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# EE101: Op Amp circuits (Part 5)

M. B. Patil
mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in
www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

## Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2

Vi
R1
Vo

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

## Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R2 R1
V− = Vi + Vo (2)
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2

Vi
R1
Vo

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

## Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R2 R1
V− = Vi + Vo (2)
R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓
Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2
Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2

Vi
R1
Vo

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

## Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R2 R1
V− = Vi + Vo (2)
R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓
Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2
The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.
Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2 R2

Vi Vi
R1 R1
Vo Vo

RL RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

## Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R2 R1
V− = Vi + Vo (2)
R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓
Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2
The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.
Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2 R2

Vi Vi
R1 R1
Vo Vo

RL RL

R2 R1
Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vi + Vo (3)
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,
iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R2 R1
V− = Vi + Vo (2)
R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓
Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2
The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.
Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2 R2

Vi Vi
R1 R1
Vo Vo

RL RL

R2 R1
Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vi + Vo (3)
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,
Vi ↑ → V+ ↑ → Vo ↑ → V+ ↑
iR1 = iR2 , and we get,
Eq. 3 Eq. 1 Eq. 3
R2 R1
V− = Vi + Vo (2)
R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓
Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2
The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.
Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2 R2

Vi Vi
R1 R1
Vo Vo

RL RL

R2 R1
Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vi + Vo (3)
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,
Vi ↑ → V+ ↑ → Vo ↑ → V+ ↑
iR1 = iR2 , and we get,
Eq. 3 Eq. 1 Eq. 3
R2 R1
V− = Vi + Vo (2) We now have a positive feedback situation.
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
As a result, Vo rises (or falls) indefinitely,
Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓ limited finally by saturation.
Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2
The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2

R1
Vo
Vi

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

## Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R1
V− = Vo (2)
R1 + R2
Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2

R1
Vo
Vi

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

## Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R1
V− = Vo (2)
R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓
Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1
Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2

R1
Vo
Vi

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

## Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R1
V− = Vo (2)
R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓
Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1
The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.
Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2 R2

R1 R1
Vo Vo
Vi Vi

RL RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

## Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R1
V− = Vo (2)
R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓
Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1
The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.
Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2 R2

R1 R1
Vo Vo
Vi Vi

RL RL

R1
Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vo (3)
R1 + R2
Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,
iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R1
V− = Vo (2)
R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓
Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1
The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.
Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2 R2

R1 R1
Vo Vo
Vi Vi

RL RL

R1
Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vo (3)
R1 + R2
Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,
Vi ↑ → Vo ↓ → V+ ↓ → Vo ↓
iR1 = iR2 , and we get,
Eq. 1 Eq. 3 Eq. 1
R1
V− = Vo (2)
R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓
Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1
The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.
Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2 R2

R1 R1
Vo Vo
Vi Vi

RL RL

R1
Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vo (3)
R1 + R2
Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,
Vi ↑ → Vo ↓ → V+ ↓ → Vo ↓
iR1 = iR2 , and we get,
Eq. 1 Eq. 3 Eq. 1
R1
V− = Vo (2) We now have a positive feedback situation.
R1 + R2
As a result, Vo rises (or falls) indefinitely,
Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ limited finally by saturation.
Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1
The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback

R2 R2

Vi
R1 R1
Vo Vo
Vi

RL RL

Feedback

R2 R2

Vi
R1 R1
Vo Vo
Vi

RL RL

Feedback

R2 R2

Vi
R1 R1
Vo Vo
Vi

RL RL

## * Because of positive feedback, both these circuits are unstable.

* The output at any time is only limited by saturation of the Op Amp,
i.e., Vo = ±Vsat .

Feedback

R2 R2

Vi
R1 R1
Vo Vo
Vi

RL RL

## * Because of positive feedback, both these circuits are unstable.

* The output at any time is only limited by saturation of the Op Amp,
i.e., Vo = ±Vsat .
* Of what use is a circuit that is stuck at Vo = ±Vsat ? It turns out that these
circuits are actually useful! Let us see how.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Inverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2
1k

R1
Vo
Vi

RL
Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Inverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2
1k

R1
Vo
Vi

RL
Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
Inverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2
1k

R1
Vo
Vi

RL
Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
R1
Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .
R1 + R2
(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .
Inverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2
1k

R1
Vo
Vi

RL
Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
R1
Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .
R1 + R2
(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .
This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = +Vsat ).
Inverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2
1k

R1
Vo
Vi

RL
Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
R1
Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .
R1 + R2
(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .
This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = +Vsat ).
R1
Case (ii): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V → V+ = Vo = −1 V .
R1 + R2
(V+ − V− ) = (−1 − 5) = −6 V → Vo = −Vsat (consistent)
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
R1
Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .
R1 + R2
(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .
This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = +Vsat ).
R1
Case (ii): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V → V+ = Vo = −1 V .
R1 + R2
(V+ − V− ) = (−1 − 5) = −6 V → Vo = −Vsat (consistent)
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
R1
Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .
R1 + R2
(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .
This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = +Vsat ).
R1
Case (ii): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V → V+ = Vo = −1 V .
R1 + R2
(V+ − V− ) = (−1 − 5) = −6 V → Vo = −Vsat (consistent)

If we move to the right (increasing Vi ), the same situation applies, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
R1
Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .
R1 + R2
(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .
This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = +Vsat ).
R1
Case (ii): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V → V+ = Vo = −1 V .
R1 + R2
(V+ − V− ) = (−1 − 5) = −6 V → Vo = −Vsat (consistent)

If we move to the right (increasing Vi ), the same situation applies, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R1 1k
V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .
R1 + R2 10 k
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R1 1k
V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .
R1 + R2 10 k
As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R1 1k
V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .
R1 + R2 10 k
As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R1 1k
V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .
R1 + R2 10 k
As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .
When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R1 1k
V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .
R1 + R2 10 k
As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .
When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R1 1k
V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .
R1 + R2 10 k
As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .
When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .
R1
V+ now becomes (+Vsat ) = +1 V .
R1 + R2
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R1 1k
V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .
R1 + R2 10 k
As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .
When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .
R1
V+ now becomes (+Vsat ) = +1 V .
R1 + R2
Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since Vi = V− < V+ = +1 V holds).
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R1 1k
V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .
R1 + R2 10 k
As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .
When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .
R1
V+ now becomes (+Vsat ) = +1 V .
R1 + R2
Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since Vi = V− < V+ = +1 V holds).
Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R1 1k
V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .
R1 + R2 10 k
As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .
When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .
R1
V+ now becomes (+Vsat ) = +1 V .
R1 + R2
Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since Vi = V− < V+ = +1 V holds).

## Now, the threshold at which Vo flips is Vi = +1 V .

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
9k

R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo V+
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V Vo
−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R1 1k
V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .
R1 + R2 10 k
As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .
When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .
R1
V+ now becomes (+Vsat ) = +1 V .
R1 + R2
Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since Vi = V− < V+ = +1 V holds).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Inverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat
9k Vo
R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Inverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat
9k Vo
R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

* The threshold values (or “tripping points”), VTH and VTL , are given by
 
R1
± Vsat .
R1 + R2

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Inverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat
9k Vo
R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

* The threshold values (or “tripping points”), VTH and VTL , are given by
 
R1
± Vsat .
R1 + R2
* The tripping point (whether VTH or VTL ) depends on where we are on the Vo
axis. In that sense, the circuit has a memory.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Inverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat
9k Vo
R2 5
1k

R1 0
Vo
Vi
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

* The threshold values (or “tripping points”), VTH and VTL , are given by
 
R1
± Vsat .
R1 + R2
* The tripping point (whether VTH or VTL ) depends on where we are on the Vo
axis. In that sense, the circuit has a memory.
* ∆VT = VTH − VTL is called the “hysterisis width.”

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2
1k

Vi R1
Vo

RL
Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2
1k

Vi R1
Vo

RL
Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2
1k

Vi R1
Vo

RL
Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V
R2 R1 9k 1k
→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2
1k

Vi R1
Vo

RL
Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V
R2 R1 9k 1k
→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .
This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = −Vsat ).
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V
R2 R1 9k 1k
→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .
This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = −Vsat ).
9k 1k
Case (ii): Vo = ×5+ × 10 = 5.5 V .
10 k 10 k
(V+ − V− ) = (5.5 − 0) = 5.5 V → Vo = +Vsat (consistent)
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V
R2 R1 9k 1k
→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .
This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = −Vsat ).
9k 1k
Case (ii): Vo = ×5+ × 10 = 5.5 V .
10 k 10 k
(V+ − V− ) = (5.5 − 0) = 5.5 V → Vo = +Vsat (consistent)
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V
R2 R1 9k 1k
→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .
This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = −Vsat ).
9k 1k
Case (ii): Vo = ×5+ × 10 = 5.5 V .
10 k 10 k
(V+ − V− ) = (5.5 − 0) = 5.5 V → Vo = +Vsat (consistent)

If we move to the right (increasing Vi ), the same situation applies, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).
Consider Vi = 5 V .
Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V
R2 R1 9k 1k
→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .
This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = −Vsat ).
9k 1k
Case (ii): Vo = ×5+ × 10 = 5.5 V .
10 k 10 k
(V+ − V− ) = (5.5 − 0) = 5.5 V → Vo = +Vsat (consistent)

If we move to the right (increasing Vi ), the same situation applies, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R2 R1 9k 1k
V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R2 R1 9k 1k
V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R2 R1 9k 1k
V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R2 R1 9k 1k
V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .
R1
When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .
R2
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R2 R1 9k 1k
V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .
R1
When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .
R2
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R2 R1 9k 1k
V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .
R1
When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .
R2
9k 1k
V+ now follows the equation, V+ = Vi − Vsat .
10 k 10 k
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R2 R1 9k 1k
V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .
R1
When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .
R2
9k 1k
V+ now follows the equation, V+ = Vi − Vsat .
10 k 10 k
Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since V+ remains negative).
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R2 R1 9k 1k
V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .
R1
When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .
R2
9k 1k
V+ now follows the equation, V+ = Vi − Vsat .
10 k 10 k
Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since V+ remains negative).
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R2 R1 9k 1k
V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .
R1
When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .
R2
9k 1k
V+ now follows the equation, V+ = Vi − Vsat .
10 k 10 k
Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since V+ remains negative).
R1
Now, the threshold at which Vo flips is V+ = 0, i.e., Vi = + Vsat = +1.11 V
R2
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat
Vo
9k
5 V+
R2
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## Consider decreasing values of Vi .

R2 R1 9k 1k
V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k
As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .
R1
When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .
R2
9k 1k
V+ now follows the equation, V+ = Vi − Vsat .
10 k 10 k
Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since V+ remains negative).
R1
Now, the threshold at which Vo flips is V+ = 0, i.e., Vi = + Vsat = +1.11 V
R2
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Noninverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat
9k
Vo
R2 5
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat
9k
Vo
R2 5
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

 
R1
* The threshold values VTH and VTL are given by ± Vsat .
R2

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat
9k
Vo
R2 5
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

 
R1
* The threshold values VTH and VTL are given by ± Vsat .
R2
* As in the inverting Schmitt trigger, this circuit has a memory, i.e., the tripping
point (whether VTH or VTL ) depends on where we are on the Vo axis.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat
9k
Vo
R2 5
1k

Vi R1 0
Vo
−5
RL
Vsat = 10 V −Vsat
−10

−10 −5 0 5 10
Vi (V)

 
R1
* The threshold values VTH and VTL are given by ± Vsat .
R2
* As in the inverting Schmitt trigger, this circuit has a memory, i.e., the tripping
point (whether VTH or VTL ) depends on where we are on the Vo axis.
* ∆VT = VTH − VTL is called the “hysterisis width.”

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Schmitt triggers

Vo
Vsat

R2

R1 Vo
Vi
Vo VTL VTH Vi
Vi

RL

−Vsat Inverting

Vo
Vsat Noninverting

R2

Vi R1
Vi Vo
Vo VTL VTH Vi

RL

−Vsat

Comparators

Vo
+Vsat

V+
Vo (V+ − V− )
V−

−Vsat

Comparators

Vo
+Vsat

V+
Vo (V+ − V− )
V−

−Vsat

## An Op Amp in the open-loop configuration serves as a comparator because of its high

gain (∼ 105 ) in the linear region.

Comparators

Vo
+Vsat

V+
Vo (V+ − V− )
V−

−Vsat

## An Op Amp in the open-loop configuration serves as a comparator because of its high

gain (∼ 105 ) in the linear region.
As seen earlier, the width of the linear region, [Vsat − (−Vsat )]/AV , is small
(∼ 0.1 mV ), and could be treated as 0.

Comparators

Vo
+Vsat

V+
Vo (V+ − V− )
V−

−Vsat

## An Op Amp in the open-loop configuration serves as a comparator because of its high

gain (∼ 105 ) in the linear region.
As seen earlier, the width of the linear region, [Vsat − (−Vsat )]/AV , is small
(∼ 0.1 mV ), and could be treated as 0.
i.e., if V+ > V− , Vo = +Vsat ,
if V+ < V− , Vo = −Vsat .

Comparators

Vi

Vi
Vo
Vsat
Vo

−Vsat

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Comparators

Vi

Vi
Vo
Vsat
Vo

−Vsat

A comparator can be used to convert an analog signal into a digital (high/low) signal
for further processing with digital circuits.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Comparators

Vi

Vi
Vo
Vsat
Vo

−Vsat

A comparator can be used to convert an analog signal into a digital (high/low) signal
for further processing with digital circuits.
In practice, the input (analog) signal can have noise or electromagnetic pick-up
superimposed on it. As a result, erroneous operation of the circuit may result
→ next slide.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Comparators

Vi
Vo

original
input
signal Vi

Vsat

Vo

−Vsat
Comparators

Vi
Vo

original corrupted
input input
signal Vi signal

t t

Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat
Comparators

Vi
Vo

original corrupted
input input expand
signal Vi signal

t t

Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat
Comparators

Vi
Vo

## original corrupted expanded

input input expand view
signal Vi signal

t t t

Vsat

Vo

t t t

−Vsat
Comparators

Vi
Vo

## original corrupted expanded

input input expand view
signal Vi signal

t t t

Vsat

Vo

t t t

−Vsat

## The comparator has produced multiple (spurious) transitions or “bounces,” referred to

as “comparator chatter.”
Comparators

Vi
Vo

## original corrupted expanded

input input expand view
signal Vi signal

t t t

Vsat

Vo

t t t

−Vsat

## The comparator has produced multiple (spurious) transitions or “bounces,” referred to

as “comparator chatter.”
A Schmitt trigger can be used to eliminate the chatter
→ next slide.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Comparators

Vi Vo

corrupted
input Vi
signal

Vsat

Vo

−Vsat
Comparators

Vi Vo

corrupted
input Vi
signal
expand

Vsat

Vo

−Vsat
Comparators

Vi Vo

corrupted expanded
input view
Vi
signal
expand
VTH

t t
VTL

Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat
Comparators

Vi Vo

corrupted expanded
input view
Vi
signal
expand
VTH

t t
VTL

Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat

* While going from positive to negative values, Vi needs to cross VTL (and not 0 V ) to cause
a change in Vo .
Comparators

Vi Vo

Vsat

Vi
corrupted expanded
input view
Vi
signal
expand
VTH

Vo
t t
VTL

Vsat

−Vsat
Vo

t t

−Vsat

* While going from positive to negative values, Vi needs to cross VTL (and not 0 V ) to cause
a change in Vo .
Comparators

Vi Vo

Vsat

Vi
corrupted expanded
input view
Vi
signal
expand
VTH

Vo
t t
VTL

Vsat

−Vsat
Vo

t t

−Vsat

* While going from positive to negative values, Vi needs to cross VTL (and not 0 V ) to cause
a change in Vo .
* In the reverse direction (negative to positive), Vi needs to cross VTH .
Comparators

Vi Vo

Vsat

Vi
corrupted expanded
input view
Vi
signal
expand
VTH

Vo
t t
VTL

Vsat

−Vsat
Vo

t t

−Vsat

* While going from positive to negative values, Vi needs to cross VTL (and not 0 V ) to cause
a change in Vo .
* In the reverse direction (negative to positive), Vi needs to cross VTH .
* The circuit gets rid of spurious transitions, a major advantage over the simple comparator.
Comparators

Vi Vo

Vsat

Vi
corrupted expanded
input view
Vi
signal
expand
VTH

Vo
t t
VTL

Vsat

−Vsat
Vo

t t

−Vsat

* While going from positive to negative values, Vi needs to cross VTL (and not 0 V ) to cause
a change in Vo .
* In the reverse direction (negative to positive), Vi needs to cross VTH .
* The circuit gets rid of spurious transitions, a major advantage over the simple comparator.
* The hysterisis width (VTH − VTL ) should be designed to be larger than the spurious
excursions riding on Vi .
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Waveform generation using Schmitt triggers

Vo Vo
Noninverting Schmitt trigger L+ Inverting Schmitt trigger L+

Vi Vo Vi Vi Vo Vi
VTL VTH VTL VTH

L− L−

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using Schmitt triggers

Vo Vo
Noninverting Schmitt trigger L+ Inverting Schmitt trigger L+

Vi Vo Vi Vi Vo Vi
VTL VTH VTL VTH

L− L−

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using Schmitt triggers

Vo Vo
Noninverting Schmitt trigger L+ Inverting Schmitt trigger L+

Vi Vo Vi Vi Vo Vi
VTL VTH VTL VTH

L− L−

## * A Schmitt trigger has two states, Vo = L+ and Vo = L− .

* With a suitable RC network, it can be made to freely oscillate between
L+ and L− . Such a circuit is called an “astable multivibrator” or
a “free-running multivibrator.”

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using Schmitt triggers

Vo Vo
Noninverting Schmitt trigger L+ Inverting Schmitt trigger L+

Vi Vo Vi Vi Vo Vi
VTL VTH VTL VTH

L− L−

## * A Schmitt trigger has two states, Vo = L+ and Vo = L− .

* With a suitable RC network, it can be made to freely oscillate between
L+ and L− . Such a circuit is called an “astable multivibrator” or
a “free-running multivibrator.”
* An astable multivibrator produces oscillations without an input signal, the
frequency being controlled by the component values.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using Schmitt triggers

Vo Vo
Noninverting Schmitt trigger L+ Inverting Schmitt trigger L+

Vi Vo Vi Vi Vo Vi
VTL VTH VTL VTH

L− L−

## * A Schmitt trigger has two states, Vo = L+ and Vo = L− .

* With a suitable RC network, it can be made to freely oscillate between
L+ and L− . Such a circuit is called an “astable multivibrator” or
a “free-running multivibrator.”
* An astable multivibrator produces oscillations without an input signal, the
frequency being controlled by the component values.
* The maximum operating frequency of these oscillators is typically ∼ 10 kHz,
due to Op Amp speed limitations.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo
Vi Vo L+
4

RL 2

R Vi
Vc 0
C VTL VTH
+
L = +5 V −2
L− = −5 V
−4
R = 2k VTH = +1 V
L−
C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
t (msec)
Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo
Vi Vo L+
4

RL 2

R Vi
Vc 0
C VTL VTH
+
L = +5 V −2
L− = −5 V
−4
R = 2k VTH = +1 V
L−
C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .
Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo
Vi Vo L+
4

RL 2

R Vi
Vc 0
C VTL VTH
+
L = +5 V −2
L− = −5 V
−4
R = 2k VTH = +1 V
L−
C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .
Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo
Vi Vo L+
4

RL 2

R Vi
Vc 0
C VTL VTH
+
L = +5 V −2
L− = −5 V
−4
R = 2k VTH = +1 V
L−
C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .
The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .
Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo
Vi Vo L+
4

RL 2

R Vi
Vc 0
C VTL VTH
+
L = +5 V −2
L− = −5 V
−4
R = 2k VTH = +1 V
L−
C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .
The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .
Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo
Vi Vo L+
4

RL 2

R Vi
Vc 0
C VTL VTH
+
L = +5 V −2
L− = −5 V
−4
R = 2k VTH = +1 V
L−
C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .
The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .
When Vc crosses VTH , the output flips. Now, the capacitor starts discharging toward L− .
Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo
Vi Vo L+
4

RL 2

R Vi
Vc 0
C VTL VTH
+
L = +5 V −2
L− = −5 V
−4
R = 2k VTH = +1 V
L−
C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .
The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .
When Vc crosses VTH , the output flips. Now, the capacitor starts discharging toward L− .
Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo
Vi Vo L+
4

RL 2

R Vi
Vc 0
C VTL VTH
+
L = +5 V −2
L− = −5 V
−4
R = 2k VTH = +1 V
L−
C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .
The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .
When Vc crosses VTH , the output flips. Now, the capacitor starts discharging toward L− .
When Vc crosses VTL , the output flips again → oscillations.
Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo
Vi Vo L+
4

RL 2

R Vi
Vc 0
C VTL VTH
+
L = +5 V −2
L− = −5 V
−4
R = 2k VTH = +1 V
L−
C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .
The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .
When Vc crosses VTH , the output flips. Now, the capacitor starts discharging toward L− .
When Vc crosses VTL , the output flips again → oscillations.
Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo
Vi Vo L+
4

RL 2

R Vi
Vc 0
C VTL VTH
+
L = +5 V −2
L− = −5 V
−4
R = 2k VTH = +1 V
L−
C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .
The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .
When Vc crosses VTH , the output flips. Now, the capacitor starts discharging toward L− .
When Vc crosses VTL , the output flips again → oscillations.
Note that the circuit oscillates on its own, i.e., without any input.
Q: Where is the energy coming from?

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+
T Vo
Vi Vo
VTH Vc
RL
VTL t
R
Vc C

L−

0 t1 t2

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+
T Vo
Vi Vo
VTH Vc
RL
VTL t
R
Vc C

L−

0 t1 t2

## Charging: Let Vc (t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , with τ = RC .

Using Vc (0) = VTL , Vc (∞) = L+ , find A1 and B1 .
At t = t1 , Vc = VTH → VTH = A1 exp(−t1 /τ ) + B1 → find t1 .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+
T Vo
Vi Vo
VTH Vc
RL
VTL t
R
Vc C

L−

0 t1 t2

## Charging: Let Vc (t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , with τ = RC .

Using Vc (0) = VTL , Vc (∞) = L+ , find A1 and B1 .
At t = t1 , Vc = VTH → VTH = A1 exp(−t1 /τ ) + B1 → find t1 .
Discharging: Let Vc (t) = A2 exp(−(t − t1 )/τ ) + B2 .
Using Vc (t1 ) = VTH , Vc (∞) = L− , find A2 and B2 .
At t = t2 , Vc = VTL → VTL = A2 exp(−(t2 − t1 )/τ ) + B2 → find (t2 − t1 ).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+
T Vo
Vi Vo
VTH Vc
RL
VTL t
R
Vc C

L−

0 t1 t2

## Charging: Let Vc (t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , with τ = RC .

Using Vc (0) = VTL , Vc (∞) = L+ , find A1 and B1 .
At t = t1 , Vc = VTH → VTH = A1 exp(−t1 /τ ) + B1 → find t1 .
Discharging: Let Vc (t) = A2 exp(−(t − t1 )/τ ) + B2 .
Using Vc (t1 ) = VTH , Vc (∞) = L− , find A2 and B2 .
At t = t2 , Vc = VTL → VTL = A2 exp(−(t2 − t1 )/τ ) + B2 → find (t2 − t1 ).
+
If L = L, L− = −L, VTH = VT , VTL = −VT , show that
L + VT
 
T = 2 RC ln .
L − VT

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

## Op Amp 741 Op Amp 411

15
Vo Vo
10
Vi Vo
5
Vc Vc
RL 0

R −5
Vc C
−10

−15
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
t (msec) t (msec)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

## Op Amp 741 Op Amp 411

15
Vo Vo
10
Vi Vo
5
Vc Vc
RL 0

R −5
Vc C
−10

−15
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
t (msec) t (msec)

Note that Op Amp 411 (slew rate: 10 V /µs) gives sharper waveforms as compared to
Op Amp 741 (slew rate: 0.5 V /µs).

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

## Op Amp 741 Op Amp 411

15
Vo Vo
10
Vi Vo
5
Vc Vc
RL 0

R −5
Vc C
−10

−15
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
t (msec) t (msec)

Note that Op Amp 411 (slew rate: 10 V /µs) gives sharper waveforms as compared to
Op Amp 741 (slew rate: 0.5 V /µs).
SEQUEL files: schmitt osc 741.sqproj, schmitt osc 411.sqproj
(Ref: J. M. Fiore, “Op Amps and linear ICs”)

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+
C Vo2
T1 T2

VTH Vo1
R Vo2
VTL t
Vo1

L−

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

## Integrator Schmitt trigger

L+
C Vo2
T1 T2

VTH Vo1
R Vo2
VTL t
Vo1

L−

1
Z
For the integrator, Vo1 = − Vo2 dt ,
RC

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

## Integrator Schmitt trigger

L+
C Vo2
T1 T2

VTH Vo1
R Vo2
VTL t
Vo1

L−

1
Z
For the integrator, Vo1 = − Vo2 dt ,
RC
Vo2 = L+ → Vo2 decreases linearly.
Vo2 = L− → Vo2 increases linearly.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

## Integrator Schmitt trigger

L+
C Vo2
T1 T2

VTH Vo1
R Vo2
VTL t
Vo1

L−

1
Z
For the integrator, Vo1 = − Vo2 dt ,
RC
Vo2 = L+ → Vo2 decreases linearly.
Vo2 = L− → Vo2 increases linearly.
VTH − VTL VTH − VTL
T1 = = RC .
L+ /RC L+

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

## Integrator Schmitt trigger

L+
C Vo2
T1 T2

VTH Vo1
R Vo2
VTL t
Vo1

L−

1
Z
For the integrator, Vo1 = − Vo2 dt ,
RC
Vo2 = L+ → Vo2 decreases linearly.
Vo2 = L− → Vo2 increases linearly.
VTH − VTL VTH − VTL
T1 = = RC .
L+ /RC L+
VTH − VTL VTH − VTL
T2 = = RC .
−L− /RC −L−

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Limiting the output voltage

20
C
Vo2
10
R2 Vo3
R
R3
Vo1 R1 0
OA1 Vo3
Vo2
OA2 D1
−10
D2

−20
0 0.1
t (msec)
Integrator Schmitt trigger Limiter

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Limiting the output voltage

20
C
Vo2
10
R2 Vo3
R
R3
Vo1 R1 0
OA1 Vo3
Vo2
OA2 D1
−10
D2

−20
0 0.1
t (msec)
Integrator Schmitt trigger Limiter

## * When Vo2 = +Vsat , D1 is forward-biased (with a voltage drop of Von ), and D2 is

reverse-biased. The Zener breakdown voltage (VZ ) is chosen so that D2 operates
under breakdown condition.
→ Vo3 = Von + VZ .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Limiting the output voltage

20
C
Vo2
10
R2 Vo3
R
R3
Vo1 R1 0
OA1 Vo3
Vo2
OA2 D1
−10
D2

−20
0 0.1
t (msec)
Integrator Schmitt trigger Limiter

## * When Vo2 = +Vsat , D1 is forward-biased (with a voltage drop of Von ), and D2 is

reverse-biased. The Zener breakdown voltage (VZ ) is chosen so that D2 operates
under breakdown condition.
→ Vo3 = Von + VZ .
* When Vo2 = −Vsat , D2 is forward-biased (with a voltage drop of Von ), and D1 is
reverse-biased.
→ Vo3 = −Von − VZ .

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Limiting the output voltage

20
C
Vo2
10
R2 Vo3
R
R3
Vo1 R1 0
OA1 Vo3
Vo2
OA2 D1
−10
D2

−20
0 0.1
t (msec)
Integrator Schmitt trigger Limiter

## * When Vo2 = +Vsat , D1 is forward-biased (with a voltage drop of Von ), and D2 is

reverse-biased. The Zener breakdown voltage (VZ ) is chosen so that D2 operates
under breakdown condition.
→ Vo3 = Von + VZ .
* When Vo2 = −Vsat , D2 is forward-biased (with a voltage drop of Von ), and D1 is
reverse-biased.
→ Vo3 = −Von − VZ .
* R3 serves to limit the output current for OA2.

## M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Limiting the output voltage

20
C
Vo2
10
R2 Vo3
R
R3
Vo1 R1 0
OA1 Vo3
Vo2
OA2 D1
−10
D2

−20
0 0.1
t (msec)
Integrator Schmitt trigger Limiter

## * When Vo2 = +Vsat , D1 is forward-biased (with a voltage drop of Von ), and D2 is

reverse-biased. The Zener breakdown voltage (VZ ) is chosen so that D2 operates
under breakdown condition.
→ Vo3 = Von + VZ .
* When Vo2 = −Vsat , D2 is forward-biased (with a voltage drop of Von ), and D1 is
reverse-biased.
→ Vo3 = −Von − VZ .
* R3 serves to limit the output current for OA2.
SEQUEL file: opamp osc 1.sqproj
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay