 & K2 - Themal conductivities of rods having lenghts L1 and L2 respectively.

Q T1 – T T – T2

i = t R R

1 2

T1 – T = iR1 ...(i)

T – T2 = iR2 ...(ii)

From (i) & (ii)

T1 – T2 (T1 R 2 T2 R 1 )

i and T=

R1 R 2 R1 R 2

T

i = R , in series Req = R1 + R2

eq

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 16

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

If this rod is replaced by a single rod, then i = (T1 – T2)/Req

T1 T2

L1+L2

L1 L2 L1 L 2

Req = R1 + R2 = K A K A K A

1 2 eq

L1 L 2

Keq = L L

1

2

K1 K 2

Parallel Connection :If the two rods have the same temperature difference across it, they are said to

be in parallel.

Q1 (T1 < T2)

t

Q Q1 Q 2

T1 T2

t t t

Q 2

t

L

L

R1= 1 1 1 1

K1A1

i1 R R

i eq R 1 R 2

i = i 1 + i2

i2

L

R2=

K 2A 2

T1 – T2 T1 – T2

i1 = R1 , i 2

= R2

1 1

i = i1 + i2 = (T1– T2)

R1 R 2

1 1 1

In parallel, R R R

eq 1 2

If the two rods are repleaced by a single rod, then Keq will be

L T1 – T2

Keq = and i =

R eq (A1 A 2 ) R eq

Thus, the heat current in thermal resistances in terms of total thermal current is given by :

R2 R1

i1 = i and i2 = i

R1 R 2 R1 R 2

R A D I A TI O N

Radiation is the process in which energy is transferred by means of electromagnetic waves.

All bodies continuously radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. It does not require a

material medium. Electromagnetic waves from the sun, for example, travel through the void of space

during their journey to earth. Even an ice cube radiates energy, although so little of it is in the form of

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 17

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

visible light that an ice cube cannot be seen in the dark. The surface of an object plays a significant role

in determining how much radiant energy the object will absorb or emit.

lampblack rises faster than the temperature of the

block coated absorbs radiant energy from the sun at

the greater rate

The two blocks in sunlight in figure, for example, are identical, except that one has a rough surface

coated with lamblack (a fine black soot), while the other has a highly polished silver surface. As the

thermometers indicate, the temperature of the black block rises at a much faster rate than that of the

silver block. This is because lampblack absorbs about 97% of the incident radiant energy, while the

silvery surface absorbs only about 10%. The remaining part of the incident energy is reflected in each

case. We observe the lampblack as black in color because it reflects so little of the light falling on it, while

the silvery surface looks like a mirror because it reflects so much light. Since the color black is associated

with nearlycomplete absorption of visible light, the term perfect blackbody or, simply, blackbody is used

when referring to an object that absorbs all the electromagnetic waves falling on it.

Black body:

The experiments described before lead us to the idea of a perfectly black body, one which absorbs all

the radiation that falls upon it, and reflects and transmits none. The experiments also lead us to suppose

that such a body would be the best possible radiator.

Any body having temperature greater then zero kelvin, must emit or aborb radiation.

B

A is placed in an evacuated enclosure B, at lower temperature thanA, thenAcools until it reaches the

temperature of B. If a body C, cooler than B, is put in B, then C warms up to the temperature of B. We

conclude that radiation from B falls on C, and therefore also onA, even throughAis at a higher tempera-

ture. Thus A and C each come to equilibrium at the temperature of B when each is absorbing and

emitting radiation at equal rates.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 18

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

If Q is the total incident energy on a body, Q1 is the part absorbed, Q2 is the part reflected and Q3 is the

part transmitted then

Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3

Absorption coefficient or absorptive power a = Q1/Q

Reflection coefficient r = Q2 /Q

Transmission coefficient t = Q3/Q

Thus a + r + t = 1

If, for a body, r = t = 0 and a = 1, i.e. it absorbs all the energy falling on it, such bodies are known as

black bodies.

Emissive Power:

Emissive power of a surface is the quantity of heat energy emitted per second, per unit area of surface

through unit solid angle. It depends on the nature and the temperature of the surface.

Emissivity:

Emissivity of a surface is the ratio of the emissive power of that surface to the emissive power of a black

body at the same temperature.

Kirchhoff's Law:

At a given temperature, the ratio of emissive power to absorptive power of any body is equal to the

emissive power of a black body at that temperature. Thus,

E1 E 2

a 1 a 2 = EBlack body

From Kirchhoff's law, it can be deduced that good absorbers are also good emitters

Stefan’s radiation law

An idealized body that absorbs all the radiation incident upon it is called a blackbody. A blackbody

absorbs not only all visible light, but infrared, ultraviolet, and all other wavelengths of electromagnetic

radiation. It turns out that a good absorber is also a good emitter of radiation. Ablackbody emits more

radiant ower per unit surface area than any real object at the same temperature. The rate at which a

blackbody emits rdiation per unit surface area is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute tem-

perature.

dQ

P= = AT T4 (for a black body)

dt

In equation, A is the surface area and T is the surface temperature of the blackbody in kelvins. Since

Stefan’s law involves the absolute temperature and not a temperature difference, °C cannot be substi-

tuted. The universal constant (Greek letter sigma) is called Stefan’s constant :

= 5.670 × 10–8 W/(m2.K4)

The fourth-power temperature dependence implies that the power emitted is extremely sensitive to

temperature changes. If the absolute temperature of a body doubles, the energy emitted increases by a

factor of 24 = 16.

Since real bodies are not perfect absorbers and therefore emit less than a blackbody, we define the

emissivity (e) as the ratio of the emitted power of the body to that of a blackbody at the same tempera-

ture. Then Stefan’s law becomes.

P = eAT4 (for a non-black body)

The emissivity ranges from 0 to 1.

e = 1 for a perfect radiator and absorber (a blackbody).

e = 0 for a perfect reflector.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 19

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Consider a body at a temperature of T0 and Te is the temperature of the room or enclosure containing the

body. IfA is the surface area of the body and emissivity (e).

Since the body is in temperature equilibrium, the energy per second it radiates must equal the energy per

second it absorbs. then, from Stefan’s law,

energy per second emitted (Pemit) =eAT04

energy per second absorbed (Pabsorbed) =eATe4

Pemit= Paborbed Te=To

Now suppose the body X is heated electrically by a heater of power W watts and finally reaches a

constant temperature T. In this case, from Prevost’s theory,

energy per second from heater, W = net energy per second radiated by X

The net energy per second radiated by X = eAT4 – eAT04. So

W = eAT4 – eAT04 = eA (T4 – T04)

Newton’s law of cooling

For small temperature differences, the rate of cooling, due to conduction, convection, and radiation

combined, is proportional to the difference in temperature. It is a valid approximation in the transfer of

heat from a radiator to a room, the loss of heat through the wall of a room, or the cooling of a cup of tea

on the table.

Suppose, a body of surface areaAat an absolute temperature T is kept in a surrounding having a lower

temperature T0. The net rate of loss of thermal energy from the body due to radiation is

u1 = eA(T4 – T04)

If the temperature difference is small, we can write

T = T0 + T

or, T4 – T04 = (T0 + T)4 – T04

4

T T T 4

= T0 1

4 – T 4 = T 4 1 4 higher powers of T0

T 0

0 0

T 0 T0

3 3

= b1 A (T – T0)

The body may also lose thermal energy due to convection in the surrounding air. For small temperature

difference, the rate of loss of heat due to convection is also proportional to the temperature difference

and the area of the surface. This rate may, therefore, be written as

u2 = b2A (T – T0)

The net rate of loss of thermal energy due to convection and radiation is

u = u1 + u2 = (b1 + b2) A (T – T0).

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 20

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

If s be the specific heat capacity of the body and m its mass, the rate of fall of temperature is

dT u b1 b 2

= = A (T – T0)

dt ms ms

= bA (T – T0)

Thus, for all temperature difference between a body and its surrounding, the rate of cooling of the body

is directly proportional to the temperature difference and the surface area exposed. We can write

dT

= – bA (T – T0)

dt

Cooling curve:

The law holds good only for small difference of temperature.Also, the loss of heat by radiation depends

upon the nature of the surface of the body and the area of the exposed surface. We can write

dT

– = k ( – s)

dt

where k is a positive constant depending upon the area and nature of the surface of the body. Suppose

a body of mass m and specific heat capacity s is at temperature . Let s and To be the temperature of

the surroundings and body respectively. If the temperature falls by a small amount dT in time dt, then the

amount of heat lost is

dQ = msdT

Rate of loss of heat is given by

dQ dT

= ms

dt dt

from equation

dQ dQ dT

– = k (T – Ts) and = ms

dt dt dt

dT

we have – ms = k(T – Ts)

dt

dT k

T Ts = – dt = – Kdt (where K = k/ms)

ms

On integrating, temperature of body

T Ts T0

ln = – kt

T0 Ts Ts

enables you to calculate the time of colling of a body through a particular range of temperature.

Wien's Displacement Law

The wavelength corresponding to highest intensity m is inversely proportional to the absolute tempera-

ture. Thus

b

m =

T

where b (= 2.89 × 10–3 meter Kelvin) is known as the Wien's constant.

When the temperature of a black body is increased, the contribution of low wavelength radiation in-

creases. This explains why a body on heating first appears red, then orange, then white and finally blue.

