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THE STOCKHOLM DIALOGUE

ON THE NEXUS BETWEEN HUMAN RIGHTS, ENVIRONMENTAL


SUSTAINABILITY AND CONFLICT PREVENTION

dialogue
report

STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN
JUNE 12, 2018

JOINTLY ORGANIZED BY:


Table of
contents
About the Dialogue ............ 3

Key Messages ....................... 4

Next Steps ............................ 5

Plenary Session I.................. 6

Plenary Session II................. 7

Parallel Session 1................ 10

Parallel Session 2................ 11

Parallel Session 3................ 12

Parallel Session 4................14

Presentations ......................17

ALL CONFERENCE
MATERIALS ARE
AVAILABLE HERE
the dialogue
The Stockholm Dialogue on the
Nexus between Human Rights,
Environmental Sustainability and
Conflict Prevention took place in
Stockholm on 12 June 2018.

The Dialogue was jointly


organized by the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP),
the Swedish Environmental
Protection Agency (Swedish EPA),
UN Environment and the Folke
Bernadotte Academy.

More than 100 representatives


from governments, the UN,
academia, civil society, and
private sector, as well as countries
with large mineral reserves,
including Argentina, Colombia,
Kenya, Mali, Mauritius,
Mozambique, Peru, and Venezuela
shared their perspectives on how
to improve the management of
natural resources in ways that
advance the 2030 Agenda for
sustainable development and
ensure more sustainable and
peaceful results across countries
and regions.

UNDP and the Swedish EPA also


launched a Global Guide on
ALL WORKSHOP
Integrating Human Rights and the MATERIALS ARE
Environment into the Governance AVAILABLE HERE
of the Mining Sector which can be
found here. 
DIALOGUE REPORT

KEY MESSAGES FROM THE STOCKHOLM DIALOGUE 


More than 100 participants from 26 countries and several organizations
shared their perspectives and experience on integrated approaches for
managing natural resources and achieving the Sustainable Development
Goals. They identified challenges and opportunities, including through
partnerships and stronger peer-networks, workshops and engagement with
the private sector.

During the one-day Dialogue, the following key messages emerged: 

1 - Conflict prevention depends on sound environmental management,


and sustainable environmental management relies on conflict
prevention. 

A growing body of evidence shows that healthy ecosystems help sustain and
foster peace and security. For example, poor governance leading to land
degradation, deforestation and water shortage, which can be drivers of conflict
and migration. And inequitable sharing of revenues and other benefits from oil,

here we're  Going


gas, and mineral development can also exacerbate conflict and factors leading to
secession movements.
Nature also underpins a wide range of human rights, including the rights to life,
equality, health, food, water, and culture. And human rights and rights-based
approaches, rule of law, and peaceful resolution of disputes are essential to both
conflict prevention and environmental sustainability.

2 - Integrated approaches that address the nexus between human


rights,C oenvironmental
n f l i c t p r e v e n t i o n sustainability
depends on soun andd e nconflict
v i r o n m e nprevention,
t a l m a n a g e m eand
n t , go
a n d s u s t a i n a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n
beyond sectorial and thematic silo thinking are essential to advancinga g e m e n t r e l i e s o n c o n f l i c t
prevention. 
the 2030 Agenda. 
It can be done - there are already many good examples from diverse resource
sectors.
Approaches need to be integrated across resource sectors. In addition to the well-
established Water-Energy-Food Nexus, there are also linkages between water and
extractives, between biodiversity and extractives, and between agriculture and
extractives.
Approaches also need to be integrated across geographic scales, linking local,
national, and transboundary initiatives. Local conflicts are often driven by global
demand for land, minerals, timber, and other resources. And widespread local
grievances, for example, over access to land or minerals can drive national
conflicts. 
Approaches need to address environmental sustainability, human rights, and
conflict prevention as interdependent themes and not just one or two in isolation.

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3 - Innovative partnerships that emphasize inclusion are necessary to


tackle these multi-dimensional challenges and advance these integrated
nexus approaches. This includes closer engagement with the
private sector.
No actor alone can create change. Collaboration is the only way of understanding
and addressing the complexity of today, leveraging new partnerships that
advance solutions. 

