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# Introduction

In this unit, the children will begin to learn the basic concepts of multiplication. In the first
lesson, they will learn that multiplication problems can be solved using repeated addition. In the second
lesson, the children will learn how to use arrays (rows and columns) to solve multiplication problems. In
the third lesson, the children will learn about the Commutative Property, meaning that no matter the
order of the numbers in a multiplication equation, the answer or solution will always come out the
same. We hope that these lessons we have prepared will help the children to connect and build onto
their knowledge of what they have learned in school up to this point.

Assessment Plan
● Access skills: The children will use their receptive and expressive language skills to understand
verbal explanations. They will need to have adequate vision and hearing to be able to see the visuals
we use and hear our verbal explanations of concepts. They will use their fine motor skills to write
and draw with pencils and markers, as well as flip cards, string beads, and place stickers. We will
need to observe and note any problems areas with access skills and accommodate/modify as
necessary.
● Background knowledge: Children will need to know, at the very least, how to add one-digit
numbers. They will be more likely to succeed if they are comfortable adding up to 3 or 4-digit
numbers. In general, fluency with basic addition facts will create a base for multiplication concepts
and lend to greater understanding of multiplication strategies. We will also be building each
multiplication strategy or concept on the knowledge of the previously learned strategy or concept,
so the children will need to be comfortable with/show mastery in some strategies before they move
onto the next. We will, however be pre-assessing knowledge of subtraction, which will help us know
how comfortable they may be if they show enough mastery in multiplication to move onto division.
● Learning characteristics: We should know the best ways the children learn. For example, if they
learn best by visual models, reading from a textbook, or listening to the teacher’s lesson. This will
help us know how to best prepare our material and know that we are preparing it in a way that fits
the needs of the children we are teaching.
● Personal info: We should know some of the children’s interests in order to incorporate them into
the lessons. We should become familiar with their personalities and their levels of comfort in small
and large group settings compared to individually. We will need to know their attitudes about math
concepts, and their attitude about learning as a whole.
● Methods: We will allow the children to create their own 2-4-digit addition problems to solve. We
will provide some word problems that could be solved with addition or multiplication to see which
methods they use. We will allow the children to create their own 2-4-digit subtraction problems to
solve. We will provide some word problems that could be solved with subtraction or division to see
which methods they use. We will prompt them to draw shapes or show different picture of shapes
to gauge their knowledge of geometry. We will provide opportunities to show, write, or name
fractions to gauge their knowledge of fractions/components of fractions.
Lesson #1
Date Taught: Monday, July 9, 2018

## Topic: Multiplication as repeated addition

Standard: 3.OA.A.1- Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 x 7 as the total
number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each.

Objective: SWBAT use repeated addition to show the relationship between multiplication and
Student-Friendly Objective: SWBAT use repeated addition to solve one-digit multiplication
problems.

## (Pre) Assessment Plan:

● Allow the children to create and solve 2-4-digit addition problems to gauge their
● Give the students word problems that can be solved with multiplication or addition to
see what strategies they use to solve the problem.
● Students will work individually, unless they spontaneously decide to work together solve
problems or they verbally request to.

## Anticipatory Set (3-5 minutes): (Ellen and Kaitlyn)

● (pull out a bin or bucket) Miss Leatherman, would you mind handing me two of those
counters, please? (she hands them over, I put them in the bucket) Thank you Miss
Leatherman! I’ve added two counters to my bin now. Oh, Miss Leatherman, would you
hand me two more of those counters, please? (she hands them over, I put them in the
bucket) Thank you Miss Leatherman! Boys and girls, how many counters do I have in the
bucket now? (They answer, 4) That’s right! Two times we added two counters in the bin
and now we have four. Miss Leatherman, would you hand me two more counters? (she
hands them over, I put them in the bucket) Now how many do we have? (They answer,
6) That’s right! Three times we added two counters to the bin, and now we have six
counters.

Modeling: (Ellen)
● I have my glorious bag of pennies. (show pennies) And my friends think my pennies are
pretty cool. So three of them come up to me (write down the number 3) and ask if they
can have four of my pennies each. (write down the number 4) That’s three multiplied by
four. But I’m not sure how many that is total! Let’s find out.
● The first thing I’m going to do is count out pennies for the first friend. So I pull out one,
two, three, four pennies. (count them out and put them in a pile) I’ve got one group of
four pennies.
● But I still have two more friends that need pennies. So I’m counting out one, two, three,
four more pennies. (count them out and put them in a pile next to but separate from
the first one) Now I have two equal groups of pennies.
● But I still have one more friend that needs pennies. So I count out one, two, three, four
more pennies. (count them out and put them in a pile next to but separate from the first
one) Now, I have three equal groups of four pennies each.
● If I want to know how many pennies that is altogether, I can add them. So I now I know
that four plus four is eight. And eight plus four, let me count that out, nine, ten, eleven,
twelve--twelve pennies! Three friends wanted four pennies each, that’s three times
four. The solution is 12. I used repeated addition, or adding the same group again and
again, to solve a multiplication problem.

## Guided Practice: (Kaitlyn)

● First time
o Give me a number between 2 and 9. Student gives number, write on whiteboard.
o Give me another number between 2 and 9. Student gives another number, write
on whiteboard.
o Alright. So we have two numbers. . We have __ and __. We are going to solve
groups of the same amount each time.
o First, I am going to draw __ many. How many are in each group? Students
respond with first number given
o Next, I am going to draw the same amount and make different groups. How
many groups are there? Students respond with second number given
o Draw out groups of same equal amount of items in each. Now, we have __ items
in each group and we have __ amount of groups. We are going to use addition to
add all of them together. Let’s start out by adding two groups together:
__ + __= __. Now, let’s add another group to the answer we just got. Repeat until
o Now we have all groups added together. What answer did we get?
o So, __ equals all the groups added together. What is this method/strategy
o Now, let’s try it again.
● Second time
o Give me a number between 2 and 9. Student gives number, write on whiteboard.
o Give me another number between 2 and 9. Student gives another number, write
on whiteboard.
o Alright. So we have two numbers. . We have __ and __. Do you remember what
we do first? Draw out groups and number in each group.
o Now what do I do next?
o Now, we have __ items in each group and we have __ amount of groups. Use
o Now we have all groups added together. What answer did we get?
o So, __ equals all the groups added together. What is this method/strategy

Independent practice/application:
● Activity 1: Pipe Cleaners and Beads → the children can string beads onto pipe cleaners
beads to the pipe cleaners to find the solution
● Activity 2: Cups and Counters → Children can use counters and cups to solve
multiplication problems, adding equal groups of counters to the cups to find the
solution
● Activity 3: Popsicle Sticks → Children can use bundles of popsicle sticks to solve
multiplication problems through repeated addition, bundling together equal groups of
popsicle stick to find the solution
● Children may select from bags of felt numbers or spin the number wheel to create their
number problem

## Closure: (Ellen and Kaitlyn)

● Let’s review the steps one more time. First, we…? we divide the number of groups we
need into equal amounts. Next, we…? Add each group together one by one until we
reach our solution.
Lesson #2
Date Taught: Wednesday, July 11, 2018

## Topic: Division - repeated subtraction

Standard: 3.0A.A.3: Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in
situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings
and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

Objectives: SWBAT use repeated subtraction as one way to think about and understand
division.
Student-Friendly Objective: SWBAT use repeated subtraction to solve one-digit division
problems.

Assessment Plan:
● Propose children create word problems for each other or just create number problems
for each other and encourage them to use the strategy they’ve learned so far. Review

## Co-Teaching Strategy: Team teaching

Materials Needed: page protectors and markers, counters and plastic cups, playdough, base 10
materials, number/number pair cards; Multiplication and Division Bingo cards

## Anticipatory Set: (Ellen and Kaitlyn)

● Boys and girls, we’ll need your help. We’re going to use our bodies to see how many
ways we can divide ourselves into equal groups. So first, we’ll need you all to come over
here (open area by table). Because we have an odd numbered group, we’ll need Miss
Ellen’s help too! Now, we have an equal number of people. We need an equal number
of people to divide into equal groups. Now, I want you to work together to see if you
can divide yourselves into equal groups. Good! We’ve made 4 groups of 2 in each group
and we know that 8 can be divided by 4 groups of 2. Now, let’s try it again (divide again
into groups). Now we’ve made 2 groups of 4. Now we know that eight can be divided
into 2 groups of 4. This is part of division. It is finding how many equal groups we can
Modeling: (Kaitlyn)
● Let’s say I have 12 cookies and I want to split them with my 3 friends. So, I’ve got 4
plates for my friends and me. I am going to put one cookie on each plate. (put one
cookie on each plate). Now, I’m going to give them another cookie each. (put another
cookie on each plate). Let’s keep doing this until we have no more cookies left (so
there’s 3 cookies on each plate).

## Guided Practice: (Ellen)

● First time
o Here, I have the number 15. (write down the number 15) So I’m going to use my
base 10 materials to make 15. (pull out one rod and five cubes) And my second
number is 3. (write down the number 3)
o So if I’m doing repeated subtraction, what’s the first thing I should do with my
manipulatives? (“Take away 3 of the little cubes.”) Okay, I’ll take-away three of
the little cubes. (put three of the cubes in a separate pile) Now I have one group
of three and I’m left with twelve.
o What should I do next? (“Take away three more.”) Alright, I’ll take away three
more. (take away two) Wait a minute, I only have two of the small cubes. I still
need to take away one more to make my equal group What do I do? (“Switch the
stick for ten of the smaller ones.”) Oh, okay. I’ll trade the ten rod for ten ones.
(make the trade) And now I take away my other one. (take away last one, add to
previous group of two to make three)
o Now I have taken away two equal groups of three. What should I do next?
(“Keep taking away three!”) Right! I will keep subtracting in equal groups of
three. (take away 3 three more times) That’s all my cubes, how many equal
groups am I left with? (“Five.”) Wonderful! We’ve used the base 10 materials to
figure out that 15 divided by 3 is 5.
● Repeat again if the students need it.

Independent practice/application:
● Activity #1→ The children will work in pairs or small groups and use manipulatives to
solve division problems. They will pull from a stack of number-pair cards and use the
strategy of repeated subtraction to divide the smaller number from the larger number.
They will write data down on sheets of paper and teachers will ask about different
patterns that the children see.
● Activity #2→ Children will try to find division facts using manipulatives. Working in pairs
or small groups, children will pull from a stack of single-number cards and try to find
division facts by creating the numbers with manipulatives and dividing them into equal
groups. For example, the children will pull a number card that says “24,” and they will
try to find ways to divide 24 into equal groups.
● Activity #3→ Multiplication and Division Bingo. Children will be given bingo cards with
different answers. A teacher will read multiplication and division sentences and the
children will fill in the square with the answer to the sentence. For example, a teacher
may read “3 x 9” and the children would fill in the square “27.”

## Closure: (Ellen and Kaitlyn)

● So, what did we learn about today? Division!
● That’s right! What strategy did we use to solve our division problems? Repeated
subtraction.
● So, if I have a division problem like 8 divided by 4, what would it look like if I solved it
using repeated subtraction? You would take away 4 until there weren’t any left and you
would count the number of groups you made.

Lesson #3
Date Taught: Friday, July 13, 2018

BIG IDEA: I can divide by finding how many groups I can divide the number into evenly.

## Topic: Fact Families

Standard: 3.OA.C.7- Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the
relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one
knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations.

## Objectives: SWBAT understand the relationships between numbers.

Student-Friendly Objective: SWBAT understand that numbers can be related when it comes to
multiplication and division.

## Key Vocabulary: partition, fact families

Anticipatory Set: (Ellen and Kaitlyn)
● White board

Modeling: (Ellen)
● whiteboard

## Guided Practice: (Kaitlyn)

● whiteboard and markers

Independent practice/application:
● Matching game-We will have a matching game for them to play. Half of the cards will
have multiplication equations and the other half will have the solution. This will help
them build their knowledge of basic multiplication facts.
● Math bingo: Help build knowledge of basic multiplication facts.

## Closure: (Ellen and Kaitlyn)

● So, what did we learn about today? Fact families
● What are fact families? A set of numbers that are related by multiplication and division.