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You are on page 1of 121

M. B. Patil

mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in

www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2

Vi

R1

Vo

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R2 R1

V− = Vi + Vo (2)

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2

Vi

R1

Vo

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R2 R1

V− = Vi + Vo (2)

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓

Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2

Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2

Vi

R1

Vo

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R2 R1

V− = Vi + Vo (2)

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓

Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2

The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2 R2

Vi Vi

R1 R1

Vo Vo

RL RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R2 R1

V− = Vi + Vo (2)

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓

Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2

The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2 R2

Vi Vi

R1 R1

Vo Vo

RL RL

R2 R1

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vi + Vo (3)

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R2 R1

V− = Vi + Vo (2)

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓

Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2

The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2 R2

Vi Vi

R1 R1

Vo Vo

RL RL

R2 R1

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vi + Vo (3)

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

Vi ↑ → V+ ↑ → Vo ↑ → V+ ↑

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

Eq. 3 Eq. 1 Eq. 3

R2 R1

V− = Vi + Vo (2)

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2

The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback: inverting amplifier

R2 R2

Vi Vi

R1 R1

Vo Vo

RL RL

R2 R1

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vi + Vo (3)

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

Vi ↑ → V+ ↑ → Vo ↑ → V+ ↑

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

Eq. 3 Eq. 1 Eq. 3

R2 R1

V− = Vi + Vo (2) We now have a positive feedback situation.

R1 + R2 R1 + R2

As a result, Vo rises (or falls) indefinitely,

Vi ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ → V− ↓ limited finally by saturation.

Eq. 2 Eq. 1 Eq. 2

The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R1

V− = Vo (2)

R1 + R2

Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R1

V− = Vo (2)

R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓

Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1

Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R1

V− = Vo (2)

R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓

Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1

The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2 R2

R1 R1

Vo Vo

Vi Vi

RL RL

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1)

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R1

V− = Vo (2)

R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓

Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1

The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2 R2

R1 R1

Vo Vo

Vi Vi

RL RL

R1

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vo (3)

R1 + R2

Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

R1

V− = Vo (2)

R1 + R2

Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓

Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1

The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2 R2

R1 R1

Vo Vo

Vi Vi

RL RL

R1

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vo (3)

R1 + R2

Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

Vi ↑ → Vo ↓ → V+ ↓ → Vo ↓

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

Eq. 1 Eq. 3 Eq. 1

R1

V− = Vo (2)

R1 + R2

Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1

The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback: noninverting amplifier

R2 R2

R1 R1

Vo Vo

Vi Vi

RL RL

R1

Vo = AV (V+ − V− ) (1) V+ = Vo (3)

R1 + R2

Since the Op Amp has a high input resistance,

Vi ↑ → Vo ↓ → V+ ↓ → Vo ↓

iR1 = iR2 , and we get,

Eq. 1 Eq. 3 Eq. 1

R1

V− = Vo (2) We now have a positive feedback situation.

R1 + R2

As a result, Vo rises (or falls) indefinitely,

Vi ↑ → Vo ↑ → V− ↑ → Vo ↓ limited finally by saturation.

Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Eq. 1

The circuit reaches a stable equilibrium.

Feedback

R2 R2

Vi

R1 R1

Vo Vo

Vi

RL RL

Feedback

R2 R2

Vi

R1 R1

Vo Vo

Vi

RL RL

Feedback

R2 R2

Vi

R1 R1

Vo Vo

Vi

RL RL

* The output at any time is only limited by saturation of the Op Amp,

i.e., Vo = ±Vsat .

Feedback

R2 R2

Vi

R1 R1

Vo Vo

Vi

RL RL

* The output at any time is only limited by saturation of the Op Amp,

i.e., Vo = ±Vsat .

* Of what use is a circuit that is stuck at Vo = ±Vsat ? It turns out that these

circuits are actually useful! Let us see how.

Inverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2

1k

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Inverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2

1k

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

Inverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2

1k

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

R1

Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .

R1 + R2

(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .

Inverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2

1k

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

R1

Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .

R1 + R2

(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .

This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = +Vsat ).

Inverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2

1k

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

R1

Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .

R1 + R2

(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .

This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = +Vsat ).

R1

Case (ii): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V → V+ = Vo = −1 V .

R1 + R2

(V+ − V− ) = (−1 − 5) = −6 V → Vo = −Vsat (consistent)

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

R1

Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .

R1 + R2

(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .

This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = +Vsat ).

R1

Case (ii): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V → V+ = Vo = −1 V .

R1 + R2

(V+ − V− ) = (−1 − 5) = −6 V → Vo = −Vsat (consistent)

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

R1

Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .

R1 + R2

(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .

This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = +Vsat ).

R1

Case (ii): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V → V+ = Vo = −1 V .

R1 + R2

(V+ − V− ) = (−1 − 5) = −6 V → Vo = −Vsat (consistent)

If we move to the right (increasing Vi ), the same situation applies, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

R1

Case (i): Vo = +Vsat = +10 V → V+ = Vo = 1 V .

R1 + R2

(V+ − V− ) = (1 − 5) = −4 V → Vo = −Vsat .

This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = +Vsat ).

R1

Case (ii): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V → V+ = Vo = −1 V .

R1 + R2

(V+ − V− ) = (−1 − 5) = −6 V → Vo = −Vsat (consistent)

If we move to the right (increasing Vi ), the same situation applies, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1 1k

V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .

R1 + R2 10 k

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1 1k

V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .

R1 + R2 10 k

As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1 1k

V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .

R1 + R2 10 k

As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1 1k

V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .

R1 + R2 10 k

As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .

When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1 1k

V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .

R1 + R2 10 k

As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .

When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1 1k

V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .

R1 + R2 10 k

As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .

When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .

R1

V+ now becomes (+Vsat ) = +1 V .

R1 + R2

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1 1k

V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .

R1 + R2 10 k

As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .

When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .

R1

V+ now becomes (+Vsat ) = +1 V .

R1 + R2

Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since Vi = V− < V+ = +1 V holds).

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1 1k

V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .

R1 + R2 10 k

As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .

When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .

R1

V+ now becomes (+Vsat ) = +1 V .

R1 + R2

Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since Vi = V− < V+ = +1 V holds).

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1 1k

V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .

R1 + R2 10 k

As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .

When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .

R1

V+ now becomes (+Vsat ) = +1 V .

R1 + R2

Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since Vi = V− < V+ = +1 V holds).

Inverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

9k

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo V+

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V Vo

−10 −Vsat

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1 1k

V+ = Vo = (−Vsat ) = −1 V .

R1 + R2 10 k

As long as Vi = V− > V+ = −1 V , Vo remains at −Vsat .

When Vi < V+ = −1 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .

R1

V+ now becomes (+Vsat ) = +1 V .

R1 + R2

Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since Vi = V− < V+ = +1 V holds).

Inverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat

9k Vo

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Inverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat

9k Vo

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

* The threshold values (or “tripping points”), VTH and VTL , are given by

R1

± Vsat .

R1 + R2

Inverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat

9k Vo

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

* The threshold values (or “tripping points”), VTH and VTL , are given by

R1

± Vsat .

R1 + R2

* The tripping point (whether VTH or VTL ) depends on where we are on the Vo

axis. In that sense, the circuit has a memory.

Inverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat

9k Vo

R2 5

1k

R1 0

Vo

Vi

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

* The threshold values (or “tripping points”), VTH and VTL , are given by

R1

± Vsat .

R1 + R2

* The tripping point (whether VTH or VTL ) depends on where we are on the Vo

axis. In that sense, the circuit has a memory.

* ∆VT = VTH − VTL is called the “hysterisis width.”

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2

1k

Vi R1

Vo

RL

Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2

1k

Vi R1

Vo

RL

Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2

1k

Vi R1

Vo

RL

Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V

R2 R1 9k 1k

→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

9k

R2

1k

Vi R1

Vo

RL

Vsat = 10 V

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V

R2 R1 9k 1k

→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .

This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = −Vsat ).

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V

R2 R1 9k 1k

→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .

This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = −Vsat ).

9k 1k

Case (ii): Vo = ×5+ × 10 = 5.5 V .

