0 views

Uploaded by Shubham Khoker

- Preparation
- Bode-plot
- ee101_bode_1.pdf
- 742222V01
- HVAC_noise722201320446PM1.pdf
- 05 1uap Slides
- Applications Assignment 2
- SS
- Fans C
- Sony.kv28 32ls60b Ae6b
- Content.docx
- NRPU01 Tech
- Curriculum
- Pilot Polution
- Microwave Link Design Group 1 ECE 5-1
- 2012 Fall Daylist
- This is the First Part in LTE KPI Optimization and More Related Articles Will Be Published Soon
- wiper-servo-BTS7960.pdf
- Beam_Scanning_Antenna.pdf
- FWM2200X

You are on page 1of 112

M. B. Patil

mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in

www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

What is deciBel (dB)?

What is deciBel (dB)?

* Because of the log scale, dB is convenient for representing numbers that vary in

a wide range.

What is deciBel (dB)?

* Because of the log scale, dB is convenient for representing numbers that vary in

a wide range.

* log scaling roughly corresponds to human perception of sound and light.

What is deciBel (dB)?

* Because of the log scale, dB is convenient for representing numbers that vary in

a wide range.

* log scaling roughly corresponds to human perception of sound and light.

* log scale allows × and ÷ to be replaced by + and − → simpler!

What is deciBel (dB)?

* Because of the log scale, dB is convenient for representing numbers that vary in

a wide range.

* log scaling roughly corresponds to human perception of sound and light.

* log scale allows × and ÷ to be replaced by + and − → simpler!

* The unit “Bel” was developed in the 1920s by Bell Labs engineers to quantify

attenuation of an audio signal over one mile of cable.

What is deciBel (dB)?

* Because of the log scale, dB is convenient for representing numbers that vary in

a wide range.

* log scaling roughly corresponds to human perception of sound and light.

* log scale allows × and ÷ to be replaced by + and − → simpler!

* The unit “Bel” was developed in the 1920s by Bell Labs engineers to quantify

attenuation of an audio signal over one mile of cable.

Interesting facts:

- Alexander Graham Bell, who invented the telephone in 1876, could never talk to his

wife on the phone (she was deaf).

What is deciBel (dB)?

* Because of the log scale, dB is convenient for representing numbers that vary in

a wide range.

* log scaling roughly corresponds to human perception of sound and light.

* log scale allows × and ÷ to be replaced by + and − → simpler!

* The unit “Bel” was developed in the 1920s by Bell Labs engineers to quantify

attenuation of an audio signal over one mile of cable.

Interesting facts:

- Alexander Graham Bell, who invented the telephone in 1876, could never talk to his

wife on the phone (she was deaf).

- Bell considered the telephone an intrusion and refused to put one in his office.

What is deciBel (dB)?

* Because of the log scale, dB is convenient for representing numbers that vary in

a wide range.

* log scaling roughly corresponds to human perception of sound and light.

* log scale allows × and ÷ to be replaced by + and − → simpler!

* The unit “Bel” was developed in the 1920s by Bell Labs engineers to quantify

attenuation of an audio signal over one mile of cable.

Interesting facts:

- Alexander Graham Bell, who invented the telephone in 1876, could never talk to his

wife on the phone (she was deaf).

- Bell considered the telephone an intrusion and refused to put one in his office.

* Bel turned out to be too large in practice → deciBel (i.e., one tenth of a Bel).

What is deciBel (dB)?

quantity.

X (in dB) = 10 log10 (X /Xref ).

What is deciBel (dB)?

quantity.

X (in dB) = 10 log10 (X /Xref ).

For example, if P1 = 20 W and Pref = 1 W ,

P1 = 10 log (20 W /1 W ) = 10 log (20) = 13 dB.

What is deciBel (dB)?

quantity.

X (in dB) = 10 log10 (X /Xref ).

For example, if P1 = 20 W and Pref = 1 W ,

P1 = 10 log (20 W /1 W ) = 10 log (20) = 13 dB.

* For voltages or currents, the ratio of squares is taken (since P ∝ V 2 or P ∝ I 2

for a resistor).

What is deciBel (dB)?

quantity.

X (in dB) = 10 log10 (X /Xref ).

For example, if P1 = 20 W and Pref = 1 W ,

P1 = 10 log (20 W /1 W ) = 10 log (20) = 13 dB.

* For voltages or currents, the ratio of squares is taken (since P ∝ V 2 or P ∝ I 2

for a resistor).

For example, if V1 = 1.2 V , Vref = 1 mV , then

V1 = 10 log (1.2 V /1 mV )2 = 20 log 1.2/10−3 = 61.6 dBm.

What is deciBel (dB)?

quantity.

X (in dB) = 10 log10 (X /Xref ).

For example, if P1 = 20 W and Pref = 1 W ,

P1 = 10 log (20 W /1 W ) = 10 log (20) = 13 dB.

* For voltages or currents, the ratio of squares is taken (since P ∝ V 2 or P ∝ I 2

for a resistor).

For example, if V1 = 1.2 V , Vref = 1 mV , then

V1 = 10 log (1.2 V /1 mV )2 = 20 log 1.2/10−3 = 61.6 dBm.

AV in dB = 20 log (Vo /Vi ),

with Vi serving as the reference voltage.

Example

Vi Amplifier Vo compute Vo in dBm and in mV.

(Vi and Vo are peak input and peak output voltages, respectively).

Example

Vi Amplifier Vo compute Vo in dBm and in mV.

(Vi and Vo are peak input and peak output voltages, respectively).

Method 1:

2.5 mV

Vi = 20 log = 7.96 dBm

1 mV

Example

Vi Amplifier Vo compute Vo in dBm and in mV.

(Vi and Vo are peak input and peak output voltages, respectively).

Method 1:

2.5 mV

Vi = 20 log = 7.96 dBm

1 mV

Vo = 7.96 + 36.3 = 44.22 dBm

Example

Vi Amplifier Vo compute Vo in dBm and in mV.

(Vi and Vo are peak input and peak output voltages, respectively).

Method 1:

2.5 mV

Vi = 20 log = 7.96 dBm

1 mV

Vo = 7.96 + 36.3 = 44.22 dBm

Vo (in mV )

Since Vo (dBm) = 20 log ,

1 mV

Vo = 10x × 1 mV , where

1

x= Vo (in dBm)

20

Example

Vi Amplifier Vo compute Vo in dBm and in mV.

(Vi and Vo are peak input and peak output voltages, respectively).

Method 1:

2.5 mV

Vi = 20 log = 7.96 dBm

1 mV

Vo = 7.96 + 36.3 = 44.22 dBm

Vo (in mV )

Since Vo (dBm) = 20 log ,

1 mV

Vo = 10x × 1 mV , where

1

x= Vo (in dBm)

20

→ Vo = 162.5 mV .

Example

Vi Amplifier Vo compute Vo in dBm and in mV.

(Vi and Vo are peak input and peak output voltages, respectively).

Method 1: Method 2:

2.5 mV

AV = 36.3 dB

Vi = 20 log = 7.96 dBm

1 mV

→ 20 log AV = 36.3 → AV = 65.

Vo = 7.96 + 36.3 = 44.22 dBm

Vo (in mV )

Since Vo (dBm) = 20 log ,

1 mV

Vo = 10x × 1 mV , where

1

x= Vo (in dBm)

20

→ Vo = 162.5 mV .

Example

Vi Amplifier Vo compute Vo in dBm and in mV.

(Vi and Vo are peak input and peak output voltages, respectively).

Method 1: Method 2:

2.5 mV

AV = 36.3 dB

Vi = 20 log = 7.96 dBm

1 mV

→ 20 log AV = 36.3 → AV = 65.

Vo = 7.96 + 36.3 = 44.22 dBm

Vo = AV × Vi = 65 × 2.5 mV = 162.5 mV .

Vo (in mV )

Since Vo (dBm) = 20 log ,

1 mV

Vo = 10x × 1 mV , where

1

x= Vo (in dBm)

20

→ Vo = 162.5 mV .

dB in audio measurements

* When sound intensity is specified in dB, the reference pressure is Pref = 20 µPa

(our hearing threshold).

If the pressure corresponding to the sound being measured is P, we say that it is

20 log (P/Pref ) dB.

dB in audio measurements

* When sound intensity is specified in dB, the reference pressure is Pref = 20 µPa

(our hearing threshold).

If the pressure corresponding to the sound being measured is P, we say that it is

20 log (P/Pref ) dB.

* Some interesting numbers:

mosquito 3 m away 0 dB

dB in audio measurements

* When sound intensity is specified in dB, the reference pressure is Pref = 20 µPa

(our hearing threshold).

If the pressure corresponding to the sound being measured is P, we say that it is

20 log (P/Pref ) dB.

* Some interesting numbers:

mosquito 3 m away 0 dB

whisper 20 dB

dB in audio measurements

* When sound intensity is specified in dB, the reference pressure is Pref = 20 µPa

(our hearing threshold).

If the pressure corresponding to the sound being measured is P, we say that it is

20 log (P/Pref ) dB.

* Some interesting numbers:

mosquito 3 m away 0 dB

whisper 20 dB

normal conversation 60 to 70 dB

dB in audio measurements

(our hearing threshold).

If the pressure corresponding to the sound being measured is P, we say that it is

20 log (P/Pref ) dB.

* Some interesting numbers:

mosquito 3 m away 0 dB

whisper 20 dB

normal conversation 60 to 70 dB

noisy factory 90 to 100 dB

dB in audio measurements

(our hearing threshold).

If the pressure corresponding to the sound being measured is P, we say that it is

20 log (P/Pref ) dB.

* Some interesting numbers:

mosquito 3 m away 0 dB

whisper 20 dB

normal conversation 60 to 70 dB

noisy factory 90 to 100 dB

loud thunder 110 dB

dB in audio measurements

(our hearing threshold).

If the pressure corresponding to the sound being measured is P, we say that it is

20 log (P/Pref ) dB.

* Some interesting numbers:

mosquito 3 m away 0 dB

whisper 20 dB

normal conversation 60 to 70 dB

noisy factory 90 to 100 dB

loud thunder 110 dB

loudest sound human ear can tolerate 120 dB

dB in audio measurements

(our hearing threshold).

If the pressure corresponding to the sound being measured is P, we say that it is

20 log (P/Pref ) dB.