This law also helps us in determining the temperatures of the stars.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 21

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

The radiation emitted by a black body at any temperature is a mixture of all wavelengths. The graph

shows qualitative variation in intensity wavelength, at different temperatures.

E

T3 > T 2 > T1

T3

T2

T1

m m m

To speak of the intensity of a single wavelength is meaningless. The slit of the spectrometer always

gathers a band of wavelengths the narrower the slit the narrower the band –and we always speak of the

intensity of a given band. We expressit as follows :

energy radiated m–2 s–1, in band to + = E

The quantity E is called emissive power of a black body for the wavelength and at the given tempera-

ture ; its definition follows from equation to + = E :

energy radiated m 2 s 1 , in band to

E =

band width ,

E =

In the figure, E is expressed in watts per m2 per nanometre (10–9 m).

The quantity E in equation to + = E is the area beneath the radiation curve between the

wavelength and (figure). Thus the energy radiated per meter2 per second between those wave-

lengths in proportional to that area.

Similarly, the total radiation emitted per metre2 per second over all wavelengths is proportional to the

area under the whole curve.

Em

area = energy

E in band

m +

Laws of black body radiation:

The curves of figure can be explained only Planck’s quantum theory of radiation, which is outside our

scope. Both theory and experiment lead to three generalisations, which together describe well the

properties of black body radiation.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 22

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

(i) If m is the wavelength of the peak of the curve for T (in K), then

mT = constant ... (2)

The value of the constant is 2.9 × 10–3 m K. In figure the dotted line is the locus of the peaks of the

curves for different temperatures.

The relationship in (2) is sometimes called Wien’s displacement law.

(ii) If Em is the height of the peak of the curve for the temperature T, then

Em T5 ... (3)

22 × 10–9

T = 1650K 20

18

16

–1

relative intensity

watt metre nm

1450K 14

–2

12

10

1260K 8

6

1000K

4

2

2

10 20 30 40 50 60 × 10

violet- -red

visible

Figure : Distribution of intensity in black body radiation

(iii) If E is the total energy radiated per metre2 per second at a temperature T, which is represented by the

total area under the particular E – curve, then

E = T4

So in figure, which shows four E – graphs at different temperatures T, the total area below the graphs

should be proportional to the corresponding value of T4.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 23

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.1 A light rigid bar is suspended horizontally from two vertical wires, one of steel and one

of brass, as shown in figure. Each wire is 2.00 m long. The diameter of the steel wire is

0.60 mm and the length of the bar AB is 0.20 m. When a mass of 10 kg is suspended

from the centre ofAB bar remains horizontal.

(i) What is the tension in each wire?

(ii) Calculate the extension of the steel wire and the energy stored in it.

(iii) Calculate the diameter of the brass wire.

(iv) If the brass wire were replaced by another brass wire of diameter 1 mm, where should the mass be

suspended so that AB would remain horizontal? The Young modulus for steel = 2.0 × 1011 Pa, the

Young modulus for brass = 1.0 × 1011 Pa.

Q.2 Asteel rope his length L, area of cross-sectionA,Young’s modulus Y. [Density= d]

(a) It is pulled on a horizontal frictionless floor with a constant horizontal force F = [dALg]/2 applied at one

end. Find the strain at the midpoint.

(b) If the steel rope is vertical and moving with the force acting vertically up at the upper end. Find the strain

at a point L/3 from lower end.

Q.3 An aluminium container of mass 100 gm contains 200 gm of ice at – 20°C. Heat is added to the system

at the rate of 100 cal/s. Find the temperature of the system after 4 minutes (specific heat of ice = 0.5 and

L = 80 cal/gm, specific heat of Al = 0.2 cal/gm/°C)

25°C and the temperature of ice –15°C. Find the final temperature of water.

(specific heat of ice = 0.5 cal/gm/°C and L = 80 cal/gm). Find final amount of water and ice.

Q.5 The temperature of 100gm of water is to be raised from 24ºC to 90ºC by adding steam to it. Calculate

the mass of the steam required for this purpose.

heat added to this substance and its temperature are

plotted in the following graph.If the relative specific heat

capacityof the solid substance is 0.5, find from the graph

(i) the mass of the substance ;

(ii) the specific latent heat of the melting process, and

(iii) the specific heat of the substance in the liquid state.

Q.7 A steel drill making 180 rpm is used to drill a hole in a block of steel. The mass of the steel block and the

drill is 180 gm. If the entire mechanical work is used up in producing heat and the rate of raise in

temperature of the block and the drill is 0.5 °C/s. Find

(a) the rate of working of the drill in watts, and

(b) the torque required to drive the drill.

Specific heat of steel = 0.1 and J = 4.2 J/cal. Use : P =

Q.8 An ice cube of mass 0.1 kg at 0°C is placed in an isolated container which is at 227°C. The specific heat

S of the container varies with temperature T according the empirical relations =A+ BT, whereA= 100

cal/kg-K and B = 2 × 10–2 cal/kg-K2. If the final temperature of the container is 27°C, determine the

mass of the container. (Latent heat of fusion for water = 8 × 104 cal/kg. Specific heat of water = 103 cal/

kg-K)

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 24

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.9 Asolid receives heat by radiation over its surface at the rate of 4 kW. The heat convection rate from the

surface of solid to the surrounding is 5.2 kW, and heat is generated at a rate of 1.7 kW over the volume

of the solid. The rate of change of the average temperature of the solid is 0.5°Cs–1. Find the heat

capacity of the solid.

Q.10 If two rods of length L and 2 L having coefficients of linear expansion and 2 respectively are

connected so that total length becomes 3 L, determine the average coefficient of linear expansion of the

composite rod.

Q.11 A clock pendulum made of invar has a period of 0.5 sec at 20°C. If the clock is used in a climate where

average temperature is 30°C, aporoximately. How much fast or slow will the clock run in 106 sec.

(invar=1×10–6/°C)

Q.12 A U-tube filled with a liquid of volumetric coefficient of 10–5/°C lies in a vertical plane. The height of

liquid column in the left vertical limb is 100 cm. The liquid in the left vertical limb is maintained at a

temperature = 0°C while the liquid in the right limb is maintained at a temperature = 100°C. Find the

difference in levels in the two limbs.

Q.13 Three aluminium rods of equal length form an equilateral triangleABC. Taking

O (mid point of rod BC) as the origin. Find the increase in Y-coordinate of

center of mass per unit change in temperature of the system.Assume the length

of the each rod is 2m, and al = 4 3 10 6 / C

Q.14 An isosceles triangle is formed with a rod of length l1 and coefficient of linear expansion 1 for the base

and two thin rods each of length l2 and coefficient of linear expansion 2 for the two pieces, if the

distance between the apex and the midpoint of the base remain unchanged as the temperatures varied

l1

show that 2 2 .

l2 1

Q.15 An iron bar (Young’s modulus = 1011 N/m2 , = 10–6 /°C) 1 m long and 10–3 m2 in area is heated from

0°C to 100°C without being allowed to bend or expand. Find the compressive force developed inside

the bar.

Q.16 The figure shows the face and interface temperature of a composite slab

containing of four layers of two materials having identical thickness. Under

steady state condition, find the value of temperature

Q.17 In the square frame of side l of metallic rods, the corners A and C are

maintained at T1 and T2 respectively. The rate of heat flow from Ato C is

. IfAand D are instead maintained T1 & T2 respectivley find, find the

total rate of heat flow.

Q.18 Two spheres of same radius R have their densities in the ratio 8 : 1 and the ratio of their specific heats are

1 : 4. If by radiation their rates of fall of temperature are same, then find the ratio of their rates of losing

heat.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 25

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.19 A solid copper cube and sphere, both of same mass & emissivity are heated to same initial temperature

and kept under identical conditions. What is the ratio of their initial rate of fall of temperature?

Q.20 A vessel containing 100 gm water at 0°C is suspended in the middle of a room. In 15 minutes the

temperature of the water rises by 2°C. When an equal amount of ice is placed in the vessel, it melts in

10 hours. Calculate the specific heat of fusion of ice.

Q.21 The maximum in the energy distribution spectrum of the sun is at 4753 Å and its temperature is 6050K.

What will be the temperature of the star whose energy distribution shows a maximum at 9506 Å.

Q.22 A liquid takes 5 minutes to cool from 80°C to 50°C. How much time will it take to cool from 60°C to

30°C ? The temperature of surrounding is 20°C. Use exact method.

Q.23 Hot oil is circulated through an insulated container with a wooden lid at the

top whose conductivity K = 0.149 J/(m-°C-sec), thickness t = 5 mm,

emissivity = 0.6. Temperature of the top of the lid in steady state is at

Tl = 127°. If the ambient temperature Ta = 27°C. Calculate

(a) rate of heat loss per unit area due to radiation from the lid.

17 8

(b) temperature of the oil. (Given = 10 )

3

Q.24 Aparallel beam of radiation is incident on a highly conducting sphere of unknown emissivity. Incident

radiation intensity on sphere is 1944 W/m2 . Stefan's constant 6 × 10–8 W/m2.k. What is temperature(

in °C) of sphere in steady state.

incident

radiation

[SINGLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE]

Q.1 Overall changes in volume and radii of a uniform cylindrical steel wire are 0.2% and 0.002% respectively

when subjected to some suitable force. Longitudinal tensile stress acting on the wire is

(Y = 2.0 × 1011 Nm–2)

(A) 3.2 × 109 Nm–2 (B) 3.2 × 107 Nm–2 (C) 3.6 × 109 Nm–2 (D) 4.08 × 108 Nm–2

Q.2 A solid sphere of radius R made of of material of bulk modulus K is surrounded bya liquid in a cylindrical

container.Amassless piston of areaAfloats on the surface of the liquid. When a mass m is placed on

the piston to compress the liquid, the fractional change in the radius of the sphere R/R is

(A) mg/AK (B) mg/3AK (C) mg/A (D) mg/3AR

Q.3 A cylindrical wire of radius 1 mm, length 1 m, Young’s modulus = 2 × 1011 N/m2, poisson’s ratio

= /10 is stretched by a force of 100 N. Its radius will become

(A) 0.99998 mm (B) 0.99999 mm (C) 0.99997 mm (D) 0.99995 mm

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 26

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.4 Auniform rod rotating in gravityfree region with certain constant angular velocity. The variation of tensile

stress with distance x from axis of rotation is best represented by which of the following graphs.

Q.5 The load versus strain graph for four wires of the same material is shown in the

figure. The thickest wire is represented by the line

(A) OB (B) OA (C) OD (D) OC

Q.6 Arigid square frame consists of four side barsAB, BC, CD and DAand two diagonal barsAC and BD

which are only touching each other freely at centre. They are hinged at the joints. By some arrangement

AB is kept under tension so thatAB has tension T at its ends as shown. Assume symmetry.

A T T

B

D C

(A) AD and BC are also under tension. (B) AD and BC are under compression.

(C) AC and BD are under tension. (D) CD is under compression.

Q.7 You do a very precise experiment to test the properties of a piece of wire. You stretch the wire by

applying an outward force to each end of the wire and measure its change in length. If you then precisely

double this force and the wire still remains elastic but is beyond proportionalitylimit, the change in length

of the wire

(A) will exactly double (B) will just slightlymore than double

(C) will just slightlyless than double (D) will decrease by exactly a factor of two.

Q.8 Ahighly rigid cubical blockAof small mass M and side Lis fixed rigidly on another cubical block B of

same dimensions and of low modulus of rigidity , such that the lower face ofAcompletely covers the

upper face of B. The lower face of B is rigidly held on a horizontal surface. A small force F is applied

perpendicular to one of the side faces ofAat the top. The side of B turns by an angle . Now the whole

arrangement is turned upside down so that lower face ofAis rigidly held to the horizontal surface and we

apply a small force F perpendicular to the side face of B at the top. The Side of B now turns by an angle

(A) (B) /2 (C) /3 (D) zero

Q.9 A thermally insulated vessel contains some water at 00C. The vessel is connected to a vacuum pump to

pump out water vapour. This results in some water getting frozen. It is given Latent heat of vaporization

of water at 0°C =21 × 105 J/kg and latent heat of freezing of water = 3.36 × 105 J/kg. The maximum

percentage amount of water that will be solidified in this manner will be

(A) 86.2% (B) 33.6% (C) 21% (D) 24.36%

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 27

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.10 A block of mass 2.5 kg is heated to temperature of 500°C and placed on a large ice block. What is the

maximum amount of ice that can melt (approx.). Specific heat for the body = 0.1 Cal/gm°C.

(A) 1 kg (B) 1.5 kg (C) 2 kg (D) 2.5 kg

Q.11 Heat is being supplied at a constant rate to a sphere of ice which is melting at the rate of 0.1 gm/sec. It

melts completely in 100 sec. The rate of rise of temperature thereafter will be

(Assume no loss of heat.)

(A) 0.8 °C/sec (B) 5.4 °C/sec (C) 3.6 °C/sec (D) will change with time

Q.12 1 kg of ice at – 10°C is mixed with 4.4 kg of water at 30°C. The final temperature of mixture is :

(specific heat of ice is 2100 J/kg/k)

(A) 2.3°C (B) 4.4°C (C) 5.3°C (D) 8.7°C

Q.13 Steam at 100°C is added slowly to 1400 gm of water at 16°C until the temperature of water is raised to

80°C. The mass of steam required to do this is (LV = 540 cal/gm) :

(A) 160 gm (B) 125 mg (C) 250 gm (D) 320 gm

Q.14 A 2100 W continuous flow geyser (instant geyser) has water inlet temperature = 10°C while the water

flows out at the rate of 20 g/sec. The outlet temperature of water must be about

(A) 20°C (B) 30°C (C) 35°C (D) 40°C

Q.15 A solid material is supplied with heat at a constant rate. The temperature of

material is changing with heat input as shown in the figure. What does slope DE

represent.

(A) latent heat of liquid

(B) latent heat of vapour

(C) heat capacity of vapour

(D) inverse of heat capacity of vapour

Q.16 Ablock of ice with mass m falls into a lake.After impact, a mass of ice m/5 melts. Both the block of ice

and the lake have a temperature of 0°C. If L represents the heat of fusion, the minimum distance the ice

fell before striking the surface is

L 5L gL mL

(A) (B) (C) (D)

5g g 5m 5g

Q.17 The specific heat of a metal at low temperatures varies according to S = aT3 where a is a constant and

T is the absolute temperature. The heat energy needed to raise unit mass of the metal from

T = 1 K to T = 2 K is

15 a 2a 12 a

(A) 3 a (B) (C) (D)

4 3 5

Q.18 The graph shown in the figure represent change in the temperature of 5

kg of a substance as it abosrbs heat at a constant rate of 42 kJ min–1.

The latent heat of vapourazation of the substance is :

(A) 630 kJ kg–1

(B) 126 kJ kg–1

(C) 84 kJ kg–1

(D) 12.6 kJ kg–1

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 28

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.19 The density of a material Ais 1500 kg/m3 and that of another material B is 2000 kg/m3. It is found that

the heat capacity of 8 volumes ofA is equal to heat capacity of 12 volumes of B. The ratio of specific

heats ofAand B will be

(A) 1 : 2 (B) 3 : 1 (C) 3 : 2 (D) 2 : 1

Q.20 Find the amount of heat supplied to decrease the volume of an ice water mixture by 1 cm3 without any

change in temperature. (ice = 0.9 water, Lice = 80 cal/gm).

(A) 360 cal (B) 500 cal (C) 720 cal (D) none of these

Q.21 A rod of length 2m rests on smooth horizontal floor. If the rod is heated from 0°C to 20°C. Find the

longitudinal strain developed? ( = 5 × 10–5/°C)

(A) 10–3 (B) 2 × 10–3 (C) Zero (D) None

Q.22 Asteel tape gives correct measurement at 20°C.Apiece of wood is being measured with the steel tape

at 0°C. The reading is 25 cm on the tape, the real length of the given piece of wood must be:

(A) 25 cm (B) <25 cm (C) >25 cm (D) can not say

Q.23 If two rods of length L and 2L having coefficients of linear expansion and 2respectivelyare connected

so that total length becomes 3L, the average coefficient of linear expansion of the composition rod

equals:

3 5 5

(A) (B) (C) (D) none of these

2 2 3

Q.24 A thin copper wire of length Lincreasein length by1% when heated from temperature T1 to T2. What is the

percentage change in area when a thin copper plate having dimensions 2L × L is heated from T1 to T2?

(A) 1% (B) 2% (C) 3% (D) 4%

Q.25 A metallic rod l cm long with a square cross-section is heated through t°C. If Young’s modulus of

elasticity of the metal is E and the mean coefficient of linear expansion is per degree Celsius, then the

compressional force required to prevent the rod from expanding along its length is :(Neglect the change

of cross-sectional area)

(A) EAt (B) EAt/(1 + t) (C) EAt/(1t) (D) E/t

y = 2 × 10–5 /°C, z = 3 × 10–5 /°C. Coefficient of superficial

expansion of faces can be

(A) ABCD = 5 × 10–5 /°C (B) BCGH = 4 × 10–5 /°C

(C) CDEH = 3 × 10–5 /°C (D) EFGH = 2 × 10–5 /°C

Q.27 The coefficient of apparent expansion of a liquid in a copper vessel is C and in a silver vessel is S. The

coefficient of volume expansion of copper is c. What is the coefficient of linear expansion of silver?

(C c S) ( C c S) (C c S) ( C c S)

(A) (B) (C) (D)

3 3 3 3

Q.28 Asphere of diameter 7 cm and mass 266.5 gm floats in a bath of a liquid. As the temperature is raised,

the sphere just begins to sink at a temperature 35°C. If the density of a liquid at 0°C is 1.527 gm/cc, then

neglecting the expansion of the sphere, the coefficient of cubical expansion of the liquid is f :

(A) 8.486 × 104 per 0C (B) 8.486 × 105 per 0C

(C) 8.486 × 106 per 0C (D) 8.486 × 103 per 0C

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 29

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.29 The volume of the bulb of a mercury thermometer at 0°C is V0 and cross section of the capillary is A0.

The coefficient of linear expansion of glass is g per °C and the cubical expansion of mercury m per °C.

If the mercury just fills the bulb at 0°C, what is the length of mercury column in capillary at T°C.

