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Fig. 26-34  Assortment of hydraulic tools available to the welder.  © Enerpac Inc.

welding fabricators for a line of machines to form both and a metal-bending capacity of a 10-gauge sheet
light and heavy gauge metals. 48 inches wide. Press brakes with hydraulic controls
have a capacity of from 200 to 2,000 tons. In addition
Power Press Brakes to their capacity to bend materials, power press brakes
A power press brake like that shown in Fig. 26-39, can punch, blank, form, and notch sheet metal. These
page 850has a workpower capacity of 30 to 45 tons brakes are all-welded in their construction. This is an-
other example of the use of tools for welding fabrica-
tion in which the tools themselves are also of welded
construction.

Hand Bending Brake


A hand brake, Fig. 26-40, page 850, also known as a box
and pan brake makes bending and forming easier for the
sheet metal fabricator. A great deal of welding fabrica-
tion is concerned with boxes and pans of all types that
can be formed on these machines. Figure 26-41, page 850
shows examples of metalwork made with the hand bend-
ing brake.

Hand Box and Pan Brakes


Fig. 26-35  A welder with a hydraulic C-clamp. Using proper A box and pan brake, Fig. 26-40, page 850, incorpo-
safety precautions.  © Enerpac Inc. rates all the features of a standard hand brake. Because

848  Chapter 26 General Equipment for Welding Shops


Fig. 26-37  A hydraulic bending machine with a capacity of 12 ft × 3⁄4-inch
thick mild steel. The machine is bending 8 ft × 1⁄2-inch stainless-steel plate.
Fig. 26-36  The use of hydraulics in connection with Note the use of the hydraulic loading support.  © Baileigh Industrial, Inc
jigs and fixtures makes setting up and tacking easy. 
© Enerpac Inc.

it has removable, sectioned fingers, nose bars, and bend-


R F
ing bars, as well as greater clearances than the bending
brake, it is more versatile. For example, the brake can
Lower roller set at plate
form a box or pan having four sides and a bottom from thickness. Front roller set
one sheet of metal. R
­ adius bends, such as those in mod- for prebending operation.
ern metal ­furniture and cabinets, canbe made with the A
round nose bars. Figure 26-42, page 851 shows examples
of the various shapes that can be fabricated. Corners are
usually welded. Bending operation
completed in one pass.

Universal Bender D

The universal bender is an indispensable piece of equip- Prebending operation


ment for a welding fabrication shop. It is a bending and completed.
forming tool that can bend radii and angles on a wide B
variety of shapes ranging from small rod through pipe
and tubing, to flat stock and angle iron. Its versatility,
capacity, and fast, easy setup make it ideal for short
run production, custom fabrication, and maintenance
work. All lower rollers drop to allow
R F cylinder to be ejected.
No tools are necessary for the assembly of dies that
bend pipe, rounds, flats, squares, tubing, and angle E

iron to specifications. Finger adjustment of mounting Rear side roller set to give
required diameter. Front
pins is all that is required. Figure 26-43 shows tubing roller lowered.
being bent to a radius. Figure 26-44 shows the bender C
being used to bend flat stock edgewise to a radius.
Figure 26-45 shows how a round rod can be bent into Fig. 26-38  Steps in rolling steel sheet. This is the
a U-shape. The machines shown are hand operated. process performed by the bending machine shown in
Hard-to-pull bends can be accomplished by adding a Fig. 26-37.

General Equipment for Welding Shops   Chapter 26  849


Fig. 26-39  An instructor demonstrating the use of a power press
brake prior to welding. Note the proper hand position, as the part is
bending in the upward direction.  © Renee Bohnart

hydraulic power attachment. Simple, positive foot con-


trol of the hydraulic power makes it possible to use both
hands for controlling stock.
The universal bender is found in most job shops, Fig. 26-40  A welding student bending a part in
maintenance departments, ornamental iron shops and hand bending brake.  © Renee Bohnart
on construction jobs that require a large amount of steel
fabrication.
The power squaring shears shown in Fig. 26-47, page 852
Power Squaring Shears have a capacity that ranges from 16-gauge sheet metal to
The power squaring shear, Fig. 26-46, page 852 is an indis- ½-inch thick plate. Shears with a capacity of 1 inch are
pensable piece of equipment in the welding shop or school. available. The machine is of welded construction. Every
The fabrication of metals requires that they be cut with effort has been made in the interest of safety of opera-
accuracy, speed, economy, and safety. In the school shop, tion. Drives are fully enclosed, and the rear of the ma-
square edges on the material to be welded are necessary for chine is free from exposed, rotating shafts and eccentrics
quality welding and the efficient use of training time. that pose potential hazards. Flange-mounted motors,

Fig. 26-41  Forms that can be produced in sheet metal on a hand bending brake. These may become a part
of a total weldment.  Source: Dreis and Krump Manufacturing Company