* Some interesting numbers:

mosquito 3 m away 0 dB

whisper 20 dB

normal conversation 60 to 70 dB

noisy factory 90 to 100 dB

loud thunder 110 dB

loudest sound human ear can tolerate 120 dB

windows break 163 dB

Bode plots

Bode plots

H(s) = Vo (s)/Vi (s), s = jω.

K K

e.g., H(s) = =

1 + sτ 1 + jωτ

Bode plots

H(s) = Vo (s)/Vi (s), s = jω.

K K

e.g., H(s) = =

1 + sτ 1 + jωτ

* H(jω) is a complex number, and a complete description of H(jω) involves

(a) a plot of |H(jω)| versus ω.

(b) a plot of ∠H(jω) versus ω.

Bode plots

H(s) = Vo (s)/Vi (s), s = jω.

K K

e.g., H(s) = =

1 + sτ 1 + jωτ

* H(jω) is a complex number, and a complete description of H(jω) involves

(a) a plot of |H(jω)| versus ω.

(b) a plot of ∠H(jω) versus ω.

* Bode gave simple rules which allow construction of the above “Bode plots” in an

approximate (asymptotic) manner.

A simple transfer function

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

A simple transfer function

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

For ω ω0 , |H(jω)| → 1.

For ω ω0 , |H(jω)| ∝ 1/ω.

A simple transfer function

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

For ω ω0 , |H(jω)| → 1.

For ω ω0 , |H(jω)| ∝ 1/ω.

* The magnitude and phase of H(jω| are given by,

1

ω

|H(jω)| = p , ∠H(jω) = − tan−1 .

1 + (ω/ω0 )2 ω 0

A simple transfer function

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

For ω ω0 , |H(jω)| → 1.

For ω ω0 , |H(jω)| ∝ 1/ω.

* The magnitude and phase of H(jω| are given by,

1

ω

|H(jω)| = p , ∠H(jω) = − tan−1 .

1 + (ω/ω0 )2 ω 0

effect on |H| and ∠H.

A simple transfer function

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

For ω ω0 , |H(jω)| → 1.

For ω ω0 , |H(jω)| ∝ 1/ω.

* The magnitude and phase of H(jω| are given by,

1

ω

|H(jω)| = p , ∠H(jω) = − tan−1 .

1 + (ω/ω0 )2 ω 0

effect on |H| and ∠H.

* The magnitude (|H|) varies by orders of magnitude as well.

The phase (∠H) varies from 0 (for ω ω0 ) to −π/2 (for ω ω0 ).

A simple transfer function: magnitude

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

ω0

1 100 100

10−1 10−1

10−2 10−2

0 10−3 10−3

0 106 0 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

A simple transfer function: magnitude

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

ω0

1 100 100

10−1 10−1

10−2 10−2

0 10−3 10−3

0 106 0 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

Since ω and |H(j ω)| vary by several orders of magnitude, a linear ω- or |H|-axis is not

appropriate → log |H| is plotted against log ω.

A simple transfer function: magnitude

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

Vs 1 1

C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

ω0

0

10 0

10−1 −20

|H| (dB)

|H|

10−2 −40

10−3 −60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

A simple transfer function: magnitude

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

Vs 1 1

C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

ω0

0

10 0

10−1 −20

|H| (dB)

|H|

10−2 −40

10−3 −60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

|H| (dB) = 20 log |H| is simply a scaled version of log |H|.

A simple transfer function: magnitude

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

ω0

0 0

−20 −20

|H| (dB)

|H| (dB)

−40 −40

−60 −60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (Hz)

A simple transfer function: magnitude

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

ω0

0 0

−20 −20

|H| (dB)

|H| (dB)

−40 −40

−60 −60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (Hz)

A simple transfer function: phase

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

ω0

0◦ 0◦

−90◦ −90◦

0 106 0 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

A simple transfer function: phase

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

ω0

0◦ 0◦

−90◦ −90◦

0 106 0 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

example), a linear axis is appropriate for ∠H.

A simple transfer function: phase

R

(1/s C)

Vo = Vs ,

R + (1/s C)

1 1

Vs C Vo → H(s) = = ,

1+s RC 1 + (j ω/ω0)

1

ω0 = .

RC

ω0

0◦ 0◦

−90◦ −90◦

0 106 0 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

example), a linear axis is appropriate for ∠H.

* As in the magnitude plot, we use a log axis for ω, since we are interested in a

wide range of ω.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Construction of Bode plots

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/p1 )(1 + s/p2 ) · · · (1 + s/pN )

Construction of Bode plots

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/p1 )(1 + s/p2 ) · · · (1 + s/pN )

We will assume, for simplicity, that the zeros (and poles) are real and distinct.

Construction of Bode plots

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/p1 )(1 + s/p2 ) · · · (1 + s/pN )

We will assume, for simplicity, that the zeros (and poles) are real and distinct.

(a) computing approximate contribution of each pole/zero as a function ω.

Construction of Bode plots

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/p1 )(1 + s/p2 ) · · · (1 + s/pN )

We will assume, for simplicity, that the zeros (and poles) are real and distinct.

(a) computing approximate contribution of each pole/zero as a function ω.

(b) combining the various contributions to obtain |H| and ∠H versus ω.

Contribution of a pole: magnitude

p

20

asymptote 1

asymptote 2

0

|H| (dB)

exact

−20

−40

−60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

1 1 1

Consider H(s) = → H(jω) = , |H(jω)| = p .

1 + s/p 1 + j (ω/p) 1 + (ω/p)2

Contribution of a pole: magnitude

p

20

asymptote 1

asymptote 2

0

|H| (dB)

exact

−20

−40

−60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

1 1 1

Consider H(s) = → H(jω) = , |H(jω)| = p .

1 + s/p 1 + j (ω/p) 1 + (ω/p)2

Contribution of a pole: magnitude

p

20

asymptote 1

asymptote 2

0

|H| (dB)

exact

−20

−40

−60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

1 1 1

Consider H(s) = → H(jω) = , |H(jω)| = p .

1 + s/p 1 + j (ω/p) 1 + (ω/p)2

1 p

Asymptote 2: ω p: |H| → = → |H| = 20 log p − 20 log ω (dB)

ω/p ω

Contribution of a pole: magnitude

p

20

asymptote 1

asymptote 2

0

|H| (dB)

exact

−20

−40

−60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

1 1 1

Consider H(s) = → H(jω) = , |H(jω)| = p .

1 + s/p 1 + j (ω/p) 1 + (ω/p)2

1 p

Asymptote 2: ω p: |H| → = → |H| = 20 log p − 20 log ω (dB)

ω/p ω

Consider two values of ω: ω1 and 10 ω1 .

|H|1 = 20 log p − 20 log ω1 (dB)

|H|2 = 20 log p − 20 log (10 ω1 ) (dB)

Contribution of a pole: magnitude

p

20

asymptote 1

asymptote 2

0

|H| (dB)

exact

−20

−40

−60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

1 1 1

Consider H(s) = → H(jω) = , |H(jω)| = p .

1 + s/p 1 + j (ω/p) 1 + (ω/p)2

1 p

Asymptote 2: ω p: |H| → = → |H| = 20 log p − 20 log ω (dB)

ω/p ω

Consider two values of ω: ω1 and 10 ω1 .

|H|1 = 20 log p − 20 log ω1 (dB)

|H|2 = 20 log p − 20 log (10 ω1 ) (dB)

ω1

|H|1 − |H|2 = −20 log = 20 dB.

10 ω1

Contribution of a pole: magnitude

p

20

asymptote 1

asymptote 2

0

|H| (dB)

exact

−20

−40

−60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

1 1 1

Consider H(s) = → H(jω) = , |H(jω)| = p .

1 + s/p 1 + j (ω/p) 1 + (ω/p)2

1 p

Asymptote 2: ω p: |H| → = → |H| = 20 log p − 20 log ω (dB)

ω/p ω

Consider two values of ω: ω1 and 10 ω1 .

|H|1 = 20 log p − 20 log ω1 (dB)

|H|2 = 20 log p − 20 log (10 ω1 ) (dB)

ω1

|H|1 − |H|2 = −20 log = 20 dB.

10 ω1

→ |H| versus ω has a slope of −20 dB/decade.

√

Note that, at ω = p, the actual value of |H| is 1/ 2 (i.e., −3 dB).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Contribution of a pole: phase

p

asymptote 1

0◦

exact

asymptote 3

asymptote 2

◦

−90

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

1 1

−1 ω

Consider H(s) = = → ∠H = − tan

1 + s/p 1 + j (ω/p) p

Contribution of a pole: phase

p

asymptote 1

0◦

exact

asymptote 3

asymptote 2

◦

−90

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

1 1

−1 ω

Consider H(s) = = → ∠H = − tan

1 + s/p 1 + j (ω/p) p

Contribution of a pole: phase

p

asymptote 1

0◦

exact

asymptote 3

asymptote 2

◦

−90

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

1 1

−1 ω

Consider H(s) = = → ∠H = − tan

1 + s/p 1 + j (ω/p) p

Asymptote 2: ω p (say, ω > 10 p): ∠H = −π/2.

Contribution of a pole: phase

p

asymptote 1

0◦

exact

asymptote 3

asymptote 2

◦

−90

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

1 1

−1 ω

Consider H(s) = = → ∠H = − tan

1 + s/p 1 + j (ω/p) p

Asymptote 2: ω p (say, ω > 10 p): ∠H = −π/2.

Asymptote 3: For p/10 < ω < 10 p , ∠H is assumed to vary linearly with log ω

→ at ω = p, ∠H = −π/4 (which is also the actual value of ∠H).

Contribution of a zero: magnitude

z

60

40

|H| (dB)

20

exact

0

asymptote 2

asymptote 1

−20

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

p

Consider H(s) = 1 + s/z → H(jω) = 1 + j (ω/z) , |H(jω)| = 1 + (ω/z)2 .

Contribution of a zero: magnitude

z

60

40

|H| (dB)

20

exact

0

asymptote 2

asymptote 1

−20

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

p

Consider H(s) = 1 + s/z → H(jω) = 1 + j (ω/z) , |H(jω)| = 1 + (ω/z)2 .

Contribution of a zero: magnitude

z

60

40

|H| (dB)

20

exact

0

asymptote 2

asymptote 1

−20

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

p

Consider H(s) = 1 + s/z → H(jω) = 1 + j (ω/z) , |H(jω)| = 1 + (ω/z)2 .

ω

Asymptote 2: ω p: |H| → → |H| = 20 log ω − 20 log z (dB)

z

Contribution of a zero: magnitude

z

60

40

20

exact

0

asymptote 2

asymptote 1

−20

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

p

Consider H(s) = 1 + s/z → H(jω) = 1 + j (ω/z) , |H(jω)| = 1 + (ω/z)2 .

ω

Asymptote 2: ω p: |H| → → |H| = 20 log ω − 20 log z (dB)

z

Consider two values of ω: ω1 and 10 ω1 .

|H|1 = 20 log ω1 − 20 log z (dB)

|H|2 = 20 log (10 ω1 ) − 20 log z (dB)

Contribution of a zero: magnitude

z

60

40

20

exact

0

asymptote 2

asymptote 1

−20

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

p

Consider H(s) = 1 + s/z → H(jω) = 1 + j (ω/z) , |H(jω)| = 1 + (ω/z)2 .

ω

Asymptote 2: ω p: |H| → → |H| = 20 log ω − 20 log z (dB)

z

Consider two values of ω: ω1 and 10 ω1 .

|H|1 = 20 log ω1 − 20 log z (dB)

|H|2 = 20 log (10 ω1 ) − 20 log z (dB)

ω1

|H|1 − |H|2 = 20 log = −20 dB.

10 ω1

Contribution of a zero: magnitude

z

60

40

20

exact

0

asymptote 2

asymptote 1

−20

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

p

Consider H(s) = 1 + s/z → H(jω) = 1 + j (ω/z) , |H(jω)| = 1 + (ω/z)2 .

ω

Asymptote 2: ω p: |H| → → |H| = 20 log ω − 20 log z (dB)

z

Consider two values of ω: ω1 and 10 ω1 .

|H|1 = 20 log ω1 − 20 log z (dB)

|H|2 = 20 log (10 ω1 ) − 20 log z (dB)

ω1

|H|1 − |H|2 = 20 log = −20 dB.

10 ω1

→ |H| versus ω has a slope of +20 dB/decade.

√

Note that, at ω = z, the actual value of |H| is 2 (i.e., 3 dB).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Contribution of a zero: phase

90◦

exact

asymptote 2

asymptote 3

asymptote 1

◦

0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

ω

Consider H(s) = 1 + s/z = 1 + j (ω/z) → ∠H = tan−1

z

Contribution of a zero: phase

90◦

exact

asymptote 2

asymptote 3

asymptote 1

◦

0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

ω

Consider H(s) = 1 + s/z = 1 + j (ω/z) → ∠H = tan−1

z

Contribution of a zero: phase

90◦

exact

asymptote 2

asymptote 3

asymptote 1

◦

0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

ω

Consider H(s) = 1 + s/z = 1 + j (ω/z) → ∠H = tan−1

z

Asymptote 2: ω z (say, ω > 10 z): ∠H = π/2.

Contribution of a zero: phase

90◦

exact

asymptote 2

asymptote 3

asymptote 1

◦

0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

ω

Consider H(s) = 1 + s/z = 1 + j (ω/z) → ∠H = tan−1

z

Asymptote 2: ω z (say, ω > 10 z): ∠H = π/2.

Asymptote 3: For z/10 < ω < 10 z , ∠H is assumed to vary linearly with log ω

→ at ω = z, ∠H = π/4 (which is also the actual value of ∠H).

Contribution of K (constant), s, and s 2

Contribution of K (constant), s, and s 2

60 120

40 80

|s2 | (dB)

|s| (dB)

20 40

0 0

100 101 102 103 100 101 102 103

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

Contribution of K (constant), s, and s 2

60 120

40 80

|s2 | (dB)

|s| (dB)

20 40

0 0

100 101 102 103 100 101 102 103

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

For H(s) = s, i.e., H(jω) = jω, |H| = ω.

Contribution of K (constant), s, and s 2

60 120

40 80

|s2 | (dB)

|s| (dB)

20 40

0 0

100 101 102 103 100 101 102 103

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

For H(s) = s, i.e., H(jω) = jω, |H| = ω.

→ 20 log |H| = 20 log ω,

Contribution of K (constant), s, and s 2

60 120

40 80

|s2 | (dB)

|s| (dB)

20 40

0 0

100 101 102 103 100 101 102 103

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

For H(s) = s, i.e., H(jω) = jω, |H| = ω.

→ 20 log |H| = 20 log ω,

i.e., a straight line in the |H| (dB)-log ω plane with a slope of 20 dB/decade,

passing through (1, 0).

Contribution of K (constant), s, and s 2

60 120

40 80

|s2 | (dB)

|s| (dB)

20 40

0 0

100 101 102 103 100 101 102 103

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

For H(s) = s, i.e., H(jω) = jω, |H| = ω.

→ 20 log |H| = 20 log ω,

i.e., a straight line in the |H| (dB)-log ω plane with a slope of 20 dB/decade,

passing through (1, 0).

∠H = π/2 (irrespective of ω).

Contribution of K (constant), s, and s 2

60 120

40 80

|s2 | (dB)

|s| (dB)

20 40

0 0

100 101 102 103 100 101 102 103

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

For H(s) = s, i.e., H(jω) = jω, |H| = ω.

→ 20 log |H| = 20 log ω,

i.e., a straight line in the |H| (dB)-log ω plane with a slope of 20 dB/decade,

passing through (1, 0).

∠H = π/2 (irrespective of ω).

Contribution of K (constant), s, and s 2

60 120

40 80

|s2 | (dB)

|s| (dB)

20 40

0 0

100 101 102 103 100 101 102 103

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

For H(s) = s, i.e., H(jω) = jω, |H| = ω.

→ 20 log |H| = 20 log ω,

i.e., a straight line in the |H| (dB)-log ω plane with a slope of 20 dB/decade,

passing through (1, 0).

∠H = π/2 (irrespective of ω).

→ 20 log |H| = 40 log ω,

Contribution of K (constant), s, and s 2

60 120

40 80

|s2 | (dB)

|s| (dB)

20 40

100 101 102 103 100 101 102 103

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

For H(s) = s, i.e., H(jω) = jω, |H| = ω.

→ 20 log |H| = 20 log ω,

i.e., a straight line in the |H| (dB)-log ω plane with a slope of 20 dB/decade,

passing through (1, 0).

∠H = π/2 (irrespective of ω).

→ 20 log |H| = 40 log ω,

i.e., a straight line in the |H| (dB)-log ω plane with a slope of 40 dB/decade,

passing through (1, 0).

Contribution of K (constant), s, and s 2

60 120

40 80

|s2 | (dB)

|s| (dB)

20 40

100 101 102 103 100 101 102 103

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

For H(s) = s, i.e., H(jω) = jω, |H| = ω.

→ 20 log |H| = 20 log ω,

i.e., a straight line in the |H| (dB)-log ω plane with a slope of 20 dB/decade,

passing through (1, 0).

∠H = π/2 (irrespective of ω).

→ 20 log |H| = 40 log ω,

i.e., a straight line in the |H| (dB)-log ω plane with a slope of 40 dB/decade,

passing through (1, 0).

∠H = π (irrespective of ω).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Combining different terms

Combining different terms

Magnitude:

20 log |H| = 20 log |H1 | + 20 log |H2 |.

Combining different terms

Magnitude:

20 log |H| = 20 log |H1 | + 20 log |H2 |.

→ In the Bode magnitude plot, the contributions due to H1 and H2 simply get added.

Combining different terms

Magnitude:

20 log |H| = 20 log |H1 | + 20 log |H2 |.

→ In the Bode magnitude plot, the contributions due to H1 and H2 simply get added.

Phase:

At a given ω, let H1 = K1 ∠α = K1 e jα , and H2 = K2 ∠β = K2 e jβ .

Then, H1 H2 = K1 K2 e j(α+β) = K1 K2 ∠ (α + β) .

i.e., ∠H = ∠H1 + ∠H2 .

Combining different terms

Magnitude:

20 log |H| = 20 log |H1 | + 20 log |H2 |.

→ In the Bode magnitude plot, the contributions due to H1 and H2 simply get added.

Phase:

At a given ω, let H1 = K1 ∠α = K1 e jα , and H2 = K2 ∠β = K2 e jβ .

Then, H1 H2 = K1 K2 e j(α+β) = K1 K2 ∠ (α + β) .

i.e., ∠H = ∠H1 + ∠H2 .

In the Bode phase plot, the contributions due to H1 and H2 also get added.

Combining different terms

Magnitude:

20 log |H| = 20 log |H1 | + 20 log |H2 |.

→ In the Bode magnitude plot, the contributions due to H1 and H2 simply get added.

Phase:

At a given ω, let H1 = K1 ∠α = K1 e jα , and H2 = K2 ∠β = K2 e jβ .

Then, H1 H2 = K1 K2 e j(α+β) = K1 K2 ∠ (α + β) .

i.e., ∠H = ∠H1 + ∠H2 .

In the Bode phase plot, the contributions due to H1 and H2 also get added.

Combining different terms: example

10 s

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/102 ) (1 + s/105 )

Combining different terms: example

10 s

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/102 ) (1 + s/105 )

H1 (s) = 10 ,

H2 (s) = s ,

1

H3 (s) = , p1 = 102 rad/s,

1 + s/p1

1

H4 (s) = , p2 = 105 rad/s.

1 + s/p2

Combining different terms: example

10 s

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/102 ) (1 + s/105 )

H1 (s) = 10 ,

H2 (s) = s ,

1

H3 (s) = , p1 = 102 rad/s,

1 + s/p1

1

H4 (s) = , p2 = 105 rad/s.

1 + s/p2

We can now plot the magnitude and phase of H1 , H2 , H3 , H4 individually versus ω

and then simply add them to obtain |H| and ∠H.

Magnitude plot (|H| in dB)

80

H1 (s) = 10

60

40

20

0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s)

Magnitude plot (|H| in dB)

80 80

H1 (s) = 10 H2 (s) = s

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

Magnitude plot (|H| in dB)

80 80

H1 (s) = 10 H2 (s) = s

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

20

−20

−40 1

H3 (s) =

1 + s/102

−60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s)

Magnitude plot (|H| in dB)

80 80

H1 (s) = 10 H2 (s) = s

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

20 20

0 0

−20 −20

−40 1 −40 1

H3 (s) = H4 (s) =

1 + s/102 1 + s/105

−60 −60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

Magnitude plot (|H| in dB)

80 80 80

H1 (s) = 10 H2 (s) = s

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20 10 s

H(s) =

(1 + s/102 ) (1 + s/105 )

0 0 0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

20 20

0 0

−20 −20

−40 1 −40 1

H3 (s) = H4 (s) =

1 + s/102 1 + s/105

−60 −60

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

Magnitude plot (|H| in dB)

80 80 80

H1 (s) = 10 H2 (s) = s

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20 10 s

H(s) =

(1 + s/102 ) (1 + s/105 )

0 0 0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

20 20 80

approx.