V0T m 3 g

V0 T m 3 g

V0 T m 2 g

V0 T m 2 g

(A) A 0 12 g T (B) A0 12 g T (C) A0 13 g T (D) A0 13 g T

Q.30 The loss in weight of a solid when immersed in a liquid at 0°C is W0 and at t°C is W. If cubical coefficient

of expansion of the solid and the liquid by S and 1 respectively, then W is equal to :

(A) W0 [1 + ( s – l) t] (B) W0 [1 - (s – l)t]

(C) W0 [( s – l) t] (D) W0t/(s – l)

Q.31 A thin walled cylindrical metal vessel of linear coefficient of expansion 10–3 °C–1 contains benzene of

volume expansion coefficient 10–3°C–1. If the vessel and its contents are now heated by 10°C, the

pressure due to the liquid at the bottom.

(A) increases by 2% (B) decreases by 1% (C) decreases by 2% (D) remains unchanged

Q.32 An open vessel is filled completelywith oil which has same coefficient of volume expansion as that of the

vessel. On heating both oil and vessel,

(A) the vessel can contain more volume and more mass of oil

(B) the vessel can contain same volume and same mass of oil

(C) the vessel can contain same volume but more mass of oil

(D) the vessel can contain more volume but same mass of oil

Q.33 A uniform pressure P is exerted on all sides of a solid cube. It is heated through t in order to bring its

volume back to the value it had before the application of pressure. Then

P B B

(A) t (B) t (C) t B P (D) t

B P P

Q.34 A rod of length 2m at 0°C and having expansion coefficient = (3x + 2) × 10–6 °C–1 where x is the

distance (in cm) from one end of rod. The length of rod at 20°C is :

(A) 2.124 m (B) 3.24 m (C) 2.0120 m (D) 3.124 m

Q.35 A glass flask contains some mercury at room temperature. It is found that at different temperatures the

volume of air inside the flask remains the same. If the volume of mercury in the flask is 300 cm3, then

volume of the flask is (given that coefficient of volume expansion of mercury and coefficient of linear

expansion of glass are 1.8 × 10–4 (°C)–1 and 9 × 10–6 (°C)–1 respectively)

(A) 4500 cm3 (B) 450 cm3 (C) 2000 cm3 (D) 6000 cm3

Q.36 Two vertical glass tubes filled with a liquid are connected by a capillary

tube as shown in the figure. The tube on the left is put in an ice bath at

0°C while the tube on the right is kept at 30°C in a water bath. The

difference in the levels of the liquid in the two tubes is 4 cm while the

height of the liquid column at 0°C is 120 cm. The coefficient of volume

expansion of liquid is (Ignore expansion of glass tube)

(A) 22 × 10–4/°C (B) 1.1 × 10–4/°C

(C) 11 × 10–4/°C (D) 2.2 × 10–4/°C

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 30

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Statement A: Some liquid evaporates.

Statement B : The liquid starts boiling.

(A)Aimplies B and B impliesA (B) B impliesAbut Adoes not imply B

(C) Aimplies B but B does not implyA. (D) NeitherAimplies B nor impliesA.

Q.38 A cylinder of radius R made of a material of thermal conductivity k1 is surrounded by a cylindrical shell

of inner radius R and outer radius 2R made of a material of thermal conductivity k2. The two ends of

the combined system are maintained at different temperatures. There is no loss of heat from the cylindrical

surface and the system is in steady state. The effective thermal conductivity of the system is

k1k 2 1 1

(A) k1 + k2 (B) (C) (k1 + 3k2) (D) (3k + k2)

k1 k 2 4 4

Q.39 The wall with a cavity consists of two layers of brick separated by a layer of air.All three layers have the

same thickness and the thermal conductivity of the brick is much greater than that of air. The left layer is

at a higher temperature than the right layer and steady state condition exists. Which of the following

graphs predicts correctly the variation of temperature T with distance d inside the cavity?

Q.40 A rod of length L and uniform cross-sectional area has varying thermal conductivity which changes

linearly from 2K at endAto K at the other end B. The endsAand B of the rod are maintained at constant

temperature 100°C and 0°C, respectively. At steady state, the graph of temperature : T = T(x) where

x = distance from endAwill be

Q.41 Aring consisting of two parts ADB andACB of same conductivity k carries an

amount of heat H. The ADB part is now replaced with another metal keeping

the temperatures T1 and T2 constant. The heat carried increases to 2H. What

ACB

should be the conductivity of the newADB part? Given = 3:

ADB

7 5

(A) k (B) 2 k (C) k (D) 3 k

3 2

Q.42 The temperature drop through each layer of a two layer furnace wall is

shown in figure. Assume that the external temperature T1 and T3 are

maintained constant and T1 > T3. If the thickness of the layers x1 and x2

are the same, which of the following statements are correct.

(A) k1 > k2

(B) k1 < k2

(C) k1 = k2 but heat flow through material (1) is larger then through (2)

(D) k1 = k2 but heat flow through material (1) is less than that through (2)

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 31

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.43 A composite rod made of three rods of equal length and cross-section as shown in the fig. The thermal

conductivities of the materials of the rods are K/2, 5K and K respectively. The end A and end B are at

constant temperatures.All heat entering the faceAgoes out of the end B there being no loss of heat from

the sides of the bar. The effective thermal conductivity of the bar is

A B

K/2 5K K

(A) 15K/16 (B) 6K/13 (C) 5K/16 (D) 2K/13.

Q.44 Three rods made of the same material and having the same cross-section have

been joined as shown in the figure. Each rod is of the same length. The left and

right ends are kept at 0°C and 90°C respectively. The temperature of the junction

of the three rods will be

(A) 45°C (B) 60°C (C) 30°C (D) 20°C

Q.45 A black metal foil is warmed by radiation from a small sphere at temperature 'T' and at a distance 'd ' .

It is found that the power received by the foil is P . If both the temperature and distance are doubled, the

power received by the foil will be :

(A) 16 P (B) 4 P (C) 2 P (D) P

Q.46 The rate of emission of radiation of a black body at 273°C is E, then the rate of emission of radiation of

this body at 0°C will be

E E E

(A) (B) (C) (D) 0

16 4 8

Q.47 The power radiated by a black body is P and it radiates maximum energy around the wavelength 0. If

the temperature of the black bodyis now changed so that it radiates maximum energy around wavelength

3/40, the power radiated by it will increase by a factor of

(A) 4/3 (B) 16/9 (C) 64/27 (D) 256/81

Q.48 Star S1 emits maximum radiation of wavelength 420 nm and the star S2 emits maximum radiation of

wavelength 560 nm, what is the ratio of the temperature of S1 and S2 :

(A) 4/3 (B) (4/3)1/4 (C) 3/4 (D) (3/4)1/2

Q.49 Spheres P and Q are uniformly constructed from the same material which is a good conductor of heat

and the radius of Q is thrice the radius of P. The rate of fall of temperature of P is x times that of Q when

both are at the same surface temperature. The value of x is :

(A) 1/4 (B) 1/3 (C) 3 (D) 4

Q.50 The spectral emissive power E for a body at temperature T1 is plotted against

the wavelength and area under the curve is found to be A. At a different

temperature T2 the area is found to be 9A. Then 1/2 =

(A) 3 (B) 1/3 (C) 1 3 (D) 3

Q.51 If emissivity of bodies X and Y are ex and ey and absorptive power are

Ax and Ay then

(A) ey > ex ; Ay > Ax (B) ey < ex ; Ay < Ax

(C) ey > ex ; Ay < Ax (D) ey = ex ; Ay = Ax

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 32

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.52 An ideal black body at room temperature is thrown into a furnace. It is observed that

(A) initially it is the darkest body and at later times the brightest.

(B) it the darkest body at all times

(C) it cannot be distinguished at all times.

(D) initially it is the darkest body and at later times it cannot be distinguished.

Q.53 A black body calorimeter filled with hot water cools from 60°C to 50°C in 4 min and 40°C to 30°C in

8 min. The approximate temperature of surrounding is :

(A) 10°C (B) 15°C (C) 20°C (D) 25°C

Q.54 A system S receives heat continuously from an electrical heater of power 10W. The temperature of S

becomes constant at 50°C when the surrounding temperature is 20°C.After the heater is switched off,

S cools from 35.1°C to 34.9°C in 1 minute. The heat capacity of S is

(A) 100J/°C (B) 300J/°C (C) 750J/°C (D) 1500J/°C

Q.55 Water is heated in an open pan where the air pressure is 10+5 Pa.. The water remains a liquid, which

expands by a small amount as it is heated. Determine the ratio of the heat absorbed by the water to the

work done by water. for water = 10–3/°C, S = 1 cal/gm°C.

(A) 4.2 × 103 (B) 4.2 × 105 (C) 4.2 × 102 (D) 4.2 × 104

Q.56 Figure shows three different arrangements of materials 1, 2 and 3 to form a wall. Thermal conductivities

are k1 > k2 > k3 . The left side of the wall is 20°C higher than the right side. Temperature difference T

across the material 1 has following relation in three cases :

1 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 2

a b c

(A) Ta > Tb > Tc (B) Ta = Tb = Tc

(C) Ta = Tb > Tc (D) Ta = Tb < Tc

[PARAGRAPH TYPE]

Paragraph for question nos. 57 to 61

Solids and liquids both expand on heating. The density of substance decreases on expanding according

to the relation

1

2

1 (T2 T1 )

where, 1 — density at T1

2 — density at T2

—coeff. of volume expansion of substances

when a solid is submerged in a liquid, liquid exerts an upward force on solid which is equal to the weight

of liquid displaced by submerged part of solid.

