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You are on page 1of 127

M. B. Patil

mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in

www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Capacitors

i

Q

conductor 1111111111111

0000000000000

0000000000000

1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000

1111111111111

0000000000000

1111111111111

t v C=

ǫA

t

conductor 0000000000000

1111111111111

Q

Unit: Farad (F)

Capacitors

i

Q

conductor 1111111111111

0000000000000

0000000000000

1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000

1111111111111

0000000000000

1111111111111

t v C=

ǫA

t

conductor 0000000000000

1111111111111

Q

Unit: Farad (F)

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and

they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)

Capacitors

i

Q

conductor 1111111111111

0000000000000

0000000000000

1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000

1111111111111

0000000000000

1111111111111

t v C=

ǫA

t

conductor 0000000000000

1111111111111

Q

Unit: Farad (F)

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and

they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)

* To make C larger, we need (a) high , (b) large area, (c) small thickness.

Capacitors

i

Q

conductor 1111111111111

0000000000000

0000000000000

1111111111111 i

1111111111111

0000000000000

1111111111111

t v C=

ǫA

t

conductor 0000000000000

1111111111111

Q

Unit: Farad (F)

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and

they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)

* To make C larger, we need (a) high , (b) large area, (c) small thickness.

* For a constant capacitance,

dQ dv dv

Q(t) = C v (t) , =C , i.e, i(t) = C .

dt dt dt

Capacitors

i

Q

conductor 1111111111111

0000000000000

0000000000000

1111111111111 i

1111111111111

0000000000000

1111111111111

t v C=

ǫA

t

conductor 0000000000000

1111111111111

Q

Unit: Farad (F)

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and

they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)

* To make C larger, we need (a) high , (b) large area, (c) small thickness.

* For a constant capacitance,

dQ dv dv

Q(t) = C v (t) , =C , i.e, i(t) = C .

dt dt dt

* If v = constant, i = 0, i.e., a capacitor behaves like an open circuit in DC

conditions as one would expect from two conducting plates separated by an

insulator.

Example

Plot v, p, and W versus time 20

for the given source current.

Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)

0

i

−20

v

Example

Plot v, p, and W versus time 20

for the given source current.

Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)

0

i

−20

v

dv

i(t) = C

dt

1 Z

v(t) = i(t) dt

C

Example

Plot v, p, and W versus time 20

for the given source current.

Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)

0

i

−20

v

8

v (V)

dv 0

i(t) = C

dt

1 Z −4

v(t) = i(t) dt

C

Example

Plot v, p, and W versus time 20

for the given source current.

Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)

0

i

−20

v

8

v (V)

dv 0

i(t) = C

dt

1 Z −4

v(t) = i(t) dt

C

p(t) = v(t) × i(t)

Example

Plot v, p, and W versus time 20

for the given source current.

Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)

0

i

−20

v

8

v (V)

dv 0

i(t) = C

dt

1 Z −4

v(t) = i(t) dt

C 0.2

p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1

−0.1

−0.2

Example

Plot v, p, and W versus time 20

for the given source current.

Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)

0

i

−20

v

8

v (V)

dv 0

i(t) = C

dt

1 Z −4

v(t) = i(t) dt

C 0.2

p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1

Z

W(t) = p(t) dt 0

−0.1

−0.2

Example

Plot v, p, and W versus time 20

for the given source current.

Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)

0

i

−20

v

8

v (V)

dv 0

i(t) = C

dt

1 Z −4

v(t) = i(t) dt

C 0.2

p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1

Z

W(t) = p(t) dt 0

−0.1

−0.2

0.2

energy (J)

0.1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

time (sec)

Example

Plot v, p, and W versus time 20

for the given source current.

Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)

0

i

−20

v

8

v (V)

dv 0

i(t) = C

dt

1 Z −4

v(t) = i(t) dt

C 0.2

p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1

Z

W(t) = p(t) dt 0

−0.1

Z

W(t) = p(t) dt −0.2

Z dv 0.2

= C v dt

Z

dt

energy (J)

= C v dv 0.1

1

= C v2

2 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

time (sec)

Home work

i i (mA)

20

0 1 2 time (sec)

Home work

i i (mA)

20

0 1 2 time (sec)

* For the given source current, plot v (t), p(t), and W (t), assuming v (0) = 0 V ,

C = 5 mF .

Home work

i i (mA)

20

0 1 2 time (sec)

* For the given source current, plot v (t), p(t), and W (t), assuming v (0) = 0 V ,

C = 5 mF .

* Verify your results with circuit simulation.

Inductors

v

i L

Units: Henry (H)

Inductors

v

i L

Units: Henry (H)

Inductors

v

i L

Units: Henry (H)

dφ d d µN i

* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .

dt dt dt l

di

Compare with v = L .

dt

A A

⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .

l l

Inductors

v

i L

Units: Henry (H)

dφ d d µN i

* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .

dt dt dt l

di

Compare with v = L .

dt

A A

⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .

l l

* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.

Inductors

v

i L

Units: Henry (H)

dφ d d µN i

* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .

dt dt dt l

di

Compare with v = L .

dt

A A

⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .

l l

* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.

* For 99.8 % pure iron, µr ' 5, 000 .

For “supermalloy” (Ni: 79 %, Mo: 5 %, Fe): µr ' 106 .

Inductors

v

i L

Units: Henry (H)

dφ d d µN i

* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .

dt dt dt l

di

Compare with v = L .

dt

A A

⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .

l l

* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.

* For 99.8 % pure iron, µr ' 5, 000 .

For “supermalloy” (Ni: 79 %, Mo: 5 %, Fe): µr ' 106 .

* If i = constant, v = 0, i.e., an inductor behaves like a short circuit in DC

conditions as one would expect from a highly conducting coil.

Inductors

v

i L

Units: Henry (H)

dφ d d µN i

* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .

dt dt dt l

di

Compare with v = L .

dt

A A

⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .

l l

* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.

* For 99.8 % pure iron, µr ' 5, 000 .

For “supermalloy” (Ni: 79 %, Mo: 5 %, Fe): µr ' 106 .

* If i = constant, v = 0, i.e., an inductor behaves like a short circuit in DC

conditions as one would expect from a highly conducting coil.

* Note: B = µ H is an approximation. In practice, B may be a nonlinear function

of H, depending on the core material.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources

A

Circuit

(resistors, i

voltage sources,

v

current sources, C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B

RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

dv

* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.

dt

RC circuits with DC sources

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

dv

* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.

dt

* Homogeneous solution:

dv 1

+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”

dt τ

→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

RC circuits with DC sources

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

dv

* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.

dt

* Homogeneous solution:

dv 1

+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”

dt τ

→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We

know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making i = 0, and we get

v (p) = VTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).

RC circuits with DC sources

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

dv

* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.

dt

* Homogeneous solution:

dv 1

+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”

dt τ

→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We

know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making i = 0, and we get

v (p) = VTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).

* v = v (h) + v (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh .

RC circuits with DC sources

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

dv

* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.

dt

* Homogeneous solution:

dv 1

+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”

dt τ

→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We

know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making i = 0, and we get

v (p) = VTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).

* v = v (h) + v (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh .

* In general, v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , where A and B can be obtained from

known conditions on v .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .

RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .

1

dv

* i(t) = C = C × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .

dt τ

RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .

1

dv

* i(t) = C = C × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .

dt τ

* As t → ∞, i → 0, i.e., the capacitor behaves like an open circuit since all

derivatives vanish.

RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v

C

≡ VTh v

C

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .

1

dv

* i(t) = C = C × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .

dt τ

* As t → ∞, i → 0, i.e., the capacitor behaves like an open circuit since all

derivatives vanish.

* Since the circuit in the black box is linear, any variable (current or voltage) in

the circuit can be expressed as

x(t) = K1 exp(−t/τ ) + K2 ,

where K1 and K2 can be obtained from suitable conditions on x(t).

RL circuits with DC sources

A

Circuit

(resistors, i

voltage sources,

v

current sources,

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B

RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

di

* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .

dt

RL circuits with DC sources

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

di

* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .

dt

* Homogeneous solution:

di 1

+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh

dt τ

→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

RL circuits with DC sources

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

di

* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .

dt

* Homogeneous solution:

di 1

+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh

dt τ

→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We

know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making v = 0, and we get

i (p) = VTh /RTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).

RL circuits with DC sources

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

di

* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .

dt

* Homogeneous solution:

di 1

+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh

dt τ

→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We

know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making v = 0, and we get

i (p) = VTh /RTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).

* i = i (h) + i (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh /RTh .

RL circuits with DC sources

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

di

* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .

dt

* Homogeneous solution:

di 1

+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh

dt τ

→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We

know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making v = 0, and we get

i (p) = VTh /RTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).

* i = i (h) + i (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh /RTh .

* In general, i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , where A and B can be obtained from

known conditions on i.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .

RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .

1

di

* v (t) = L = L × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .

dt τ

RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .

1

di

* v (t) = L = L × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .

dt τ

* As t → ∞, v → 0, i.e., the inductor behaves like a short circuit since all

derivatives vanish.

RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

Circuit

(resistors, i i

voltage sources,

current sources,

v ≡ VTh v

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B B

i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .

1

di

* v (t) = L = L × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .

dt τ

* As t → ∞, v → 0, i.e., the inductor behaves like a short circuit since all

derivatives vanish.

* Since the circuit in the black box is linear, any variable (current or voltage) in

the circuit can be expressed as

x(t) = K1 exp(−t/τ ) + K2 ,

where K1 and K2 can be obtained from suitable conditions on x(t).

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k

Vs

i

5V

Vs Vc

C = 1 µF

Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k

Vs

i

5V

Vs Vc

C = 1 µF

Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k

Vs

i

5V

Vs Vc

C = 1 µF

Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?

* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant

rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k

Vs

i

5V

Vs Vc

C = 1 µF

Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?

* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant

rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?

dVc V

* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.

dt s

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k

Vs

i

5V

Vs Vc

C = 1 µF

Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?

* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant

rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?

dVc V

* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.

dt s

* With i = 1 A, the voltage drop across R would be 1000 V ! Not allowed by KVL.

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k

Vs

i

5V

Vs Vc

C = 1 µF

Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?

* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant

rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?

dVc V

* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.

dt s

* With i = 1 A, the voltage drop across R would be 1000 V ! Not allowed by KVL.

* We conclude that Vc (0+ ) = Vc (0− ) ⇒ A capacitor does not allow abrupt

changes in Vc if there is a finite resistance in the circuit.

RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k

Vs

i

5V

Vs Vc

C = 1 µF

Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?

* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant

rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?

dVc V

* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.

dt s

* With i = 1 A, the voltage drop across R would be 1000 V ! Not allowed by KVL.

* We conclude that Vc (0+ ) = Vc (0− ) ⇒ A capacitor does not allow abrupt

changes in Vc if there is a finite resistance in the circuit.

* Similarly, an inductor does not allow abrupt changes in iL .

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

For example,

Vs

(1) t < t1

(2) t1 < t < t2

(3) t > t2

0 t1 t2

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

For example,

Vs

(1) t < t1

(2) t1 < t < t2

(3) t > t2

0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,

x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,

x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,

x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

For example,

Vs

(1) t < t1

(2) t1 < t < t2

(3) t > t2

0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,

x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,

x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,

x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

For example,

Vs

(1) t < t1

(2) t1 < t < t2

(3) t > t2

0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,

x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,

x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,

x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

(a) If the source voltage/current has not changed for a “long” time

(long compared to τ ), all derivatives are zero.

dVc diL

⇒ iC = C = 0 , and VL = L = 0.

dt dt

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

For example,

Vs

(1) t < t1

(2) t1 < t < t2

(3) t > t2

0 t1 t2

x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,

x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,

x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

(a) If the source voltage/current has not changed for a “long” time

(long compared to τ ), all derivatives are zero.

dVc diL

⇒ iC = C = 0 , and VL = L = 0.

dt dt

(b) When a source voltage (or current) changes, say, at t = t0 ,

Vc (t) or iL (t) cannot change abruptly, i.e.,

Vc (t0+ ) = Vc (t0− ) , and iL (t0+ ) = iL (t0− ) .

Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

For example,

Vs

(1) t < t1

(2) t1 < t < t2

(3) t > t2

0 t1 t2

x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,

x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,

x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

(a) If the source voltage/current has not changed for a “long” time

(long compared to τ ), all derivatives are zero.

dVc diL

⇒ iC = C = 0 , and VL = L = 0.

dt dt

(b) When a source voltage (or current) changes, say, at t = t0 ,

Vc (t) or iL (t) cannot change abruptly, i.e.,

Vc (t0+ ) = Vc (t0− ) , and iL (t0+ ) = iL (t0− ) .

* Compute A1 , B1 , · · · using the conditions on x(t).

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R

Vs

i

V0

Vs v

C

0V t

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R

Vs

i

V0

Vs v

C

0V t

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R

Vs

i

V0

Vs v

C

0V t

Conditions on v(t):

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V

Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )

because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R

Vs

i

V0

Vs v

C

0V t

Conditions on v(t):

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V

Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )

because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,

t → ∞: V0 = B .

i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R

Vs

i

V0

Vs v

C

0V t

Conditions on v(t):

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V

Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )

because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,

t → ∞: V0 = B .

i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R

Vs Vs

i i

V0 V0

Vs v Vs v

C C

0V t 0V t

Conditions on v(t):

Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )

because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,

t → ∞: V0 = B .

i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R

Vs Vs

i i

V0 V0

Vs v Vs v

C C

0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )

because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,

t → ∞: V0 = B .

i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R

Vs Vs

i i

V0 V0

Vs v Vs v

C C

0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

− −

(1) v(0 ) = Vs (0 ) = 0 V (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = V0

−

+

v(0 ) ≃ v(0 ) = 0 V v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = V0

−

+

Note that we need the condition at 0 (and not at 0 ) Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )

because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0. because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,

t → ∞: V0 = B .

i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R

Vs Vs

i i

V0 V0

Vs v Vs v

C C

0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

− −

(1) v(0 ) = Vs (0 ) = 0 V (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = V0

−

+

v(0 ) ≃ v(0 ) = 0 V v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = V0

−

+

Note that we need the condition at 0 (and not at 0 ) Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )

because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0. because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

+

t = 0 : 0 = A+B, t = 0+ : V0 = A + B ,

t → ∞: V0 = B . t → ∞: 0 = B .

i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0 i.e., A = V0 , B = 0

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R

Vs Vs

i i

V0 V0

Vs v Vs v

C C

0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

− −

(1) v(0 ) = Vs (0 ) = 0 V (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = V0

−

+

v(0 ) ≃ v(0 ) = 0 V v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = V0

−

+

Note that we need the condition at 0 (and not at 0 ) Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )

because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0. because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

+

t = 0 : 0 = A+B, t = 0+ : V0 = A + B ,

t → ∞: V0 = B . t → ∞: 0 = B .

i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0 i.e., A = V0 , B = 0

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R

Vs

i

V0

Vs v

C

0V t

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R

Vs

i

V0

Vs v

C

0V t

d

(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]

dt

CV0 V0

= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ )

τ R

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R

Vs

i

V0

Vs v

C

0V t

d

(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]

dt

CV0 V0

= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ )

τ R

t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

V0 V0

A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ )

R R

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R

Vs Vs

i i

V0 V0

Vs v Vs v

C C

0V t 0V t

d

(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]

dt

CV0 V0

= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ )

τ R

t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

V0 V0

A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ )

R R

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R

Vs Vs

i i

V0 V0

Vs v Vs v

C C

0V t 0V t

d d

(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] (A) i(t) = C V0 [exp(−t/τ )]

dt dt

CV0 V0 CV0 V0

= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ ) =− exp(−t/τ ) = − exp(−t/τ )

τ R τ R

t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

V0 V0

A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ )

R R

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R

Vs Vs

i i

V0 V0

Vs v Vs v

C C

0V t 0V t

d d

(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] (A) i(t) = C V0 [exp(−t/τ )]

dt dt

CV0 V0 CV0 V0

= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ ) =− exp(−t/τ ) = − exp(−t/τ )

τ R τ R

(B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 . (B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 . t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

V0 V0 V0 V0

A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) A′ = − , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )

R R R R

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k

Vs

i

5V

Vs v

C = 1 µF

0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]

V0

i(t) = exp(−t/τ )

R

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k

Vs

i

5V

Vs v

C = 1 µF

0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]

V0

i(t) = exp(−t/τ )

R

5

Vs

v

v (Volts)

0

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k

Vs

i

5V

Vs v

C = 1 µF

0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]

V0

i(t) = exp(−t/τ )

R

5

Vs

v

v (Volts)

5

i (mA)

−2 0 2 4 6 8

time (msec)

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k R=1k

Vs Vs

i i

5V 5V

Vs v Vs v

C = 1 µF C = 1 µF

0V t 0V t

V0 V0

i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )

R R

5

Vs

v

v (Volts)

5

i (mA)

−2 0 2 4 6 8

time (msec)

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k R=1k

Vs Vs

i i

5V 5V

Vs v Vs v

C = 1 µF C = 1 µF

0V t 0V t

V0 V0

i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )

R R

5 5

Vs

v Vs

v (Volts)

v (Volts)

v

0 0

5

i (mA)

−2 0 2 4 6 8

time (msec)

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k R=1k

Vs Vs

i i

5V 5V

Vs v Vs v

C = 1 µF C = 1 µF

0V t 0V t

V0 V0

i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )

R R

5 5

Vs

v Vs

v (Volts)

v (Volts)

v

0 0

5 0

i (mA)

i (mA)

0 −5

−2 0 2 4 6 8 −2 0 2 4 6 8

time (msec) time (msec)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x

0.0 1.0 0.0

1.0 0.3679 0.6321

2.0 0.1353 0.8647

3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502

4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817

5.0 6.7379×10−3 0.9933

Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x

0.0 1.0 0.0

1.0 0.3679 0.6321

2.0 0.1353 0.8647

3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502

4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817

5.0 6.7379×10−3 0.9933

Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x

0.0 1.0 0.0

1.0 0.3679 0.6321

2.0 0.1353 0.8647

3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502

4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817

5.0 6.7379×10−3 0.9933

* In RC circuits, x = t/τ ⇒ When t = 5 τ , the charging (or discharging) process

is almost complete.

Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x

1

0.0 1.0 0.0 1 − exp(−x)

1.0 0.3679 0.6321

2.0 0.1353 0.8647

exp(−x)

3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502

4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817 0

x

* In RC circuits, x = t/τ ⇒ When t = 5 τ , the charging (or discharging) process

is almost complete.

RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R

Vs Vs

i i

5V 5V

Vs v Vs v

C = 1 µF C = 1 µF

0V t 0V t

R = 100 Ω

5 5

R = 1 kΩ

v (Volts)

v (Volts)

R = 1 kΩ

0 0

R = 100 Ω

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

time (msec) time (msec)

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).

There are three intervals of constant Vs :

(1) t < t0

(2) t0 < t < t1

(3) t > t1

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).

There are three intervals of constant Vs :

(1) t < t0

(2) t0 < t < t1

(3) t > t1

RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω

R1

τ = L/RTh

R2

= 0.8 H/8 Ω

Vs

= 0.1 s

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).

At t = t−

0 , v = 0 V, Vs = 0 V .

There are three intervals of constant Vs : ⇒ i(t− +

0 ) = 0 A ⇒ i(t0 ) = 0 A .

(1) t < t0

(2) t0 < t < t1

(3) t > t1

RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω

R1

τ = L/RTh

R2

= 0.8 H/8 Ω

Vs

= 0.1 s

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).

At t = t−

0 , v = 0 V, Vs = 0 V .

There are three intervals of constant Vs : ⇒ i(t− +

0 ) = 0 A ⇒ i(t0 ) = 0 A .

(1) t < t0

If Vs did not change at t = t1 ,

(2) t0 < t < t1

we would have

(3) t > t1

Vs

RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:

10 V

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω

R1 t

τ = L/RTh t0 t1

R2

= 0.8 H/8 Ω v(∞) = 0 V, i(∞) = 10 V/10 Ω = 1 A .

Vs

= 0.1 s

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).

At t = t−

0 , v = 0 V, Vs = 0 V .

There are three intervals of constant Vs : ⇒ i(t− +

0 ) = 0 A ⇒ i(t0 ) = 0 A .

(1) t < t0

If Vs did not change at t = t1 ,

(2) t0 < t < t1

we would have

(3) t > t1

Vs

RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:

10 V

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω

R1 t

τ = L/RTh t0 t1

R2

= 0.8 H/8 Ω v(∞) = 0 V, i(∞) = 10 V/10 Ω = 1 A .

Vs

= 0.1 s

Using i(t+

0 ) and i(∞), we can obtain

i(t), t > 0 (See next slide).

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

1

i (Amp)

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

time (sec)

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

1

i (Amp)

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,

and we need to work out the

solution for t > t1 separately.

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

1

Consider t > t1 .

i (Amp)

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,

and we need to work out the

solution for t > t1 separately.

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

1

Consider t > t1 .

−

i(t+

1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e

−1

= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).

i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,

and we need to work out the

solution for t > t1 separately.

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

1

Consider t > t1 .

−

i(t+

1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e

−1

= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).

i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.

Let i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

time (sec)

and we need to work out the

solution for t > t1 separately.

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

1

Consider t > t1 .

−

i(t+

1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e

−1

= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).

i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.

Let i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.

0 It is convenient to rewrite i(t) as

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 i(t) = A′ exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] + B.

time (sec)

and we need to work out the

solution for t > t1 separately.

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

1

Consider t > t1 .

−

i(t+

1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e

−1

= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).

i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.

Let i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.

0 It is convenient to rewrite i(t) as

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 i(t) = A′ exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] + B.

time (sec)

Using i(t+

1 ) and i(∞), we get

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 , i(t) = 0.693 exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] A.

and we need to work out the

solution for t > t1 separately.

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

1

i (Amp)

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

time (sec)

RL circuit: example

R1

Vs R1 = 10 Ω

i R2 = 40 Ω

10 V

Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H

t0 = 0

t t1 = 0.1 s

t0 t1

i(t) = 0.693 exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] A. Combining the solutions for t0 < t < t1 and t > t1 ,

we get

1

1

i (Amp)

i (Amp)

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0

time (sec)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

time (sec)

(SEQUEL file: ee101_rl1.sqproj)

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k

t=0

i ic

5k 1k

R2 vc

R1

5 µF

6V

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k

t=0

i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k

R2 vc vc AND vc

R1

5 µF 5 µF 5 µF

6V 6V

t<0 t>0

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k

t=0

i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k

R2 vc vc AND vc

R1

5 µF 5 µF 5 µF

6V 6V

t<0 t>0

t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k

t=0

i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k

R2 vc vc AND vc

R1

5 µF 5 µF 5 µF

6V 6V

t<0 t>0

t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.

vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k

t=0

i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k

R2 vc vc AND vc

R1

5 µF 5 µF 5 µF

6V 6V

t<0 t>0

t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.

vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.

⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k

t=0

i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k

R2 vc vc AND vc

R1

5 µF 5 µF 5 µF

6V 6V

t<0 t>0

t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.

vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.

⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k

t=0

i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k

R2 vc vc AND vc

R1

5 µF 5 µF 5 µF

6V 6V

t<0 t>0

t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.

vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.

⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA.

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k

t=0

i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k

R2 vc vc AND vc

R1

5 µF 5 µF 5 µF

6V 6V

t<0 t>0

t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.

vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.

⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA.

i (mA)

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k

t=0

i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k

R2 vc vc AND vc

R1

5 µF 5 µF 5 µF

6V 6V

t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.

vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.

⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA.

1 0 5

i (mA) ic (mA)

vc (V)

0 0

−0.5

0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) 0.5

RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k

t=0

i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k

R2 vc vc AND vc

R1

5 µF 5 µF 5 µF

6V 6V

t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.

vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.

⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA. (SEQUEL file: ee101_rc2.sqproj)

1 0 5

i (mA) ic (mA)

vc (V)

0 0

−0.5

0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) M. B. Patil,0.5

IIT Bombay

RC circuits: home work

10 Ω

i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc

200 µF

RC circuits: home work

10 Ω

i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc

200 µF

* Given vc (0) = 0 V , find vc (t) for t > 0. Using this vc (t), find i1 , i2 , ic for t > 0.

Plot vc , i1 , i2 , ic versus t.

RC circuits: home work

10 Ω

i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc

200 µF

* Given vc (0) = 0 V , find vc (t) for t > 0. Using this vc (t), find i1 , i2 , ic for t > 0.

Plot vc , i1 , i2 , ic versus t.

* Find i1 , i2 , ic directly (i.e., without getting vc ) by finding the initial and final

conditions for each of them (i1 (0+ ) and i1 (∞), etc.) and then using them to

compute the coefficients in the general expression,

x(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.

RC circuits: home work

10 Ω

i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc

200 µF

* Given vc (0) = 0 V , find vc (t) for t > 0. Using this vc (t), find i1 , i2 , ic for t > 0.

Plot vc , i1 , i2 , ic versus t.

* Find i1 , i2 , ic directly (i.e., without getting vc ) by finding the initial and final

conditions for each of them (i1 (0+ ) and i1 (∞), etc.) and then using them to

compute the coefficients in the general expression,

x(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.

* Verify your results with SEQUEL (file: ee101 rc3.sqproj).

RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

* Find RTh as seen by the capacitor for t > 0.

RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

* Find RTh as seen by the capacitor for t > 0.

* Solve for vc (t) and i1 (t), t > 0.

RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

* Find RTh as seen by the capacitor for t > 0.

* Solve for vc (t) and i1 (t), t > 0.

* Verify your results with SEQUEL (file: ee101 rc4.sqproj).

RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i

5V L=0.1 H 10 V

RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i

5V L=0.1 H 10 V

RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i

5V L=0.1 H 10 V

* Find RTh as seen by the inductor for t > 0.

RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i

5V L=0.1 H 10 V

* Find RTh as seen by the inductor for t > 0.

* Solve for i(t), t > 0.

RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i

5V L=0.1 H 10 V

* Find RTh as seen by the inductor for t > 0.

* Solve for i(t), t > 0.

* Verify your results with SEQUEL (file: ee101 rl2.sqproj).

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