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These types of exercises are usually a hard nut to crack so you have to

manage certain Grammatical Structures. You should start studying these


structures one by one and that’s what we are going to practice.

7. USE MODAL VERBS

EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: CAN/ MAY/ MIGHT/ COULD


EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN /
It may rain later. They might go out tonight.
COULD / BE ABLE TO
Could you buy the main course?
She could memorize numbers.
EXPRESSING CERTAINTY: CAN’T / MUST
They were able to drink a lot.
They can’t go on Friday. Nobody’s home

EXPRESSING OBLIGATION/ABSENCE OF IT GIVING OR ASKING ADVICE / PROBABILITY:


MUST / HAVE TO / NEEDN’T SHOULD / OUGHT TO You ought to help old
I must do the washing up. / You needn’t people / Should she leave the keys?
mop the floor / They have to be there at 5. GIVING OR ASKING FOR PERMISSION: MAY /
USE WILL / WOULD: REQUESTS AND OFFERS CAN / COULD (may is more polite)

7.1. REWRITE THE SECOND SENTENCE SO THAT BOTH HAVE THE SAME MEANING.

1) You ought to buy a new shirt. 1) You _________________ a new shirt.


2) Possibly she isn’t Bob’s uncle. 2) He ________________ Bob’s uncle.
3) It would be good if a went on a word 3) I really ____________ on a word course.
course. 4) You _______________ carry an ID card.
4) It’s compulsory to carry an ID card. 5) He ______________ when he was two.
5) He was able to read when he was two. 6) ______________ like a coke?
6) Do you want a coke? 7) You ________________ a bicycle.
7) You are not allowed to have a bicycle. 8) Do I _______________ my fee now?
8) Is it necessary for me to pay my fee now? 9) They _______________ win the last
9) They managed to win the last match. match.
10) It isn’t necessary for them to wait. 10) They __________________ wait if you
11) Smoking is forbidden in restaurants. don’t want to.
12) Maybe she is his girlfriend. 11) You ________________ in restaurants.
13) If you want my advice, go to the doctor. 12) She ________________ his girlfriend.
14) It’s impossible that her fridge has 13) You _______________ to the doctor.
broken down again. 14) Her fridge _________ broken down again.
15) Perhaps he forgot to bring the present. 15) He ____________ forgotten to bring the
present.
8. ACTIVE – PASSIVE / PASSIVE - ACTIVE
PASSIVE VOICE is used when we FOCUS ON THE ACTION and it’s not
important or we don’t know WHO or WHAT is performing the action.

ACTIVE PASSIVE In active sentences (AS): SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT


 The OBJECT of PS – SUBJECT of AC
 VERB PS: Put the past participle in the tense of the verb TO BE –
this is the Verb of the AS.
 The SUBJECT of PS becomes the OBJECT of the AC.
The car is driven buy Mark Mark drives the car.

 The OBJECT of AS - SUBJECT of the passive sentences


(PS).
 VERBS PS: TO BE (same tense of the AS) + PAST PASSIVE ACTIVE
PARTICIPLE (3rd. column) of the AS.
WRITE- IS/ARE WRITTEN WROTE – WAS / WERE
WRITTEN
TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE
 SUBJECT of AS becomes the OBJECT of PS or is dropped.
Present Simple I write emails Emails are written.
 In PS the action comes first and the ACTOR is added at
P. Continous I am writing emails Emails are being written.
the end introduced with the preposition “BY”.
Mary wrote a letter. A letter was written by Mary. Past Simple I wrote emails Emails were written.
They write letter everyday. Letters are written Past Continous I was writing emails Emails were being written.
everyday. Present Perfect I have written emails Emails have been written.

8.1. WRITE SENTENCES IN THE PASSIVE (PRESENT TENSE AND PAST TENSE)

1) DOOR / OPEN - ____________________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________
2) BOOK / READ - ____________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
3) CAR / REPAIR - ____________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

8.2. REWRITE THE SENTENCE IN PASSIVE VOICE.

1) Mary buys a bed. - _________________________________________________________________.


2) He opened the door - _______________________________________________________________.
3) The mechanic repairs cars - __________________________________________________________.
4) John eats bananas - ________________________________________________________________.
5) They don’t wear pink jackets. - _______________________________________________________.
6) We stopped the bus - _______________________________________________________________.
7) The thief stole my neclace - __________________________________________________________.
8) The team didn’t win the match - ______________________________________________________.
9) Marcus learned Roman’s History. -- ____________________________________________________.
10) The fireman rescued a cat - _________________________________________________________.

8.3. REWRITE THE SENTENCE IN ACTIVE VOICE.

1) Coffee is sold there. ___________________________________________________________.


2) The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. - __________________________________.
3) My suitcase was packed by Mom. - ____________________________________________________.
4) These cars are produced in Germany. - _________________________________________________.
5) That building was built in 1985. - ______________________________________________________.
6) The house was painted. - ____________________________________________________________.
7) The cake was eaten by the students. - _________________________________________________.
8) A special dish is being prepared. - _____________________________________________________.
9) English is taught by Susan. - __________________________________________________________.
10) The oranges are grown in Valencia. - __________________________________________________.
8.4. REWRITE THE SECOND SENTENCE SO THAT BOTH HAVE THE SAME MEANING.

1) SOMEONE TOOK A LOT OF PICTURES AT THE PARTY.


___________________________________________________________________________

2) OUR TELEVISION WAS FIXED YESTERDAY. __________________________________________

3) THEY BROADCAST THE NEWS IN CHANNEL 3.


___________________________________________________________________________
4) THEY GAVE UP THE SEARCH AFTER FOUR HOURS.
___________________________________________________________________________

5) THE POLICE ARRESTED THE THIEFS. _______________________________________________

6) THE FANS EXPECT REAL MADRID WILL GET TO THE FINAL.


____________________________________________________________________________
7) THEY ASKED REBECA TO TRAVEL. - ________________________________________________
8) EUROPE IS VISITED BY A LOT OF PEOPLE EVERY YEAR.
____________________________________________________________________________
9) ITALIAN FOOD IS SERVED IN GINO. _______________________________________________
10) EVERY SATURDAY EVENING, JAZZ IS PLAYED IN THE PUB.
____________________________________________________________________________
9. CONDITIONAL – FIRST AND SECOND CONDITIONAL

CONDITIONALS OR IF CLAUSES: Describe the RESULT of something that might happen


(in the present or future) or might have happened but didn’t in the past.

CONDITIONAL I: IF PRESENT SIMPLE , WILL + INFIN. CONDITIONAL II: IF PAST SIMPLE, WOULD + INFIN

To talk about things that may happen in the FUTURE To talk about things in the future that isn’t very
(it has possibilities to happen). probable to happen. If I met the Queen , I would
say hello
If you come, we will go to the cinema. To talk about something in the present that is not
We will go to the cinema if you come. true. If I were you, I wouldn’t go there.

9.1. REWRITE THE SECOND SENTENCE SO THAT BOTH HAVE THE SAME MEANING

1) WHY DON’T YOU BORROW THE BOOK FROM YOUR TEACHER?


If I were you, I ____________________________ the book from your teacher.
2) YOU WON’T GO TO THE CINEMA UNLESS YOU DO YOUR HOMEWORK.
You will go to ___________________________ you do your homework.
3) MY FRIENDS DON’T PLAY WITH ME BECAUSE I ALWAYTS CHEAT.
My friends __________________________ me if I didn’t cheat.
4) WHY DON’T YOU LEARN A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT?
If I were you, _________________________ a musical instrument.
5) IF YOUR COUSIN DOESN’T COME BEFORE EIGHT, SHE WILL MISS THE BUS.
Unless your cousin _____________________, he will miss the bus.
6) IF THE TRAIN ISN’T LATE, I’LL BE THERE BY NINE.
I’ll be there by nine __________________________________ late.
7) IN MY OPINION YOU SHOULD JOIN YOUR FRIENDS.
If I were you, I _______________________________.
8) SCRATCH MY BACK AND I’LL SCRATCH YOURS.
If you scratch my back, _______________________________________.
9) JAMES CAN’T BUY A NEW CAR BECAUSE HE DOESN’T HAVE ENOUGH MONEY.
James could buy a new car if _____________________________________.
10) WHY DON’T YOU LEARN ANOTHER LANGUAGE?
If ________________________________, I would learn another language.
11) IF YOU DON’T PRACTICE GYMNASTICS EVERYDAY, YOU WON’T IMPROVE.
You won’t improve unless ______________________________ everyday.
12) I’D LIKE TO BUY A BIGGER HOUSE BUT I HAVEN’T GOT ENOUGH MONEY.
If I had more moeny, I _________________________________________.
10. RELATIVE CLAUSES
We use RELATIVE CLAUSES to JOIN two sentences or to give more information
about something by combining them with a RELATIVE CLAUSE.

RELATIVE USE EXAMPLE


PRONOUN
who SUBJECT (SP) or OBJECT I told you about the boy who lives is
PRONOUN (OP) for people. American.
which SP or OP for ANIMALS and Do you see the duck which is lying on
THINGS the grass?
whose POSSESSION for people, Whose pencil is it?
animals and things
whom OP for people (Non defining) He was invited to the birthday party
whom he saved at school.
that SP or OP for people, animals I like the pictures that have many
and things (Defining) buildings.

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE: Gives detailed NON DEFINING CLAUSE: Gives information that
information about which noun we are talking about. we don’t need to understand the sentence.
I know the doctor who lives next door. (if we don’t My neighbour, who is handsome, has a red bike.
specify “who lives next door” we don’t know who I (who is handsome is information I don’t need).
mean.  Non defining clauses are put in COMMAS.
 Are often used in DEFINITIONS (A teacher is  Who / which may not be replaced with THAT
someone who teaches).  We have to use OP: My neighbour, who is
 We can drop OP: The doctor (who) I saw yesterday handsome, has a red bike.
is very good.

10.1. COMPLETE THE SENTENES USING RELATIVE CLAUSE WHO /WHICH /WHOSE

1) HENRY IS A PERSON ________________ LIVES IN MANCHESTER.


2) THIS IS THE BOOK ________________________ WAS LOST LAST MONTH.
3) AN APPLE IS A FRUIT _______________________ IS RED OR YELLOW.
4) THE BOY _______________ BROTHER IS IN MY MATH CLASS WAS IN THE SOCCER TEAM
5) A DJ IS SOMEONE _________________ PLAYS MUSIC IN A DISCO.
6) A SINGER IS SOMEONE ______________ SINGS PROFESSIONALLY.
7) SHE CAME WITH A FRIEND ____________ IS VERY FUNNY.
8) THE WOMAN, ______________ BAG I HAD, WAS SICK.
9) I MADE THE MEAT WITH THE RECIPE _____________ MY GRANDMA GAVE ME
10) HE HAD TO DELIVER A LETTER TO A PERSON _____________ NAME WAS IN THE ENVELOPE.
10.2 REWRITE THE SECOND SENTENCE SO THAT BOTH HAVE THE SAME MEANING.

1) SHE WORKED FOR A COMPANY (THE COMPANY HAS A RED BUILDING)


She worked for a company ____________________________________.
2) HE WORKED FOR A MAN. THE MAN WAS AN ARCHITECT.
He worked for a man _________________________________________.
3) I CALLED THE DOCTOR. THE DOCTOR LIVED NEAR MY HOUSE.
I called the doctor __________________________________________.
4) CANCUN IS A FABULOUS PLACE. WE SPENT OUR LAST HOLIDAY THERE.
Cancun, ______________________, is a fabulous place
5) CANCUN IS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA. I LEARNED TO DIVE THERE
Cancun, ________________________, is in the Caribbean Sea.
6) MY PARENTS CALLED MY SISTER. SHE LIVES IN BOSTON.
My parents called my sister _____________________________.
7) THEY’VE SOLD THE DRESS. I WANTED TO BUY IT.
They’ve sold the dress __________________________________.
8) THIS IS DAVID. HIS JOB IS VERY DANGEROUS.
This is David ___________________________ dangerous.
9) WE’VE LOST THE KEYS. THE KEY OPEN THE PUB.
We’ve lost the keys _________________________.
10) MY GODFATHER HAS GOT A BROTHER. HIS NAME IS TOMAS.
My godfather’s got a brother _______________________________.

11. REWRITE THE SECOND SENTENCE SO THAT BOTH HAVE THE SAME MEANING.
(ACTIVE / PASSIVE – CONDITIONAL – MODAL VERBS AND RELATIVE CLAUSE)

1) I WAS GIVEN A TEDDY BEAR FOR MY BIRTHDAY BY MY UNCLE.


My uncle _______________________________ for my birthday.
2) THE MUSEUM IS FREE. You ______________________ pay to visit it.
3) YOLANDA IS SMILING IN THE PICTURE. SHE IS MY WORKMATE.
Yolanda, ______________________________, is smiling in the picture.
4) IF THE SUIT DOESN’T ARRIVE, I WON’T BE ABLE TO GO TO THE WEDDING.
_______________________, I won’t be able to go to the wedding (UNLESS).
5) SOMEBODY MADE A VIDEO OF THE PARTY.
A video of the party ________________________.
6) THAT’S THE BOY. I TOOK HIS BACKPACK HOME BY MISTAKE.
That’s the boy ______________________ I took home by mistake.
7) HE IS NOT STUDYING VERY HARD, SO HE WON’T PASS HIS EXAMS
__________________________________ he would pass his exams.
8) THERE WEREN’T FREE TABLES IN THE RESTAURANT. WE HADN’T RESERVED ONE
We ___________________ reserved a table.
ANSWER KEY:

EXERCISE 7.1

1) SHOULD 9) WERE ABLE TO


2) MAY NOT BE 10) DON’T HAVE TO
3) OUGHT TO GO 11) MUST NOT SMOKE
4) HAVE TO 12) MIGHT BE
5) COULD READ 13) SHOULD GO
6) WOULD YOU 14) CAN’T HAVE
7) CAN’T HAVE 15) MAY / MIGHT HAVE
8) HAVE TO PAY

EXERCISE 8.1

1) THE WINDOW IS OPENED. – THE WINDOW IS BEING OPENED.


THE WINDOW WAS OPENED. – THE WINDOW WAS BEING OPENED.
2) THE BOOK IS READ. - THE BOOK IS BEING READ.
THE BOOK WAS READ. - THE BOOK WAS BEING READ.
3) THE CAR IS REPAIRED. – THE CAR IS BEING REPAIRED.
THE CAR WAS REPAIRED. – THE CAR WAS BEING REPAIRED.

EXERCISE 8.2 EXERCISE 8.3

1) A BED IS BOUGHT BY MARY. 1) THEY SELL COFFEE THERE.


2) THE DOOR WAS OPENED. (BY HIM) 2) ALEXANDER G. BELL INVENTED THE PHONE
3) CARS ARE REPAIRED BY THE MECHANIC. 3) MOM PACKED MY SUITCASE.
4) BANANAS ARE EATEN BY JOHN. 4) THEY PRODUCE THESE CARS IN GERMANY.
5) PINK JACKETS AREN’T WORN. (BY THEM) 5)SOMEBODY BUILT THAT BUILDING IN 1985.
6) THE BUS WAS STOPPED. (BY US) 6) SOMEONE /THEY PAINTED THE HOUSE.
7) MY NECLACE WAS STOLEN BY THE THIEF. 7) THE STUDENTS ATE THE CAKE.
8) THE MATCH WASN’T WON BY THE TEAM. 8) HE IS PREPAIRING A SPECIAL DISH.
9) ROMAN’S HISTORY WAS LEARNED BY MARCUS. 9) SUSAN TEACHES ENGLISH.
10) A CAT WAS RESCUED BY THE FIREMAN. 10) THEY GROW ORANGES IN VALENCIA.

EXERCISE 8.4

1) A LOT OF PICTURES WERE TAKEN AT THE PARTY.


2) SOMEONE / THEY… FIXED OUR TELEVISION YESTERDAY.
3) THE NEWS IS BROADCAST IN CHANNEL 3.
4) THE SEARCH WAS GIVEN UP AFTER FOUR HOURS.
5) THE THIEFS WERE ARRESTED BY THE POLICE.
6) REAL MADRID IS EXPECTED TO GET TO THE FINAL (BY THE FANS).
7) REBECA WAS ASKED TO TRAVEL.
8) A LOT OF PEOPLE VISIT EUROPE EVERY YEAR.
9) GINO SERVES ITALIAN FOOD.
10) THEY PLAY JAZZ IN THE PUB EVERY SATURDAY EVENING / EVERY SATURDAY EVENING, …….
EXERCISE 9.1

1) WOULD BORROW 7) WOULD JOIN MY FRIENDS


2) THE CINEMA IF 8) I WILL SCRATCH YOURS/ I’LL SCRATCH YOURS
3) WOULD PLAY WITH 9) HE HAD ENOUGH MONEY
4) I WOULD LEARN 10) I WERE YOU
5) COMES BEFORE EIGHT 11) YOU PRACTICE GYMNASTICS
6) UNLESS THE TRAIN IS 12) WOULD BUY A BIGGER HOUSE

EXERCISE 10.1

1) WHO 6) WHO
2) WHICH 7) WHO
3) WHICH 8) WHICH
4) WHOSE 9) WHICH
5) WHO 10) WHOSE

EXERCISE 10.2

1) WHICH HAS A RED BUILDING.


2) WHO WAS AN ARCHITECT.
3) WHO LIVED NEAR MY HOUSE .
4) WHERE WE SPENT OUR LAST HOLIDAY.
5) WHERE I LEARNED TO DIVE.
6) WHO LIVES IN BOSTON.
7) WHICH I WANTED TO BUY / THAT I WANTED TO BUY / I WANTED TO BUY
8) WHOSE JOB IS VERY.
9) WHICH OPEN THE PUB. / THAT OPEN THE PUB.
10) WHOSE NAME IS TOMAS.

EXERCISE 11

1) GAVE ME A TEDDY BEAR


2) DON’T HAVE TO
3) WHO IS MY WORKMATE
4) UNLESS THE SUIT ARRIVES
5) WAS MADE (BY SOMEONE).
6) WHOSE BACKPACK
7) IF HE STUDIED VERY HARD
8) SHOULD HAVE