4 - Investing in such approaches and partnerships are key if we are to


replicate, scale up, and accelerate progress on the Sustainable
Development Goals. Just as it is necessary to go beyond silos in
programming, it is necessary to break down funding silos.
Because the sustainability, security, and resilience of our societies and economies
depend on nature, what it provides, and how we manage and invest in it, it is
critical to invest in sustainable and equitable natural resource governance.
Donors and governments have an important role to play, for example by
encouraging/financing multi-stakeholder programmes that implement
integrated approaches.

NEXT STEPS
UNDP, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, UN Environment, the
Folke Bernadotte Academy, and partners will continue to deliver support to
meet country needs through already existing programmes, initiatives, and
communities of practices to advance integrated approaches to Natural
Resource Management.

These programmes and initiatives, together with other partners,


will continue to work locally and globally, supporting countries solving their
locally defined problems through country programmes; creating and
strengthening networks and exchange of experience; webinars; workshops;
knowledge products and peer learning opportunities on topics such as
gender and conflict prevention, integrating human rights and rule of law in
mining, biodiversity and human rights, community-based participatory
environmental monitoring, and many more. 

Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Photo by PrasitChansarekorn/iStock.com

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PLENARY SESSION I: HOW DO WE SECURE THE RIGHT TO A


CLEAN AND HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT, WHILE PREVENTING
CONFLICT?
Summary:

This session, comprising four panel presentations and four respondents, provided an
overview of challenges and opportunities in applying integrated approaches to
promote sustainability and peace. It focused on examples of how governments, the
private sector, and other actors have contributed to conflict prevention and
sustainable development by integrating human rights, and environmental
sustainability in the governance of the extractive sector.

Panel Presentation 1: Participatory Environmental Monitoring. Flaviano Bianchini,


Director and Founder of Source international introduced community-based
monitoring with examples from Mexico and Peru. 

Panel Presentation 2: Peace and Environment. Jimena Puyana, National Manager for
Sustainable Development, UNDP Colombia; and César Jerez, leader of Rural Peasant
Reserve Zones presented the Colombian “Peace and Environment” programme.

Panel Presentation 3: Weaving SDG 16 and human rights principles into the post-
2020 global biodiversity framework. Presenter: Dr Claudia Ituarte-Lima,
Environmental lawyer, and researcher, Swedbio, Stockholm Resilience Centre.

Respondents: Hon. Marie Jacobsson, Ambassador, Ministry for Foreign Affairs,


Sweden; Dalia Marquez, Venezuela, UN MCGY as Global Focal Point of Sustainable
Consumption and Production, Latin American and Caribbean Engagement
Mechanism of Civil Society (LACEMOS); Nora Götzmann, Senior Advisor Human
Rights & Business, Danish Institute for Human Rights. 

Photo gallery available online here

Tim Scott, Senior Policy Advisor on Environment, UNDP; and Alexander Verbeek, Stockholm Dialogue Facilitator (Left); Massaran
Traoré, Executive Director, International Alert Mali (Center); and Dalia Marquez, Venezuela, UN MCGY as Global Focal Point of
Sustainable Consumption and Production, Latin American and Caribbean Engagement Mechanism of Civil Society (Right). 

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Key messages:  

Efforts to sustain peace, effective, accountable and inclusive institutions and


environmental protection are linked.
As the text of SDG 16 does not specify social-ecological dimensions, we need
dialogue and tools to better understand and address the connections between
SDG 16 and environmental issues, including biodiversity.
Environmental issues, if now managed well, can exacerbate conflicts, especially at
the community level. 
Environmental governance needs to be sensitive to country contexts, especially in
post-conflict areas.
In the aftermath of conflicts, new opportunities for sustaining peace that is linked
to livelihood and environmental protection can arise in e.g. eco-tourism, in post-
conflict areas that are biodiversity-rich.
It is key to involve and train both communities and post-combatants in processes
geared to provide alternative livelihood paths that are not linked to conflict.
One way to prevent mining related conflict is to give communities greater control
over their resources through participatory environmental monitoring initiatives.
To be effective, participatory monitoring should be integrated into the planning
process starting before the opening of a mine and continuing throughout the
mining cycle. 
There is scope for the mining industry to play a bigger role in the participatory
monitoring and financing of participatory monitoring schemes as part of
companies’ due diligence.
When seeking to address the adverse impact of mining on the environment and
human rights, lessons can be drawn from other international law processes,
including the ban on mining in Antarctica and exploration in the international
seabed.