10 k 10 k

(V+ − V− ) = (5.5 − 0) = 5.5 V → Vo = +Vsat (consistent)

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V

R2 R1 9k 1k

→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .

This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = −Vsat ).

9k 1k

Case (ii): Vo = ×5+ × 10 = 5.5 V .

10 k 10 k

(V+ − V− ) = (5.5 − 0) = 5.5 V → Vo = +Vsat (consistent)

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V

R2 R1 9k 1k

→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .

This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = −Vsat ).

9k 1k

Case (ii): Vo = ×5+ × 10 = 5.5 V .

10 k 10 k

(V+ − V− ) = (5.5 − 0) = 5.5 V → Vo = +Vsat (consistent)

If we move to the right (increasing Vi ), the same situation applies, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Because of positive feedback, Vo can only be +Vsat (for V+ > V− ) or −Vsat (for V+ < V− ).

Consider Vi = 5 V .

Case (i): Vo = −Vsat = −10 V

R2 R1 9k 1k

→ V+ = Vi + Vo = ×5+ × (−10) = 3.5 V .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

(V+ − V− ) = (3.5 − 0) = 3.5 V → Vo = +Vsat .

This is inconsistent with our assumption (Vo = −Vsat ).

9k 1k

Case (ii): Vo = ×5+ × 10 = 5.5 V .

10 k 10 k

(V+ − V− ) = (5.5 − 0) = 5.5 V → Vo = +Vsat (consistent)

If we move to the right (increasing Vi ), the same situation applies, i.e., Vo = +Vsat .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R2 R1 9k 1k

V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R2 R1 9k 1k

V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R2 R1 9k 1k

V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R2 R1 9k 1k

V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .

R1

When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .

R2

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R2 R1 9k 1k

V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .

R1

When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .

R2

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R2 R1 9k 1k

V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .

R1

When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .

R2

9k 1k

V+ now follows the equation, V+ = Vi − Vsat .

10 k 10 k

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R2 R1 9k 1k

V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .

R1

When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .

R2

9k 1k

V+ now follows the equation, V+ = Vi − Vsat .

10 k 10 k

Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since V+ remains negative).

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R2 R1 9k 1k

V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .

R1

When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .

R2

9k 1k

V+ now follows the equation, V+ = Vi − Vsat .

10 k 10 k

Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since V+ remains negative).

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R2 R1 9k 1k

V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .

R1

When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .

R2

9k 1k

V+ now follows the equation, V+ = Vi − Vsat .

10 k 10 k

Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since V+ remains negative).

R1

Now, the threshold at which Vo flips is V+ = 0, i.e., Vi = + Vsat = +1.11 V

R2

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

10 Vsat

Vo

9k

5 V+

R2

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R2 R1 9k 1k

V+ = Vi + Vo = Vi + Vo .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 10 k 10 k

As long as V+ > 0 V , Vo remains at +Vsat .

R1

When V+ = 0 V , i.e., Vi = − Vsat = −1.11 V , Vo changes sign, i.e., Vo = −Vsat .

R2

9k 1k

V+ now follows the equation, V+ = Vi − Vsat .

10 k 10 k

Decreasing Vi further makes no difference to Vo (since V+ remains negative).

R1

Now, the threshold at which Vo flips is V+ = 0, i.e., Vi = + Vsat = +1.11 V

R2

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat

9k

Vo

R2 5

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat

9k

Vo

R2 5

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1

* The threshold values VTH and VTL are given by ± Vsat .

R2

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat

9k

Vo

R2 5

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1

* The threshold values VTH and VTL are given by ± Vsat .

R2

* As in the inverting Schmitt trigger, this circuit has a memory, i.e., the tripping

point (whether VTH or VTL ) depends on where we are on the Vo axis.

Noninverting Schmitt trigger

VTL VTH

10 Vsat

9k

Vo

R2 5

1k

Vi R1 0

Vo

−5

RL

Vsat = 10 V −Vsat

−10

−10 −5 0 5 10

Vi (V)

R1

* The threshold values VTH and VTL are given by ± Vsat .

R2

* As in the inverting Schmitt trigger, this circuit has a memory, i.e., the tripping

point (whether VTH or VTL ) depends on where we are on the Vo axis.

* ∆VT = VTH − VTL is called the “hysterisis width.”

Schmitt triggers

Vo

Vsat

R2

R1 Vo

Vi

Vo VTL VTH Vi

Vi

RL

−Vsat Inverting

Vo

Vsat Noninverting

R2

Vi R1

Vi Vo

Vo VTL VTH Vi

RL

−Vsat

Comparators

Vo

+Vsat

V+

Vo (V+ − V− )

V−

−Vsat

Comparators

Vo

+Vsat

V+

Vo (V+ − V− )

V−

−Vsat

gain (∼ 105 ) in the linear region.

Comparators

Vo

+Vsat

V+

Vo (V+ − V− )

V−

−Vsat

gain (∼ 105 ) in the linear region.

As seen earlier, the width of the linear region, [Vsat − (−Vsat )]/AV , is small

(∼ 0.1 mV ), and could be treated as 0.

Comparators

Vo

+Vsat

V+

Vo (V+ − V− )

V−

−Vsat

gain (∼ 105 ) in the linear region.

As seen earlier, the width of the linear region, [Vsat − (−Vsat )]/AV , is small

(∼ 0.1 mV ), and could be treated as 0.

i.e., if V+ > V− , Vo = +Vsat ,

if V+ < V− , Vo = −Vsat .

Comparators

Vi

Vi

Vo

Vsat

Vo

−Vsat

Comparators

Vi

Vi

Vo

Vsat

Vo

−Vsat

A comparator can be used to convert an analog signal into a digital (high/low) signal

for further processing with digital circuits.

Comparators

Vi

Vi

Vo

Vsat

Vo

−Vsat

A comparator can be used to convert an analog signal into a digital (high/low) signal

for further processing with digital circuits.

In practice, the input (analog) signal can have noise or electromagnetic pick-up

superimposed on it. As a result, erroneous operation of the circuit may result

→ next slide.

Comparators

Vi

Vo

original

input

signal Vi

Vsat

Vo

−Vsat

Comparators

Vi

Vo

original corrupted

input input

signal Vi signal

t t

Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat

Comparators

Vi

Vo

original corrupted

input input expand

signal Vi signal

t t

Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat

Comparators

Vi

Vo

input input expand view

signal Vi signal

t t t

Vsat

Vo

t t t

−Vsat

Comparators

Vi

Vo

input input expand view

signal Vi signal

t t t

Vsat

Vo

t t t

−Vsat

as “comparator chatter.”

Comparators

Vi

Vo

input input expand view

signal Vi signal

t t t

Vsat

Vo

t t t

−Vsat

as “comparator chatter.”

A Schmitt trigger can be used to eliminate the chatter

→ next slide.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Comparators

Vi Vo

corrupted

input Vi

signal

Vsat

Vo

−Vsat

Comparators

Vi Vo

corrupted

input Vi

signal

expand

Vsat

Vo

−Vsat

Comparators

Vi Vo

corrupted expanded

input view

Vi

signal

expand

VTH

t t

VTL

Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat

Comparators

Vi Vo

corrupted expanded

input view

Vi

signal

expand

VTH

t t

VTL

Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat

* While going from positive to negative values, Vi needs to cross VTL (and not 0 V ) to cause

a change in Vo .

Comparators

Vi Vo

Vsat

Vi

corrupted expanded

input view

Vi

signal

expand

VTH

Vo

t t

VTL

Vsat

−Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat

* While going from positive to negative values, Vi needs to cross VTL (and not 0 V ) to cause

a change in Vo .

Comparators

Vi Vo

Vsat

Vi

corrupted expanded

input view

Vi

signal

expand

VTH

Vo

t t

VTL

Vsat

−Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat

* While going from positive to negative values, Vi needs to cross VTL (and not 0 V ) to cause

a change in Vo .

* In the reverse direction (negative to positive), Vi needs to cross VTH .

Comparators

Vi Vo

Vsat

Vi

corrupted expanded

input view

Vi

signal

expand

VTH

Vo

t t

VTL

Vsat

−Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat

* While going from positive to negative values, Vi needs to cross VTL (and not 0 V ) to cause

a change in Vo .