0 0 60

exact

−20 −20 40

−40 1 −40 1 20 10 s

H3 (s) = H4 (s) = H(s) =

1 + s/102 1 + s/105 (1 + s/102 ) (1 + s/105 )

−60 −60 0

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

Phase plot

90◦

45◦

0◦

−45◦

H1 (s) = 10

−90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s)

Phase plot

90◦ 90◦

45◦ 45◦

◦

0 0◦

−45◦ −45◦

H1 (s) = 10 H2 (s) = s

◦

−90 −90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

Phase plot

90◦ 90◦

45◦ 45◦

◦

0 0◦

−45◦ −45◦

H1 (s) = 10 H2 (s) = s

◦

−90 −90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

90◦ 1

H3 (s) =

1 + s/102

45◦

0◦

−45◦

−90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s)

Phase plot

90◦ 90◦

45◦ 45◦

◦

0 0◦

−45◦ −45◦

H1 (s) = 10 H2 (s) = s

◦

−90 −90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

90◦ 1 90◦ 1

H3 (s) = H4 (s) =

◦

1 + s/102 1 + s/105

45 45◦

0◦ 0◦

−45◦ −45◦

◦

−90 −90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

Phase plot

H(s) =

(1 + s/102 ) (1 + s/105 )

45◦ 45◦ 45◦

0◦ 0◦ 0◦

H1 (s) = 10 H2 (s) = s

◦ ◦

−90 −90 −90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

90◦ 1 90◦ 1

H3 (s) = H4 (s) =

◦

1 + s/102 1 + s/105

45 45◦

0◦ 0◦

−45◦ −45◦

◦

−90 −90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

Phase plot

H(s) =

(1 + s/102 ) (1 + s/105 )

45◦ 45◦ 45◦

0◦ 0◦ 0◦

H1 (s) = 10 H2 (s) = s

◦ ◦

−90 −90 −90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

H3 (s) = H4 (s) = H(s) =

◦

1 + s/102 ◦

1 + s/105 (1 + s/102 ) (1 + s/105 )

45 45 45◦

0◦ 0◦ 0◦ exact

approx.

◦ ◦

−90 −90 −90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

How good are the approximations?

* As we have seen, the contribution of a pole to the magnitude and phase plots is

well represented by the asymptotes when ω p or ω p (similarly for a zero).

How good are the approximations?

* As we have seen, the contribution of a pole to the magnitude and phase plots is

well represented by the asymptotes when ω p or ω p (similarly for a zero).

* Near ω = p (or ω = z), there is some error.

How good are the approximations?

* As we have seen, the contribution of a pole to the magnitude and phase plots is

well represented by the asymptotes when ω p or ω p (similarly for a zero).

* Near ω = p (or ω = z), there is some error.

* If two poles p1 and p2 are close to each other (say, separated by less than a

decade in ω), the error becomes larger (next slide).

How good are the approximations?

* As we have seen, the contribution of a pole to the magnitude and phase plots is

well represented by the asymptotes when ω p or ω p (similarly for a zero).

* Near ω = p (or ω = z), there is some error.

* If two poles p1 and p2 are close to each other (say, separated by less than a

decade in ω), the error becomes larger (next slide).

* When the poles and zeros are not sufficiently separated, the Bode approximation

should be used only for a rough estimate, follwed by a numerical calculation.

However, even in such cases, it does give a good idea of the asymptotic

magnitude and phase plots, which is valuable in amplifier design.

How good are the approximations?

10 s

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/p1 ) (1 + s/p2 )

approx. p1 = 102

60 p2 = 104

exact

|H| (dB)

40

20

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

How good are the approximations?

10 s

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/p1 ) (1 + s/p2 )

60 p2 = 104 p2 = 103

exact

|H| (dB)

40

20

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

How good are the approximations?

10 s

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/p1 ) (1 + s/p2 )

60 p2 = 104 p2 = 103 p2 = 5 × 102

exact

|H| (dB)

40

20

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

How good are the approximations?

10 s

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/p1 ) (1 + s/p2 )

90◦ p1 = 102

p2 = 104

45◦

0◦

−45◦

−90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s)

How good are the approximations?

10 s

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/p1 ) (1 + s/p2 )

p2 = 104 p2 = 103

45◦

0◦

−45◦

−90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

How good are the approximations?

10 s

Consider H(s) = .

(1 + s/p1 ) (1 + s/p2 )

p2 = 104 p2 = 103 p2 = 5 × 102

45◦

0◦

−45◦

−90◦

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s) Frequency (rad/s)

- PreparationUploaded byVarsha Dange
- Bode-plotUploaded byAthulAR
- ee101_bode_1.pdfUploaded bySumanth Varma
- 742222V01Uploaded byTegar S Dziqrianz
- HVAC_noise722201320446PM1.pdfUploaded byMohammed Jassim
- 05 1uap SlidesUploaded byDr. Ir. R. Didin Kusdian, MT.
- Applications Assignment 2Uploaded byChrystal Brown
- SSUploaded byragasaravana
- Fans CUploaded byEngr.Mmosaad
- Sony.kv28 32ls60b Ae6bUploaded byLuca Longo
- Content.docxUploaded byLaica Toralba
- NRPU01 TechUploaded byJun Lente
- CurriculumUploaded byJanicka Palencia Aga
- Pilot PolutionUploaded byRishi Nandwana
- Microwave Link Design Group 1 ECE 5-1Uploaded byJomil John Reyes
- 2012 Fall DaylistUploaded byশেখ আরিফুল ইসলাম
- This is the First Part in LTE KPI Optimization and More Related Articles Will Be Published SoonUploaded byTim Kabi
- wiper-servo-BTS7960.pdfUploaded byhytrew
- Beam_Scanning_Antenna.pdfUploaded byShraddha Saran
- FWM2200XUploaded byValdir Koxinhapr
- PreparationTIPSforECEstudents.docUploaded bysaurabhdabas
- Schedule 1819Uploaded byJayamani Krishnan
- Ch_technical_description.pdfUploaded byDANE80
- Telkomsel Cell Reselection - SHOUploaded byGirish Yenni
- InitUploaded byTamás Soós
- appendUploaded byredoctober24
- RR4sem12oldUploaded byDiganta Dey
- X2AP HO NotesUploaded byatul.jha2545
- AMB4520R0Uploaded byfahmi1987
- 8 UMTS Radio Parameter-127Uploaded bylikamele

- 2 Limits Fits TolerancesUploaded byShubham Khoker
- Psychrometry_ssrUploaded byHarsh Chandak
- Ee101 ResonanceUploaded bySrihari Uttanur
- Op AmpUploaded byAaryan
- 9789811005770-c2Uploaded bykarimi-15
- ee101_opamp_3.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- steady state analysis1.pdfUploaded byVimalaChristinal
- ee101_rl_1.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- Diode circuits.pdfUploaded bydz
- ee101_opamp_5.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- RLC CircuitUploaded bybalgopalraju
- Quiz 1 Marking SchemeUploaded byShubham Khoker
- ee101_opamp_6.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- Measurement Systems_E. O. Doebelin and D. N. ManikUploaded byefasaravanan
- Electrical EngineeringUploaded bymetamorp
- ee101_dgtl_2.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- ee101_dgtl_4.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- Operational AmplifierUploaded byAnish Puthuraya
- Ee101 Basics 1Uploaded byPooja Meena
- ee101_bjt_1.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- ee101_dac_1Uploaded byPiyush Kabra
- ee101_bjt_2.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- ee101_dgtl_3.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- EE101 Operational AmplifierUploaded byAnish Puthuraya
- ee101_bjt_3.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- ee101_jfet_1.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- ee101_dgtl_1.pdfUploaded byShubham Khoker
- ee101_dgtl_5Uploaded byNarendra Pattanayak
- Ee101 Contents 2Uploaded byRavindra Meena

- DJKRPemaLingpaNgondroBartshamDec2013KSPNotes2Uploaded byShenphen Ozer
- Residential rebate washing machine listUploaded bySanta Fe New Mexican
- DHL-Russia-Fact-Sheet.pdfUploaded bystudy
- Final MO Handbook 200510Uploaded bydreamyiris
- 05 the Golden Lampstand Study 5Uploaded byHigh Mountain Studio
- Chemistry Paper With Answer Paper I Code 9Uploaded byHeena
- yosebly06prfUploaded bySubin Sukumaran
- EIA Checklist for RoadsUploaded byJohn N. Constance
- Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Question BankUploaded byGnana Subramanian Arumugam
- thomas edison team paper absolute final draft 1Uploaded byapi-260271892
- MAMD 2114 - 1Uploaded byLexon Lex
- Operation ResearchUploaded byBhavesh Pipaliya
- 2-port 3-part valveUploaded byMohamed Mosaed
- Toshiba Satellite CL10-B User Manual.pdfUploaded bynarvanx
- GEBT ManualUploaded byHanif
- Azazel's Astrology (Part 1)Uploaded byJo
- 1991 Petroleum Geology of the Anadarko Basin Region, Province (115), Kansas, Oklahoma, And Texas - Mahlon M. Ball & Mitchell E. HenryUploaded byHafizhan Abidin Setyowiyoto
- The Speaking ProcessUploaded byJames William
- Vittoz_Weak_Inversion_In_Analog_And_Digital_Circuits.pdfUploaded byRavinder Kumar
- CJLFI Prayer MeetingUploaded byJas Pal
- obesity and malnutritionUploaded byapi-346311171
- Hanbo FulcrumUploaded bysentoubudo1647
- AISA Poster Nov 10 kathikudam.pdfUploaded byAISA
- Assignment+2Uploaded byMazahirHussain
- 26 09 11 - Protective RelaysUploaded byMohamed Wahid
- diffusion in solids 3Rd phase transport.pptxUploaded bygere
- Simatic EKB Install 2013-03-08Uploaded byAlexReynag
- AN3095 Application NoteUploaded bySenthil Kumar Athappan
- kouyate savannah bookletUploaded byapi-295389677
- mosfetUploaded byFreddy Cardenas