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OverviewOverview

 
 

GrammarGrammar andand OurOur KnowledgeKnowledge ofof LanguageLanguage

1.1.

SyntaxSyntax

2.2.

MorphologyMorphology

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PhoneticsPhonetics andand PhonoloPhonolo

 

gygy

4.4.

SemanticsSemantics

5.5.

AmbiguityAmbiguity

6.6.

DescriptiveDescriptive andand PrescriptivePrescriptive RulesRules ofof GrammarGrammar

 

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OverviewOverview

 

OverviewOverview

 

1.1.

SyntaxSyntax

2.2. MorphologyMorphology

 

––

ConstituentsConstituents

 

AffixationAffixation

––

MovementMovement

––

 

InflectionInflection andand derivationderivation WordWord formationformation processesprocesses

 

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OverviewOverview

 

OverviewOverview

 

3.3.

PhoneticsPhonetics andand PhonologyPhonology

4.4.

SemanticsSemantics

 

ArticulatoryArticulatory phoneticsphonetics AcousticAcoustic pphoneticshonetics AuditoryAuditory phoneticsphonetics

   

––

AnomalyAnomaly

––

––

ContradictionContradiction

PresuppositionPresupposition

 

––

MetaphorMetaphor

 

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OverviewOverview

 

OverviewOverview

5.5. AmbiguityAmbiguity

LexicalLexical andand syntacticsyntactic ambiguityambiguity

6.6. DescriptiveDescriptive andand prescriptiveprescriptive rulesrules ofof grammargrammar

 

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88

WhatWhat isis Syntax?Syntax?

 

WhatWhat isis Syntax?Syntax?

••TheThe studystudy ofof thethe wayway inin whichwhich sentencessentences areare constructedconstructed fromfrom smallersmaller unitsunits calledcalled constituents;constituents; howhow sentencessentences areare relatedrelated toto eacheach other.other.

••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate thoughtthought thatthat thethe expensiveexpensive dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor werewere surprisinglysurprisingly boring.boring.

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ConstituentsConstituents ••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate thoughtthought thatthat thethe
ConstituentsConstituents
••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate
thoughtthought thatthat thethe expensiveexpensive
dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor
werewere surprisinglysurprisingly boring.boring.
1111
ConstituentsConstituents ••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate thoughtthought thatthat thethe
ConstituentsConstituents
••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate
thoughtthought thatthat thethe expensiveexpensive
dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor
werewere surprisinglysurprisingly boring.boring.
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ConstituentsConstituents ••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate thoughtthought thatthat thethe
ConstituentsConstituents
••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate
thoughtthought thatthat thethe expensiveexpensive
dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor
werewere surprisinglysurprisingly boring.boring.
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ConstituentsConstituents ••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate thoughtthought thatthat thethe
ConstituentsConstituents
••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate
thoughtthought thatthat thethe expensiveexpensive
dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor
werewere surprisinglysurprisingly boringboring
1515

MovementMovement

••TheThe expensiveexpensive dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor werewere surprisinglysurprisingly boring.boring.

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ConstituentsConstituents ••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate thoughtthought thatthat thethe
ConstituentsConstituents
••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate
thoughtthought thatthat thethe expensiveexpensive
dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor
werewere surprisinglysurprisingly boringboring
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ConstituentsConstituents

••GeraldineGeraldine thoughtthought thatthat thethe giftsgifts givengiven byby ScottScott werewere wonderfulwonderful ••TheThe presidentialpresidential candidatecandidate thoughtthought thatthat thethe expensiveexpensive dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor werewere surprisinglysurprisingly boringboring

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MovementMovement ••SurprisinglySurprisingly thethe expensiveexpensive dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s
MovementMovement
••SurprisinglySurprisingly thethe expensiveexpensive
dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor
werewere boring.boring.
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MovementMovement ••WereWere thethe expensiveexpensive dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor
MovementMovement
••WereWere thethe expensiveexpensive dinnersdinners
givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s honorhonor
surprisinglysurprisingly boring?boring?
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OverviewOverview

 

1.1.

SyntaxSyntax

2.2.

MorphologyMorphology

33

PhoneticsPhonetics andand PhonoloPhonolo

gygy

4.4.

SemanticsSemantics

5.5.

AmbiguityAmbiguity

6.6.

DescriptiveDescriptive andand PrescriptivePrescriptive RulesRules ofof GrammarGrammar

 
 

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WhatWhat isis Morphology?Morphology?

 

•• SupercalifragilisticexpialidociousSupercalifragilisticexpialidocious

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MovementMovement ••HonorHonor thethe expensiveexpensive dinnersdinners givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s werewere
MovementMovement
••HonorHonor thethe expensiveexpensive dinnersdinners
givengiven inin Lee’sLee’s werewere
surprisinglysurprisingly boring?boring?
2020

WhatWhat isis Morphology?Morphology?

•• TheThe studystudy ofof thethe constructionconstruction ofof wordswords outout ofof morphemes.morphemes.

–– AA mormorpphemeheme isis thethe smallestsmallest linlingguisticuistic unitunit thatthat cancan havehave meaningmeaning oror grammaticalgrammatical function.function.

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oror grammaticalgrammatical function.function. 2222 AffixationAffixation - - suffixes suffixes ••

AffixationAffixation -- suffixessuffixes

•• SupercalifragilisticexpialidoSupercalifragilisticexpialidociouscious •• AtroAtrociouscious •• PretenPretentioustious •• DeliDeliciouscious •• SalaSalaciouscious

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AffixationAffixation -- prefixesprefixes

•• SuperSupercalifragilisticexpialidociouscalifragilisticexpialidocious •• SuperSuper--sizesize •• SuperSuperlativelative •• SuperSupercedecede •• SuperSuperficialficial

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Super Supercede cede •• Super Superficial ficial 2525 Word Word- -formationformation processesprocesses ••

WordWord--formationformation processesprocesses

•• Blending:Blending: brunch,brunch, smog,smog, flubberflubber •• Clipping:Clipping: phone,phone, exam,exam, disdis ,, •• Coining:Coining: Kodak,Kodak, Pepsi,Pepsi, YodaYoda •• FormingForming acronyms:acronyms: radar,radar, scuba,scuba, AIDS,AIDS, NASANASA •• SemanticSemantic shift:shift: hot,hot, like,like, kosherkosher

•• ComCom oundinoundin :: basketballbasketball blacklistblacklist

pp

gg

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:: basketballbasketball blacklistblacklist pp gg 2727 WhatWhat isis Phonetics?Phonetics? ••

WhatWhat isis Phonetics?Phonetics?

•• PhoneticsPhonetics isis thethe studystudy ofof speechspeech sounds;sounds; howhow theythey areare producedproduced inin thethe vocalvocal tracttract (articulatory(articulatory phonetics),phonetics), theirtheir physicalphysical propertiesproperties (acoustic(acoustic phonetics),phonetics), andand howhow theythey areare perceivedperceived (auditory(auditory phonetics).phonetics).

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InflectionInflection andand derivationderivation

•• Eat,Eat, eats,eats, eating,eating, ateate •• Sleep,Sleep, sleeps,sleeps, sleeping,sleeping, sleptslept ,, •• Eat,Eat, edible,edible, inedibleinedible •• Sleep,Sleep, asleep,asleep, sleepysleepy •• Round,Round, around,around, roundaboutroundabout

•• RoundRound rounderrounder roundestroundest

,,

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RoundRound rounderrounder roundestroundest ,, 2626 OverviewOverview 1.1. SyntaxSyntax 2.2.

OverviewOverview

1.1.

SyntaxSyntax

2.2.

MorphologyMorphology

1.1. SyntaxSyntax 2.2. MorphologyMorphology 4.4. SemanticsSemantics 5.5. AmbiguityAmbiguity 6.6.

4.4.

SemanticsSemantics

5.5.

AmbiguityAmbiguity

6.6.

DescriptiveDescriptive andand PrescriptivePrescriptive RulesRules ofof GrammarGrammar

2828

RulesRules ofof GrammarGrammar 2828 WhatWhat isis Phonology?Phonology? ••

WhatWhat isis Phonology?Phonology?

•• PhonologyPhonology isis thethe studystudy ofof thethe soundsound systemsystem ofof aa language;language; howhow thethe particularparticular soundssounds contrastcontrast inin eacheach languagelanguage toto formform anan integratedintegrated systemsystem forfor encodingencoding informationinformation andand howhow suchsuch systemssystems differdiffer fromfrom oneone languagelanguage toto another.another.

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33

PhoneticsPhonetics andand PhonoloPhonolo

gygy

PhoneticsPhonetics

 

•• WhatWhat soundssounds havehave youyou heardheard inin otherother languageslanguages thatthat areare notnot inin English?English? •• ExactlyExactly howhow dodo youyou movemove youryour articulatorsarticulators toto pronouncepronounce thethe tttt inin butter?butter? •• WhatWhat twotwo EnglishEnglish soundssounds areare oftenoften confusedconfused whenwhen theythey areare heardheard onon thethe telephone?telephone?

 

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OverviewOverview

 

1.1.

SyntaxSyntax

2.2.

MorphologyMorphology

33

PhoneticsPhonetics andand PhonoloPhonolo

gygy

4.4.

SemanticsSemantics

5.5.

AmbiguityAmbiguity

6.6.

DescriptiveDescriptive andand PrescriptivePrescriptive RulesRules ofof GrammarGrammar

 
 

3333

SemanticsSemantics

 

•• AnomalousAnomalous sentencessentences

 

ColorlessColorless greengreen ideasideas sleepsleep furiously.furiously.

 

•• ContradictionsContradictions

 
 

– TheThe fertilizerfertilizer killedkilled thethe plantplant butbut itit didn’tdidn’t die.die.

 

•• PresuppositionsPresuppositions

 
 

WouldWould youyou likelike anotheranother sandwich?sandwich?

 

•• MetaphorMetaphor

 
 

–– ThatThat classclass waswas aa longlong haul.haul.

 

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PhonologyPhonology

 

•• HowHow doesdoes thethe pronunciationpronunciation ofof ss differdiffer inin “he“he talktalkss”” andand “she“she snoressnores”?”? •• WhatWhat EnglishEnglish soundssounds nevernever occuroccur atat thethe bbegegiinnnniingng ooff worworddss?? •• HowHow cancan youyou saysay ThatThat lookslooks interestinginteresting asas

 

AA statement?statement? –– AA question?question? –– Ironically?Ironically?

 

3232

WhatWhat isis Semantics?Semantics?

 

•• TheThe studystudy ofof meaningmeaning inin languagelanguage

 

3434

OverviewOverview

 

1.1.

SyntaxSyntax

2.2.

MorphologyMorphology

33

PhoneticsPhonetics andand PhonoloPhonolo

gygy

4.4.

SemanticsSemantics

5.5.

AmbiguityAmbiguity

6.6.

DescriptiveDescriptive andand PrescriptivePrescriptive RulesRules ofof GrammarGrammar

 
 

3636

WhatWhat isis Ambiguity?Ambiguity? •• TheThe propertyproperty ofof wordswords oror sentencessentences ofof
WhatWhat isis Ambiguity?Ambiguity?
•• TheThe propertyproperty ofof wordswords oror sentencessentences ofof havinghaving
moremore thanthan oneone meaning.meaning.
•• WordsWords withwith moremore thanthan oneone meaningmeaning areare saidsaid toto
bbee llexexiicacallllyy amambibiguousguous ((e.g.,e.g., bbanankk oror cranecrane))
PhrasesPhrases withwith moremore thanthan oneone meaningmeaning becausebecause ofof
thethe structurestructure ofof thethe phrasephrase areare saidsaid toto bebe
syntacticallysyntactically ambiguousambiguous (e.g.,(e.g., FlyingFlying planesplanes cancan
bebe dangerous).dangerous).
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SyntacticSyntactic AmbiguityAmbiguity

•• SusanSusan wrotewrote aa bookbook onon aa famousfamous antiqueantique desk.desk.

–– SusanSusan wrotewrote [[aa bookbook onon aa famousfamous antiantiqqueue deskdesk].]. OnOn aa famousfamous antiqueantique deskdesk SusanSusan wrotewrote aa book.book.

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WhatWhat isis thethe DifferenceDifference betweenbetween DescriptiveDescriptive andand PrescriptivePrescriptive RulesRules ofof Grammar?Grammar?

•• DescriptiveDescriptive grammargrammar isis thethe objectiveobjective descriptiondescription ofof aa speaker’sspeaker’s knowledgeknowledge ofof aa languagelanguage (competence)(competence) basedbased onon theirtheir useuse ofof thethe languagelanguage (performance).(performance). •• PrescriptivePrescriptive grammargrammar isis aa setset ofof rulesrules designeddesigned toto givegive instinstructionsructions regardingregarding thethe “correct”“correct” oror “proper”“proper” wayway toto speakspeak oror write.write.

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LexicalLexical AmbiguityAmbiguity

 

•• TheThe cranecrane fellfell over.over. •• That’sThat’s aa goodgood pitch.pitch. •• DoctorDoctor TestifiesTestifies InIn HorseHorse SuitSuit

 

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OverviewOverview

 

1.1.

SyntaxSyntax

2.2.

MorphologyMorphology

33

PhoneticsPhonetics andand PhonoloPhonolo

gygy

4.4.

SemanticsSemantics

5.5.

AmbiguityAmbiguity

6.6.

DescriptiveDescriptive andand PrescriptivePrescriptive RulesRules ofof GrammarGrammar

 
 

4040

DescriptiveDescriptive oror prescriptive?prescriptive?

 

•• NeverNever endend aa sentencesentence withwith aa preposition.preposition. •• InIn casualcasual stylesstyles ofof speaking,speaking, peoplepeople frequentlyfrequently endend sentencessentences withwith prepositions,prepositions, butbut thisthis isis generallygenerally avoidedavoided inin formalformal styles.styles. •• BetweenBetween youyou andand meme isis correct;correct; betweenbetween youyou andand II isis ungrammatical.ungrammatical.

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SummarySummary

1.1.

SyntaxSyntax

2.2.

MorphologyMorphology

33

PhoneticsPhonetics andand PhonoloPhonolo

gygy

4.4.

SemanticsSemantics

5.5.

AmbiguityAmbiguity

6.6.

DescriptiveDescriptive andand PrescriptivePrescriptive RulesRules ofof GrammarGrammar

4343