Solid will float or sink depends on relative densities of solid and liquid.

A cubical block of solid floats in a liquid with half of its volume submerged in liquid as shown in figure

(at temperature T)

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 33

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

L — coeff. of volume expansion of liquid

S — density of solid at temp. T

L — density of liquid at temp. T

(A) S = 2L (B) S = (1/2)L (C) S = L (D) S = (1/4)L

(A) increases (B) decreases (C) remains the same (D) inadequate information

Q.59 Imagine fraction submerged does not change on increasing temperature the relation between L and S is

(A) L = 3S (B) L = 2S (C) L = 4S (D) L = (3/2)S

Q.60 Imagine the depth of the block submerged in the liquid does not change on increasing temperature then

(A) L = 2 (B) L = 3 (C) L = (3/2) (D) L = (4/3)

Q.61 Assume block does not expand on heating. The temperature at which the block just begins to sink in

liquidis

(A) T + 1/L (B) T + 1/(2L) (C) T + 2/L (D) T + L/2

[REASONING TYPE]

Q.62 Statement-1 : The leaves of a tree will look black when illuminated with green colored light.

Statement-2 : A good emitter is a good absorber as well.

(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-1.

(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for statement-1.

(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.

(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true

Q.63 Statement-1 : A dress made of cloth takes the shape of the body beneath.

Statement-2 : The cloth has low shear modulus of elasticity.

(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-1.

(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for statement-1.

(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.

(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true.

Q.64 Two explorers inAntarctica are wearing a suit that looks similar but one of them is warmer than other.

Statement-1 : The warmer suit is hotter on the outer surface.

Statement-2 : The rate of heat flow through the suit is directly proportional to the temperature

difference.

(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-1.

(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for statement-1.

(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.

(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 34

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.65 A composite rod consists of a steel rod of length 25 cm and area 2A and a copper rod of length 50cm

and area A. The composite rod is subjected to an axial load F. If the Young’s modulus of steel and

copper are in the ratio 2 : 1.

(A) the extension produced in copper rod will be more .

(B) the extension in copper and steel parts will be in the ratio 2 : 1.

(C) the stress applied to the copper rod will be more.

(D) no extension will be produced in the steel rod.

Q.66 The wires A and B shown in the figure are made of the same material and have radii

rA and rB respectively. The block between them has a mass m. When the force F is

mg/3, one of the wires breaks.

(A) A breaks if rA = rB

(B) A breaks if rA < 2rB

(C) Either A or B may break if rA = 2rB

(D) The lengths of A and B must be known to predict which wire will break

Q.67 A body of mass M is attached to the lower end of a metal wire, whose upper end is fixed. The elongation

of the wire is l.

(A) Loss in gravitational potential energy of M is Mgl

(B) The elastic potential energy stored in the wire is Mgl

(C) The elastic potential energy stored in the wire is 1/2 Mgl

(D) Heat produced is 1/2 Mgl.

Q.68 When the temperature of a copper coin is raised by 80°C, its diameter increases by 0.2%.

(A) Percentage rise in the area of a face is 0.4 %

(B) Percentage rise in the thickness is 0.4 %

(C) Percentage rise in the volume is 0.6 %

(D) Coefficient of linear expansion of copper is 0.25 × 10–4 C° –1.

Q.69 One end of a conducting rod is maintained at temperature 50°C and at the other end, ice is melting at

0°C. The rate of melting of ice is doubled if:

(A) the temperature is made 200°C and the area of cross-section of the rod is doubled

(B) the temperature is made 100°C and length of rod is made four times

(C) area of cross-section of rod is halved and length is doubled

(D) the temperature is made 100°C and the area of cross-section of rod and length both are doubled.

Q.70 Two metallic sphereAand B are made of same material and have got identical surface finish. The mass

of sphereAis four times that of B. Both the spheres are heated to the same temperature and placed in a

room having lower temperature but thermally insulated from each other.

(A) The ratio of rate of heat loss of A to that of B is 24/3.

(B) The ratio of rate of heat loss of A to that of B is 22/3.

(C) The ratio of the initial rate of cooling ofA to that of B is 2-2/3.

(D) The ratio of the initial rate of cooling ofAto that of B is 2-4/3.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 35

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.71 Two bodies Aand B have thermal emissivities of 0.01 and 0.81 respectively. The outer surface areas of

the two bodies are the same. The two bodies radiate energy at the same rate. The wavelength B,

corresponding to the maximum spectral radiancyin the radiation from B, is shifted from the wavelength

corresponding to the maximum spectral radiancy in the radiation fromAby 1.00 m. If the temperature

of A is 5802 K,

(A) the temperature of B is 1934 K (B) B =1.5 m

(C) the temperature of B is 11604 K (D) the temperature of B is 2901 K

Q.72 Three bodies A, B and C have equal surface area and thermal emissivities in the ratio

1 1

eA : eB : eC = 1 : : .All the three bodies are radiating at same rate. Their wavelengths corresponding

2 4

to maximum intensity are A, B and C respectively and their temperatures are TA, TB and TC on kelvin

scale, then select the incorrect statement.

(A) TA TC TB (B) A C B

The figure shows a radiant energy spectrum graph for a black body at a d

temperature T.

O m

Q.73 Choose the correct statement(s)

(A) The radiant energy is not equally distributed among all the possible wavelengths

(B) For a particular wavelength the spectral intensity is maximum

(C) The area under the curve is equal to the total rate at which heat is radiated by the body at that

temperature

(D) None of these

Q.74 If the temperature of the body is raised to a higher temperature T', then choose the correct statement(s)

(A) The intensity of radiation for every wavelength increases

(B) The maximum intensity occurs at a shorter wavelength

(C) The area under the graph increases

(D) The area under the graph is proportional to the fourth power of temperature

Q.75 A black bodyis at a temperature of 2880 K. The energyof radiation emitted bythis object with wavelength

between 499 nm and 500 nm is U1, between 999 nm and 1000 nm is U2 and between 1499 nm and

1500 nm is U3. The Wien constant b = 2.88 × 106 nm K. Then

(A) U1 = 0 (B) U3 = 0 (C) U1 > U2 (D) U2 > U1

Q.76 A bimetallic strip is formed out of two identical strips one of copper and the other of brass. The coefficient

of linear expansion of the two metals are C and B. On heating, the temperature of the strip goes up by

T and the strip bends to form an arc of radius of curvature R. Then R is :

(A) proportional at T (B) inversely proportional to T

(C) proportional to |B – C| (D) inversely proportional to |B – C|

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 36

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

[MATRIX TYPE]

Q.77 In column-I, certain situations are depicted where steam at 100°C is used to melt ice at 0°C by means

of a conducting body which is insulated to prevent heat losses to surrounding. Match the numerical value

of question asked in each entry to the corresponding entry in column-II. Symbols have usual meaning.

Column-I Column-II

(A) (P) 10

(B) (Q) 20

Find total rate of heat transfer through the two rods in SI units.

1

k= W/mK

32

(D) (S) 40

Hollow cylinder of k = W/mK

10

Find temperature gradients in SI units.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 37

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

EXERCISE-3

SECTION-A

(JEE ADVANCED Previous Year's Questions)

Q.1 Liquid oxygen at 50 K is heated to 300 K at constant pressure of 1 atm. The rate of heating is constant.

Which of the following graphs represents the variation of temperature with time? [JEE' 2004 (Scr.)]

Q.2 A cube of coefficient of linear expansion s is floating in a bath containing a liquid of coefficient of volume

expansion l. When the temperature is raised by T, the depth upto which the cube is submerged in the

liquid remains the same. Find the relation between s and l, showing all the steps. [JEE 2004]

Q.3 Three discsA, B, and C having radii 2 m, 4 m and 6 m respectivelyare coated with carbon black on their

outer surfaces. The wavelengths corresponding to maximum intensity are 300 nm, 400 nm and 500 nm

respectively. The power radiated by them are QA, QB and QC respectively. [JEE' 2004 (Scr.)]

(A) QA is maximum (B) QB is maximum (C) QC is maximum (D) QA = QB = QC

Q.4 Two identical conducting rods are first connected independently to two vessels, one containing water at

100°C and the other containing ice at 0° C. In the second case, the rods are joined end to end and

connected to the same vessels. Let q1 and q2 g/s be the rate of melting of ice in the two cases respectively.

The ratio q2/q1 is [JEE' 2004 (Scr.)]

