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# Exercise 2.

1.

## (i). P&Q Conjunction

(ii). ~(P & Q) Negation
(iii). ~P & ~Q Conjunction
(iv). ~(P & Q) & (P & ~Q) Conjunction
(v). PvQ Disjunction
(vi). (P & Q) v (Q & R) Disjunction
(vii). P→Q Conditional
(viii). (P → Q) & (Q → R) Conjunction
(ix). (P & Q) ↔ (Q & P) Biconditional
(x). ~((P & Q) ↔ (Q & P)) Negation

2.

(ii). (P & Q) (iii). P,Q (iv). (P & Q) (x). ((P & Q) ↔ (Q & P))

3.
(i).
(i) Blind Lemon Jefferson is the only bluesman. P
~P
(ii).
(i) Dr Strangely Strange is a bluesman. P
(ii) Mr Oddly Normal is a bluesman. Q
~P & ~Q
(iii).
(i) Blind Lemon Jefferson is a milkman. P
(ii) Blind Lemon Jefferson is a bluesman. Q
P → ~Q
(iv).
(i) Blind Lemon recorded it. P
(ii) It is a blues album. Q
~(P → Q)
(v).
(i) Blind Lemon was a bluesman. P
(ii) Blind Lemon was a milkman. Q
PvQ
(vi).
(i) Blind Lemon was a bluesman. P
(ii) Blind Lemon was a milkman. Q
~P & ~Q

4.

(i). F (ii). F

F B F U F

A & A ~ F B F

P Q A & A

P Q

(iii). F (iv). F

F B F F B F

U F & U F U F & F B F

~ A ~ A ~ F B F A &U F

P Q A & A P ~ A

P Q Q

(v). F

F B F

A v A

P Q
(vi). F (vii). F

F B F F B F

F B F v F B F A → A

A & A A & A P Q

P Q Q P

(viii). F (ix). F

F B F F B F

F B F & F B F F B F↔F B F

A → A A → A A & A A & A

P Q Q R P Q Q P

(x). F

U F

~ F B F

F B F ↔F B F

A & A A & A

P Q Q P
Exercise 2.2

## 1. (i) Big Bill Broozy is a Delta bluesman. P

(ii) Big Bill Broozy is a Chicago bluesman. Q
(iii) Big Bill Broozy was born in Mississippi. R
P v Q, ~R → Q, ~R : ~P

## 2. (i) Etta James was an angel. P

(ii) Robert Johnson sold his soul to the devil. Q
~(P & Q), P : ~Q

## 3. (i) There is a light on in the venue. P

(ii) The band are on stage. Q
(iii) It is going to be a great night. R
~P → ~Q, ~(P & ~R), R : Q

## 4. (i) There is a punk rock band playing at the venue tonight. P

(ii) The music is strictly classical at the venue tonight. Q
(iii) There will be blues at the venue tonight. R
P v Q, P → ~R, Q → ~R : ~R

## 5. (i) There is a band on stage. P

(ii) The music is groovy. Q
(iii) The band is the nasal flute orchestra. R
(P & Q) → ~R : R → (P → ~Q)
Exercise 2.3

1.
Line Number – The unique number belonging to the particular line of proof.

## Formula – A well formed sentence in PL.

Rule – The part of a line of proof that makes clear which rule of inference was
used to construct the formula of the line of the proof.

Dependency Number – The part of the line of proof which indicates which formula/s
(if any) the formula on that line depends on.

2.

## 1. {1} 1. P Premise 2. {1} 1. P Premise

{2} 2. Q Premise {2} 2. Q Premise
{1,2} 3. P&Q 1,2 &I {3} 3. R Premise
{1,2} 4. P&Q 1,2 &I
{1,2,3} 5. (P&Q)&R 3,4 &I

## 3. {1} 1. P Premise 4. {1} 1. P&Q Premise

{2} 2. Q Premise {1} 2. P 1 &E
{3} 3. R Premise
{4} 4. S Premise
{1,2} 5. P&Q 1,2 &I
{3,4} 6. R&S 3,4 &I
{1,2,3,4} 7. (P&Q)&(R&S) 5,6 &I

## 5. {1} 1. P&Q Premise 6. {1} 1. (P&Q)&R Premise

{1} 2. Q 1&E {1} 2. P&Q 1 &E
{1} 3. P 2 &E

## 7. {1} 1. (P&Q)&(R&S) Premise

{1} 2. (P&Q) 1 &E
{1} 3. P 2 &E

## 8. {1} 1. Q&R Premise

{2} 2. P Premise
{1} 3. Q 1 &E
{1,2} 4. P&Q 2,3 &I
{1} 5. R 1 &E
{1,2} 6. (P&Q)&R 4,5 &I
Exercise 2.4

1.
1. {1} 1. P→Q Premise 2. {1} 1. P→(P→Q) Premise
{2} 2. P Premise {2} 2. P Premise
{1,2} 3. Q 1,2 MP {1,2} 3. P→Q 1,2 MP
{1,2} 4. Q 2,3 MP

## 3. {1} 1. P→(P&Q) Premise 4. {1} 1. P→(Q→R) Premise

{2} 2. P Premise {2} 2. P→Q Premise
{1,2} 3. P&Q 1,2 MP {3} 3. P Premise
{1,2} 4. Q 3 &E {1,3} 4. Q→R 1,3 MP
{2,3} 5. Q 2,3 MP
{1,2,3} 6. R 4,5 MP

2.
(i). (i) Blind Lemon Jefferson was a bluesman. P
(ii) I am a Dutchman. Q
(iii) I will eat my hat. R

## {1} 1. P→(Q&R) Premise

{2} 2. P&Q Premise
{2} 3. P 2 &E
{1,2} 4. Q&R 1,3 MP
{1,2} 5. R 4 &E
{1,2} 6. P&R 3,5 &I

## (ii). (i) Blind Lemon Jefferson was a bluesman. P

(ii) Blind Lemon Jefferson lived in utter poverty. Q
(iii) Blind Lemon Jefferson wanted an income. R
(iv) Blind Lemon Jefferson worked as a part-time
postman in Mississippi. S

## {1} 1. (P→Q)→(R→S) Premise

{2} 2. P→Q Premise
{3} 3. P&R Premise
{1,2} 4. R→S 1,2 MP
{3} 5. R 3 &E
{1,2,3} 6. S 4,5 MP
(iii). (i) Miss Scarlet was in the kitchen. P
(ii) Reverend Green was in the conservatory. Q

P, P→Q : P&Q

{1} 1. P Premise
{2} 2. P→Q Premise
{1,2} 3. Q 1,2 MP
{1,2} 4. P&Q 1,3 &I

## (iv). (i) Reverend Green was in the conservatory. P

(ii) The murder weapon was the knife. Q
(iii) Colonel Mustard was the murderer R

## P, P→Q, P→(Q→R) : P&R

{1} 1. P Premise
{2} 2. P→Q Premise
{3} 3. P→(Q→R) Premise
{1,3} 4. Q→R 1,3 MP
{1,2} 5. Q 1,2 MP
{1,2,3} 6. R 4,5 MP
{1,2,3} 7. P&R 1,6 &I

## (v). (i) The murder weapon was the knife. P

(ii) Professor Plum is innocent. Q
(iii) Colonel Mustard was the murderer. R
(iv) Miss Scarlet was in the kitchen. S

## P, P→Q, P→(Q→R), R→S : (P&Q)&(R&S)

{1} 1. P Premise
{2} 2. P→Q Premise
{3} 3. P→(Q→R) Premise
{4} 4. R→S Premise
{1,2} 5. Q 1,2 MP
{1,3} 6. Q→R 1,3 MP
{1,2,3} 7. R 5,6 MP
{1,2,3,4} 8. S 4,7 MP
{1,2} 9. P&Q 1,5 &I
{1,2,3,4} 10. R&S 7,8 &I
{1,2,3,4} 11. (P&Q)&(R&S) 9,10 &I
Excercise 2.5

## 1. {1} 1. P→(Q&R) Premise

{2} 2. P Assumption for CP
{1,2} 3. Q&R 1,2 MP
{1,2} 4. Q 3 &E
{1} 5. P→Q 2,4 CP

## 2. {1} 1. (P&Q)→R Premise

{2} 2. P Premise
{3} 3. Q Assumption for CP
{2,3} 4. P&Q 2,3 &I
{1,2,3} 5. R 1,4 MP
{1,2} 6. Q→R 3,5 CP

## 3. {1} 1. P&Q Premise

{2} 2. (P&R)→S Premise
{3} 3. R Assumption for CP
{1} 4. P 1 &E
{1,3} 5. P&R 3,4 &I
{1,2,3} 6. S 2,5 MP
{1,2} 7. R→S 3,6 CP

## 4. {1} 1. (P&Q)→R Premise

{2} 2. P Assumption for CP
{3} 3. Q Assumption for CP
{2,3} 4. P&Q 2,3 &I
{1,2,3} 5. R 1,4 MP
{1,2} 6. Q→R 3,5 CP
{1} 7. P→(Q→R) 2,6 CP

## 5. {1} 1. P→Q Premise

{2} 2. P&R Assumption for CP
{2} 3. P 2 &E
{2} 4. R 2 &E
{1,2} 5. Q 1,3 MP
{1,2} 6. R&Q 4,5 &I
{1} 7. (P&R)→(R&Q) 2,6 CP
6. {1} 1. P→Q Premise
{2} 2. Q→R Assumption for CP
{3} 3. P Assumption for CP
{1,3} 4. Q 1,3 MP
{1,2,3} 5. R 2,4 MP
{1,2} 6. P→R 3,5 CP
{1} 7. (Q→R)→(P→R) 2,6 CP

## 7. {1} 1. R→P Premise

{2} 2. Q→S Premise
{3} 3. P→Q Assumption for CP
{4} 4. R Assumption for CP
{1,4} 5. P 1,4 MP
{1,3,4} 6. Q 3,5 MP
{1,2,3,4} 7. S 2,6 MP
{1,2,3} 8. R→S 4,7 CP
{1,2} 9. (P→Q)→(R→S) 3,8 CP

## 8. {1} 1. P→Q Premise

{2} 2. P→R Assumption for CP
{3} 3. P Assumption for CP
{2,3} 4. R 2,3 CP
{1,3} 5. Q 1,3 CP
{1,2,3} 6. R&Q 4,5 &I
{1,2} 7. P→(R&Q) 3,6 CP
{1} 8. (P→R)→(P→(R&Q)) 2,7 CP

## 9. {1} 1. P→(Q→R) Premise

{2} 2. S→Q Assumption for CP
{3} 3. P Assumption for CP
{1,3} 4. Q→R 1,3 MP
{5} 5. S Assumption for CP
{2,5} 6. Q 2,5 MP
{1,2,3,5} 7. R 4,6 MP
{1,2,3} 8. S→R 5,7 CP
{1,2} 9. P→(S→R) 3,8 CP
{1} 10. (S→Q)→(P→(S→R)) 2,9 CP
10. {1} 1. P→Q Premise
{2} 2. (R&Q)→S Assumption for CP
{3} 3. R&P Assumption for CP
{3} 4. P 3 &E
{1,3} 5. Q 1,4 MP
{3} 6. R 3 &E
{1,3} 7. R&Q 5,6 &I
{1,2,3} 8. S 2,7 MP
{1,2} 9. (R&P)→S 3,8 CP
{1} 10. ((R&Q)→S)→((R&P)→S) 2,9 CP
Exercise 2.6

## 1. {1} 1. ((P→P)→Q) Assumption for CP

{2} 2. P Assumption for CP
3. P→P 2,2 CP
{1} 4. Q 1,3 MP
5. ((P→P)→Q)→Q 1,4 CP

## 2. {1} 1. P→Q Assumption for CP

{2} 2. Q→R Assumption for CP
{3} 3. P Assumption for CP
{1,3} 4. Q 1,3 MP
{1,2,3} 5. R 2,4 MP
{1,2} 6. P→R 3,5 CP
{1} 7. (Q→R)→(P→R) 2,6 CP
8. (P→Q)→((Q→R)→(P→R)) 1,7 CP

## 3. {1} 1. Q→R Assumption for CP

{2} 2. P→Q Assumption for CP
{3} 3. P Assumption for CP
{2,3} 4. Q 2,3 MP
{1,2,3} 5. R 1,4 MP
{1,2} 6. P→R 3,5 CP
{1} 7. (P→Q)→(P→R) 2,6 CP
8. (Q→R)→((P→Q)→(P→R)) 1,7 CP

## 4. {1} 1. P Assumption for CP

{2} 2. Q Assumption for CP
{1,2} 3. P&Q 1,2 &I
{1} 4. Q→(P&Q) 2,3 CP
5. P→(Q→(P&Q)) 1,4 CP
Exercise 2.7

1. {1} 1. P Premise
{2} 2. P↔Q Premise
{2} 3. (P→Q)&(Q→P) 2 ↔E
{2} 4. P→Q 3 &E
{1,2} 5. Q 1,4 MP

## 2. {1} 1. P&(P↔Q) Premise

{1} 2. P 1 &E
{1} 3. P↔Q 1 &E
{1} 4. (P→Q)&(Q→P) 3 ↔E
{1} 5. P→Q 4 &E
{1} 6. Q 2,5 MP
{1} 7. P&Q 2,6 &I

## 3. {1} 1. (P&Q)↔P Premise

{1} 2. ((P&Q)→P)&(P→(P&Q)) 1 ↔E
{1} 3. P→(P&Q) 2 &E
{4} 4. P Assumption for CP
{1,4} 5. P&Q 3,4 MP
{1,4} 6. Q 5 &E
{1} 7. P→Q 4,6 CP

## 4. {1} 1. P→Q Premise

{2} 2. Q→P Assumption for CP
{1,2} 3. P↔Q 1,2 ↔I
{1} 4. (Q→P)→(P↔Q) 2,3 CP

## 5. {1} 1. P→(Q↔R) Premise

{2} 2. P&Q Assumption for CP
{2} 3. P 2 &E
{1,2} 4. Q↔R 1,3 MP
{1,2} 5. (Q→R)&(R→Q) 4 ↔E
{1,2} 6. Q→R 5 &E
{2} 7. Q 2 &E
{1,2} 8. R 6,7 MP
{1} 9. (P&Q)→R 2,8 CP
6. {1} 1. P↔Q Premise
{2} 2. Q↔R Premise
{1} 3. (P→Q)&(Q→P) 1 ↔E
{1} 4. P→Q 3 &E
{1} 5. Q→P 3 &E
{2} 6. (Q→R)&(R→Q) 2 ↔E
{2} 7. Q→R 6 &E
{2} 8. R→Q 6 &E
{9} 9. P Assumption for CP
{1,9} 10. Q 4,9 MP
{1,2,9} 11. R 7,10 MP
{1,2} 12. P→R 9,11 CP
{13} 13. R Assumption for CP
{2,13} 14. Q 8,13 MP
{1,2,13} 15. P 5,14 MP
{1,2} 16. R→P 13,15 CP
{1,2} 17. P↔R 12,16 ↔I