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EE101: RC and RL Circuits (with DC sources)

M. B. Patil
mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in
www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

Department of Electrical Engineering


Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Capacitors

i
Q
conductor 1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
t v C=
ǫA
t
conductor 0000000000000
1111111111111
Q
Unit: Farad (F)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Capacitors

i
Q
conductor 1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
t v C=
ǫA
t
conductor 0000000000000
1111111111111
Q
Unit: Farad (F)

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and
they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Capacitors

i
Q
conductor 1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
t v C=
ǫA
t
conductor 0000000000000
1111111111111
Q
Unit: Farad (F)

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and
they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)
* To make C larger, we need (a) high , (b) large area, (c) small thickness.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Capacitors

i
Q
conductor 1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
t v C=
ǫA
t
conductor 0000000000000
1111111111111
Q
Unit: Farad (F)

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and
they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)
* To make C larger, we need (a) high , (b) large area, (c) small thickness.
* For a constant capacitance,
dQ dv dv
Q(t) = C v (t) , =C , i.e, i(t) = C .
dt dt dt

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Capacitors

i
Q
conductor 1111111111111
0000000000000
0000000000000
1111111111111 i

insulator 0000000000000
1111111111111
0000000000000
1111111111111
t v C=
ǫA
t
conductor 0000000000000
1111111111111
Q
Unit: Farad (F)

* In practice, capacitors are available in a wide range of shapes and values, and
they differ significantly in the way they are fabricated.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor)
* To make C larger, we need (a) high , (b) large area, (c) small thickness.
* For a constant capacitance,
dQ dv dv
Q(t) = C v (t) , =C , i.e, i(t) = C .
dt dt dt
* If v = constant, i = 0, i.e., a capacitor behaves like an open circuit in DC
conditions as one would expect from two conducting plates separated by an
insulator.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v

dv
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z
v(t) = i(t) dt
C
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C
p(t) = v(t) × i(t)
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C 0.2
p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1

−0.1
−0.2
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C 0.2
p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1
Z
W(t) = p(t) dt 0

−0.1
−0.2
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C 0.2
p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1
Z
W(t) = p(t) dt 0

−0.1
−0.2
0.2
energy (J)

0.1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
time (sec)
Example
Plot v, p, and W versus time 20
for the given source current.
Assume v(0) = 0 V, C = 5 mF.

i (mA)
0
i

−20
v
8

v (V)
dv 0
i(t) = C
dt
1 Z −4
v(t) = i(t) dt
C 0.2
p(t) = v(t) × i(t) power (Watts) 0.1
Z
W(t) = p(t) dt 0

−0.1
Z
W(t) = p(t) dt −0.2
Z dv 0.2
= C v dt
Z
dt
energy (J)

= C v dv 0.1
1
= C v2
2 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
time (sec)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Home work

i i (mA)
20

0 1 2 time (sec)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Home work

i i (mA)
20

0 1 2 time (sec)

* For the given source current, plot v (t), p(t), and W (t), assuming v (0) = 0 V ,
C = 5 mF .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Home work

i i (mA)
20

0 1 2 time (sec)

* For the given source current, plot v (t), p(t), and W (t), assuming v (0) = 0 V ,
C = 5 mF .
* Verify your results with circuit simulation.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Inductors

core Magnetic field lines Symbol


v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Inductors

core Magnetic field lines Symbol


v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

* An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Inductors

core Magnetic field lines Symbol


v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

* An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”


  
dφ d d µN i
* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .
dt dt dt l
di
Compare with v = L .
dt
A A
⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .
l l

