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Name of the ID.No





A Practice School-I/II station of


(July, 2018)





Name of the ID.No. Discipline


Prepared in partial fulfilment of the

Practice School-I/II Course


A Practice School-I station of


(Month, Year)


I would like to use this opportunity to express gratitude to everyone who supported me
throughout the course of this project. I am thankful for their aspiring guidance, invaluably
constructive criticism and friendly advice during the project work. I am sincerely grateful to
them for sharing their truthful and illuminating views on the number of issues related to the
I would like to thank Mr. H.R.Singh (HOD, ENI Department, Fabrication Plant) for providing
me with an overview of the various projects in the field of Electronics and Instrumentation. I am
also thankful to my project mentor Mr. Ramjeet Singh Kushwaha for guiding me. He has been
my source of motivation and inspiration in the industry. I would especially like to thank my PS
instructor Dr. K Ram Chandra Murthy and student co-instructor Mr. Ayush Varshney for their
constant support, words of wisdom and timely suggestions.

Practice School Division

Station: Hindalco Industries Limited Centre: Renukoot,Uttar Pradesh

Duration: 50 Days Date of Start: May 22, 2018
Date of Submission: July 11, 2018

Id No- 2016B5A30611H Name- Alaukik Joshi Discipline- Electrical & Electronics

Name and designation of the expert- Mr. Ramjeet Singh Kushwaha

Name of the PS Faculty: Dr. Kalluri Ram Chandra Murthy, Mr. Ayush Varshney

Key Words : PLC, Siemens LOGO!, Energy Conservation

Project Areas: PLC And Energy Conservation in Scrap Yard

Abstract: The project report is based on the study of PLC. It presents a brief description of how
to program Siemens LOGO! using LOGO Soft Comfort. An automated light switching model
has been created using LOGO that can be implemented in the plant. An alternative model has
been made using Arduino instead of PLC and PIR sensor as input.

Signature(s) of Student(s) Signature of PS Faculty


a- Cover Page i
b- Title Page ii
c- Acknowledgement iii
d- Abstract iv
1- Introduction 1
2- Programmable Logic Controller
2.1- What Is a PLC 2
2.2 –History 2
2.3- PLC Hardware 2
2.4- Working Of PLC 4
3-Siemens LOGO!
3.1- Installing LOGO 5
3.2- Wiring The LOGO
3.2.1- Connecting the power supply 5
3.2.2- Connecting LOGO! Inputs 6
3.2.3- Sensor characteristics for LOGO! 6
3.2.4- Sensor Connections 7
3.3.1- LOGO!’s connectors 8
3.3.2- Blocks 9
3.3.3- Writing and starting the circuit program 10
4- Energy Conservation Model Using Logo-
4.1- Problem 21
4.2- Solution
4.2.1- Stairway lighting switch 21
4.2.2- Weekly Timer 23
4.3- Model using Arduino- 24
5- Conclusion 26
6- Appendix 27
7- Reference 28
8- Glossary 29

Hindalco Industries Ltd is one of the leading producers of aluminium and copper. The
company's aluminium units across the globe encompass the entire gamut of operations, from
bauxite mining, alumina refining and aluminium smelting to downstream rolling, extrusions,
foils, along with captive power plants and coal mines. Hindalco Industries Ltd was
incorporated in the year 1958. In the year 1962, the company commenced production with an
initial capacity of 20,000 MTPA of aluminium metal and 40,000 MTPA of alumina at
Renukoot (Uttar Pradesh).. At present the aluminium production is about 4,07,000 MTPA.

There are various plants inside Hindalco. Those are Alumina plant, Boiler and Co-generation
plant, reduction plant, Fabrication Plant. This project has been carried out at Extrusion Press
in Fabrication Plant. The main aim of the project is to get an overview of PLC and get
familiarized with Siemens LOGO! The report guides the reader on how to program LOGO!
and implement various models using it. Various methods to program a PLC have been
discussed in the report. LOGO! Soft Comfort has been used for the creation and simulation of
various circuit diagrams.

The other important aspect of the project is to build an energy conservation model using PLC.
In the report the energy loss in scrap yard is taken up as a problem and an analysis has been
done. Few solutions have been suggested to reduce the energy losses. A similar model has
been built using Arduino and PIR sensor.



Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) are often defined as miniature industrial computers
that contain hardware and software used to perform control functions. More specifically,
a PLC would be used for the automation of industrial electromechanical processes, such as
control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or food processing. They
are designed for multiple arrangements of digital and analog inputs and outputs with
extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and

Programmable Logic Controllers were discovered by the automotive industry to substitute the
re-wiring of the machine’s control panel.
Prior to the invention of PLC, automobiles were manufactured using plenty of relays, cam
timers, and closed loop controllers. The electricians had to re-wire every part of the machine
daily which was time consuming and highly expensive on the financial front.

Later in the year 1968, a request for an electronic device for the hard-wired relay systems was
made by GM Hydramatic. Bedford Associates won the proposal and started a new company
to develop, fabricate, sell, and service this new launched product. The first PLC launched was
designated 084 as it was the eighty fourth projects of Bedford Associates. Dick Morley
worked on this project and is being considered as the Father of PLC. In the year 1977, the
brand invented by Modicon was sold to Gould Electronics. The Gould Electronics later sold
it to German Company AEG which was later taken over by French Schneider Electric.


The hardware components of a PLC system are CPU, Memory, Input/ Output, Power supply
unit, and programming device. Below is a diagram of the system overview of PLC.

 CPU – The CPU consists of a microprocessor, memory chip and other integrated
circuits to control logic, monitoring and communications. The CPU has different
operating modes. In programming mode the CPU will accept changes to the downloaded
logic from a PC. When the CPU is placed in run mode it will execute the program and
operate the process.
 Memory – Fixed data is used by the CPU. System (ROM) stores the data permanently
for the operating system. RAM stores the information of the status of input and output
devices, and the values of timers, counters and other internal devices.
 I/O section – Input keeps a track on field devices which includes sensors, switches.
 O/P Section - Output has a control over the other devices which includes motors,
pumps, lights and solenoids. The I/O ports are based on Reduced Instruction Set
Computer (RISC).
 Power supply – Certain PLCs have an isolated power supply. But, most of the PLCs
work at 220VAC or 24VDC.
 Programming device – This device is used to feed the program into the memory of the
processor. The program is first fed to the programming device and later it is transmitted
to the PLC’s memory.
System Buses – Buses are the paths through which the digital signal flows internally of the
PLC. The four system buses are:
· Data bus is used by the CPU to transfer data among different elements.
· Control bus transfers signals related to the action that are controlled internally.
· Address bus sends the location’s addresses to access the data.
· System bus helps the I/O port and I/O unit to communicate with each other.

The Programmable logic controller functions in four steps.

 Input scan: The state of the input is scanned which is connected externally. The
inputs include switches, pushbuttons, and proximity sensors, limit switches, pressure
switches. Ideally, they are transformers and not relays.
 Program scan: The loaded program is executed to carry out the function
 Output scan: The input sources have a control over the output ports to energize or
de-energize them. The outputs include solenoids, valves, motors, actuator, and pumps.
Depending on the model of PLC, these relays can be transistors, triacs or relays.
 Housekeeping: Includes communicating with programming devices and performing
internal diagnostics


LOGO is a Programmable Logic Controller series by Siemens. LOGO is simply ingenious for
small tasks. It is easy to install, requires minimum wiring and user friendly. You can easily
implement small automation projects with LOGO! The LOGO! Logic Module saves space in
the control cabinet, and lets you easily implement functions, such as time-delay switches,
time relays, counters and auxiliary relays.


DIN rail mounting-

1. Hook the LOGO! Basic module onto the rail.
2. Then push down the lower end to snap it on. The mounting interlock at the rear must

Wall mounting-
For wall-mounting, first slide the mounting slides on the rear side of the devices towards the
outside. You can now wall-mount the LOGO! by means of two mounting slides and two M4


3.2.1- Connecting the power supply

The 230-V versions of LOGO! are suitable for operation with rated voltages of 115 V
AC/DC and 240 V AC/DC. The LOGO! 24-V and 12-V versions can be operated with a
24 VDC, 24 V AC or 12 VDC power supply. I have used a 230 V version of LOGO for my

3.2.2- Connecting LOGO! Inputs
At the inputs you connect sensor elements such as: momentary switches, switches, light
barriers, daylight control switches etc.

3.2.3- Sensor characteristics for LOGO!

3.2.4- Sensor connections
To connect sensors to the LOGO! :

LOGO! 12/24 ....

LOGO! 230 ....


Programming in our context refers to the creation of a circuit program. A LOGO! Circuit
program is actually no more than a circuit diagram presented in a slightly different
form. The circuit diagram can be created by using

a- the in-built display and the keys on the LOGO

b- LOGO! Soft Comfort

Before writing our first circuit program let us familiarize ourselves to the LOGO interface.
The LOGO! is equipped with inputs and outputs

Example of a configuration-

Each input is identified by the letter I plus a number. When you take a look at the LOGO!
from the front, you can see the input terminals at the top. Each output is identified by the
letter Q plus a number. In the figure, you can see the output terminals at the bottom.

The following I/Os and flag blocks are available for the creation of your circuit program: I1
to I24, AI1 to AI8, Q1 toQ16, AQ1 and AQ2, M1 to M24 and AM1 to AM6. Also
available are the shift register bits S1 to S8, 4 cursor keys, as well as 16 blank outputs X1 to

3.3.1- LOGO!’s connectors

The term connector refers to all connections and states in LOGO! The I/O status can be ’0’ or
’1’. Status ’0’ means that the input does not carry a voltage. Status ’1’ means that the input
carries voltage.
In LOGO! there are ’hi’, ’lo’ and ’x’ connectors to make it easier for us to create the circuit

’hi’ (high) is assigned the status ’1’,
’lo’ (low) is assigned the status ’0’.
You do not have to use all the of connectors of a block. The circuit program automatically
assigns the unused connectors a status that ensures proper functioning of the relevant block.
If you prefer to do so, you can identify unused connectors with an ’x’.

3.3.2- Blocks

A block in LOGO! represents a function that is used to convert input information into output
information. Previously you had to wire the individual elements in a control cabinet or
terminal box. When you create the circuit program, you interconnect the blocks.

View of blocks on the LOGO! Display

The figure below shows a typical view of the LOGO! display. As you can see, it can show
only one block at a time. We have therefore introduced block numbers to help you check the
circuit structure.

Assigning a block number

LOGO! assigns each new block a circuit program a block number. LOGO! uses these block
numbers to indicate the block interconnections. Hence, these numbers primarily represent
a help for your orientation in the circuit program.

The figure above shows you three views of the LOGO! display, which represent the circuit
program. As you can see, LOGO! Interconnects the blocks using their numbers.

Advantages of the block numbers

You can connect almost any block to an input of the current block by means of its block
number. In this way, you can reuse the interim results of logical or other operations, reduce
programming effort, save memory space and cleanup your circuit layout. To do so, however,
you need to know how LOGO! has named the blocks.

3.3.3- Writing and starting the circuit program

After you have designed a circuit, you want to write it to your LOGO! . The small example
below shows how to do this.

Select programming mode

You have connected the LOGO! to the power supply and switched it on. The display now
shows you the message:

Switch the LOGO! to programming mode by pressing the ESC. This will take you to the
main menu of the LOGO!:

The first character in the first line is the ”>” cursor. Press ▲and▼ to move the ”>” cursor up
and down. Move it to ”Program..”and confirm with OK. LOGO! opens the programming

Here you can also move the ”>” cursor by pressing▲ and ▼. Move the ”>” cursor to ”Edit..”
(for editing, i.e. input) and confirm with OK.

Move the ”>” cursor to ”Edit Prg” (for editing the circuit program) and confirm with OK.
LOGO! now shows you the first output:

You are now in programming mode. Press▲ and▼ to select the other outputs. Now start to
edit your circuit program.

The first circuit program

Let us now take a look at the following parallel circuit consisting of two switches.

Circuit diagram

Translated into a LOGO! circuit program this means: RelayK1 is at output Q1 is controlled
by means of an OR block.
Circuit program

S1 is connected to the I1 and S2 to the I2 input connector of the OR block. The

corresponding layout of the circuit program in LOGO!:\

The corresponding wiring:

S1 switches input I1, while S2 switches input I2. The load is connected to the relay Q1.

Circuit program input

We will now write the circuit program, starting at the output and working towards the input.
LOGO! initially shows the output:

You will see an underscore below the Q in Q1, which is the cursor. The cursor indicates your
current position in the circuit program. You can move the cursor by pressing the▼, ▲,◄ and
► keys. Now press the ◄ key. The cursor moves to the left.

At this point you enter only the first (OR) block. Press OK to select editing mode

The cursor no longer appears in the form of an underscore; but instead as a flashing solid
square. LOGO! offers you here various options .Select GF (basic functions) by pressing the
▼ key until GF appears, and confirm with OK. LOGO! now shows the first block from the
list of basic functions:

Now press ▼ or ▲ until the OR block appears on the display:

Press OK to confirm your entries and exit the dialog.

You have now entered the first block. Each new block is automatically assigned a block
number. The only thing left to do is to interconnect the block inputs. This is how it is
Press OK.

Select the Co list: Press OK

The first element of the Co list is the ”Input not used” character, namely the ’x’. Press ▼ or
▲to select input I1.

Press OK. I1 is now connected to the input of the OR block. The cursor jumps to the next
input of the OR block.

Now similarly connect input I2 to the input of the OR block. We do not need the last two
inputs of the OR block for this circuit program. You can mark the unused inputs with an ’x’.
LOGO! returns to output Q1.

You can review your first circuit program by pressing ◄ or ►to move the cursor through
the circuit program. We shall now exit circuit programming mode. This is how it
is done:
Return to the programming menu: Press ESC

Switching LOGO! to RUN mode

In the main menu, select RUN to start LOGO!.
1. To return to the main menu: Press ESC
2. Move the ’>’ cursor to ’Start’: Press ▼ or ▲
3. To confirm ’Start’: Press OK

In RUN mode, LOGO! executes the circuit program. To do so, LOGO! first reads the status
at the inputs, determines the status of the outputs by means of the user program, and switches
these on or off according to your settings.

The above section gave a detailed overview of how to create circuit on LOGO.


LOGO Soft Comfort is a software to create and simulate the logics that are to be uploaded in
LOGO to control a process. There are various languages using which a PLC can be
programmed. Some of the language used are as follows-

a-Ladder Diagram (LD) Traditional ladder logic is graphical programming language.

Initially programmed with simple contacts that simulated the opening and closing of relays,
Ladder Logic programming has been expanded to include such functions as counters, timers,
shift registers, and math operations.
b-Function Block Diagram (FBD) - A graphical language for depicting signal and data
flows through re-usable function blocks. FBD is very useful for expressing the
interconnection of control system algorithms and logic.
c-Structured Text (ST) – A high level text language that encourages structured
programming. It has a language structure (syntax) that strongly resembles PASCAL and
supports a wide range of standard functions and operators.
d-Instruction List (IL): A low level “assembler like” language that is based on similar
instructions list languages found in a wide range of today’s PLCs.

As the FBD is user friendly and expressive, I have created some of the basic logic gates and
latches in this language using LOGO soft comfort. Below are the screenshots of FBDs
created in the software-

i- AND

ii- OR

iii- SR Latches

a- Using NAND Gate (Active Low)

Truth Table-

S R Q Q’
(invalid)0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 0

b- Using NOR Gate (Active High)-

Truth Table-

S R Q Q’
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
(invalid)1 1 0 0


Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of
an energy service. This can be achieved either by using energy more efficiently (using less
energy for a constant service) or by reducing the amount of service used (for example, by
driving less).

After having a visit to the plant, I realized that there are many areas, where there are
unwanted energy losses. There are areas where lights are on 24 hours even when not in use.
The scrap yard is one of such areas. To begin with I made an approximate calculation of the
cost of electricity that is being utilized there at present and by how much it can be reduced. It
came out that at present 7008 units is consumed annually, which costs around Rs42000 .

4.2- Solution
In such conditions, sensors such as luminosity sensor and PIR sensor can be installed. These
will act as input to LOGO which can then be programmed to automate the lights of that area.
This will reduce the consumption nearly to half .Although the amount of saving is not very
large, as the scrap yard is a small area, but this model can be implemented to other areas and
will be very useful.
LOGO! comes with some special functions that can be used and modified to meet our
requirements. For the automation of lights LOGO has two functions. They are the Stairway
lighting switch and Weekly timer. Let us see how these functions can be brought into use to
solve this problem.

4.2.1- Stairway lighting switch

Short description
An input edge triggers a configurable and retriggerable time. The output is reset after this
time has expired. A warning signal can be output before this time has expired to warn of the
impending shutdown.

Timing diagram

Functional description
A 0 to 1 signal transition at input Trg sets output Q. The PIR sensor on detection of any
motion is set from 0 to 1. So PIR can be used as an input to provide this signal transition. The
next 1 to 0 transition at Trg retriggers the current time Ta, and output Q remains set. Output
Q is reset when Ta = T. You can output a warning signal before the off-delay time (T – T!)
has expired to reset Q for the time of the pre-warning period T!L.A further one-shot at input
Trg during Ta retriggers the time Ta .If retentivity is not set, output Q and the expired time
are reset after a power failure.

4.2.2- Weekly timer

Short description
The output is controlled by means of a configurable on/off date. The function supports any
combination of weekdays. You select the active weekdays by hiding the inactive days.

Timing Diagram-

Functional description-
Each weekly timer has three cams you can use to configure a time hysteresis. You specify the
on- and off-times at the Cam parameters. The weekly timer sets the output at a certain on-
time, if this is not already set. The weekly timer resets the output at a certain off-time, if it is
not switched off already. You will cause a conflict if the on- and off-times you set for the
weekly timer are identical, though set on different cams. In this case, cam3 takes priority over
cam2, whereas cam2 takes priority over cam1.The switching state of the weekly timer is
determined by the status of all three cams.

One of the major application is the automation of street lights and specific areas where the
working hours are pre-defined.

4.3- Model using Arduino-

The components include-
a- Arduino UNO
b- PIR Sensor
c- LED
d- Jumper wires and Resistor



void setup()
pinMode(3, INPUT); //Setting the input pin
pinMode(5, OUTPUT); //Setting the output pin

void loop()
digitalWrite(5, HIGH); //Setting output pin HIGH
delay(10000); // The value 10000 is the delay time in milliseconds
digitalWrite(5, LOW); //Setting the pin back to LOW

The project has been a great experience for me and provided me with hands on learning in
PLC. The exposure to such an industry where operations are going on at such a large scale
has been amazing. Automation is one of the important aspects of industry and hence the use
of PLCs.
After going through the basics of PLC, it provided me with an opportunity to seek for its
application. I have developed a model for energy saving that can be implemented to automate
the lights inside the plant. This project has provided me with its further application in my


Estimate of savings at scrap yard –

No of lights in scrap yard- 8

Power consumption of each- 100 watt
Total power consumption- 800 watt
Presently the lights are not automated and switched on for 24 hours. So let us make an yearly
cost estimate-
Daily unit consumption- 800 * 24 = 19200 W h =19.2 kW h =19.2 units
Cost per unit- Rs 6
Cost per day- 19.2 * 6 = Rs 115.2
Annual Cost- 115.2 * 365= Rs 42048

If the suggested model is implemented lights will remain on approximately for 12 hours.
Hence the cost will be reduced to half. So there will be an annual saving of around Rs 21000.





4- Siemens LOGO! Manual


Notation Description Page No

MTPA Metric Tonne Per Annum 1
PIR Passive Infrared 1
CPU Central Processing Unit 2
I1 to I24 Inputs 8
AI1 to AI8 Analog Inputs 8
Q1 toQ16 Output 8
AQ1 and AQ2 Analog Output 8
M1 to M24 Module 8
AM1 to AM6 Analog Module 8
Trg Trigger 22