(A) 1/2 (B) 2/1 (C) 4/1 (D) 1/4

furnace of temperature T1. The other end of the rod is kept at a

temperature T2. The thermal conductivity of the material of the rod is K

and emissivity of the rod is e. It is given that T2 = TS + T where T

<< TS, TS being the temperature of the surroundings. If T (T1 – TS),

find theproportionalityconstant.Consider thatheat is lost onlybyradiation

at the end where the temperature of the rod is T2. [JEE 2004]

Q.6 2 litre water at 27°C is heated by a 1 kW heater in an open container. On an average heat is lost to

surroundings at the rate 160 J/s. The time required for the temperature to reach 77°C is

(A) 8 min 20 sec (B) 10 min (C) 7 min (D) 14 min [JEE' 2005 (Scr)]

Q.7 1 calorie is the heat required to increased the temperature of 1 gm of water by 1°C from

(A) 13.5°C to 14.5°C at 76 mm of Hg (B) 14.5°C to 15.5°C at 760 mm of Hg

(C) 0°C to 1°C at 760 mm of Hg (D) 3°C to 4°C to 760 mm of Hg

[JEE' 2005 (Scr)]

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 38

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

power and wavelength of radiation of the sun, a welding arc and a tungsten

filament. Which of the following combination is correct

(A) 1-bulb, 2 welding arc, 3 sun

(B) 2-bulb, 3 welding arc, 1 sun

(C) 3-bulb, 1 welding arc, 2 sun

(D) 2-bulb, 1 welding arc, 3 sun [JEE' 2005 (Scr)]

Q.9 In which of the following phenomenon heat convection does not take place

(A) land and sea breeze (B) boiling of water [JEE' 2005 (Scr)]

(C) heating of glass surface due to filament of the bulb (D) air around the furance

Q.10 Aspherical body of areaA, and emissivity e = 0.6 is kept inside a black body. What is the rate at which

energy is radiated per second at temperature T [JEE' 2005 (Scr)]

(A) 0.6 AT4 (B) 0.4 AT4 (C) 0.8 AT4 (D) 1.0 AT4

Q.11 In an insulated vessel, 0.05 kg steam at 373 K and 0.45 kg of ice at 253 K are mixed. Then, find the

final temperature of the mixture.

Given, Lfusion = 80 cal/g = 336 J/g, Lvaporization = 540 cal/g = 2268 J/g,

Sice = 2100 J/kg K = 0.5 cal/gK and Swater = 4200 J/kg K = 1 cal /gK [JEE 2006]

Q.12 In a dark room with ambient temperature T0, a black body is kept at a temperature T. Keeping the

temperature of the black body constant (at T), sunrays are allowed to fall on the black body through a

hole in the roof of the dark room. Assuming that there is no change in the ambient temperature of the

room, which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

(A) The quantity of radiation absorbed by the black body in unit time will increase.

(B) Since emissivity= absorptivity, hence the quantityof radiation emitted byblack body in unit time will

increase.

(C) Black body radiates more energy in unit time in the visible spectrum.

(D) The reflected energy in unit time by the black body remains same. [JEE 2006]

Q.13 Column I gives some devices and Column II gives some processes on which the functioning of these

devices depend. Match the devices in Column I with the processes in Column II and indicate your

answer by darkening appropriate bubbles in the 4 × 4 matrix given in the ORS. [JEE 2007]

Column I Column II

(A) Bimetallic strip (P) Radiation from a hot body

(B) Steam engine (Q) Energy conversion

(C) Incandescent lamp (R) Melting

(D) Electric fuse (S) Thermal exapansion of solids

Q.14 A metal rodAB of length l0x has its one endA in ice at 0°Cand the other end B in water at 100°C. If a

point P on the rod is maintained at 400°C, then it is found that equal amounts of water and ice evaporate

and melt per unit time. The latent heat of evaporation of water is 540 cal/g and latent heat of melting of

ice is 80 cal/g. If the point P is at a distance of x from the ice endA, find the value of .

[Neglect any heat loss to the surrounding.] [JEE-2009]

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 39

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.15 Two spherical bodies A(radius 6 cm) and B(radius 18 cm) are at temperature T1 and T2, respectively.

The maximum intensity in the emission spectrum of A is at 500 nm and in that of B is at 1500 nm.

Considering them to be black bodies, what will be the ratio of the rate of total energy radiated byA to

that of B ? [JEE-2010]

Q.16 A piece of ice (heat capacity = 2100 J kg–1 °C–1 and latent heat = 3.36 × 105 J kg–1) of mass m grams

is at –5°C at atmospheric pressure. It is given 420 J of heat so that the ice starts melting. Finally when the

ice-water mixture is in equilibrium, it is found that 1gm of ice has melted.Assuming there is no other heat

exchange in the process, the value of m is [JEE-2010]

Q.17 Acomposite block is made of slabsA, B, C, D and E of different thermal conductivity (given in terms of

a constant K) and sizes (given in terms of length, L) as shown in the figure.All slabs are of same width.

Heat 'Q' flows only from left to right through the blocks. Then in steady state [JEE-2011]

0 1L 5L 6L

heat

A B 3K E

1L

2K C 4K 6K

3L

D 5K

4L

(A) heat flow through A and E slabs are same

(B) heat flow through slab E is maximum

(C) temperature difference across slab E is smallest.

(D) heat flow through C = heat flow through B + heat flow through D.

Q.18 Steel wire of length 'L' at 40°C is suspended from the ceiling and then a mass 'm' is hung from its free

end. The wire is cooled down from 40°C to 30°C to regain its original length 'L'. The coefficient of linear

thermal expansion of the steel is 10–5 /°C. Young's modulus of steel is 1011 N/m2 and radius of the wire

is 1 mm. Assume that L>> diameter of the wire. Then the value of 'm' in kg is nearly. [JEE-2011]

Q.19 Three very large plates of same area are kept parallel and close to each other. They are considered as

ideal black surfaces and have veryhigh thermal conductivity. The first and third plates are maintained at

temperatures 2T and 3T respectively. The temperature of the middle (i.e. second) plate under steady

state condition is [JEE-2012]

1/ 4 1/ 4 1/ 4

65 97 97

(A) T (B) T (C) T (D) 97 1 / 4 T

2 4 2

Q.20 One end of a horizontal thick copper wire of length 2L and radius 2R is welded to an end of another

horizontal thin copper wire of length L and radius R. When the arrangement is strectched by applying

forces at two ends, the ratio of the elongation in the thin wire to that in the thick wire is [JEE-2013]

(A) 0.25 (B) 0.50 (C) 2.00 (D) 4.00

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 40

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.21 Two rectangular, blocks, having identical dimensions, can be arranged either in configuration I or in

configuration II as shown in the figure. One of the blocks has thermal conductivity K and the other 2K.

The temperature difference between the ends along the x-axis is the same in both the configurations. It

takes 9 s to transport a certain amount of heat from the hot end to the cold end in the configuration I. The

time to transport the same amount of heat in the configuration II is [JEE-2013]

Configuration I Configuration II

2K

K 2K K

Q.22 The figure below shows the variation of specific heat capacity (C) of a solid as a function of temperature

(T). The temperature is increased continuously from 0 to 500 K at a constant rate. Ignoring any volume

change, the following statement (s) is (are) correct to reasonable approximation. [JEE-2013]

T(K)

(A) the rate at which heat is absorbed in the range 0-100 K varies linearly with temperature T.

(B) heat absorbed in increasing the temperature from 0-100 K is less than the heat required for increasing

the temperature from 400 - 500 K.

(C) there is no change in the rate of heat absorption in the range 400 - 500 K

(D) the rate of heat absorption increases in the range 200 - 300 K.

SECTION-B

(JEE Main Previous Year's Questions)

Q.1 A wire fixed at the upper end stretched by length by applying a force F. The work done in stretching

is – [AIEEE-2004]

F F

(A) 2F (B) F (C) (D)

2 2

Q.2 If the temperature of the sun were to increase from T to 2T and its radius from R to 2R, then the ratio of

the radiant energy received on earth to what it was previously will be – [AIEEE-2004]

(A) 4 (B) 16 (C) 32 (D) 64

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 41

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.3 A radiation of energyE falls normally on a perfectlyreflecting surface. The momentum transferred to the

surface is – [AIEEE-2004]

(A) E/c (B) 2E/c (C) Ec (D) E/c2

Q.4 The temperature of the two outer surfaces of a composite slab, consisting of two materials having

coefficients of thermal conductivity K and 2K and thickness x and 4x, respectively, are T2 and

A (T2 T1 ) K

T1 (T2 > T1). The rate of heat transfer through the slab, in a steady state is f, with f equal

x

to – [AIEEE-2004]

Q.5 If 'S' is stress and 'Y' is Young's modulus of material of a wire, the energy stored in the wire per unit

volume is [AIEEE-2005]

S2 2Y S

(A) 2S2Y (B) (C) (D)

2Y S2 2Y

Q.6 The figure shows a system of two concentric spheres of radii r1 and r2 and kept at temperatures T1 and

T2 respectively. The radial rate of flow of heat in a substance between the two concentric spheres is

proportional to [AIEEE-2005]

r1r2

(A) (r2 – r1)/(r1r2) (B) ln r2 (C) (r r ) (D) (r2 – r1)

r 1 2 1

Q.7 A wire elongates by mm when a load W is hanged from it. If the wire goes over a pulley and two

weights W each are hung at the two ends, the elongation of the wire will be (in mm)– [AIEEE-2006]

(A) zero (B) /2 (C) (D) 2

Q.8 Assuming the Sun to be a spherical body of radius R at a temperature of T K, evaluate the total radiant

power, incident on Earth, at a distance r from the Sun – [AIEEE-2006]

(A) r0 R T / 4 r

2 2 4 2 (B) R T / r

2 4 2

(C) 4 r0 R T / r

2 2 4 2 (D) r02 R2 T4 / r2

where r is the radius of the Earth and is Stefan's constant.

