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Figure 26-60, page 858 shows the internal construction

of a portable electric nibbler. The nibbler in Fig. 26-61,


page 858 is cutting 1⁄8-inch steel plate at a speed of 4 feet
per minute. F­ igure 26-62, page 858 shows portable elec-
tric shears cutting 16 gauge galvanized sheet metal. On
stainless steel it is rated for 18 gauge. Its minimum radius
cut is approximately 1  inch. This fast light weight tool
(5.0 pounds) is very portable.

A B D

E
C

Fig. 26-55  Welding students using a ­pneumatic


Fig. 26-54  Internal construction of a heavy-duty portable electric hammer. A. riveting hammer.
Heat-treated piston and ram. B. Heat-treated crank and connecting rod. C. Heat-
treated helical gears, ball-and-roller-bearing mounted. D. Heavy-duty trigger switch.
E. Pistol-grip handle. F. Universal motor, ball-bearing mounted. G. Aluminum hous-
ings. H. Three-conductor cable.  Source: Reproduced with permission of Black &
Decker. © Black & Decker Inc.

Heavy-Duty Plunger Switch


Armature Mounted Protected from
Needle Bearing on Heavy-Duty Accidental Operation
Ball Bearings
Reversible Handle
Gives Perfect Control Removable Brush
Inspection Plates

Ball-Type Handle Gives


Maximum Control
Hardened Spiral
Bevel Gears

Spindle Mounted Heavy-Duty Double-Pole


on Ball-Bearings Switch Enclosed for
Protection from
Motor Wire Has Resin Abrasive Dust
Insulation. Winding
Covered with Varnish.
Both Combine to Give
Overload Protection
Time-Saving Quick Ventilating Fan
Change Flexible Backing Maintains Cool
Pad Requires No Tools for Operating
Disc Changing Temperatures

Fig. 26-56  Internal construction of a heavy-duty portable electric angle sander and grinder. 
Source: Reproduced with permission of Black & Decker. © Black & Decker Inc.

856  Chapter 26 General Equipment for Welding Shops


Fig. 26-59  A welding student using a pneumatic die grinder
with a cutting disk to profile a weld. Because of the high speed
20,000 rpm and guarding issues this type work should be done
with double eye protection. That is safety glasses along with a full
face shield. Grinding should be done as an exception for poor weld
profile at starts, stops, root passes and not as a rule because of
poor welding technique which results in the entire weld having to
Fig. 26-57  A welding student using an electric side grinder. This be ground.  © Renee Bohnart
type tool is very helpful for dressing weld profiles, removing weld
defects or in this case joint preparation. Note the ear plugs, gloves,
and double eye protection.  © Renee Bohnart
Magnetic-Base Drill Press
On many construction and maintenance jobs, it is neces-
sary to drill a hole in a weldment that is too big to be taken
to a drill press for drilling. Because of the size of the hole
or the need for accuracy, hand drilling with a portable
hand drill may be too slow or inaccurate. The
magnetic-base drill press, Fig. 26-63 (p. 859), is
a powerful heavy-duty drill mounted on a base
with great magnetic holding force. This unit
attaches to steel surfaces in the horizontal, ver-
tical, and overhead positions. Thus, the machine
provides both the speed and the accuracy of a
regular bench- or floor-type drill press. The unit is
available with either electric or pneumatic power.
Beveling Machine
The edge preparation of plate, tubing, and pipe
before welding has always been a problem be-
cause quality cuts are usually costly. Industry has
used the traditional methods of sawing, shearing,
grinding, planing, and flame and arc cutting with
various degrees of success. Each method works
well within its limitations. Beveling by machine
has the advantage of low initial purchase and op-
Fig. 26-58  A welding student using a pneumatic belt sander to r­emove burs erating cost. Beveling machines are available as
on some square tubing. The belt is approximately ½ inch wide and 24 inch long electric or pneumatic tools. They are capable of
and is moving at 20,000 r.p.m.   © Renee Bohnart beveling mild steel, alloy steel, and stainless steel

General Equipment for Welding Shops   Chapter 26  857


Punching Mechanism Supported Eyebolt Connection
By Double Row Ball Bearing for Overhead
and Heavy-Duty Roller Bearing Suspension

Heat-Treated Heavy-Duty
Gears, Ball-and- Double-Pole
Roller Bearing Trigger Switch
Mounted
Turn-Down Adjustment
Permits Inspection of
Punch

Handle Formed
for One-Handed
Self-Contained Oil Operation of Tool
Reservoir

Needle Valve
Permits Accurate
Flow of Oil
Heavy-Duty
3-Wire Cable

Aluminum Housing
Automatic Oiler, Cooling System
Increases Punch Universal Motor
and Die Life Ball-Bearing Mounted
Nylok® Screws
Yoke Bearing Provides Prevent Loosening
Maximum Life

High-Speed Steel Machined Pad with


Adjustable Nitrided Punch Gives Long Life Mounting Holes for
Stripper Bench or Stand
Mounting
Carbide Die for
Cutting

Fig. 26-60  Internal construction of a heavy-duty portable electric nibbler.  Source: Reproduced with permission of Black &
Decker. © Black & Decker Inc.