A link to the streaming for this session can be found here. 

Martin Eriksson, Director of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Left); Kaluki Mutuku, University of Nairobi, Kenya; and
Aumeer Rookayah, Educator, Ministry of Education and Human Resources, Tertiary Education and Scientific Research, Mauritius,
in an interview with Åsa Borssén (Center); Alexander Verbeek, Stockholm Dialogue Facilitator (Right).

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PLENARY SESSION II: DOING BUSINESS DIFFERENTLY - HOW CAN


NEW PARTNERSHIPS AND WORKING ACROSS SILOS GENERATE
NEW THINKING AND SOLUTIONS FOR CONFLICT PREVENTION AND
SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES?
This session explored how we can provide better-integrated support and leverage
partnerships, innovations and technology to support countries in accelerating
implementation of Agenda 2030. The session was comprised of four presentations
and a dialogue with three discussants/respondents.

Panel Presentation 1: How can data sharing and innovative technological


partnerships support conflict prevention and sustainable natural resource
management? Inga Petersen, Senior Adviser, UN Environment made a presentation
of MAPX, a cloud-based geo-spatial data platform for mapping and monitoring the
use of the natural resource for conflict prevention, which integrates economic, social
and environmental data. 

Joanne Lebert, Executive Director, IMPACT presented a partnership between IMPACT


and technology firm Consensas for companies to confidently source minerals from
conflict and high-risk areas while compensating women and men in local artisanal
mining communities for supply chain transparency.

Panel Presentation 2: Lessons from the oil for development programme: Ingunn
Kroksnes, Senior Adviser with the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation
(NORAD) presented Norway’s Oil for Development programme, which aims at
supporting economically, environmentally and socially responsible management of
petroleum resources in 12 countries based on the Norwegian experience.

Panel Presentation 3: Water, Human Rights, and Mining: Chris McCombe of the
International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) presented on the topic of water,
human rights and mining from the perspective of the ICMM, a coalition of  27 mining
companies.

Respondents: Tove Lexen, Vice-President, PUSH Sweden; Massaran Traoré, Executive


Director, International Alert Mali; Dr. Florian Krampe, Researcher, Stockholm
International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).

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Key messages: 

Technology presents innovative and exciting opportunities for integrated


development and conflict prevention.
However, unequal power relations greatly determine how inequities are
reproduced in participation processes or via access to technologies. There is a
need to understand local dynamics and contexts: there are no one size fits all
solutions. This understanding must inform the development of new tools and
initiatives.
Participation must be transformed into partnerships to prevent conflict in long-
term.
We must move from addressing symptoms to root causes, and this work must be
underpinned by rigorous assessments.
The private sector can and should play a critical role in environmental protection,
the industry has a responsibility to prevent conflicts and opportunities exist to
engage. 
The industry has realized the benefits of engaging in sustainable resource
management. Barriers include issues related to the temporary presence of mining
operations, government engagement, and collaboration between companies.

A link to the streaming of this session can be found here.

Panel illustrating key messages from the Stockholm Dialogue by Terese Ellnestam, graphic recorder/facilitator.
High-resolution panel available here. 

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PARALLEL SESSION 1: HOW CAN PARTICIPATORY


ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING COMMITTEES EMPOWER CITIZENS
TO SHAPE DECISION MAKING?
The session featured a presentation on Participatory Environmental Monitoring
Committees (PEMCs), how they can be a tool to influence and shape decision
making and prevent conflict from escalating. Examples and cases from Argentina,
Bolivia, Panama and Peru were presented to explore the four core dimensions
related to PEMCs internal governance, learning, socio economic and environmental
dimension. 