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Inductors

core Magnetic field lines Symbol


v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

* An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”


  
dφ d d µN i
* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .
dt dt dt l
di
Compare with v = L .
dt
A A
⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .
l l
* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Inductors

core Magnetic field lines Symbol


v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

* An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”


  
dφ d d µN i
* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .
dt dt dt l
di
Compare with v = L .
dt
A A
⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .
l l
* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.
* For 99.8 % pure iron, µr ' 5, 000 .
For “supermalloy” (Ni: 79 %, Mo: 5 %, Fe): µr ' 106 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Inductors

core Magnetic field lines Symbol


v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

* An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”


  
dφ d d µN i
* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .
dt dt dt l
di
Compare with v = L .
dt
A A
⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .
l l
* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.
* For 99.8 % pure iron, µr ' 5, 000 .
For “supermalloy” (Ni: 79 %, Mo: 5 %, Fe): µr ' 106 .
* If i = constant, v = 0, i.e., an inductor behaves like a short circuit in DC
conditions as one would expect from a highly conducting coil.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Inductors

core Magnetic field lines Symbol


v

i L
Units: Henry (H)

* An inductor is basically a conducting coil wound around a “core.”


  
dφ d d µN i
* V =N =N (B · A) = N A .
dt dt dt l
di
Compare with v = L .
dt
A A
⇒ L = µ N2 = µr µ0 N 2 .
l l
* To make L larger, we need (a) high µr , (b) large area, (c) large number of turns.
* For 99.8 % pure iron, µr ' 5, 000 .
For “supermalloy” (Ni: 79 %, Mo: 5 %, Fe): µr ' 106 .
* If i = constant, v = 0, i.e., an inductor behaves like a short circuit in DC
conditions as one would expect from a highly conducting coil.
* Note: B = µ H is an approximation. In practice, B may be a nonlinear function
of H, depending on the core material.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
RC circuits with DC sources

A
Circuit
(resistors, i
voltage sources,
v
current sources, C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B
RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .


dv
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.
dt

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .


dv
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
dv 1
+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”
dt τ
→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .


dv
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
dv 1
+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”
dt τ
→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making i = 0, and we get
v (p) = VTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .


dv
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
dv 1
+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”
dt τ
→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making i = 0, and we get
v (p) = VTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).
* v = v (h) + v (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .


dv
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + v → VTh = RTh C +v.
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
dv 1
+ v = 0 , where τ = RTh C is the “time constant.”
dt τ
→ v (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making i = 0, and we get
v (p) = VTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).
* v = v (h) + v (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh .
* In general, v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , where A and B can be obtained from
known conditions on v .
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), we have


v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), we have


v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .
1
 
dv
* i(t) = C = C × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), we have


v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .
1
 
dv
* i(t) = C = C × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ
* As t → ∞, i → 0, i.e., the capacitor behaves like an open circuit since all
derivatives vanish.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v
C
≡ VTh v
C
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), we have


v (t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = RC .
1
 
dv
* i(t) = C = C × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ
* As t → ∞, i → 0, i.e., the capacitor behaves like an open circuit since all
derivatives vanish.
* Since the circuit in the black box is linear, any variable (current or voltage) in
the circuit can be expressed as
x(t) = K1 exp(−t/τ ) + K2 ,
where K1 and K2 can be obtained from suitable conditions on x(t).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits with DC sources

A
Circuit
(resistors, i
voltage sources,
v
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B
RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .


di
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .
dt

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .


di
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
di 1
+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh
dt τ
→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .


di
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
di 1
+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh
dt τ
→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making v = 0, and we get
i (p) = VTh /RTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .


di
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
di 1
+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh
dt τ
→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making v = 0, and we get
i (p) = VTh /RTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).
* i = i (h) + i (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh /RTh .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits with DC sources

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), VTh = constant .


di
* KVL: VTh = RTh i + L .
dt
* Homogeneous solution:
di 1
+ i = 0 , where τ = L/RTh
dt τ
→ i (h) = K exp(−t/τ ) .
* Particular solution is a specific function that satisfies the differntial equation. We
know that all time derivatives will vanish as t → ∞ , making v = 0, and we get
i (p) = VTh /RTh as a particular solution (which happens to be simply a constant).
* i = i (h) + i (p) = K exp(−t/τ ) + VTh /RTh .
* In general, i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , where A and B can be obtained from
known conditions on i.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), we have


i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), we have


i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .
1
 
di
* v (t) = L = L × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), we have


i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .
1
 
di
* v (t) = L = L × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ
* As t → ∞, v → 0, i.e., the inductor behaves like a short circuit since all
derivatives vanish.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits with DC sources (continued)