Q.9 One end of a thermally insulated rod is kept at a temperature T1 and the other at T2. The rod is composed

of two sections of lengths l1 and l2 and thermal conductivities k1 and k2 respectively. The temperature at

the interface of the two sections is [AIEEE-2007]

T 1 l1 l2 T2

k1 k2

(A) (k2 l 2 T1 + k1 l 1 T 2 ) / (k1 l 1 + k2 l2)

(B) (k2 l 1 T1 + k1 l 2 T 2 ) / (k2 l 1 + k1 l2)

(C) (k1 l 2 T1 + k2 l 1 T 2 ) / (k1 l 2 + k2 l1)

(D) (k1 l 1 T1 + k2 l 2 T 2 ) / (k1 l 1 + k2 l2)

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 42

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.10 Two wires are made of the same material and have the same volume. Howerver wire 1 has cross-section

areaAand wire 2 has cross-section area 3A. If the length of wire 1 increases by x on applying force F,

how much force is needed to stretch wire 2 by the same amount ? [AIEEE-2009]

(A) F (B) 4 F (C) 6 F (D) 9 F

Q.11 A long metallic bar is carrying heat from one of its ends of the other end under steady-state. The

variation of temperature along the length x of the bar from its hot end is best described by which

of the following figures? [AIEEE– 2009]

(A) (B)

(C) (D)

Q.12 The thermally insulated vessel contains an ideal gas of molecular mass M and ratio of specific heat . It

is moving with speed v and is suddenly brought to rest.Assuming no heat is lost to the surroundings, its

temperature increases by : [AIEEE-2011]

( 1) ( 1) Mv 2 ( 1)

(A) Mv 2 K (B) Mv 2 K (C) K (D) Mv 2 K

2( 1)R 2R 2R 2R

Q.13 A wooden wheel of radius R is made of two semicircular parts (see figure). The two parts are held

together by a ring made of a metal strip of cross sectional area S and length L. L is slightly less than 2R.

To fit the ring on the wheel, it is heated so that its temperature rises by T and it just steps over the

wheel. As it cools down to surrounding temperature, it presses the semicircular parts together. If the

coefficient of linear expansion of the metal is , and its Young's modulus is Y, the force that one part of

the wheel applies on the other part is : [AIEEE-2012]

Q.14 A liquid in a beaker has temperature (t) at time t and 0 is temperature of surroundings, then according

to Newton's law of cooling the correct graph between loge( – 0) and t is: [AIEEE-2012]

loge ( – 0)

loge ( – 0)

loge ( – 0)

loge ( – 0)

0 t

0 t

t t

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 43

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.15 If a piece of metal is heated to temperature and then allowed to cool in a room which is at temperature

0, the graph between the temperature T of the metal and time t will be closest to

T

T T T

(A) 0 (B) 0 (C) 0 (D)

O t O t O t

O t

[JEE Main 2013]

Q.16 The pressure that has to be applied to the ends of a steel wire of length 10 cm to keep its length constant

when its temperature is raised by 100°C is : (For steel Young's modulus is 2 × 1011 Nm–2 and coefficient

of thermal expansion is 1.1 × 10–5 K–1) [JEE Main-2014]

(A) 2.2 × 109 Pa (B) 2.2 × 107 Pa (C) 2.2 × 106 Pa (D) 2.2 × 108 Pa

Q.17 Three rods of Copper, Brass and Steel are welded together to form a Y-shaped structure. Area of

cross-section of each rod = 4 cm2. End of copper rod is maintained at 100ºC where as ends of brass

and steel are kept at 0°C. Lengths of the copper, brass and steel rods are 46, 13 and 12 cms respectively.

The rods are thermally insulated from surroundings except at ends. Thermal conductivities of copper,

brass and steel are 0.92, 0.26 and 0.12 CGS units respectively. Rate of heat flow through copper rod is

(A) 2.4 cal/s (B) 4.8 cal/s (C) 6.0 cal/s (D) 1.2 cal/s

[JEE Main-2014]

Q.1 If you drill a hole horizontallythrough the branch of a tree, you risk weakening the branch. For minimum

weakening, drill the hole through the

(C) lower part, C (D) makes no difference.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 44

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.2 Along solid cylinder is radiating power. It is remoulded into a number of smaller cylinders, each of which

has the same length as orignal cylinder. Each small cylinder has the same temperature as the original

cylinder. The total radiant power emitted bythe pieces is twice that emitted by the original cylinder. How

many smaller cylinders are there ? Neglect the energy emitted by the flat faces of cylinder.

(A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6

Q.3 Ice at 0°C is added to 200 g of water initially at 70°C in a vacuum flask. When 50 g of ice has been

added and has all melted the temperature of the flask and contents is 40°C. When a further 80g of ice

has been added and has all metled, the temperature of the whole is 10°C. Calculate the specific latent

heat of fusion of ice.[Take Sw =1 cal /gm °C.]

(A) 3.8 ×105 J/ kg (B) 1.2 ×105 J/ kg (C) 2.4 ×105 J/ kg (D) 3.0 ×105 J/ kg

Q.4 A wire of cross-secitonal area 4 × 10–4 m2 modulus of elasticity 2 × 1011 N/m2 and length 1 m is

stretched between two vertical rigid poles.Amass of 1 kg is suspended at its middle. Calculate the angle

it makes with the horizontal.

Q.5 A cylindrical block of length 0.4 m an area of cross-section 0.04m2 is placed coaxially on a thin metal

disc of mass 0.4 kg and of the same cross-section. The upper face of the cylinder is maintained at a

constant temperature of 400K and the initial temperature of the disc is 300K. If the thermal conductivity

of the material of the cylinder is 10 watt/m-K and the specific heat of the material of the disc in 600 J/kg-

K, how long will it take for the temperature of the disc to increase to 350K? Assume, for purposes of

calculation, the thermal conductivity of the disc to be very high and the system to be thermally insulated

except for the upper face of the cylinder.

Q.6 A vertical brick duct(tube) is filled with cast iron. The lower end of the duct is maintained at a temperature

T 1 which is greater than the melting point Tm of cast iron and the upper end at a temperature T2 which is

less than the temperature of the melting point of cast iron. It is given that the conductivity of liquid cast

iron is equal to k times the conductivity of solid cast iron. Determine the fraction of the duct filled with

molten metal.

Q.7 A lagged stick of cross section area 1 cm2 and length 1 m is initially at a temperature of 0°C. It is then

kept between 2 reservoirs of tempeature 100°C and 0°C. Specific heat capacity is 10 J/kg°C and linear

mass density is 2 kg/m. Find

(b) total heat absorbed by the rod to reach steady state.

Q.8 A highly conducting solid cylinder of radius a and length l is surrounded by a co-axial layer of a material

having thermal conductivityK and negligible heat capacity. Temperature of surrounding space (out side

the layer) is T0, which is higher than temperature of the cylinder. If heat capacity per unit volume of

cylinder material is s and outer radius of the layer is b, calculate time required to increase temperature of

the cylinder from T1 to T2.Assume end faces to be thermally insulated.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 45

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

Q.9 Water is heated from 10°C to 90°C in a residential hot water heater at a rate of 70 litre per minute.

Natural gas with a density of 1.2 kg/m3 is used in the heater, which has a transfer efficiency of 32%. Find

the gas consumption rate in cubic meters per hour. (heat combustion for natural gas is 8400 kcal/kg)

Q.10 Ice at -20°C is filled upto height h = 10 cm in a uniform cylindrical vessel. Water at temperature °C is

filled in another identical vessel upto the same height h= 10 cm. Now, water from second vessel is

poured into first vessel and it is found that level of upper surface falls through

h = 0. 5 cm when thermal equilibrium is reached. Neglecting thermal capacity of vessels, change in

density of water due to change in temperature and loss of heat due to radiation, calculate initial temperature

of water.

Given, Density of water, w = 1 gm cm–3

Density of ice, i = 0.9 gm/cm3

Specific heat of water, sw = 1 cal/gm 0C

Specific heat of ice, si = 0.5 cal/gm0C

Specific latent heat of ice, L = 80 cal/gm

Q.11 The apparatus shown in the figure consists of four glass columns

connected by horizontal sections. The height of two central columns

B & C are 49 cm each. The two outer columns A & D are open to

the atmosphere. A & C are maintained at a temperature of 95º C

while the columns B & D are maintained at 5º C. The height of the

liquid in A & D measured from the base line are 52.8 cm & 51 cm

respectively. Determine the coefficient

of thermal expansion of the liquid.

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 46

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

EXERCISE-1

Q.1 (i) 50 N, (ii) 0.045 J, (iii) 8.4 × 10–4 m, (iv) x = 0.12 m

Q.2 (a) (dgL)/4Y, (b) (dgL)/6Y Q.3 25.5°C

Q.4 0 °C, 125/4 g ice, 1275/4 g water Q.5 12 gm

–1 –1 –1

Q.6 (i)0.02kg,(ii) 40,000calkg ,(iii)750calkg K Q.7 (a) 37.8 J/s (Watts), (b) 2.005 N-m

Q.8 0.5 kg Q.9 1000 J (C°)–1 Q.10 5/3

Q.11 5 sec slow Q.12 0.1 cm Q.13 4 × 10–6 m/°C

Q.14 Q.15 10, 000 N Q.16 5°C

1/ 3

6

Q.17 (4/3) Q.18 2:1 Q.19

Q.23 (a) 595 watt/m2, (b) T0 420 K Q.24 27°C

EXERCISE-2

Q.1 D Q.2 B Q.3 D Q.4 A Q.5 C

Q.6 A Q.7 B Q.8 A Q.9 A Q.10 B

Q.11 A Q.12 D Q.13 A Q.14 C Q.15 D

Q.16 A Q.17 B Q.18 C Q.19 D Q.20 C

Q.21 C Q.22 B Q.23 C Q.24 B Q.25 B

Q.26 C Q.27 C Q.28 A Q.29 B Q.30 A

Q.31 C Q.32 D Q.33 A Q.34 C Q.35 C

Q.36 C Q.37 B Q.38 C Q.39 D Q.40 B

Q.41 A Q.42 A Q.43 A Q.44 B Q.45 B

Q.46 A Q.47 D Q.48 A Q.49 C Q.50 D

Q.51 A Q.52 D Q.53 B Q.54 D Q.55 D

Q.56 B Q.57 B Q.58 D Q.59 A Q.60 A

Q.61 A Q.62 D Q.63 A Q.64 D Q.65 AC

Q.66 ABC Q.67 ACD Q.68 ACD Q.69 D Q.70 AC

Q.71 AB Q.72 D Q.73 AB Q.74 ABCD Q.75 D

Q.76 BD Q.77 (A) Q (B) R (C) S (D) P

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 47

ELASTICITY, THERMAL EXPANSION, CALORIMETRY & HEAT TRANSFER

EXERCISE-3

SECTION-A

Q.1 C Q.2 l = 2s Q.3 B Q.4 D

K

Q.5 Q.6 A Q.7 B Q.8 A Q.9 C

4eLTS3 K

Q.13 (A) S, Q ;(B) Q; (C) P, Q; (D) Q, R or (A) S, (B) Q, (C) P, (D) R

Q.14 9 Q.15 9 Q.16 8 Q.17 ACD Q.18 3

Q.19 C Q.20 C Q.21 A Q.22 ABCD or BCD

SECTION-B

Q.1 D Q.2 D Q.3 A Q.4 D Q.5 B

Q.6 C Q.7 C Q.8 D Q.9 C Q.10 D

Q.11 B Q.12 D Q.13 B Q.14 C Q.15 B

Q.16 D Q.17 B

EXERCISE-4

Q.1 B Q.2 B Q.3 A Q.4 1/200 rad

l1 k (T1 Tm )

Q.5 166.3 sec Q.6 Q.7 (a) –100 °C/m, (b) 1000 J

l k (T1 Tm ) (Tm T2 )

a 2s b T T

Q.8 log e log e 0 1 Q.9 104.2 Q.10 45°C

2K a T0 T2

Q.11 2 × 10–4 C

BANSAL CLASSES Private Ltd. ‘Gaurav Tower’, A-10, Road No.-1, I.P.I.A., Kota-05 Page # 48

- SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETEHochgeladen vonabhineet srivastava
- BoltShearCapacity_14-15Hochgeladen vonNurul Huda
- Bolt AnalysisHochgeladen vonCris Banda
- Lecture No 2Hochgeladen vonKhiZra ShahZad
- Weld CalculationHochgeladen vonTAUFIK
- Ultrastrong Magnesium Alloy via Nano Spaced Stacking FaultsHochgeladen vonAltairEnlighten
- amira2011.pdfHochgeladen vonharesh prajapati
- ISRM-EUROCK-2010-012_Determination of Direct Tensile Strength and Stiffness of Intact RocksHochgeladen vonamy75
- Zadatci Iz SatatikeHochgeladen vonElvis Sakic
- WJ_1978_11_s334.pdfHochgeladen vonHerickMonroy
- Batch Testing Req'dHochgeladen vonYan Abu Fira
- CE 431 Welding Lab.docHochgeladen vonravi
- Material Yield Stress COMPARITIVE DATAHochgeladen vonsh
- Aghajani-Namin, Aria.pdfHochgeladen vonmohammad Bakhshi
- 0702wsHochgeladen vonkartik.123
- sfrc-aci-11Hochgeladen vonrafaelnmbarros
- Tivar 1000 Antistatic Glob e 19092016Hochgeladen vonsulatnigabo
- Tivar Dryslide Pds Glob e 19092016Hochgeladen vonsulatnigabo
- B444-16e1Hochgeladen vonDam Vo
- B-1.pdfHochgeladen vonmanuel flores
- 8 Reinforced Concrete Structure - Park Paulay.pdfHochgeladen vonPercy Abel Mamani Lipa
- Рофикс - Систем За Санација На Масивен ЅидHochgeladen vonДраган Милевски
- edoc.site_sni-03-3403-1994Hochgeladen vonNovi Rahmayanti
- 2011111103421345Hochgeladen vonkhaledaj1977
- Bracket ConnectionHochgeladen vonUttam Raj Sutrave
- Strong Well Gridform Design GuideHochgeladen vonBabak Vand
- Component model for pull-out behaviour of headed anchored blind bolt within concrete filled circular hollow sectionHochgeladen vonKristopher Orlowski
- 15-192Hochgeladen vonRami Alraof Alaydi
- PDF Aws d172Hochgeladen vonCarlosMontiel
- lecture4indext4Hochgeladen vonkrsunil17

- ASSIGNMENT.docHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- Chapter01 - Logarithm.pdfHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- AITS-2014-CRT-III-JEEM+JEEA-Advanced-PAPER-1-Questions-PAPERHochgeladen vonlonglostloner889
- Stoichiometry.pdfHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- 12 Chemistry Impq CH01 the Solid State 01Hochgeladen vonSanjay Gupta
- 12_chemistry_impq_CH03_electro_chemistry_02.pdfHochgeladen vonaman
- 12345.docxHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- manmad chem.pdfHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- 9780521270731_Excerpt_001.pdfHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- Electrostatics (JEE).pdfHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- 2_Current Electricity.docHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- Sheet Mole Concept TheoryHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- Sheet_goc_1_theory_english.pdfHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- bitsatpaper.pdfHochgeladen vonRam Ji
- Chapter19 - Area Under CurvesHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- WORK AND ENERGY.docHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- acHochgeladen vonJhon Harrison
- ContentHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- (2097)Lecture Notes Solutions and Colligative Proerties eHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- (2095)Lecture Notes Mole Concept eHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- (2099)Lecture Notes p Block 15 16 e.pdf.TmpHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- (2091)Lecture Notes Electrochemistry e.pdf.TmpHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- (2090)Lecture Notes Chemical Kinetics Radioactivity eHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- (2087)Lecture Notes 1 Atomic Structure eHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- Allen Test PaperHochgeladen vonshambhavi26
- Rotational Mechanics (NEET).pdfHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey
- Scibd Test DocHochgeladen vonRamJiPandey

- 3624pressure GaugesHochgeladen vonJanesha
- Fluent12 Lecture02 Intro to CfdHochgeladen vonpooyasf
- Book Club Guide: FRONT LINES by Michael GrantHochgeladen vonEpicReads
- genre research paper finalHochgeladen vonapi-323742240
- Cerebro spinal Fluid Analysis in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis.pdfHochgeladen vonlynharee
- 273555443-PRIMARY-ENG-PAPER-1-pdf.pdfHochgeladen vonAgata Dziedzic-Kallidou
- alice tribute for webHochgeladen vonapi-46125325
- safety-at135.pdfHochgeladen voncarbono980
- how to think like da vinci.pdfHochgeladen vonTushar Walia
- Military Review-ethics.pdfHochgeladen vonTemplarKnight56
- ChickenpoxHochgeladen vonNisa Ghaisani
- Complexity of Culture EditedHochgeladen vonKath Tan Alcantara
- SYNOPSES.virgin Labfest 13Hochgeladen vonCyrus Panganiban
- Informal Letters and EmailsHochgeladen vonSimona Singiorzan
- Strata Control Exam QuestionsHochgeladen vonMartin January
- Miller Cagw3e Im-tif Final-149443Hochgeladen vonspongebobmode
- Turbine Oil Market (2014-2020)Hochgeladen vonChemicals IndustryARC
- BRMSHochgeladen vonmurali_mtv
- Collateral WarrantyHochgeladen vonAbdul Basit
- Corn Cob as an Oil Adsorbent CompleteHochgeladen vonRez Apego
- chit chatHochgeladen vonapi-309927332
- Free SAT Math Level 2 Subject TestHochgeladen vonMirza Muqadam
- gender issues in modern societyHochgeladen vonapi-302695491
- NAAS 2017Hochgeladen vonbanday
- PROMOTION OF BISLERI AT RETAIL AND INSTITUTIONAL OUTLETSHochgeladen vonLindoJacob
- Dwight Wilhelm - Censorship in ArgentinaHochgeladen vonFederico
- Cardiac Surgery MCQHochgeladen vonprofarmah
- NSTP-Reviewer.docxHochgeladen vonAndrea Culla
- Introduction in AnthropologyHochgeladen vonAlexandru Rad
- Purecm Admin GuideHochgeladen vonLorenzo Ceci

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.