* In the reverse direction (negative to positive), Vi needs to cross VTH .

* The circuit gets rid of spurious transitions, a major advantage over the simple comparator.

Comparators

Vi Vo

Vsat

Vi

corrupted expanded

input view

Vi

signal

expand

VTH

Vo

t t

VTL

Vsat

−Vsat

Vo

t t

−Vsat

* While going from positive to negative values, Vi needs to cross VTL (and not 0 V ) to cause

a change in Vo .

* In the reverse direction (negative to positive), Vi needs to cross VTH .

* The circuit gets rid of spurious transitions, a major advantage over the simple comparator.

* The hysterisis width (VTH − VTL ) should be designed to be larger than the spurious

excursions riding on Vi .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Waveform generation using Schmitt triggers

Vo Vo

Noninverting Schmitt trigger L+ Inverting Schmitt trigger L+

Vi Vo Vi Vi Vo Vi

VTL VTH VTL VTH

L− L−

Waveform generation using Schmitt triggers

Vo Vo

Noninverting Schmitt trigger L+ Inverting Schmitt trigger L+

Vi Vo Vi Vi Vo Vi

VTL VTH VTL VTH

L− L−

Waveform generation using Schmitt triggers

Vo Vo

Noninverting Schmitt trigger L+ Inverting Schmitt trigger L+

Vi Vo Vi Vi Vo Vi

VTL VTH VTL VTH

L− L−

* With a suitable RC network, it can be made to freely oscillate between

L+ and L− . Such a circuit is called an “astable multivibrator” or

a “free-running multivibrator.”

Waveform generation using Schmitt triggers

Vo Vo

Noninverting Schmitt trigger L+ Inverting Schmitt trigger L+

Vi Vo Vi Vi Vo Vi

VTL VTH VTL VTH

L− L−

* With a suitable RC network, it can be made to freely oscillate between

L+ and L− . Such a circuit is called an “astable multivibrator” or

a “free-running multivibrator.”

* An astable multivibrator produces oscillations without an input signal, the

frequency being controlled by the component values.

Waveform generation using Schmitt triggers

Vo Vo

Noninverting Schmitt trigger L+ Inverting Schmitt trigger L+

Vi Vo Vi Vi Vo Vi

VTL VTH VTL VTH

L− L−

* With a suitable RC network, it can be made to freely oscillate between

L+ and L− . Such a circuit is called an “astable multivibrator” or

a “free-running multivibrator.”

* An astable multivibrator produces oscillations without an input signal, the

frequency being controlled by the component values.

* The maximum operating frequency of these oscillators is typically ∼ 10 kHz,

due to Op Amp speed limitations.

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo

Vi Vo L+

4

RL 2

R Vi

Vc 0

C VTL VTH

+

L = +5 V −2

L− = −5 V

−4

R = 2k VTH = +1 V

L−

C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (msec)

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo

Vi Vo L+

4

RL 2

R Vi

Vc 0

C VTL VTH

+

L = +5 V −2

L− = −5 V

−4

R = 2k VTH = +1 V

L−

C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo

Vi Vo L+

4

RL 2

R Vi

Vc 0

C VTL VTH

+

L = +5 V −2

L− = −5 V

−4

R = 2k VTH = +1 V

L−

C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo

Vi Vo L+

4

RL 2

R Vi

Vc 0

C VTL VTH

+

L = +5 V −2

L− = −5 V

−4

R = 2k VTH = +1 V

L−

C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .

The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo

Vi Vo L+

4

RL 2

Vc 0

C VTL VTH

+

L = +5 V −2

L− = −5 V

−4

R = 2k VTH = +1 V

L−

C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .

The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo

Vi Vo L+

4

RL 2

Vc 0

C VTL VTH

+

L = +5 V −2

L− = −5 V

−4

R = 2k VTH = +1 V

L−

C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .

The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .

When Vc crosses VTH , the output flips. Now, the capacitor starts discharging toward L− .

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo

Vi Vo L+

4

RL 2

Vc 0

C VTL VTH

+

L = +5 V −2

L− = −5 V

−4

R = 2k VTH = +1 V

L−

C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .

The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .

When Vc crosses VTH , the output flips. Now, the capacitor starts discharging toward L− .

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo

Vi Vo L+

4

RL 2

Vc 0

C VTL VTH

+

L = +5 V −2

L− = −5 V

−4

R = 2k VTH = +1 V

L−

C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .

The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .

When Vc crosses VTH , the output flips. Now, the capacitor starts discharging toward L− .

When Vc crosses VTL , the output flips again → oscillations.

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo

Vi Vo L+

4

RL 2

Vc 0

C VTL VTH

+

L = +5 V −2

L− = −5 V

−4

R = 2k VTH = +1 V

L−

C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .

The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .

When Vc crosses VTH , the output flips. Now, the capacitor starts discharging toward L− .

When Vc crosses VTL , the output flips again → oscillations.

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

6 Vo

Vi Vo L+

4

RL 2

Vc 0

C VTL VTH

+

L = +5 V −2

L− = −5 V

−4

R = 2k VTH = +1 V

L−

C = 1 µF VTL = −1 V −6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

t (msec)

At t = 0, let Vo = L+ , and Vc = 0 V .

The capacitor starts charging toward L+ .

When Vc crosses VTH , the output flips. Now, the capacitor starts discharging toward L− .

When Vc crosses VTL , the output flips again → oscillations.

Note that the circuit oscillates on its own, i.e., without any input.

Q: Where is the energy coming from?

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+

T Vo

Vi Vo

VTH Vc

RL

VTL t

R

Vc C

L−

0 t1 t2

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+

T Vo

Vi Vo

VTH Vc

RL

VTL t

R

Vc C

L−

0 t1 t2

Using Vc (0) = VTL , Vc (∞) = L+ , find A1 and B1 .

At t = t1 , Vc = VTH → VTH = A1 exp(−t1 /τ ) + B1 → find t1 .

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+

T Vo

Vi Vo

VTH Vc

RL

VTL t

R

Vc C

L−

0 t1 t2

Using Vc (0) = VTL , Vc (∞) = L+ , find A1 and B1 .

At t = t1 , Vc = VTH → VTH = A1 exp(−t1 /τ ) + B1 → find t1 .

Discharging: Let Vc (t) = A2 exp(−(t − t1 )/τ ) + B2 .

Using Vc (t1 ) = VTH , Vc (∞) = L− , find A2 and B2 .

At t = t2 , Vc = VTL → VTL = A2 exp(−(t2 − t1 )/τ ) + B2 → find (t2 − t1 ).

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+

T Vo

Vi Vo

VTH Vc

RL

VTL t

R

Vc C

L−

0 t1 t2

Using Vc (0) = VTL , Vc (∞) = L+ , find A1 and B1 .

At t = t1 , Vc = VTH → VTH = A1 exp(−t1 /τ ) + B1 → find t1 .

Discharging: Let Vc (t) = A2 exp(−(t − t1 )/τ ) + B2 .

Using Vc (t1 ) = VTH , Vc (∞) = L− , find A2 and B2 .

At t = t2 , Vc = VTL → VTL = A2 exp(−(t2 − t1 )/τ ) + B2 → find (t2 − t1 ).

+

If L = L, L− = −L, VTH = VT , VTL = −VT , show that

L + VT

T = 2 RC ln .

L − VT

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

15

Vo Vo

10

Vi Vo

5

Vc Vc

RL 0

R −5

Vc C

−10

−15

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

t (msec) t (msec)

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

15

Vo Vo

10

Vi Vo

5

Vc Vc

RL 0

R −5

Vc C

−10

−15

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

t (msec) t (msec)

Note that Op Amp 411 (slew rate: 10 V /µs) gives sharper waveforms as compared to

Op Amp 741 (slew rate: 0.5 V /µs).

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

15

Vo Vo

10

Vi Vo

5

Vc Vc

RL 0

R −5

Vc C

−10

−15

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

t (msec) t (msec)

Note that Op Amp 411 (slew rate: 10 V /µs) gives sharper waveforms as compared to

Op Amp 741 (slew rate: 0.5 V /µs).