850  Chapter 26 General Equipment for Welding Shops


welded must be free of rust, oil, grease, and
paint. These materials cause brittleness and
gas pockets in the welded joint. Multipass
welding requires cleaning between each pass.
Cleaning after the joint has been welded is
also important for the sake of appearance
and in preparation for painting. Steel wire
brushes, Fig. 26-48, page 852, chisels, and
cleaning hammers, Fig.  26-49, page 852, re-
move slag, rust, and other dry material from
metal surfaces.
The chipping hammer has one end shaped
like a chisel for general cleaning. The other
end is pointed in order to reach the slag in
corners, along the edges, and in deep ripples.
Some chipping hammers are mounted with a
wire brush, Fig. 26-50, page 852. Electric or
pneumatic tools may also be used for preweld
and postweld cleaning. These include grind-
ers, wire wheels, and powered chipping ham-
mers. Sandblasting is required for a flawless
surface. Nonporous metals are chemically
cleaned, especially when a high grade paint
or enamel finish is desired.
A welder will also have use for the hand
tools shown in Fig. 26-51, page 853 which are
identified as follows:
A. Identification stamps are necessary in
shops where critical welding is done.
Fig. 26-42  Bending profiles produced in sheet metal on a box and pan They are for the purpose of identifying
brake.  Source: Dreis and Krump Manufacturing Company the welder with the job.

direct-connected through splines, eliminate belts, guards,


and overhanging flywheels.

Small Hand Tools


The welder must frequently use one of several meth-
ods to clean the work. The surfaces of the joint to be

Fig. 26-44  Bending flat strip.  © Hossfeld Manufacturing Company

Fig. 26-43  Bending tubing.  © Hossfeld Manufacturing Company Fig. 26-45  Bending round rod.  © Hossfeld Manufacturing Company

General Equipment for Welding Shops   Chapter 26  851


Fig. 26-46  A welding student is using a squaring shear on an ironworker to
create some practice plates for welding. Plate up to 10 inches wide and 3⁄8 inch
thick can be sheared on this 50 ton capacity machine. These type machines are Fig. 26-49  Weld cleaning hammer.  © Atlas Welding
capable of doing much more than just square shearing.   © Renee Bohnart Accessories

B. Weld gauges make it possible for the welder to


measure the size of welds and determine their
correctness according to specifications.
C. The combination square and scale may be useful
in squaring stock, squaring angles, marking off
and measuring dimensions, and doing general
layout work.
D. The bevel protractor is essential in work requiring
the tacking up and welding of fittings at an angle.
E. Thickness gauges and micrometers determine
the thickness of material. On some jobs only
a thickness gauge is necessary. For jobs that
involve a great deal of light gauge material and
when accuracy is necessary as in aircraft con-
struction, the welder will use the micrometer for
checking thicknesses.
F. The flexible scale is useful for all types of mea-
Fig. 26-47  A welding student is using a squaring shear with digital suring, especially around radii and other hard-
control over width of cut. Steel plate up to 10 feet wide and ½ inch thick to-secure measurements.
can be sheared on this machine.  © Renee Bohnart

Fig. 26-50  Combination wire brush and cleaning hammer. 