A RTh A
Circuit
(resistors, i i
voltage sources,
current sources,
v ≡ VTh v
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B B

* If all sources are DC (constant), we have


i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B , τ = L/R .
1
 
di
* v (t) = L = L × A exp(−t/τ ) − ≡ A0 exp(−t/τ ) .
dt τ
* As t → ∞, v → 0, i.e., the inductor behaves like a short circuit since all
derivatives vanish.
* Since the circuit in the black box is linear, any variable (current or voltage) in
the circuit can be expressed as
x(t) = K1 exp(−t/τ ) + K2 ,
where K1 and K2 can be obtained from suitable conditions on x(t).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

* Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this


change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

* Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this


change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?
* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant
rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

* Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this


change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?
* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant
rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?
dVc V
* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.
dt s

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

* Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this


change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?
* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant
rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?
dVc V
* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.
dt s
* With i = 1 A, the voltage drop across R would be 1000 V ! Not allowed by KVL.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

* Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this


change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?
* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant
rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?
dVc V
* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.
dt s
* With i = 1 A, the voltage drop across R would be 1000 V ! Not allowed by KVL.
* We conclude that Vc (0+ ) = Vc (0− ) ⇒ A capacitor does not allow abrupt
changes in Vc if there is a finite resistance in the circuit.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: Can Vc change “suddenly?”

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs Vc
C = 1 µF
Vc (0) = 0 V 0V t

* Vs changes from 0 V (at t = 0− ), to 5 V (at t = 0+ ). As a result of this


change, Vc will rise. How fast can Vc change?
* For example, what would happen if Vc changes by 1 V in 1 µs at a constant
rate of 1 V /1 µs = 106 V /s?
dVc V
* i =C = 1 µF × 106 = 1 A.
dt s
* With i = 1 A, the voltage drop across R would be 1000 V ! Not allowed by KVL.
* We conclude that Vc (0+ ) = Vc (0− ) ⇒ A capacitor does not allow abrupt
changes in Vc if there is a finite resistance in the circuit.
* Similarly, an inductor does not allow abrupt changes in iL .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

* Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.


For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

* Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.


For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,
x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,
x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,
x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

* Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.


For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,
x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,
x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,
x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

* Work out suitable conditions on x(t) at specific time points using

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

* Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.


For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,
x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,
x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,
x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

* Work out suitable conditions on x(t) at specific time points using


(a) If the source voltage/current has not changed for a “long” time
(long compared to τ ), all derivatives are zero.
dVc diL
⇒ iC = C = 0 , and VL = L = 0.
dt dt

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

* Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.


For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,
x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,
x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,
x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

* Work out suitable conditions on x(t) at specific time points using


(a) If the source voltage/current has not changed for a “long” time
(long compared to τ ), all derivatives are zero.
dVc diL
⇒ iC = C = 0 , and VL = L = 0.
dt dt
(b) When a source voltage (or current) changes, say, at t = t0 ,
Vc (t) or iL (t) cannot change abruptly, i.e.,
Vc (t0+ ) = Vc (t0− ) , and iL (t0+ ) = iL (t0− ) .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Analysis of RC /RL circuits with a piece-wise constant source

* Identify intervals in which the source voltages/currents are constant.


For example,
Vs
(1) t < t1
(2) t1 < t < t2
(3) t > t2
0 t1 t2

* For any current or voltage x(t), write general expressions such as,
x(t) = A1 exp(−t/τ ) + B1 , t < t1 ,
x(t) = A2 exp(−t/τ ) + B2 , t1 < t < t2 ,
x(t) = A3 exp(−t/τ ) + B3 , t > t2 .

* Work out suitable conditions on x(t) at specific time points using


(a) If the source voltage/current has not changed for a “long” time
(long compared to τ ), all derivatives are zero.
dVc diL
⇒ iC = C = 0 , and VL = L = 0.
dt dt
(b) When a source voltage (or current) changes, say, at t = t0 ,
Vc (t) or iL (t) cannot change abruptly, i.e.,
Vc (t0+ ) = Vc (t0− ) , and iL (t0+ ) = iL (t0− ) .
* Compute A1 , B1 , · · · using the conditions on x(t).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)


RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

(1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = 0 V

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V
Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

(2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0


RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

(1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = 0 V

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V
Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

(2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

(1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = 0 V

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V
Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

(2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

(1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = 0 V

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V
Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

(2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t):

(1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = 0 V

v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = 0 V
Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

(2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t): Conditions on v(t):


− −
(1) v(0 ) = Vs (0 ) = 0 V (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = V0

+
v(0 ) ≃ v(0 ) = 0 V v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = V0

+
Note that we need the condition at 0 (and not at 0 ) Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0. because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

(2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0 (2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = 0 V

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

t = 0+ : 0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t): Conditions on v(t):


− −
(1) v(0 ) = Vs (0 ) = 0 V (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = V0

+
v(0 ) ≃ v(0 ) = 0 V v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = V0

+
Note that we need the condition at 0 (and not at 0 ) Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0. because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

(2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0 (2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = 0 V

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

+
t = 0 : 0 = A+B, t = 0+ : V0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B . t → ∞: 0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0 i.e., A = V0 , B = 0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients
R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A) Let v(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B, t > 0 (A)

Conditions on v(t): Conditions on v(t):


− −
(1) v(0 ) = Vs (0 ) = 0 V (1) v(0− ) = Vs (0− ) = V0

+
v(0 ) ≃ v(0 ) = 0 V v(0+ ) ≃ v(0− ) = V0

+
Note that we need the condition at 0 (and not at 0 ) Note that we need the condition at 0+ (and not at 0− )
because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0. because Eq. (A) applies only for t > 0.

(2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = V0 (2) As t → ∞ , i → 0 → v(∞) = Vs (∞) = 0 V

Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get Imposing (1) and (2) on Eq. (A), we get

+
t = 0 : 0 = A+B, t = 0+ : V0 = A + B ,
t → ∞: V0 = B . t → ∞: 0 = B .
i.e., A = V0 , B = −V0 i.e., A = V0 , B = 0

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] v(t) = V0 exp(−t/τ )

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

Compute i(t), t > 0 .


RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

Compute i(t), t > 0 .


d
(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
dt
CV0 V0
= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ )
τ R
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R
Vs
i
V0
Vs v
C
0V t

Compute i(t), t > 0 .


d
(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
dt
CV0 V0
= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ )
τ R

(B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 .

t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

Using these conditions, we obtain

V0 V0
A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R R
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Compute i(t), t > 0 . Compute i(t), t > 0 .


d
(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
dt
CV0 V0
= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ )
τ R

(B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 .

t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

Using these conditions, we obtain

V0 V0
A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R R
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Compute i(t), t > 0 . Compute i(t), t > 0 .


d d
(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] (A) i(t) = C V0 [exp(−t/τ )]
dt dt
CV0 V0 CV0 V0
= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ ) =− exp(−t/τ ) = − exp(−t/τ )
τ R τ R

(B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 .

t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

Using these conditions, we obtain

V0 V0
A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R R
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R
Vs Vs
i i
V0 V0
Vs v Vs v
C C
0V t 0V t

Compute i(t), t > 0 . Compute i(t), t > 0 .


d d
(A) i(t) = C V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] (A) i(t) = C V0 [exp(−t/τ )]
dt dt
CV0 V0 CV0 V0
= exp(−t/τ ) = exp(−t/τ ) =− exp(−t/τ ) = − exp(−t/τ )
τ R τ R

(B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 . (B) Let i(t) = A′ exp(−t/τ ) + B′ , t > 0 .

t = 0+ : v = 0 , Vs = V0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = V0 /R . t = 0+ : v = V0 , Vs = 0 ⇒ i(0+ ) = −V0 /R .

t → ∞: i(t) = 0 . t → ∞: i(t) = 0 .

