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28

Joint Design, Testing,


and Inspection

Chapter Objectives Welding was first used as a means of patching and re-
pairing. It was rarely employed as a means of fabricat-
ing pressure vessels, pipelines, and other structures such
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
as buildings and bridges that would be a hazard to life
28-1 Describe the various types of weld joint designs. and property if they failed. As welding began to be used
28-2 Understand the implications of doing code welding. as a fabrication process, it became essential for welded
28-3 Describe various nondestructive weld test methods. joints to be strong enough to meet the service require-
28-4 Describe various destructive weld test methods. ments for which they were designed (fitness for purpose).
Methods for testing the quality of the weld, the ability of
28-5 Demonstrate the ability to do groove and fillet weld
the welder, as well as the ability of the inspector had to be
soundness tests.
devised.
28-6 Describe and conduct visual weld inspection.
For a long time it had been considered necessary only
28-7 Explain the various gauges used for weld inspection. to look at a completed weld in order to judge its quality
and the welder’s ability. If carried out by a competent
inspector and/or welder, visual inspection may be sat-
isfactory for welds that are designed primarily to hold
parts together and that are not subject to high stress in
service. This kind of inspection is limited since there
is no way of knowing if the weld metal has internal de-
fects. The outer appearance of the weld may be entirely
satisfactory, and yet it may be porous, contain cracks,
and lack both complete fusion and penetration. The
weld metal may have serious defects due to poor weld-
ing technique.
Critical welding demands that the weld metal and joint
be tested for strength, soundness, and other physical qual-
ities required in the design. The reliability of the welded

891
joint can be determined by the degree to which the weld
metal is kept free of foreign materials such as slag, poros-
ity, cracks, and by the degree to which it is fused to the
base material.

Joint Design Closed Roots


You are familiar with the five basic joints (butt, corner,
edge, lap, and T) and the type of weld applied to these
types of joints, namely, fillet and groove welds. Varia-
tions of these basic joints are shown in Table 28-1 on
page 893. In order to do code quality work it is neces-
sary to understand and apply good joint design to get
the best weld quality along with the most economic Open Roots
performance.
Fig. 28-1  Closed and open roots.
Open and Closed Roots
Open roots are spaces between the edges of the members
satisfactory for all usual load
to be welded. They are used to secure complete root pen-
conditions. Preparation of the
etration in butt joints and to secure attachment to a back-
joint is simple and inexpen-
ing member, Fig. 28-1.
sive since it requires only the
The term penetration refers to the depth to which the
butting together of the plate
base metal is melted and fused with the metal of the filler
edges.
rod or electrode. In those cases in which there is no root
Complete joint penetra-
opening, some of the weld metal from the first pass is Fig. 28-2  Edge joints
tion (CJP) of the base metal
partly removed by chipping or machining from the re- with edge welds.
is necessary if the closed butt
verse side. Whether a certain type of joint should be set
joint is to be used for code
up as an open or closed root depends upon the following
work. Welding from one side,
factors:
Fig.  28-3A, cannot secure A
•• The thickness of the base metal complete joint penetration in
•• The kind of joint most stock. Because of the un-
•• The nature of the job welded root, the joint is weak
•• The position of welding at this point. Welding from B
•• The type and size of electrode both sides, Fig.  28-3B, mate-
•• The structural importance of the joint in the fabrica- rially increases its strength.
tion (whether it is a prime load-carrying joint) Constant and severe loading, C
•• The physical properties required of the weld however, causes failure of the
joint because of the unwelded
Edge Joints and Edge Weld areas at the root.
On metal 1⁄8 inch or thin- D
The edge joint and weld, Fig. 28-2, is economical for non-
ner, complete penetration can
code work since the cost of penetration is low. It is not
be obtained by welding from Fig. 28-3  Closed square-
suitable, however, for severe load conditions. This joint
one side, Fig. 28-3C. On metal groove butt joints.
and weld should not be used if either member is subject to 3
⁄16 inch or thinner, complete penetration is possible by
direct tension or bending at the root. Very deep penetra-
welding from both sides, Fig. 28-3D. Shielded metal arc
tion is impossible. The edge joint and weld should be used
welding may be used on metal 1⁄4 inch thick and the sub-
only on 1⁄4-inch metal or thinner. An edge weld completely
merged arc welding process on metal 5⁄8 inch thick. For
consumes the edges of the edge joint.
welds in which complete joint penetration is necessary
Butt Joints on metal more than 3⁄16 inch thick, it is recommended that
the root of the first pass be chipped or gouged out from
Closed Square-Groove Butt Joint The square-groove the reverse side to sound metal before depositing the sec-
butt joint can be welded in several different ways. It is ond weld.

892   Chapter 28   Joint Design, Testing, and Inspection


Table 28-1  Forms of Weld Joints
Edge Joints Fig. No. Open single V-groove butt joint................................... 11
Edge joint (the joint between the edges of two or Closed double V-groove butt joint................................ 12
more parallel or nearly parallel members) Flanged
Open double V-groove butt joint.................................. 13
corner joint................................................................... 1
Closed single bevel-groove butt joint........................... 14
Butt Joints Fig. No.
Open single bevel-groove butt joint............................. 15
Closed single-flanged butt joint.................................... 2
Closed double bevel-groove butt joint.......................... 16
Open single-flanged butt joint...................................... 3
Open double bevel-groove butt joint............................ 17
Closed single U-groove butt joint................................. 18
1 2 3 4 5 Open single U-groove butt joint................................... 19
Closed double U-groove butt joint............................... 20
6 7 8 9 Open double U-groove butt joint.................................. 21
Strapped closed square-groove butt joint.................... 22
10 11
Strapped open square-groove butt joint...................... 23
Strapped closed single V-groove butt joint.................. 24
12 13 Strapped open single V-groove butt joint.................... 25
Strapped closed single U-groove butt joint................. 26
14 15 16 17 Strapped open single U-groove butt joint.................... 27
Lap Joints Fig. No.
18 19 20 21 Single lap joint............................................................... 28
Double lap joint............................................................. 29
22 23 Single-strap lap joint..................................................... 30
Double-strap lap joint................................................... 31
24 25 26 27 Closed joggled single lap joint...................................... 32
Open joggled single lap joint......................................... 33
28 29 30 31 Flanged single lap joint................................................. 34
Flanged closed joggled single lap joint......................... 35
32 33 Flanged open joggled single lap joint............................ 36
34
Linear slotted lap joint.................................................. 37
Circular slotted lap joint............................................... 38
35 36 37 38 Corner Joints Fig. No.
Closed lapped corner joint............................................ 39
Open lapped corner joint.............................................. 40
39 40 41 42 43 44
Closed corner joint....................................................... 41
Open corner joint.......................................................... 42
T-Joints Fig. No.
45 46 47
Closed square T-joint.................................................... 43
Open square T-joint...................................................... 44
48 49 50 51 52 Closed single bevel J-groove T-joint............................. 45
Closed double-flanged butt joint.................................. 4 Open single bevel J-groove T-joint................................ 46
Open double-flanged butt joint..................................... 5 Closed double bevel J-groove T-joint............................ 47
Closed upset butt joint................................................. 6 Open double bevel J-groove T-joint.............................. 48
Open upset butt joint.................................................... 7 Closed single J-groove T-joint....................................... 49
Closed square-groove butt joint................................... 8 Open single J-groove T-joint......................................... 50
Open square-groove butt joint..................................... 9 Closed double J-groove T-joint..................................... 51
Closed single V-groove butt joint................................. 10 Open double J-groove T-joint........................................ 52

Joint Design, Testing, and Inspection   Chapter 28    893


1/8
Open Square-Groove Butt square-groove butt joint, and
to 3/8
Joint  Securing penetration a greater amount of electrode
0 to 3/16
A
on open square-groove butt deposit is used in welding.
joints, Fig. 28-4A, is easier The single V-groove type A
than on closed square- is ordinarily used on plate
groove butt joints. Because thicknesses ranging from 1⁄4
B of this fact, heavier sec- inch to 5⁄8 inch. If welding
tions can be welded. It is is to be from one side only,
B
possible to weld 3⁄16-inch ma- Fig.  28-6A, full penetration
C terial or less from one side, to the root of the weld must be
Fig. 28-4B, and up to 1⁄4 inch obtained. Failure to do so will
from both sides, Fig. 28-4C, cause a fracture if the joint is
D with complete joint pen- subjected to severe loading.
C
etration. If complete joint Joints welded from both
penetration is not achieved, sides with complete joint pen- Fig. 28-6  Single
however (Figs. 28-4D and E), etration provide full strength V-groove butt joints.
E
the open square-groove butt and meet the requirements of
Fig. 28-4  Open square- joint will not be any stronger code welding. Welding from both sides, Fig. 28-6B, can
groove butt joints.
than the closed type, and it be accomplished only where the work will permit the op-
will have the same possibility of failure at the root of the erator to weld from both sides of the plate. It is easier to
weld under load. obtain complete penetration through the entire thickness
Metal 3⁄8 inch thick may be welded with the shielded in this way. If a backing strip is used, Fig. 28-6C, it is pos-
metal arc process, and metal 3⁄4 inch thick, with the sub- sible to weld faster and use larger electrodes, especially
merged arc welding process if the root of the first pass is on the first or root pass. A removable backing is also used
chipped out from the reverse side to sound metal before when welding from one side with the submerged arc pro-
depositing the second weld. The cost of joint prepara- cess. Metal thickness up to 11⁄2 inch can be welded in this
tion is the same as for closed square-groove butt joints. manner.
Oftentimes it is a little more difficult to line up the work
with the proper gapping all along the entire length of Double V-Groove Butt Joint  The double V-groove butt
the joint. joint, Fig. 28-7, is suitable for most severe load conditions.
It is used on heavier plate than single V-groove butt joints,
Single V-Groove Butt Joint  Single V-groove butt joints, usually 3⁄4 to 11⁄2 inch thick. For metal thicknesses greater
Fig. 28-5, are superior to square-groove butt joints and than 11⁄2 inch, the double U-Groove butt joint is recom-
are used a great deal for important work. They provide mended because less electrode metal is needed. The cost
for 100 percent penetration and offer a better plate edge of joint preparation is greater than for the single V-groove
preparation for welding than square-groove butt joints. butt joint, but the amount of filler metal needed in weld-
Metal preparation, however, is more costly than for the ing is less.

45°
0 to 3/16 1 May Be Less with Wider Root Opening.

3/8 60°
to 1
0 to 1/8
Single Bevel 1/2 to 2 0 to 1/8

0 to 3/16
60°
A

1/4 to 3/4
0 to 1/8
0 to 3/16
Single V B

Fig. 28-5  Proportions for single V-groove butt joints. Fig. 28-7  Double V-groove butt joint.

894   Chapter 28   Joint Design, Testing, and Inspection


1/4R
1 May Be Less with Wider Root Opening. 12°
45° 1/2
0 to 1/8 to 1
1/8

1 to 3/8 0 to 1/16
0 to 1/8 A

Single Bevel Backing Structure

60°
1/8 to 3/8
1/4 to 3/4 B
0 to 1/8

Single V Backing Structure

Fig. 28-8  Proportions for single bevel-groove butt joints.


C

It is essential that complete


root penetration be achieved.
The work must permit weld-
ing from both sides, and the D
A
back side of the first pass
must be chipped before apply- Fig. 28-11  Single U-groove butt joints.
ing the second pass from the
other side. Welding from both
B
sides permits an even distribu-
joint, thus reducing the number of electrodes needed. The
tion of heat through the joint,
cost of preparation is less than for V-groove butt joints
thus reducing the concentra-
since it is necessary to bevel only one plate edge. For full
tion of stress at the joint and
strength the root of the first pass should be chipped from
the amount of warpage and
distortion. the reverse side to sound metal before depositing the sec-
C ond pass. The welder will find it difficult to obtain good
Beveled-Groove Butt Joints  fusion to the prependicular wall of the square plate and to
Fig. 28-9  Single bevel- Single bevel-groove butt joints secure complete joint penetration.
groove butt joints. (Figs. 28-8 and 28-9) and dou-
ble bevel-groove butt joints Single U-Groove Butt Joint  Single U-groove butt joints,
(Fig. 28-10) are used in some areas. They are suggested Fig. 28-11, are used for very important work, such as fired
for work where load demands are greater than can be and nonfired pressure vessels. The cost of preparation is
met by square butt joints and less than values requiring greater than for bevel and V-groove butt joints, but fewer
V-groove butt joints. They join metal up to ⁄4 inch thick,
3 electrodes are required in welding. The single U-groove
and less filler metal is required than for a V-groove butt butt joint is used on plate thicknesses ranging from 1⁄2 inch
to 3⁄4 inch. Heavier metal may be welded with the sub-
merged arc process. It is often the practice to make the
45° first pass with the shielded metal arc or the MIG process.
Complete penetration is necessary for the single U-groove
1/2 to 1 0 to /8
1 butt joint to give satisfactory service. It is easier to ob-
tain complete penetration on single U-groove butt joints
1/8 to 3/16

A
welded from both sides (Fig. 28-11C), and on joints with a
backup strip (Fig. 28-11D), than on joints welded from one
side only (Fig. 28-11B). The joint is usually welded with
free-flowing electrodes.

B Double U-Groove Butt Joint  Double U-groove butt joints,


Fig. 28-12, page 896, are used on work of the same nature
Fig. 28-10  Double bevel-groove butt joint. as single U-groove butt joints but when plate thicknesses

Joint Design, Testing, and Inspection   Chapter 28    895


1/4R
1/2R
12° 15°

1/8 3/4 1/8


3/4to to 2
Any
Thickness 0 to 1/16 0 to 1/16
Double U A
A

B
B
Fig. 28-14  Double J-groove butt joint.
Fig. 28-12  Double U-groove butt joint.
are used on work similar to
that requiring U-groove butt
1/2R
joints, but when load con-
15° ditions are not as demand- Single Fillet
1/2
ing. The cost of preparation
to 11/2 A
1/8
is less since only one plate
0 to 1/16 edge must be prepared. Less
Single J filler metal is required to fill
A the groove. It is difficult to
secure good fusion and thor-
Double Fillet
ough penetration because of
B
the perpendicular wall of the
B square member. Fig. 28-15  Lap joints
with fillet welds.
Lap Joints
Lap joints are used frequently
on all kinds of work. There
C
is no plate preparation in-
volved. The single-fillet lap
joint (Fig. 28-15A), while not
as strong as the double-fillet
lap joint (Fig. 28-15B), is
D
more often used on noncode
Fig. 28-13  Single J-groove butt joints. work. Single-fillet lap joints
should not be used if the root
A
of the joint is to be subjected
are greater and welding can be done from both sides. to bending. In both cases fu-
Plate thicknesses range up to 3⁄4 inch. Although the cost of sion to the root of the joint is
preparation is greater than for single U-groove butt joints, necessary. The welder must
double joints may be welded with fewer electrodes. Weld- make sure that the edge of
ing from both sides permits a more even distribution of the upper plate is not burned
stress and reduces distortion. away. A lap joint should never
The choice between double-U and double V-groove replace the butt joint on work
butt joints should be made on the basis of the relative costs under severe load.
of metal preparation and welding. B
Slot and Plug Welds on a Lap
J-Groove Butt Joints Single J-groove butt joints, Joint  The slot and plug weld Fig. 28-16  Slot and plug
Fig. 28-13, and double J-groove butt joints, Fig. 28-14, on a lap joint, Fig. 28-16, welds on lap joints.

896   Chapter 28   Joint Design, Testing, and Inspection


are used infrequently. They The single-fillet T-joint
join one plate or bracket to will not withstand bend-
another when it is desir- ing action at the root of the
able to conceal the weld or weld and should be used with
when there is a lack of an caution. If it is possible to
Flush Corner Joint edge to weld on. In order to weld from both sides, Fig. 28-
A withstand a heavy load, the 18B, the joint will withstand
unit to be welded requires high load conditions.
a series of these welds,
and the cost of prepara- A
Single Bevel-Groove T-Joint 
tion is high. If the slots are
The single-bevel groove
small, it is difficult for the
T-joint, Fig. 28-19, is able
welder to make welds that
to withstand more severe
Half Open Corner Joint are free of porosity and slag
loads than the square-groove
inclusions.
B T-joint. It can be used on plate
Corner Joints thicknesses ranging from
3
⁄8 to 5⁄8 inch. Plate of greater
Flush corner joints, thickness can be welded with
Fig.  28-17A, can be used the submerged arc process.
on light gauge sheet metal, Cost of preparation is greater B
Full Open Corner Joint
usually under 12 gauge. than for the square-groove
Heavier plates can be T-joint, and fitup is likely Fig. 28-18  Square-
C
welded if load is not severe to take longer. Electrode costs groove T-joints.
Fig. 28-17  Corner joints. and if there is no bending are less because these are
action at the root of the groove welds not fillet welds.
weld. No edge preparation is needed, and fitup is usu- If it is possible to weld
ally simple. from one side only, Fig.  28-
Half-open corner joints, Fig. 28-17B, may be used 19A, complete joint penetra-
on 12-gauge to 7-gauge plate. This type of joint forms a tion (CJP) must be obtained
groove and permits weld penetration to the root and good so that bending does not cause
appearance. No edge preparation is required, and fitup is failure. If welding can be done
usually simple. from both sides, Fig. 28-19B,
Full-open corner joints, Fig. 28-17C, can be used on the load resistance of the joint
any plate thickness. If welding is to be from one side, is materially increased.
penetration must be secured through the root of the weld. A
If welded from both sides, the joint is suitable for severe
loads. It has a good stress distribution, and no edge prepa- Double Bevel-Groove T-Joint 
ration is required. The double bevel-groove
More filler metal is required than for the half-open T-joint, Fig. 28-20, page 898,
joint, and fitup is likely to be difficult. Plates must be cut is used for heavy plate thick-
absolutely square, and suitable clamping and holding de- nesses up to 1 inch. Welding
vices are often needed to facilitate fitup. This type of joint is done from both sides of the
is used in production welding. plate. This joint may be used
for severe loads. The welder
T-Joints must make sure that fusion is
B
obtained with both the flat and
Square-Groove T-Joint The square-groove T-joint, vertical plates. Complete joint Fig. 28-19  Single bevel-
Fig. 28-18, may be used on ordinarily plate thicknesses penetration is necessary. Joint groove T-joints.
up to 1⁄2 inch. Preparation of the plate is not necessary, preparation is more expensive
and fitup can be fast and economical. Electrode costs than for the square-groove T- or single bevel-groove joint,
are high. but weld time and electrode costs are less.

Joint Design, Testing, and Inspection   Chapter 28    897


Single J-Groove T-Joint  Single expected to give. Correct joint
J-groove T-joints, Fig. 28-21, design and proper welding
can be used for most severe procedure keep distortions to
load conditions. They are gen- a minimum, reduce cracking
erally used on plates 1 inch or due to shrinkage, and make
heavier. If welding is to be done it easier for the welder to pro-
from one side, Fig. 28-21A, duce sound welds with good
great care should be taken to appearance at the lowest pos-
secure complete joint pen- sible cost.
etration. If welding from both Figures 28-23 through A
Fig. 28-20  Double sides is possible, efficiency 28-28 (pp. 899–904) show
bevel-groove T-joint. of the joint can be increased the proper penetration of plate
materially by putting the edges as recommended by the
bead on the side opposite J, American Welding Society.
Fig. 28-21B. This reduces Study these elements of joint
the tendency of failure at the design carefully because they
root as a result of load at this form the basis for understand-
point. The cost of plate edge ing welded construction.
preparation is higher than for
the bevel-groove T-joint, but
there is a saving in electrode
Code Welding B

costs. It is usually the practice of


Fig. 28-22  Double
a particular industry to de- J-groove T-joint.
A Double J-Groove T-Joint  velop a code. A code is a
The double J-groove T-joint, set of regulations governing all the elements of welded
Fig. 28-22, will withstand the construction in a certain industry. Codes provide for
most severe load conditions. human safety and protect property against failure of the
It is used on plates 11⁄4 inch weldment. A universal testing procedure for all types
or heavier. The welder must of welding in all locations does not exist. Thus in the
be able to weld from both field of piping, we find that welding must conform to
sides of the plate. Complete a number of standards, depending on the nature of the
joint penetration and sur- installation. The welding of pressure piping conforms to
face fusion are essential to the Code for Pressure Piping of the American Standards
B
prevent failure under severe Association. The welding of piping connected to boil-
load. Plate edge preparation ers and pressure vessels conforms to the Code for Boil-
Fig. 28-21  Single is higher than for V-groove ers and Pressure Vessels, Section IX, developed by the
J-groove T-joint. T-joints and single J-groove American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
T-joints; however, electrode The welding of pipelines conforms to the Standard for
costs are lower. Frequently both J’s are not of equal di- Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities (API Standard
mensions, Fig. 28-22B. 1104) developed by the American Petroleum Institute.
The welding of buildings, bridges, and aircraft must
Summary conform to the codes and standards set for these struc-
The material you have just studied indicates the impor- tures. Generally, these standards are set by the federal,
tance of joint design and the weld requirements. In gen- state, and local governments, insurance companies, and
eral, the soundness and service life of the product will various professional organizations. Many state and local
depend upon the proper joint design and flawless welding. bridge and building codes accept the procedure and op-
We have seen that proper plate preparation and setup de- erator qualification provisions of the AWS Structural
pends upon a number of variables such as the thickness of Welding Code—Steel D1.1. A code of growing national
plate, the plate edge preparation, and the root preparation. importance in the food and hygienic welding industry
(See Figs. 28-4A through 28-14A, pages 894–896.) These is AWS D18.1, which is for welding of austenitic stain-
variables are determined by the nature of the components less-steel tube and pipe systems in sanitary (hygienic)
to be welded and the service that the weldment will be applications. In aerospace and ground support systems,

898   Chapter 28   Joint Design, Testing, and Inspection


I Square Groove Welds Welded from One Side V Single-V Groove Welds Welded from One Side
with Steel Backing
R Max. T R Max. O
X X *1/8 – 1/4
T 3/16

Min. 45° Min.


T
T
R = 1/16 Max. for All Joints R R 5° to 10° 1/4 Min.

Angle X Dim. R Positions* Joint


II Square Groove Welds Welded from Both Sides Recommended
45° Min. 1/4 Min. All *1/8 Min.
Horizontal Position
T T
R R 20° Min. 1/2 Min. F, V, O *1/4 Min.
12° Min. 1/2 Min. F *1/4 Min.

Dim. T Dim. R
1/8 Max. O VI Double-V Groove Welds Welded from Both Sides
1/8 to 1/4 T/2 Max. 1/16 Max.
60° Min.
1/8 to 1/4
III Square Groove Welds Welded from One Side with Backing 60° Min.

T T R Min.
R Min.
10° to 15° *1/16 to 1/8
1/8 – 1/4 1/16 Max.

*1/8 Max. Joint Recommended for


*1/16 Max. Horizontal Position
R = 3/16 Max.

IV Single-V Groove Welds Welded from One or Both Sides VII Single-bevel Groove Welds Welded from
1/8 One or Both Sides
60° Min. 60° Min.
1/8 Max. Max. 45° Min. 1/16 Max. 45° Min.
1/16 Max.
1/16 Max. 60° 1/16 Max.
1/8 – 1/4
3/16
Min. 45° Min. 1/8

Min. 45° Min. to


1/4

1/ 8 to 1/4 10° to 15° *1/16 to 1/8


1/8 to 1/4
Joint Recommended 1/8 Max. 1/8 to 1/4
*1/16 Max. for Horizontal Position 1/8 *1/8 Max.
to 1/4 *1/8 Max. *1/8 Max.
*1/8 Max.
1/16 Max.

Fig. 28-23  Recommended dimensions of grooves for shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, and gas welding
(except pressure gas welding). Note: Dimensions marked * are exceptions that apply specifically to designs for gas metal arc
welding.

AWS D17.1 covers fusion welding for aerospace appli- it. The welder should, however, have a good understand-
cations. This specification represents the most signifi- ing of the different weld tests and know what to look for
cant change to aviation welding standards in more than in any visual inspection.
three decades and is being adopted by many aerospace There are two broad categories of welding tests. A
companies. It is being looked at to replace government- procedure qualification test is a test conducted for the
sponsored standards. The structural codes for steel, purpose of determining the correctness of the method
aluminum, stainless steel, and sheet metal, and specifi- of welding for a specific welding project. The American
cations for the welding of hygienic piping and aerospace Welding Society and various code authorities have es-
systems can be obtained through the American Welding tablished standard procedures for welding. The weld-
Society. ing procedure meets specifications for base metal filler
The welder does not have to be thoroughly informed metal, joint preparation, position of welding, the weld-
about the details of all the existing codes. The employer, ing process, and welding techniques. Such requirements
through the engineering and production departments, as current setting, electrode size, electrode manipulation
makes sure that the work meets the standards required for and preheat, interpass, and postheat temperatures are

Joint Design, Testing, and Inspection   Chapter 28    899