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5/18/2018 Preparation of pH buffer solutions

Preparation of pH buffer solutions


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Related link:
Analysis Buffers
For EDTA titrations
For Fluoride (TISAB)
For Determination of Fe.
On this page: Click the links below to jump to the relevant info:
The preparation of pH buffer solutions
acetate buffers
phosphate buffers
solid mixture buffers

Phosphates
Phosphate salts are known by several names and the correct phosphate must be used to prepare
buffer solutions.
One phosphate cannot be substituted for another phosphate. Check formula of salt to be certain.

Formula Name of salt Other names


potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate
monobasic potassium phosphate
potassium dihydrogen
KH2PO4 monopotassium phosphate
phosphate
acid potassium phosphate
potassium biphosphate
dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate
potassium hydrogen dipotassium hydrogen phosphate
K2HPO4
phosphate dibasic potassium phosphate
dipotassium phosphate
tribasic potassium phosphate
K3PO4 potassium phosphate
tripotassium phosphate

Standardization buffers
For pH=7.00 :
Add 29.1 ml of 0.1 molar NaOH to 50 ml 0.1 molar potassium dihydrogen phosphate.

Alternatively :
Dissolve 1.20g of sodium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.885g of disidium hydrogen phosphate in 1 liter
volume distilled water.

For pH= 4.00 :


Add 0.1 ml of 0.1 molar NaOH to 50 ml of 0.1 molar potassium hydrogen phthalate .

Alternatively :
Dissolve 8.954g of disodium hydrogen phosphste.12 H2O and 3.4023g of potassium dihydrogen
phosphate in 1 liter volume distilled water.

Range of common buffer systems ¹

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5/18/2018 Preparation of pH buffer solutions

Useful buffering pH range


Buffering system
@ 25°C

Hydrochloric acid/ Potassium chloride 1.0 - 2.2


Glycine/ Hydrochloric acid 2.2 - 3.6
Potassium hydrogen phthalate/ Hydrochloric acid 2.2 - 4.0
Citric acid/ Sodium citrate 3.0 - 6.2
Sodium acetate/ Acetic acid 3.7 - 5.6
Potassium hydrogen phtaalate/ Sodium hydroxide 4.1 - 5.9
Disodium hydrogen phthalate / Sodium dihydrogen
5.8 - 8.0
orthophospate
Dipotassium hydrogen phthalate / Potassium dihydrogen
5.8 - 8.0
orthophospate
Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate / sodium hydroxide 5.8 - 8.00
Barbitone sodium / Hydrochloric acid 6.8 - 9.6
Tris (hydroxylmethyl) aminomethane / Hydrochloric acid 7.0 - 9.00
Sodium tetraborate/ Hydrochloric acid 8.1 - 9.2
Glycine/ Sodium hydroxide 8.6 - 10.6
Sodium carbonate/ Sodium hydrogen carbonate 9.2 - 10.8
Sodium tetraborate/ Sodium hydroxide 9.3 - 10.7
Sodium bicarbonate / Sodium hydroxide 9.60 - 11.0
Sodium hydrogen orthophosphate / Sodium hydroxide 11.0 - 11.9
Potassium chloride/ Sodium hydroxide 12.0 - 13.0

Preparing a Buffer Solution ²


This page gives tabulated info on the preparation of buffers by mixing adjusters
with a known volume of the primary salt solution, and made up to 200ml with distilled water.

BUFFERS 1.00 - 9.00

Buffer A : Buffer B : Buffer C : Buffer D : Buffer E :


pH 1.0 - 2.2 pH 2.2 - 4.00 pH 4.10 - 5.90 pH 5.8 - 8.00 pH 7.0 - 9.00
50 ml 0.2 M 100 ml 0.1 M 100 ml 0.1 M . 100 ml 0.1 M 100 ml 0.1 M tris
KCl + mls of potassium potassium KH2PO4 + (hydroxymethyl)
0.2 M HCl hydrogen phthalate hydrogen phthalate mls of 0.1 M aminomethane +
+ mls of 0.1 M HCl. + mls of 0.1 M NaOH. mls of 0.1 M HCl.
NaOH
pH mls of pH mls of 0.1M pH mls of 0.1M pH mls of pH mls of 0.1
0.2M HCl added NaOH added 0.1M M HCl
HCl NaOH added
added added
1.00 134.0 2.20 99.0 4.10 2.6 5.80 7.2 7.00 93.2
1.10 105.6 2.30 91.6 4.20 6.0 5.90 9.2 7.10 91.4
1.20 85.0 2.40 84.4 4.30 9.4 6.00 11.2 7.20 89.4
1.30 67.2 2.50 77.6 4.40 13.2 6.10 13.6 7.30 86.8
1.40 53.2 2.60 70.8 4.50 17.4 6.20 16.2 7.40 84.0
1.50 41.4 2.70 64.2 4.60 22.2 6.30 19.4 7.50 80.6
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1.60 32.4 2.80 57.8 4.70 27.2 6.40 23.2 7.60 77.0
1.70 26.0 2.90 51.4 4.80 33.0 6.50 27.8 7.70 73.2
1.80 20.4 3.00 44.6 4.90 38.8 6.60 32.8 7.80 69.0
1.90 16.2 3.10 37.6 5.00 45.2 6.70 38.6 7.90 64.0
2.00 13.0 3.20 31.4 5.10 51.0 6.80 44.8 8.00 58.4
2.10 10.2 3.30 25.8 5.20 57.6 6.90 51.8 8.l0 52.4
2.20 7.8 3.40 20.8 5.30 63.2 7.00 58.2 8.20 45.8
3.50 16.4 5.40 68.2 7.10 64.2 8.30 39.8
3.60 12.6 5.50 73.2 7.20 69.4 8.40 34.4
3.70 9.0 5.60 77.6 7.30 74.0 8.50 29.4
3.80 5.8 5.70 81.2 7.40 78.2 8.60 24.4
3.90 2.8 5.80 84.6 7.50 82.2 8.70 20.6
4.00 0.2 5.90 87.4 7.60 85.6 8.80 17.0
7.70 88.4 8.90 14.0
7.80 90.6 9.00 11.4
7.90 92.2
8.00 93.4

BUFFERS 08 - 13

Buffer F: pH 8.0 - Buffer G : Buffer H : Buffer I : Buffer J :


9.10 pH 9.2 - 10.80 pH 9.60 - 11.00 pH 10.90 - pH 12.00 -
12.00 13.00
100 mL 0.025 M 100 mL 0.025 M 100 mL 0.05 M 100 mL 0.05 M 50 mL 0.2 M
Na2B4O7.10H2O Na2B4O7.10H2O NaHCO3 + mls Na2HPO4 + KCl +
(borax) + mls of 0.1 (borax) + mls of 0.1 of 0.1 M NaOH. mls of 0.1 M volume
M HCl. M NaOH. NaOH. indicated (in
mL) 0.2 M
NaOH.
pH mls of 0.1M pH mls of 0.1M pH mls of pH mls of pH mls of
HCl added NaOH added 0.1M 0.1M 0.2M
NaOH NaOH NaOH
added added added
8.00 41.0 9.20 1.8 9.60 10.0 10.90 6.6 12.00 12.0
8.10 39.4 9.30 7.2 9.70 12.4 11.00 8.2 12.10 16.0
8.20 37.6 9.40 12.4 9.80 15.2 11.10 10.2 12.20 20.4
8.30 35.4 9.50 17.6 9.90 18.2 11.20 12.6 12.30 25.6
8.40 33.2 9.60 22.2 10.00 21.4 11.30 15.2 12.40 32.4
8.50 30.4 9.70 26.2 10.10 24.4 11.40 18.2 12.50 40.8
8.60 27.0 9.80 30.0 10.20 27.6 11.50 22.2 12.60 51.2
8.70 23.2 9.90 33.4 10.30 30.4 11.60 27.0 12.70 64.4
8.80 19.2 10.00 36.6 10.40 33.0 11.70 32.4 12.80 82.4
8.90 14.2 10.10 39.0 10.50 35.6 11.80 38.8 12.90 106.0
9.00 9.2 10.20 41.0 10.60 38.2 11.90 46.0 13.00 132.0
9.10 4.0 10.30 42.6 10.70 40.4 12.00 53.8
10.40 44.2 10.80 42.4
10.50 45.4 10.90 44.0
10.60 46.6 11.00 45.4
10.70 47.6
10.80 48.5

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5/18/2018 Preparation of pH buffer solutions

Acetate buffer solutions pH 3 - 6 ³

Make up the following solutions


(1) 0.1M acetic acid
(2) 0.1M sodium acetate (tri-hydrate) (13.6g / l)
Mix in the following proportions to get the required ph

ph Vol. of 0.1M acetic acid Vol. of 0.1M sodium acetate


3 982.3 mls 17.7 mls
4 847.0 mls 153.0 mls
5 357.0 mls 643.0 mls
6 52.2 mls 947.8 mls

Acetate buffer solutions pH 3.6 - 5.6

Make up the following solutions


(1) 0.1M acetic acid
(2) 0.1M sodium acetate (tri-hydrate) (13.6g / l)
Mix in the following proportions to get the required ph [Pearse 1980]

ph Vol. of 0.1M acetic acid Vol. of 0.1M sodium acetate


3.6 185 mls 15 mls
3.8 176 mls 24 mls
4.0 164 mls 36 mls
4.2 147 mls 53 mls
4.4 126 mls 74 mls
4.6 102 mls 98 mls
4.8 80 mls 120 mls
5.0 59 mls 141 mls
5.2 42 mls 158 mls
5.4 29 mls 171 mls
5.6 19 mls 181 mls

Phosphate buffer solutions ph 5.8 - 8.0

Make up the following solutions 5


(1) 0.2M KH2PO4 (g/ l)
(2) 0.2M NaOH
Add the vol. of 0.2M NaOH in table to 50 mls of 0.2M KH2PO4
and dilute to 200 mls.

ph Vol. of Naoh ph Vol. of NaOH

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5/18/2018 Preparation of pH buffer solutions

5.8 3.72 mls 7.0 29.63 mls


6.0 5.70 mls 7.2 35.00 mls
6.2 8.60 mls 7.4 39.50 mls
6.4 12.60 mls 7.6 42.80 mls
6.6 17.80 mls 7.8 45.20 mls
6.8 23.65 mls 8.0 46.80 mls

Addition of acid or base to a salt pH 3 - 11


Here, the primary salt is a solid and is weighed out in grams.
A measured amount of 0.1M HCl or NaOH is added and
made up to 1 liter to give the required ph. 4

Salt mixture
pH
Dilute each mixture to 1 liter solution with distilled water
3 10.21g potassium hydrogen phthalate and 223ml of 0.10M HCl
4 10.21g potassium hydrogen phthalate and 1ml of 0.10M HCl
5 10.21g potassium hydrogen phthalate and 226ml of 0.10M NaOH
6 6.81g potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 56ml of 0.10M NaOH
7 6.81g potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 291ml of 0.10M NaOH
8 6.81g potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 467ml of 0.10M NaOH
9 4.77g sodium tetraborate and 46ml of 0.10M HCl
10 4.77g sodium tetraborate and 183ml of 0.10M NaOH
11 2.10g sodium bicarbonate and 227ml of 0.10M NaOH

1. The Physical and Theoretical Laboratory, Oxford University.


2. "Electrolyte solutions" Robinson, R. A., and Stokes, R. H., 2nd ed., rev. London, Butterworths, 1968.
3. "Practical chemistry" J. Lambert and T.A. Muir, 3rd. Ed. Heineman, London.
4. pdf file, www.bc.ca/bcsc/resources/ (Canadian Teachers Federation).
5. "Determination of hydrogen Ions" Clark and Lubs, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1928.

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Signature: Dhanlal De Lloyd, Chem. Dept, The University of The West Indies, St. Augustine campus
The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
Copyright: delloyd2000© All rights reserved.

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