Using these conditions, we obtain Using these conditions, we obtain

V0 V0 V0 V0
A′ = , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) A′ = − , B′ = 0 ⇒ i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )
R R R R

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs v
C = 1 µF
0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs v
C = 1 µF
0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R

5
Vs

v
v (Volts)

0
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k
Vs
i
5V
Vs v
C = 1 µF
0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )]
V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ )
R

5
Vs

v
v (Volts)

5
i (mA)

−2 0 2 4 6 8
time (msec)
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k R=1k
Vs Vs
i i
5V 5V
Vs v Vs v
C = 1 µF C = 1 µF
0V t 0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] v(t) = V0 exp(−t/τ )


V0 V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )
R R

5
Vs

v
v (Volts)

5
i (mA)

−2 0 2 4 6 8
time (msec)
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k R=1k
Vs Vs
i i
5V 5V
Vs v Vs v
C = 1 µF C = 1 µF
0V t 0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] v(t) = V0 exp(−t/τ )


V0 V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )
R R

5 5
Vs

v Vs
v (Volts)

v (Volts)
v

0 0

5
i (mA)

−2 0 2 4 6 8
time (msec)
RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R=1k R=1k
Vs Vs
i i
5V 5V
Vs v Vs v
C = 1 µF C = 1 µF
0V t 0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] v(t) = V0 exp(−t/τ )


V0 V0
i(t) = exp(−t/τ ) i(t) = − exp(−t/τ )
R R

5 5
Vs

v Vs
v (Volts)

v (Volts)
v

0 0

5 0
i (mA)

i (mA)

0 −5

−2 0 2 4 6 8 −2 0 2 4 6 8
time (msec) time (msec)
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay
Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x
0.0 1.0 0.0
1.0 0.3679 0.6321
2.0 0.1353 0.8647
3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502
4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817
5.0 6.7379×10−3 0.9933

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x
0.0 1.0 0.0
1.0 0.3679 0.6321
2.0 0.1353 0.8647
3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502
4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817
5.0 6.7379×10−3 0.9933

* For x = 5, e −x ' 0, 1 − e −x ' 1.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x
0.0 1.0 0.0
1.0 0.3679 0.6321
2.0 0.1353 0.8647
3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502
4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817
5.0 6.7379×10−3 0.9933

* For x = 5, e −x ' 0, 1 − e −x ' 1.


* In RC circuits, x = t/τ ⇒ When t = 5 τ , the charging (or discharging) process
is almost complete.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Significance of the time constant (τ )

x e −x 1 − e −x
1
0.0 1.0 0.0 1 − exp(−x)
1.0 0.3679 0.6321
2.0 0.1353 0.8647
exp(−x)
3.0 4.9787×10−2 0.9502
4.0 1.8315×10−2 0.9817 0

5.0 6.7379×10−3 0.9933 0 1 2 3 4 5 6


x

* For x = 5, e −x ' 0, 1 − e −x ' 1.


* In RC circuits, x = t/τ ⇒ When t = 5 τ , the charging (or discharging) process
is almost complete.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: charging and discharging transients

R R
Vs Vs
i i
5V 5V
Vs v Vs v
C = 1 µF C = 1 µF
0V t 0V t

v(t) = V0 [1 − exp(−t/τ )] v(t) = V0 exp(−t/τ )

R = 100 Ω
5 5

R = 1 kΩ
v (Volts)

v (Volts)
R = 1 kΩ

0 0
R = 100 Ω
−1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
time (msec) time (msec)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
There are three intervals of constant Vs :
(1) t < t0
(2) t0 < t < t1
(3) t > t1
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
There are three intervals of constant Vs :
(1) t < t0
(2) t0 < t < t1
(3) t > t1
RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω
R1
τ = L/RTh
R2
= 0.8 H/8 Ω
Vs
= 0.1 s
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
At t = t−
0 , v = 0 V, Vs = 0 V .
There are three intervals of constant Vs : ⇒ i(t− +
0 ) = 0 A ⇒ i(t0 ) = 0 A .
(1) t < t0
(2) t0 < t < t1
(3) t > t1
RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω
R1
τ = L/RTh
R2
= 0.8 H/8 Ω
Vs
= 0.1 s
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
At t = t−
0 , v = 0 V, Vs = 0 V .
There are three intervals of constant Vs : ⇒ i(t− +
0 ) = 0 A ⇒ i(t0 ) = 0 A .
(1) t < t0
If Vs did not change at t = t1 ,
(2) t0 < t < t1
we would have
(3) t > t1
Vs
RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:
10 V

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω
R1 t
τ = L/RTh t0 t1
R2
= 0.8 H/8 Ω v(∞) = 0 V, i(∞) = 10 V/10 Ω = 1 A .
Vs
= 0.1 s
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1
i(0) = 0 A, Find i(t).
At t = t−
0 , v = 0 V, Vs = 0 V .
There are three intervals of constant Vs : ⇒ i(t− +
0 ) = 0 A ⇒ i(t0 ) = 0 A .
(1) t < t0
If Vs did not change at t = t1 ,
(2) t0 < t < t1
we would have
(3) t > t1
Vs
RTh seen by L is the same in all intervals:
10 V

RTh = R1 k R2 = 8 Ω
R1 t
τ = L/RTh t0 t1
R2
= 0.8 H/8 Ω v(∞) = 0 V, i(∞) = 10 V/10 Ω = 1 A .
Vs
= 0.1 s
Using i(t+
0 ) and i(∞), we can obtain
i(t), t > 0 (See next slide).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

1
i (Amp)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

1
i (Amp)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

For t0 < t < t1 , i(t) = 1 − exp(−t/τ ) Amp.


1
Consider t > t1 .
i (Amp)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

For t0 < t < t1 , i(t) = 1 − exp(−t/τ ) Amp.


1
Consider t > t1 .

i(t+
1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e
−1
= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).
i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

For t0 < t < t1 , i(t) = 1 − exp(−t/τ ) Amp.


1
Consider t > t1 .

i(t+
1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e
−1
= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).
i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.
Let i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

For t0 < t < t1 , i(t) = 1 − exp(−t/τ ) Amp.


1
Consider t > t1 .

i(t+
1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e
−1
= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).
i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.
Let i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.
0 It is convenient to rewrite i(t) as
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 i(t) = A′ exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] + B.
time (sec)

In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 ,
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

For t0 < t < t1 , i(t) = 1 − exp(−t/τ ) Amp.


1
Consider t > t1 .

i(t+
1 ) = i(t1 ) = 1 − e
−1
= 0.632 A (Note: t1 /τ = 1).
i (Amp)

i(∞) = 0 A.
Let i(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.
0 It is convenient to rewrite i(t) as
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 i(t) = A′ exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] + B.
time (sec)
Using i(t+
1 ) and i(∞), we get
In reality, Vs changes at t = t1 , i(t) = 0.693 exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] A.
and we need to work out the
solution for t > t1 separately.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

i(t) = 0.693 exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] A.

1
i (Amp)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)
RL circuit: example

R1
Vs R1 = 10 Ω
i R2 = 40 Ω
10 V
Vs v R2 L = 0.8 H
t0 = 0
t t1 = 0.1 s
t0 t1

i(t) = 0.693 exp[−(t − t1 )/τ ] A. Combining the solutions for t0 < t < t1 and t > t1 ,
we get
1

1
i (Amp)

i (Amp)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0
time (sec)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
time (sec)
(SEQUEL file: ee101_rl1.sqproj)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k
t=0
i ic

5k 1k
R2 vc
R1
5 µF
6V
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

Let i(t) = A exp(-t/τ ) + B for t > 0, with τ = 10 k × 5 µF = 50 ms.


RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

Let i(t) = A exp(-t/τ ) + B for t > 0, with τ = 10 k × 5 µF = 50 ms.

Using i(0+ ) and i(∞) = 0 A, we get


i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA.
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

Let i(t) = A exp(-t/τ ) + B for t > 0, with τ = 10 k × 5 µF = 50 ms.

Using i(0+ ) and i(∞) = 0 A, we get


i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA.

i (mA)

0 time (sec) 0.5


RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

Let i(t) = A exp(-t/τ ) + B for t > 0, with τ = 10 k × 5 µF = 50 ms.

Using i(0+ ) and i(∞) = 0 A, we get


i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA.

1 0 5

i (mA) ic (mA)
vc (V)
0 0
−0.5
0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) 0.5
RC circuit: example

R3 = 5 k 5k 5k
t=0
i ic i ic i ic

5k 1k 5k 1k 5k
R2 vc vc AND vc
R1
5 µF 5 µF 5 µF
6V 6V

t<0 t>0
t = 0− : capacitor is an open circuit, ⇒ i(0− ) = 6 V/(5 k + 1 k) = 1 mA.
vc (0− ) = 6 V − 1 mA × R2 = 5 V ⇒ vc (0+ ) = 5 V.
⇒ i(0+ ) = 5 V/(5 k + 5 k) = 0.5 mA.

Let i(t) = A exp(-t/τ ) + B for t > 0, with τ = 10 k × 5 µF = 50 ms.

Using i(0+ ) and i(∞) = 0 A, we get


i(t) = 0.5 exp(-t/τ ) mA. (SEQUEL file: ee101_rc2.sqproj)

1 0 5

i (mA) ic (mA)
vc (V)
0 0
−0.5
0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) 0.5 0 time (sec) M. B. Patil,0.5
IIT Bombay
RC circuits: home work

10 Ω
i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc
200 µF

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: home work

10 Ω
i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc
200 µF

* Given vc (0) = 0 V , find vc (t) for t > 0. Using this vc (t), find i1 , i2 , ic for t > 0.
Plot vc , i1 , i2 , ic versus t.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: home work

10 Ω
i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc
200 µF

* Given vc (0) = 0 V , find vc (t) for t > 0. Using this vc (t), find i1 , i2 , ic for t > 0.
Plot vc , i1 , i2 , ic versus t.
* Find i1 , i2 , ic directly (i.e., without getting vc ) by finding the initial and final
conditions for each of them (i1 (0+ ) and i1 (∞), etc.) and then using them to
compute the coefficients in the general expression,
x(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: home work

10 Ω
i2 i1 ic

10 V 10 Ω vc
200 µF

* Given vc (0) = 0 V , find vc (t) for t > 0. Using this vc (t), find i1 , i2 , ic for t > 0.
Plot vc , i1 , i2 , ic versus t.
* Find i1 , i2 , ic directly (i.e., without getting vc ) by finding the initial and final
conditions for each of them (i1 (0+ ) and i1 (∞), etc.) and then using them to
compute the coefficients in the general expression,
x(t) = A exp(−t/τ ) + B.
* Verify your results with SEQUEL (file: ee101 rc3.sqproj).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

* Find vc (0− ), vc (∞).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

* Find vc (0− ), vc (∞).


* Find RTh as seen by the capacitor for t > 0.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

* Find vc (0− ), vc (∞).


* Find RTh as seen by the capacitor for t > 0.
* Solve for vc (t) and i1 (t), t > 0.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RC circuits: home work

2Ω 3Ω

t=0 i1 ic

24 V 5Ω vx 1 mF vc 0.1 vx

* Find vc (0− ), vc (∞).


* Find RTh as seen by the capacitor for t > 0.
* Solve for vc (t) and i1 (t), t > 0.
* Verify your results with SEQUEL (file: ee101 rc4.sqproj).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i
5V L=0.1 H 10 V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i
5V L=0.1 H 10 V

* Find i(0− ), i(∞).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i
5V L=0.1 H 10 V

* Find i(0− ), i(∞).


* Find RTh as seen by the inductor for t > 0.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i
5V L=0.1 H 10 V

* Find i(0− ), i(∞).


* Find RTh as seen by the inductor for t > 0.
* Solve for i(t), t > 0.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


RL circuits: home work

20 Ω 20 Ω

t=0 i
5V L=0.1 H 10 V

* Find i(0− ), i(∞).


* Find RTh as seen by the inductor for t > 0.
* Solve for i(t), t > 0.
* Verify your results with SEQUEL (file: ee101 rl2.sqproj).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay