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Ch. 3 The Molecules of Life

Name

Review

Date

Period

Multiple Choice: Read each question carefully and circle the one best answer that completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Which of the following statement about organic molecules is false?

a. It is possible to construct an endless diversity of carbon skeletons.

b. Carbon can use only one bond to attach to another carbon atom.

c. Carbon completes its outer shell by sharing electrons with up to four other atoms.

d. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane.

e. Carbon frequently bonds to the elements hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

2. Which one of the following processes is the reverse of dehydration synthesis?

a.

Hydration

d.

Diffusion

b.

Hydrolysis

e.

Osmosis

c.

Denaturation

3. Sucrose is

a.

The main carbohydrate in plant sap.

d.

Abundant in corn syrup.

b.

The main sweetener in soft drinks.

e.

A monosaccharide.

c.

Sweeter tasting than fructose

4. Plants use starch the way animals use

 

a. Glucose

d.

Cellulose

b. Fructose

e.

Sucrose

c. Glycogen

 

5. Cellulose is a

made of many

a. Carbohydrate…fatty acids

d.

Protein…amino acids

b. Polymer…glucose molecules

e.

Polypeptide…monomers

c. Lipid…triglycerides

6. The four main categories of macromolecules in a cell are

a. Proteins, DNA, RNA, and steroids

b. RNA, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates

c. Monosaccharides, lipids, polysaccharides, and proteins

d. Nucleic acids, carbohydrates, monosaccharides, and proteins

e. Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids

7. A major characteristic that all lipids have in common is

a. They all contain nitrogen

b. None of them is very high in energy content

c. They are all acidic when mixed with water

d. They don’t dissolve in water

e. They are all made of fatty acids and glycerol.

8. A flower’s color is determined by the genetic instructions in its

a.

b. Lipids

c. Carbohydrates

Proteins

d.

e. All of the above

Nucleic acids

9. In some places the backbone of a protein molecule may twist or fold back on itself. This is called coils or folds are held in place by

a. Tertiary structure…hydrogen bonds

b. Secondary structure…hydrogen bonds

c. Secondary structure…peptide bonds

d. Primary structure…peptide bonds

e. Tertiary structure…covalent bonds

and the

10. A hydrophobic amino acid R group would be found where in a protein?

a. Forming a peptide bond with the next amino acid in the chain

b. On the outside of the folded chain, in the water

c. On the inside of the folded chain, away from the water

d. Forming hydrogen bonds with other R groups

e. Only at one end of a protein chain

11. Estrogen, cholesterol, and other steroids are examples of

a. Polysaccharides

b.

c. Polypeptides

Lipids

d. Triglycerides

e.

Nucleic acids

12. The “building blocks” of nucleic acid molecules are called

a.

b. Polysaccharides

Amino acids

c. Fatty acids

d.

e. DNA and RNA

Nucleotides

13. Citric acid makes lemons taste sour. Which of the following is a functional group that would cause a molecule like citric acid to be acidic?

a.

b.

c. Amino

Hydroxyl

Hydrocarbon

d.

e.

Carbonyl

Carboxyl

14. Which of the following do nucleic acids and proteins have in common?

a. They are both made of amino acids.

b. Their structures contain sugars.

c. They are hydrophobic.

d. They are large polymers.

e. They each consist of four basic kinds of subunits.

15. Which of the following ranks the molecules in the correct order by size?

a. Water…sucrose…glucose…protein

b. Protein…water….glucose…sucrose

c. Water…protein…sucrose…glucose

d. Protein…sucrose…glucose…water

e. Glucose…water…sucrose…protein

16. How does glucose differ from sucrose, cellulose, and starch?

a. It is a carbohydrate

d.

It is a monosaccharide

b. It is larger

e.

It contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

c. The others are disaccharides

17. How does DNA differ from RNA?

a. DNA is larger

c.

They contain different sugars

b. One of their nitrogenous bases is

d.

DNA consists of two strands in a double helix

different

e.

All of the above

18. Hydrolysis of a protein would produce

a. Amino acids

b.

c. Monosaccharides

Polypeptides

d. Peptide bonds

e.

Nucleotides

19. Which of the following would probably not be affected when a protein is denatured?

a. Primary structure

b. Secondary structure

c. Tertiary structure

d. Quaternary structure

e. All of the above must be affected for a protein to be denatured

20. Palm oil and coconut oil are more like animal fats than other plant oils. Because they oils, they can contribute to cardiovascular disease.

a. Contain fewer double bonds

b. Are less saturated

c. Contain more sodium

d. Are less soluble in water

e. Contain less hydrogen

than other plant

Ch. 3 The Molecules of Life

Name

Review

Date

Period

Experimental Analysis:

21. Analyze the following data in table 1. What is/are the main organic compound(s) in the unknown? How do you know?

Table 1. Composition of Unknown

 

Control

Unknown

Benedict’s Test

orange

red-orange

Lugol’s Test

dark blue

amber

Biuret Test

purple

purple

Sudan III Test

pink

clear

22. Analyze the following data in table 2. What is/are the main organic compound(s) in the unknown? How do you know?

Table 2. Composition of Unknown

 

Control

Unknown

Benedict’s Test

orange

blue

Lugol’s Test

dark blue/black

black

Biuret Test

purple

blue

Sudan III Test

pink

pink

Short Essays: Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. Answers must be in essay form using complete sentences.

23. Briefly describe the various functions of proteins in the cell and body.

24. Animal fats tend to be solid at room temperature, plant oils more liquid. Explain how a difference in the chemical structure of their molecules causes this physical difference.

25. Slight heating is often enough to render a protein nonfunctional. But a polysaccharide such as starch must literally be boiled in acid before it is significantly affected. Explain why.

26. Briefly explain why all starch molecules are pretty much the same, but there are millions of kinds of protein molecules.