Key messages: 

Recent research on the frequency of reported conflict situations between mining


companies and communities shows a progressive increase since 2002 in Latin
America. 
A UNDP-CIRDI study* concluded that the creation of Participatory Environmental
Monitoring Committees (PEMCs) has proven effective in the prevention of socio-
environmental conflicts that involved communities and mining companies in
Peru. 
Through new case studies from Argentina, Bolivia, Panama, and Peru, a new study
conducted by the joint UNDP and Swedish EPA Global Programme on
Environmental Governance for Sustainable Natural Resource Management will
help identify the parameters and the context within which PEMCs can be created;
and share actionable policy recommendations.
PEMCs activity should not be “reactive” but “proactive” and built into the early
stages of the mining lifecycle phase. Communities should be able to participate in
environmental and socio-economic assessments prior to the companies’ arrival
and throughout the mining operation.
Transparency and communication are key to avoid misunderstandings, to ensure
meaningful participation and legitimate representation and to disseminate the
work of the committees for meaningful results on the ground.  
It is important to involve all key stakeholders in the PEMC work, including the
private sector and mining companies. 

A link to the streaming can be found here. 

*Carlier, Leon & Xavier, The Third National Conference on Participatory Environmental
Monitoring and Surveillance, Canadian International Resources Development
Institute (CIRDI), 2016. Available at: https://cirdi.ca/wp-
content/uploads/2017/04/Report-of-the-3rd-CMVAP-
conference_Final_Apr_12_2017.pd

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PARALLEL SESSION 2 – ASSESSING RULE OF LAW IN


ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE: WHAT DOES THE EVIDENCE
SHOW AND HOW TO ENSURE RIGHTS-BASED DECISION-MAKING IN
THE MINING SECTOR?  
This session presented findings from the piloting of a new Swedish EPA-UNDP-FBA
Rule of Law Principles in the Environmental Governance of the Mining Sector
(ROLPA-M) toolkit that has been applied in Colombia, Mozambique, and Mongolia to
detect rule of law challenges and linked procedural human rights in the governance
of the mining sector. It focused on: gaps between de jure and de facto
implementation of basic rule of law principles; grievances stemming from the lack of
respect for the rule of law in administrative decision-making affecting the rights of
individuals and communities in mining areas; ways forward to promote the respect
and demand for the rule law in environmental governance. Case studies from
Colombia were presented to anchor the dialogue in country experiences. 

Key messages: 

Reinforcing the rule of law is at the centre of the UN Sustaining Peace Agenda,
and - like human rights-based approaches - is vital to ensuring strong and
accountable institutions that can be an effective pillar in preventing violent
conflict and guaranteeing a fair and equitable distribution of resources.
The self-assessment tool has been developed with a focus on mining sector
performance in government agencies. It is a practical tool that draws directly on
the experiences and insights of the staff of the agency granting environmental
and mining licenses and the users (communities affected by LSM projects such as
smallholders, farmers, re-settled communities as well as mining rights’
holders/small-scale and artisanal mining affected by LSM projects) to outline
recommendations for mining sector reform from a rule of law perspective.
The toolkit complements other toolkits such as the World Bank’s Mining Sector
Diagnostic (MSD) and the Mining Policy Framework (MPF). Where it differs is
mainly on its focus on individual users and their interactions with mining sector
regulatory bodies from a specific rule of law and human rights perspective. Plans
are underway to combine ROLPA-M and MSD for a pilot joint assessment in one or
more countries. 
Evidence from research and pilot assessments have shown that although rule of
law principles might be incorporated into laws, they are often not sufficiently put
into practice.
In addition to conflict prevention safeguards, it is critical to address wider
implications of institutional and capacity deficits in the justice and natural
resources sectors; conflict sensitivity is not only dependent on technical assistance
adapted to local context - but also on political engagement.

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The pilot assessments have shown that key elements of participation - such as
consultation, active engagement, oversight, and accountability - are not included
comprehensively. Participation is mandatory by law, but no penalties are
envisaged. As a result, public hearings have a low impact. Due to various
grievances from communities, referendums to prohibit mining are becoming
popular (e.g. Colombia).
Trust in the effectiveness of complaint mechanisms is low, thus creating a
potential for escalating social grievances and conflict.
Mining formalization is a challenge that requires the state to strengthen its
capacity to respond to the environmental and social needs of some territories (eg.
Colombia).
Possible recommendations for actions deriving from the assessments include:
updating and reforming policies or legislation; improving implementation of
existing policies and laws; building the capacities of agency staff; increasing
accountability mechanisms; and improving outreach and communication with
affected communities. Each of these follow-up actions can also integrate gender-
responsive considerations.
Implementing recommendations requires different approaches (e.g. addressing
structural, institutional or capacity-related challenges). Following up on results,
such as designing action plans with implementation milestones, detailed roles
and responsibilities within each agency unit on the allocation of tasks and clearly
defined and realistic objectives based on available resources are essential. 
Creating an enabling environment for leadership and agency staff to engage
more actively can encourage ownership.
The assessment and subsequent action plans can help distinguish between
problems which the agency can address on its own, and problems that require the
involvement of other multi-level stakeholders participating in the self-assessment.
Highlighting difficulties related to regional or national level control and guidance
can strengthen advocacy. 

In summary: 

There are many policy implementation gaps and what is on paper does often not
reflect what happens in practice.
What do we do when the structures and institutions are not in place, in particular
at local levels?
Core performance issues need to be addressed through dialogue with national
partners and stakeholders.
The ROLPA-M toolkit can help governments to prioritize where to start bridging
these gaps.
Access to basic information is needed to make sure communities are empowered.
The process is as important as the results. 

A link to the streaming can be found here. 

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PARALLEL SESSION 3: STRENGTHENING WOMEN’S


PARTICIPATION IN NATURAL RESOURCE GOVERNANCE AND
CONFLICT PREVENTION
This session explored ways to use natural resource governance and management for
women’s political and economic empowerment, with a focus on conflict prevention
and peacebuilding. The discussions focused on new research and tools for
promoting gender-responsive approaches to natural resources and extractive
industries in conflict-affected contexts, including artisanal mining. It highlighted
stories from women in the field, and discussed opportunities for enhancing
integration
Key messages:
We have seen several gaps related to women’s participation in conflict prevention
and peace operations. Degraded environments can work as a threat multiplier.
Unless we learn how to manage these risks, we are going to find ourselves in an
increasingly entrenched situation. 
Although things are improving, much remains to be done to secure women’s
participation in peace processes and in the formulation of government policy. In
the field of water management, women can have a particularly important role to
play. However, for that to happen we need empowerment and representation. We
also need the legal tools and to make sure that the institutional structures are
built in a way that enhances empowerment and inclusion.
To better understand the dynamics in any sector, we need to have an evidence-
based approach. 
We need to engage in an analysis of who is vulnerable in a certain context and
why. Furthermore, we need to address the root causes. The relation between
structural variables and the direct impact of a project needs to be understood. 
Communities can and should be directly involved in verifying research results and
in developing interventions. To train working groups in mining areas on legal
frameworks and human rights is an important part of changing the dynamics and
assuring that individuals and groups have knowledge of their rights and
responsibilities. Training on conflict-sensitive business practices and the legal
frameworks has also been a way of creating an understanding of citizen’s rights
and duties related to the mining activities. To integrate gender sensitivity in local
conflict management is a necessary step towards sustaining peace in artisan
mining areas. 
Company’s need to build skills to work with these issues. There needs to be an
integration of gender issues in all functional units, both on the company and
industry level in terms of e.g. guiding frameworks. 
What is driving the private sector towards gender mainstreaming and how can we
further incentivize engagement from companies? Different companies are
motivated by different things. Some might be motivated by normative aspects,
other by more structural aspects. There are several important entry points. 

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It is also important for companies and industries to go beyond training their own
staff to also engage in the surrounding communities. International Alert Mali has
done research on CSR policies of endeavor mining in Tabakoto in Mali: oversight of
communities in decision-making regarding resources allocation, opportunities,
and modes of operation. 
People are generally open to talk about gender. A more difficult issue relates to
class. Hearing someone from another part of community/society articulating the
“right” priorities is a challenge. Intersectionality is a core concept that needs to be
considered. 
The question about power is also at the core of it. Here we need to address power
at different levels. There are multiple layers of power within power that we need to
understand. Local empowerment and the voice of the community is a start. Both
visibility and integration are pivotal. 

A link to the streaming can be found here.

Photo by Blerina Gjeka, UNDP Kenya

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PARALLEL SESSION 4: INVESTING IN MEANINGFUL


PARTICIPATION OF YOUTH IN ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE
TO SUSTAIN PEACE
This session discussed ways to recognize, promote and support the agency and
resilience of young people to ensure effective and inclusive natural resource
governance in the context of efforts to prevent violence and conflict and advance
peacebuilding.

It featured young people’s stories from the field, include a presentation on Youth,
Peace and Security and the role of Youth in SDG implementation, and links to
environmental governance. It aimed to identify relevant youth-friendly and youth-
inclusive knowledge platforms and tools and discuss existing and new entry points
for policy, programming and partnerships.

Key messages: 

There are about 1,8 billion young people on the planet. This is not a minority target
group! In some countries, 80 percent of the population is below 30.
Youth are oftentimes seen as a threat, but we need to recognize youth as a
positive force and contributors.
Youth can and do contribute actively to peacebuilding. Young people often see
and understand complex interlinkages as reflected in their lived reality, and have
good communication and ICT skills. Youth contribute to gather and share
information on environmental problems, through apps, GIS mapping, and
hackathons that can contribute to governance processes and early warning
systems.  
For example, Venezuelan youth use an app to record public sanitary problems and
pollution to drinking water. Kenyan youth used GIS to share data on waste
littering. There is also a Kenyan GIS mapping tool on coal mines in Africa, that can
be used to better inform communities. In Sweden, there is the annual Hack for
Sweden. The event, organized by SEPA and other government agencies,
incentivizes youth to generate ICT solutions to environmental problems and
support innovation and participation. 
It is important to give young people an active role and specific tasks, in the
implementation of Agenda 2030, to use their creativity. 
Youth organizations can improve their advocacy efforts by having dedicated
Government contacts, networking across sub-national territories, and
internationally, and with veterans and experts from other fields. 
Administrative hurdles to participation in global fora need to be overcome, e.g.
troubles getting visas to participate in international meetings. It is important to
scale up existing university initiatives and to encourage young professions within
universities to share their expertise and contribute to peacebuilding.

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More bilateral collaboration is needed. It is useful to engage in lessons learned to


share across countries with similar challenges, for instance between small island
developing nations.
Exchange of economic and technical resources should be monitored more closely,
to ensure effectiveness and accountability.
Lack of trust in governments and institutions can be overcome by strengthening
youth participation in political processes, Mauritius is an example of a country with
a young government that helps to give voice to the youth and strengthens trust
and legitimacy.

Some key recommendations: 

Involve the youth early, i.e. when making laws, not only when are being
implemented. Also, give youth a specific role.
Create networks for young professionals so that young people can bring about
change.
Make it easier for them to access funding. 
Remove barriers in governments in terms of communication channels. 
Ensure transparent emission of the ideas young people put forward.
Create a space to engage and include the youth in global dialogues.
Set up more communication channels with the government for young people.
And finally: We have a lot to learn from the youth and youth groups!

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THE PRESENTATIONS ARE AVAILABLE ON THE DIALOGUE WEBSITE:


https://undpsustainabledevelopment.exposure.co/stockholm-
dialogue 

tHE STOCKHOLM DIALOGUE WAS JOINTLY ORGANIZED BY:


 

WITH SUPPORT FROM:

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