Fig. 26-62  Using a portable electric shear on a 16 gauge gal-


Fig. 26-61  Using a portable electric nibbler. Its cutting capacity vanized sheet metal. It can be used for straight line, curved lines
is 1⁄8-inch mild steel plate at a cutting speed of 4 feet per minute.  or circle cutting. The cutting speed is 10 feet per minute.  © Renee
© Black & Decker Inc. Bohnart

858  Chapter 26 General Equipment for Welding Shops


Fig. 26-63  A magnetic base drill press with a four-speed drill. Fig. 26-64  A portable electric beveling tool. It can cut along
straight edges, convex and concave curves, and circles. The ma-
chine’s capacity is 5⁄8 inch for single-V bevels and 1¼ inch for K- or
double-K bevels.  © Renee Bohnart
as well as aluminum and soft metals. Beveled angles rang-
ing from 15 to 55° are possible. These machines have the
following features:
• They are portable and can be hand held or mounted in
a stationary stand or vise.
• Curves can be beveled. Any angle can be followed on
convex curves. On concave curves the machines can
handle diameters as small as 1½ inch.
• All types of pipes can be beveled.
• The angle of cut can be varied from 10 to 55°.
• Any thickness of metal can be worked on.
• It is possible to maintain a constant and smooth feed
rate and to work forward and backward.
• The machine can start and stop at any desired point.
• The machine can operate upside down so that large
pieces do not have to be turned when preparing
weld edges.
• The cutting tool is easily sharpened and inexpensive
to replace. Figure 26-64 indicates the extreme flexibil-
ity of the tool.
A wall mounted, pipe-beveling machine, Fig. 26-65,
can square up ends of pipe or various other grooves like
Fig. 26-65  This 80 lb. BevelMaster by Tri Tool is designed to
“J” or bevels. Angles and radius are dependent upon set- handle pipe from 4–12 inches in size with wall thicknesses up to
tings and the cutting tool shape. This unit is set up to pre- 1.32 inches. It is pneumatic and requires 85 cfm at 90 psi. At this
pare test pipe nipples. school it is mounted and the short pipe nipples are brought to the
machine. Lighter units are available for application where the bevel
Weld Shavers machine must be brought to the pipe.  © Renee Bohnart
The weld shaver was designed specifically for aircraft,
missile, and industrial operations that require the precision size weldments up to ¾ inch wide down to surface
shaving, milling, and grooving of high strength materials. flushness or to a preselected height controlled to within
The tool is suitable for stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, 0.0005 inch. The depth of cut per pass depends on the
Monel®, magnesium, and copper. Shavers replace other hardness of the material being cut. Also available are
grinding, buffing, and finishing tools. They cut medium grooving cutters capable of grooving to a maximum of

General Equipment for Welding Shops   Chapter 26  859


Fig. 26-67  Weld reinforcement has been removed flush with the
plate surface. Note how smooth the finish is.  © Zephyr Manufacturing
Company

Lathe
The lathe, Fig. 26-68, is a turning tool that shapes metal
by revolving the workpiece against the cutting edge of
the tool. The lathe performs many kinds of external and
internal machining operations. Turning, Fig. 26-69, can
produce straight, curved, and irregular cylindrical shapes.
Other operations include knurling, thread cutting, drill-
ing, boring, and reaming. The lathe can be used to cut and
bevel pipe for welding.
Fig. 26-66  Removing weld reinforcement with a pneumatic
portable weld shaver.  © Zephyr Manufacturing Company
Milling Machine
A milling machine is a machine tool that cuts metal with
a multiple-tooth cutting tool called a milling cutter. The
0.290 inch. Shavers and grooving cutters are pneumatic workpiece is mounted on the milling machine table and is
tools. fed against the revolving milling cutter.
The shaver is fitted with carbide and high speed steel cut- There are two basic types: (1) the horizontal milling
ters which are precision ground and fluted for hard usage machine, Fig. 26-70 and (2)  the vertical milling machine,
and long life. Cutters are easily removed and replaced, and Figs. 26-71, page 862 and 26-72, page 862. These machines
they may be reground many times. Figure 26-66 shows can be used to machine flat surfaces, shoulders, T-slots,
the tool removing a weld bead reinforcement.
Figure 26-67 is an example of the weld finish
after removal of the reinforcement.
Back Gear Cone Pulley Headstock Tool Post Saddle Tailstock
Lever Cover
Machine Tools Feed Face Plate Compound
Rest
Reverse
Many large fabricating plants have completely Lever Bed
equipped machine shops where metal machin-
ing of all kinds can be done. Those welders
who wish to work in the fields of fabrication,
maintenance, and repair will find it an advan- Lead
tage to be able to operate such standard ma- Screw
chine tools as the lathe, the shaper, and the Gear
Box Feed Half
milling machine. Clutch Change Nut
Basically, a machine tool is a machine that Aron Knob Lever Lever
cuts metal. It holds both the material being Motor
worked on and the cutting tool. Its purpose is Drive
in
to produce metal parts by changing the shape, Leg
size, and finish of metal pieces.
In addition to maintenance work, these ma-
chines can be used to cut and bevel pipe, bevel
plate, and machine-test weld specimens. Fig. 26-68  The parts of a standard lathe.  © South Bend Lathe Co

860  Chapter 26 General Equipment for Welding Shops


There are three types of wheels which are classified ac-
cording to the means of bonding:
• Vitrified wheels in which the bonding is a kind of
earth or clay. The wheels are baked at about 3,000°F.
These wheels are as large as 36 inches in diameter.
They are usually used for rough grinding.
• Silicate wheels in which the bond is silicate or water
glass. They are as large as 60 inches in diameter. They
may be used for fine grinding.
• Elastic wheels in which the bond is rubber, shellac, or
bakelite. Very thin, strong wheels are made with this
bond so that they can be run at very high speed.
Wheels are made in many different shapes such as cy-
lindrical, straight, tapered, recessed, cup, and dish. Gen-
erally, the straight, tapered, and cup wheels are used in the
shop. They may range from 1 to 3 inches in thickness and
up to 14 inches in diameter.

Surface Grinder
The preparation of such weld test coupons as the tensile,
face, and root bend coupons requires that the surface of
the coupons be ground parallel to their length. A smooth
surface is necessary. Coarse grinding or surface cuts may
cause a weld failure when the coupon is tested. After the
coupon is cut from the original test specimen, the surface
Fig. 26-69  Setting up to bevel a 3-inch diameter section of steel grinder is the ideal tool to produce the smooth surface,
pipe on the lathe in preparation for welding.  © Renee Bohnart
Figs. 26-74, page 862 and 26-75 (p. 863). These grinders
can handle tough materials to close tolerances.

dovetails, and keyways. Irregular or curved sur-


faces can also be formed with specially designed
cutters. One of the important uses is in the cut- Spindle Is Mounted in
ting of gear teeth. The vertical miller can also Horizontal Position;
be used for drilling, reaming, countersinking, Cutting Tool Is mounted
on Spindle
boring, counterboring, and friction stir welding.
A milling machine is an excellent machine
Spindle
to prepare weld test specimens and remove ex- Speed Selector
cess weld metal where the work is portable. Work Is Mounted
on Table

Pedestal Grinder
The pedestal grinder, Fig. 26-73, page 862, is Horizontal Horizontal
one of the most important pieces of equipment Table Control— Table Control—
Side to Side Front to Back
in the welding shop. It polishes or cuts metal
with an abrasive wheel. It prepares metal parts
Vertical Table
for welding, grinds weld metal, removes rust and Control
scale, and sharpens tools. The floor-type grinder
usually has a grinding wheel on each end of a
shaft that extends through an electric motor.
A grinding wheel is made of abrasive grains Fig. 26-70  Horizontal milling machine. The cutting tool is mounted on the
cemented or bonded together to form a wheel. horizontal head.  © MAG IAS, LLC

General Equipment for Welding Shops   Chapter 26  861


Cutting Tool Is
Mounted in
Vertical Position

Spindle Speed Work Is


Control Mounted
on Table
Horizontal
Table
Control—
Side to Side Horizontal
Table Control—
Front to Back

Vertical Table
Control

Fig. 26-73  A pedestal grinder (2 horsepower,


Fig. 26-71  Vertical milling machine. The cutting tool is mounted on the vertical 1,725 r.p.m.) takes a wheel 12 inches in diameter with
head.  © MAG IAS, LLC a 2¼-inch face. It should be equipped with eyeshields
and lights.  © Baldor Electric Company

Fig. 26-74  A precision surface grinder can be used


to machine weld test specimens.  © DoAll Company
Fig. 26-72  Instructor observing student using a vertical milling m
­ achine.
Gloves are not used around machine tool operations where they could get
caught up in the moving equipment.   © Renee Bohnart

Drill Press is required, however, a bench or pedestal drill press is


In a shop that does a great deal of fabrication and repair, a necessary. The pedestal press shown in Fig. 26-76 has a
drill press is an indispensable machine tool. Many of the 20-inch throat and can drill at speeds from 150 to 2,000
holes that need to be drilled can be done with a portable r.p.m. Figure 26-77 shows a pedestal-type drill press in
power drill. In heavy plate thicknesses and when accuracy operation.

862  Chapter 26 General Equipment for Welding Shops