SEQUEL files: schmitt osc 741.sqproj, schmitt osc 411.sqproj

(Ref: J. M. Fiore, “Op Amps and linear ICs”)

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+

C Vo2

T1 T2

VTH Vo1

R Vo2

VTL t

Vo1

L−

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+

C Vo2

T1 T2

VTH Vo1

R Vo2

VTL t

Vo1

L−

1

Z

For the integrator, Vo1 = − Vo2 dt ,

RC

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+

C Vo2

T1 T2

VTH Vo1

R Vo2

VTL t

Vo1

L−

1

Z

For the integrator, Vo1 = − Vo2 dt ,

RC

Vo2 = L+ → Vo2 decreases linearly.

Vo2 = L− → Vo2 increases linearly.

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+

C Vo2

T1 T2

VTH Vo1

R Vo2

VTL t

Vo1

L−

1

Z

For the integrator, Vo1 = − Vo2 dt ,

RC

Vo2 = L+ → Vo2 decreases linearly.

Vo2 = L− → Vo2 increases linearly.

VTH − VTL VTH − VTL

T1 = = RC .

L+ /RC L+

Waveform generation using a Schmitt trigger

L+

C Vo2

T1 T2

VTH Vo1

R Vo2

VTL t

Vo1

L−

1

Z

For the integrator, Vo1 = − Vo2 dt ,

RC

Vo2 = L+ → Vo2 decreases linearly.

Vo2 = L− → Vo2 increases linearly.

VTH − VTL VTH − VTL

T1 = = RC .

L+ /RC L+

VTH − VTL VTH − VTL

T2 = = RC .

−L− /RC −L−

Limiting the output voltage

20

C

Vo2

10

R2 Vo3

R

R3

Vo1 R1 0

OA1 Vo3

Vo2

OA2 D1

−10

D2

−20

0 0.1

t (msec)

Integrator Schmitt trigger Limiter

Limiting the output voltage

20

C

Vo2

10

R2 Vo3

R

R3

Vo1 R1 0

OA1 Vo3

Vo2

OA2 D1

−10

D2

−20

0 0.1

t (msec)

Integrator Schmitt trigger Limiter

reverse-biased. The Zener breakdown voltage (VZ ) is chosen so that D2 operates

under breakdown condition.

→ Vo3 = Von + VZ .

Limiting the output voltage

20

C

Vo2

10

R2 Vo3

R

R3

Vo1 R1 0

OA1 Vo3

Vo2

OA2 D1

−10

D2

−20

0 0.1

t (msec)

Integrator Schmitt trigger Limiter

reverse-biased. The Zener breakdown voltage (VZ ) is chosen so that D2 operates

under breakdown condition.

→ Vo3 = Von + VZ .

* When Vo2 = −Vsat , D2 is forward-biased (with a voltage drop of Von ), and D1 is

reverse-biased.

→ Vo3 = −Von − VZ .

Limiting the output voltage

20

C

Vo2

10

R2 Vo3

R

R3

Vo1 R1 0

OA1 Vo3

Vo2

OA2 D1

−10

D2

−20

0 0.1

t (msec)

Integrator Schmitt trigger Limiter

reverse-biased. The Zener breakdown voltage (VZ ) is chosen so that D2 operates

under breakdown condition.

→ Vo3 = Von + VZ .

* When Vo2 = −Vsat , D2 is forward-biased (with a voltage drop of Von ), and D1 is

reverse-biased.

→ Vo3 = −Von − VZ .

* R3 serves to limit the output current for OA2.

Limiting the output voltage

20

C

Vo2

10

R2 Vo3

R

R3

Vo1 R1 0

OA1 Vo3

Vo2

OA2 D1

−10

D2

−20

0 0.1

t (msec)

Integrator Schmitt trigger Limiter

reverse-biased. The Zener breakdown voltage (VZ ) is chosen so that D2 operates

under breakdown condition.

→ Vo3 = Von + VZ .

* When Vo2 = −Vsat , D2 is forward-biased (with a voltage drop of Von ), and D1 is

reverse-biased.

→ Vo3 = −Von − VZ .

* R3 serves to limit the output current for OA2.

SEQUEL file: opamp osc 1.sqproj

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

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