Fig. 26-48  Wire brush for cleaning welds. © Atlas Welding Accessories

852  Chapter 26 General Equipment for Welding Shops


drills, hand and floor grinders, edge prepara-
H tion tools, and weld-shaving devices.
Efficient and safe use of portable power tools
requires a basic understanding of their con-
struction and their power source as well as an
D
appreciation of the advantages, disadvantages,
and limitations of each type.
B Power tools use a variety of energy sources
K such as electrical, pneumatic (compressed air),
C
and hydraulic (pressurized fluid) for power.
All three types do the same work. The pro-
I ductivity of each tool, however, varies with the
E application. The operator has constant control
B G A G over speed and load. Tool size has an effect on
operator fatigue and, hence, efficiency.
F
J
Types of Power Source
Fig. 26-51  Set of hand tools needed by a journeyman welder for ­layout, fitting Electric Motors  Electric motors are available
up, material checking, and weld checking. in various types. The most commonly used
are the universal and a.c. induction motors for
G. The scribe and center punch mark lines and other power tools.
layout information accurately on steel. The scribe, Universal Electric  Universal electric tools are the most
also called a scratch awl, has a hardened steel point common portable tools. They operate on standard
in order to make an impression in the metal. After the 110- or 220-volt a.c. or d.c. single-phase current, the cheap-
line has been made, it is often found that the finely est power available. These tools are best suited for inter-
scribed line must be further marked to be seen clearly. mittent operation, typified by maintenance, installation,
This is especially true of lines that serve as a guide and field work.
for cutting torch operations. The additional marking Since universal motors operate on a.c. or d.c. power
is made with the center punch. A center punch is also and are intended for field use, they can operate on all
useful in spotting a point that is to be drilled. The types of engine-driven welding generators. In some cases
impression made by the punch prevents the drill from the welding generators only output d.c. auxiliary power,
wandering all over the surface to be drilled. which will damage an a.c. motor. Universal motors are of
H. The cold chisel is handy for preparing the joint for weld- fixed speed.
ing and for removing slag, burrs, ­spatter, high places in Universal electric tools have some drawbacks. One of
the weld, and evidence of poor f­ usion after welding. the most significant is that the units have commutators and
I. The hand hammer is an indispensable tool. It pro- carbon brushes as well as armature windings, all of which
vides the force for using the center punch in layout require attention. The maintenance of universal electric
work and the cold chisel in cleaning. tools is costly and they should, under no circumstances,
J. Pliers are used for carrying and handling hot metal be used continuously as in assembly line operations.
and for holding parts that are to be tack welded to A variation of these types of motors are those with speed
the main structure. control. For example, normally in the trigger mechanism of
K. The center head is used to find the center of round a drill motor the further you pull the trigger, the faster the
bars and pipe. buildup to the maximum speed of the tool. These types of
A hand metal-cutting hacksaw (not illustrated) is useful tools generally have a reverse capability as well, which is ac-
for cutting a small piece of round or flat steel. tivated with a slide switch. These types of speed-regulated
tools are to be used only with a.c. power. Always check the
motor nameplate for the correct operation power. If used on
Portable Power Tools d.c. power, they may go to maximum speed causing an injury
The fabrication of metal and the preparation of plate for or tool damage.
welding require a variety of hand power tools such as These types of motors can be double insulated for ad-
chipping hammers, peening hammers, hand and bench ditional electrical safety purposes. They can be used in a

General Equipment for Welding Shops   Chapter 26  853


situation where a ground wire is not warranted. Another relatively low maintenance cost. Pneumatic power is ideal
variation is the battery power tool that fundamentally uses for impact tools and chipping hammers because pneumatic
a d.c. motor. Typically, the higher the battery voltage, the motors have a high tolerance for vibration. The motor is
more robust the tool will be. A 6-volt tool will have less small, light, and cool-running. Speed is infinitely variable,
capability than an 18-volt tool. Battery power is very de- and the motor can be stalled without damage. Most models
sirable for increased portability and convenience. How- are explosion-proof.
ever, batteries will need recharging and maintenance. On the negative side, pneumatic tools have a low effi-
ciency. Torque under constant load is low, and motor power
A.C. Induction Motor  The stator windings of an a.c. in- decreases with time and use. The larger motors produce a
duction motor are distributed around the stator to produce loud exhaust noise and have such a high air consumption
a roughly sinusoidal distribution. These types of motors that operating costs become excessive. Moreover, the av-
can run on single- or three-phase power, but it must be erage pneumatic installation has a 20 percent power loss
alternating current. When three-phase a.c. voltages are between the compressor and the tool, and an additional
applied to the stator windings, a rotating magnetic field 5 to 15 percent loss due to deterioration from aging. Fi-
is produced. These types of motors must have the phase nally, pneumatic tools are not suited for operation in cold
connected properly in order to have the motor turn in the weather, particularly at the higher altitudes.
proper direction. Old-style motor-generator welding ma-
chines had these types of motors. They had an arrow lo- Hydraulic  The hydraulic power tool is employed most
cated close by the armature on the generator so that the in applications requiring extremely high torque at very
direction of the armature could be determined. If it was low speeds, such as tapping over ¾ inch, drilling over 11⁄4
rotating in the incorrect direction, any two of the three inch, reaming, and tube expanding. Operation is some-
phases would need to be switched around. Single-phase what similar to that of the pneumatic tool except that a
a.c. induction motors always rotate in the proper direction. hydraulic fluid is used instead of air. A pump takes the
The rotor of an induction motor also consists of windings place of the compressor. For the most part, hydraulic tools
or more often a copper squirrel cage embedded within iron are used for continuous use and special applications.
laminates. An electric current is induced in the rotor bars, Summary  When operation is intermittent and the tool is
which also produce a magnetic field. The rotating magnetic used for different jobs, the universal electric  tool is the
field of the stator drags the rotor around. The rotor does not best choice. High frequency and pneumatic tools are more
quite keep up with the rotating magnetic field of the stator. desirable for production line work when operation is sus-
It falls behind or slips as the field rotates. tained. Of the latter two, the high frequency tool is the
These types of motors are very simple and reliable. more versatile and efficient. The pneumatic tool excels as
The power sources are well suited for production and as- a small tool for continuous, light-duty applications.
sembly line work, especially in operations requiring high
torque under constant load. Slowdown under load is less
than with the universal motor, which can be as high as Portable Electric Hand Drills
25  percent, and the pneumatic motor, which can be as The electric hand drill is a tool that the welder uses fre-
high as 36 percent. quently in fabrication and maintenance work. As indicated
previously, drill motors may be electric or pneumatic. They
Pneumatic  Pneumatic power tools require compressed air can take drill sizes from 1⁄32 inch to 11⁄4  inch in diameter.
to operate. The most common air compressors are electri- Figure 26-52 shows the internal construction of a ¾-inch,
cally driven by a three-phase, 220-volt or 440-volt motor. heavy-duty electric drill. Study the photograph carefully
On construction sites, these units are often powered by ei- to understand the electrical and mechanical functions in-
ther diesel or gasoline engines. volved. Figure 26-53 shows a ½-inch battery-powered drill
There are two types of pneumatic motors: the turbine motor and related battery-powered tools.
and the piston. Piston motors are rarely used except on
certain types of reciprocating tools. The turbine type is Electric Hammers
better suited for short stroke applications of 3 inches or Figure 26-54, page 856 shows the internal construction of
less. The turbine motor is used in about 95 percent of a heavy-duty portable electric hammer. This type of ham-
pneumatic tools. mer is used by the welder for chipping, peening, chan-
The pneumatic tool has several advantages over the uni- neling, and masonry drilling. It is used with punches,
versal electric tool. Most important are its suitability for chisels, seaming tools, scaling tools, and many sizes and
continuous operation such as assembly line work and its types of masonry drills.

854  Chapter 26 General Equipment for Welding Shops


1 3 2 3 5 6 7 A small riveting hammer is one of the hand
tools with which the welding student should have
some experience. Many fabricated units are joined
with a combination of welding and riveting. Riv-
eting is commonly used for those items in which
light and medium gauge sheet metal is being fab-
ricated. Figure 26-55, page 856 shows two stu-
dents riveting two aluminum plates together with a
pneumatic riveting hammer.
3
3
4 Sanders and Grinders
8
3 Sanders and grinders are abrasive tools that per-
form almost every kind of surfacing job for the
welder. Equipped with abrasive disks, they handle
all sanding, from fast material removal to satin-
smooth finishing. Equipped with flaring cup
wheels and depressed center wheels, they smooth
welds and casting ridges and cut off studs, bolts,
and rivets. Equipped with wire cup brushes, they
9 remove paint, rust, and scale from welds and clean
castings, tanks, sheet metal, and soldered joints.
Angle sanders and grinders are usually rated
10
to take abrasives with a diameter of 6 to 9 inches.
They have a speed of 4,000 to 8,000 r.p.m. Straight
grinders may be used with wheels of 1⁄2 to 6 inches
Fig. 26-52  Internal construction of a heavy-duty portable electric drill.
1. Half-inch hardened-steel key-operated drill chuck. 2. Spindle mounted on in diameter. Wheels from 6 inches to 21⁄2 inches
ball bearings for long life. 3. Heavy-duty ball bearings. 4. Heat-treated gears are run at speeds of from 3,750 to 14,500 r.p.m.
mounted with ball and roller bearings. 5. ­Powerful ventilating fan maintains The larger the wheel, the slower the running speed.
cool operating temperatures. 6. Universal motor mounted with ball bearings. Wheels from 2 inches to 1⁄2 inch are run at speeds
7. Handle for one-handed operation of tool. 8. Lightweight, extra-rugged of from 14,500 to 30,000 r.p.m.
aluminum housing. 9. Heavy-duty ­trigger switch. 10. Heavy-duty three-wire
cable.  © Black & Decker Inc.
The internal construction of a portable electric
angle sander and grinder is shown in Fig. 26-56,
page 856. F ­ igure 26-57 (p.  857) shows an a.c. electric
angle grinder grinding a weld. The pneumatic belt sander
in Fig. 26-58, page 857 is using a belt running at 20,000
r.p.m to debur the cut edges on some square tubing. The
weld profile is being modified in Fig.  26-59, page 857
with a pneumatic die grinder.

Shears and Nibblers


The welder who works in fabrication or repair frequently
cuts metal into various shapes and sizes. Sometimes flame
and arc cutting methods cannot be used because they may
cause color change or warpage in the work or they may
create a fire hazard. In such cases, metal must be cut by
a shearing method. Most portable electric shears and nib-
blers can cut steel as thick as 8 gauge and aluminum up
to ¼ inch. These machines are fast cutting and produce a
Fig. 26-53  Industrial grade 18-volt tool package. Includes a
circular saw, sawzall, drill-driver, and worklight. The contractor bag smooth edge without distorting the body of the metal. The
allows storage for all the tools and accessories the professional nibbler uses a straight up-and-down punching action, and
needs for the job.  © Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation the shears cut with a powerful scissor-like action.

General Equipment for Welding Shops   Chapter 26  855