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In this unit, the children will begin to learn the basic concepts of multiplication. In the first

lesson, they will learn that multiplication problems can be solved using repeated addition. In the second

lesson, the children will learn how to use arrays (rows and columns) to solve multiplication problems. In

the third lesson, the children will learn about the Commutative Property, meaning that no matter the

order of the numbers in a multiplication equation, the answer or solution will always come out the

same. We hope that these lessons we have prepared will help the children to connect and build onto

their knowledge of what they have learned in school up to this point.

Assessment Plan

● Access skills: The children will use their receptive and expressive language skills to understand

verbal explanations. They will need to have adequate vision and hearing to be able to see the visuals

we use and hear our verbal explanations of concepts. They will use their fine motor skills to write

and draw with pencils and markers, as well as flip cards, string beads, and place stickers. We will

need to observe and note any problems areas with access skills and accommodate/modify as

necessary.

● Background knowledge: Children will need to know, at the very least, how to add one-digit

numbers. They will be more likely to succeed if they are comfortable adding up to 3 or 4-digit

numbers. In general, fluency with basic addition facts will create a base for multiplication concepts

and lend to greater understanding of multiplication strategies. We will also be building each

multiplication strategy or concept on the knowledge of the previously learned strategy or concept,

so the children will need to be comfortable with/show mastery in some strategies before they move

onto the next. We will, however be pre-assessing knowledge of subtraction, which will help us know

how comfortable they may be if they show enough mastery in multiplication to move onto division.

● Learning characteristics: We should know the best ways the children learn. For example, if they

learn best by visual models, reading from a textbook, or listening to the teacher’s lesson. This will

help us know how to best prepare our material and know that we are preparing it in a way that fits

the needs of the children we are teaching.

● Personal info: We should know some of the children’s interests in order to incorporate them into

the lessons. We should become familiar with their personalities and their levels of comfort in small

and large group settings compared to individually. We will need to know their attitudes about math

concepts, and their attitude about learning as a whole.

● Methods: We will allow the children to create their own 2-4-digit addition problems to solve. We

will provide some word problems that could be solved with addition or multiplication to see which

methods they use. We will allow the children to create their own 2-4-digit subtraction problems to

solve. We will provide some word problems that could be solved with subtraction or division to see

which methods they use. We will prompt them to draw shapes or show different picture of shapes

to gauge their knowledge of geometry. We will provide opportunities to show, write, or name

fractions to gauge their knowledge of fractions/components of fractions.

Lesson #1

Date Taught: Monday, July 9, 2018

Standard: 3.OA.A.1- Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 x 7 as the total

number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each.

Objective: SWBAT use repeated addition to show the relationship between multiplication and

addition.

Student-Friendly Objective: SWBAT use repeated addition to solve one-digit multiplication

problems.

● Allow the children to create and solve 2-4-digit addition problems to gauge their

understanding of addition.

● Give the students word problems that can be solved with multiplication or addition to

see what strategies they use to solve the problem.

● Students will work individually, unless they spontaneously decide to work together solve

problems or they verbally request to.

● (pull out a bin or bucket) Miss Leatherman, would you mind handing me two of those

counters, please? (she hands them over, I put them in the bucket) Thank you Miss

Leatherman! I’ve added two counters to my bin now. Oh, Miss Leatherman, would you

hand me two more of those counters, please? (she hands them over, I put them in the

bucket) Thank you Miss Leatherman! Boys and girls, how many counters do I have in the

bucket now? (They answer, 4) That’s right! Two times we added two counters in the bin

and now we have four. Miss Leatherman, would you hand me two more counters? (she

hands them over, I put them in the bucket) Now how many do we have? (They answer,

6) That’s right! Three times we added two counters to the bin, and now we have six

counters.

Modeling: (Ellen)

● I have my glorious bag of pennies. (show pennies) And my friends think my pennies are

pretty cool. So three of them come up to me (write down the number 3) and ask if they

can have four of my pennies each. (write down the number 4) That’s three multiplied by

four. But I’m not sure how many that is total! Let’s find out.

● The first thing I’m going to do is count out pennies for the first friend. So I pull out one,

two, three, four pennies. (count them out and put them in a pile) I’ve got one group of

four pennies.

● But I still have two more friends that need pennies. So I’m counting out one, two, three,

four more pennies. (count them out and put them in a pile next to but separate from

the first one) Now I have two equal groups of pennies.

● But I still have one more friend that needs pennies. So I count out one, two, three, four

more pennies. (count them out and put them in a pile next to but separate from the first

one) Now, I have three equal groups of four pennies each.

● If I want to know how many pennies that is altogether, I can add them. So I now I know

that four plus four is eight. And eight plus four, let me count that out, nine, ten, eleven,

twelve--twelve pennies! Three friends wanted four pennies each, that’s three times

four. The solution is 12. I used repeated addition, or adding the same group again and

again, to solve a multiplication problem.

● First time

o Give me a number between 2 and 9. Student gives number, write on whiteboard.

o Give me another number between 2 and 9. Student gives another number, write

on whiteboard.

o Alright. So we have two numbers. . We have __ and __. We are going to solve

this problem using repeated addition. Remember, repeated addition is adding

groups of the same amount each time.

o First, I am going to draw __ many. How many are in each group? Students

respond with first number given

o Next, I am going to draw the same amount and make different groups. How

many groups are there? Students respond with second number given

o Draw out groups of same equal amount of items in each. Now, we have __ items

in each group and we have __ amount of groups. We are going to use addition to

add all of them together. Let’s start out by adding two groups together:

__ + __= __. Now, let’s add another group to the answer we just got. Repeat until

all groups are added together.

o Now we have all groups added together. What answer did we get?

o So, __ equals all the groups added together. What is this method/strategy

called? Repeated addition.

o Now, let’s try it again.

● Second time

o Give me a number between 2 and 9. Student gives number, write on whiteboard.

o Give me another number between 2 and 9. Student gives another number, write

on whiteboard.

o Alright. So we have two numbers. . We have __ and __. Do you remember what

we do first? Draw out groups and number in each group.

o Now what do I do next?

o Now, we have __ items in each group and we have __ amount of groups. Use

addition to add all of them together. Repeat until all groups are added together.

o Now we have all groups added together. What answer did we get?

o So, __ equals all the groups added together. What is this method/strategy

called? Repeated addition.

Independent practice/application:

● Activity 1: Pipe Cleaners and Beads → the children can string beads onto pipe cleaners

to practice multiplication problems through repeated addition, adding equal groups of

beads to the pipe cleaners to find the solution

● Activity 2: Cups and Counters → Children can use counters and cups to solve

multiplication problems, adding equal groups of counters to the cups to find the

solution

● Activity 3: Popsicle Sticks → Children can use bundles of popsicle sticks to solve

multiplication problems through repeated addition, bundling together equal groups of

popsicle stick to find the solution

● Children may select from bags of felt numbers or spin the number wheel to create their

number problem

● So, what did we learn about today? Repeated addition.

● Let’s review the steps one more time. First, we…? we divide the number of groups we

need into equal amounts. Next, we…? Add each group together one by one until we

reach our solution.

Lesson #2

Date Taught: Wednesday, July 11, 2018

Standard: 3.0A.A.3: Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in

situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings

and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

Objectives: SWBAT use repeated subtraction as one way to think about and understand

division.

Student-Friendly Objective: SWBAT use repeated subtraction to solve one-digit division

problems.

Assessment Plan:

● Propose children create word problems for each other or just create number problems

for each other and encourage them to use the strategy they’ve learned so far. Review

repeated addition if necessary.

Materials Needed: page protectors and markers, counters and plastic cups, playdough, base 10

materials, number/number pair cards; Multiplication and Division Bingo cards

● Boys and girls, we’ll need your help. We’re going to use our bodies to see how many

ways we can divide ourselves into equal groups. So first, we’ll need you all to come over

here (open area by table). Because we have an odd numbered group, we’ll need Miss

Ellen’s help too! Now, we have an equal number of people. We need an equal number

of people to divide into equal groups. Now, I want you to work together to see if you

can divide yourselves into equal groups. Good! We’ve made 4 groups of 2 in each group

and we know that 8 can be divided by 4 groups of 2. Now, let’s try it again (divide again

into groups). Now we’ve made 2 groups of 4. Now we know that eight can be divided

into 2 groups of 4. This is part of division. It is finding how many equal groups we can

make. Everyone please go and sit back down in your seats.

Modeling: (Kaitlyn)

● Let’s say I have 12 cookies and I want to split them with my 3 friends. So, I’ve got 4

plates for my friends and me. I am going to put one cookie on each plate. (put one

cookie on each plate). Now, I’m going to give them another cookie each. (put another

cookie on each plate). Let’s keep doing this until we have no more cookies left (so

there’s 3 cookies on each plate).

● First time

o Here, I have the number 15. (write down the number 15) So I’m going to use my

base 10 materials to make 15. (pull out one rod and five cubes) And my second

number is 3. (write down the number 3)

o So if I’m doing repeated subtraction, what’s the first thing I should do with my

manipulatives? (“Take away 3 of the little cubes.”) Okay, I’ll take-away three of

the little cubes. (put three of the cubes in a separate pile) Now I have one group

of three and I’m left with twelve.

o What should I do next? (“Take away three more.”) Alright, I’ll take away three

more. (take away two) Wait a minute, I only have two of the small cubes. I still

need to take away one more to make my equal group What do I do? (“Switch the

stick for ten of the smaller ones.”) Oh, okay. I’ll trade the ten rod for ten ones.

(make the trade) And now I take away my other one. (take away last one, add to

previous group of two to make three)

o Now I have taken away two equal groups of three. What should I do next?

(“Keep taking away three!”) Right! I will keep subtracting in equal groups of

three. (take away 3 three more times) That’s all my cubes, how many equal

groups am I left with? (“Five.”) Wonderful! We’ve used the base 10 materials to

figure out that 15 divided by 3 is 5.

● Repeat again if the students need it.

Independent practice/application:

● Activity #1→ The children will work in pairs or small groups and use manipulatives to

solve division problems. They will pull from a stack of number-pair cards and use the

strategy of repeated subtraction to divide the smaller number from the larger number.

They will write data down on sheets of paper and teachers will ask about different

patterns that the children see.

● Activity #2→ Children will try to find division facts using manipulatives. Working in pairs

or small groups, children will pull from a stack of single-number cards and try to find

division facts by creating the numbers with manipulatives and dividing them into equal

groups. For example, the children will pull a number card that says “24,” and they will

try to find ways to divide 24 into equal groups.

● Activity #3→ Multiplication and Division Bingo. Children will be given bingo cards with

different answers. A teacher will read multiplication and division sentences and the

children will fill in the square with the answer to the sentence. For example, a teacher

may read “3 x 9” and the children would fill in the square “27.”

● So, what did we learn about today? Division!

● That’s right! What strategy did we use to solve our division problems? Repeated

subtraction.

● So, if I have a division problem like 8 divided by 4, what would it look like if I solved it

using repeated subtraction? You would take away 4 until there weren’t any left and you

would count the number of groups you made.

Lesson #3

Date Taught: Friday, July 13, 2018

BIG IDEA: I can divide by finding how many groups I can divide the number into evenly.

Standard: 3.OA.C.7- Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the

relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one

knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations.

Student-Friendly Objective: SWBAT understand that numbers can be related when it comes to

multiplication and division.

Anticipatory Set: (Ellen and Kaitlyn)

● White board

Modeling: (Ellen)

● whiteboard

● whiteboard and markers

Independent practice/application:

● Matching game-We will have a matching game for them to play. Half of the cards will

have multiplication equations and the other half will have the solution. This will help

them build their knowledge of basic multiplication facts.

● Math bingo: Help build knowledge of basic multiplication facts.

● So, what did we learn about today? Fact families

● What are fact families? A set of numbers that are related by multiplication and division.

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