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Transport cell

Dr. dr. Andrew Johan, M.Si dr. Lusiana Batubara, M.Si.Med

• membrane is selectively permeable – some things can pass through but others can’t

membrane is selectively permeable some

things can pass through but others can’t

Permeable to:

The lipid bilayer is permeable to water molecules and a few other small, uncharged molecules like:

oxygen (O 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 )

These molecule diffuse freely in and out of the cell

NOT permeable to:

ions such as K + , Na + , Ca 2+ , Cl - , HCO 3

small hydrophylic molecules like glucose

Macromolecules like proteins and RNA

-

The smaller the molecule and the more soluble it is in oil (the more hidrophobic, or

non polar) the more rapidly it will diffuse

across a lipid bilayer

But, Lipid bilayers are highly impermeable to

charged molecules (ION), no matter how small

it is

Lipid bilayers are highly impermeable to charged molecules (ION), no matter how small it is Membrane

Membrane transport protein

Mechanism of transport

Passive transport

Molecules move from a higher to lower concentration

(downhill)

Doesn’t require energy

Active transport

Movement against a concentration gradient (low to high;

uphill)

Requires energy

Requires carrier protein

Bulk transport

Used for materials to large to enter via passive or active transport

Mechanism of transport

Passive transport

Simple diffusion

Facilitative diffusion:

Via Channel protein

Via Carrier protein (transporter)

Active transport

Via Carrier protein (transporter) pump

Bulk transport

Endocytosis

Eksocitosis

Passive Transport

Simple Diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across

a concentration gradient

Used to transport small molecules like CO 2 , O 2 and

H 2 O

across a concentration gradient • Used to transport small molecules like CO 2 , O 2

Simple Diffusion

Renal tubule cells contain

large protein pores, called aquaporins, which permit a high rate of water flow

from a region of a high water concentration to one of low water

concentration.

, which permit a high rate of water flow from a region of a high water

Facilitated diffusion

Facilitated diffusion

Facilitated diffusion

2 kinds of proteins involved:

Carrier proteins move the solute across the

membrane by binding it on one side and transporting it to the other side Transporter

Requires a conformation change

Channel protein small hydrophilic pores that allow for solutes to pass through Use diffusion to move across Also called ion channels when only ions moving

Facilitated diffusion

Facilitated diffusion • Carriers require that the solute fit in the binding site – Carriers are

Carriers require that the solute fit in the binding site Carriers are specific like an enzyme and its

substrate

Channels, if open, will let solutes pass if they have

the right size and charge

CARRIER PROTEIN (transporter)

Bind to a specific type of diffusing molecule and

moving it across.

Each type of transporter has one or more specific binding sites for its solute (substrate)

Binding cause the protein to undergo a change in

shape that moves the solute across the bilayer and release it on the other side

CARRIER PROTEIN (transporter)

Usually only carry one type of molecule

Carriers can also be in other membranes of the

cell such as the mitochondria

The process by which a transporter transfers a

solute molecule across the lipid bilayer resembles

an enzyme-substrate reaction

however, the transporter does not modify the

transported solute but instead delivers it

unchanged to the other side of the membrane.

CARRIER PROTEIN (transporter)

CARRIER PROTEIN (transporter)

CARRIER PROTEIN (transporter)

Factors affecting Rate of Diffusion

1. Concentration Difference

happens ONLY when a concentration gradient is

present and solute travels ALONG (down) a concentration gradient

2. Saturation

There are only a limited number of carrier molecules per unit area of membrane.

The rate of transport is maximal when all

carrier molecules are fully loaded with solute

molecules (saturated)

CHANNEL PROTEIN

Formed by proteins with a central pore that is lined with charged groups form hidrophilic pores across membranes

Help the diffusion of charged particles such as Ca 2+, Na + , K + , HCO 3- and Cl ions.

Because these protein are concerned

specifically with inorganic ion transport, they

are referred to as ION CHANNEL

CHANNEL PROTEIN

Channel protein do not bind the molecules or ions in transit, their specificity is based on the size and charge of the substance.

Ion channels are not continuously open

They are GATES, which allows them to open briefly and then close again

The gate opens in response to a spesific

stimulus

CHANNEL PROTEIN

The main types of stimuli that are known to cause ion channels to open are:

a. The Binding of a ligand (ligand-gated channels)

b. A change in the voltage across the membrane (voltage-gated channels)

c. A mechanical stress (mechanically gated channels)

CHANNEL PROTEIN

CHANNEL PROTEIN

Ligand-gated channels

The binding of

neurotransmitter

acetylcholine to the

nicotinic-

acetylcholine receptor open the channel, allowing flow of Na + into the

cell initiate a nerve impulse or muscle contraction.

receptor open the channel, allowing flow of Na + into the cell  initiate a nerve

Voltage-gated channels

Voltage-gated channels The voltage gated channels have a specific domain (sensor) in the protein that detects

The voltage gated channels have a specific domain (sensor)

in the protein that detects membrane potential changes and transfers the energy to the channel domain to control its gate

Mechanically-gated channels

Mechanically-gated channels • Sound waves bending the cilia-like projections on the hair cells of the inner

Sound waves bending the cilia-like projections on the hair cells of the inner ear open up ion channels leading to the creation of nerve impulses that the brain interprets as sound.

Active Transport

Active transport

Active transport is the pumping of molecules

or ions through a membrane against their

concentration gradient.

It requires:

1. Carrier protein (transporter)

2. Energy

The source of this energy is ATP

Active transport

Active transport

Active transport

The energy of ATP may be used directly or indirectly:

Direct Active Transport Some transporters bind ATP directly and use the energy of its hydrolysis to drive active transport.

Indirect Active Transport

Indirect active transport uses the downhill flow of an ion to pump some other molecule or ion against its

gradient.

The driving ion is usually sodium (Na + ) with its gradient established by the Na + /K + ATPase.

Direct Active transport

Direct Active transport The Na + /K + ATPase • The transporter is responsible for maintaining

The Na + /K + ATPase

The transporter is responsible for maintaining the high K + and low Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm

Movement of K + and Na + is an antiport process, with three Na + ions moving out and two K + ions into the cell for each ATP molecule hydrolyzed.

Indirect Active transport

Symport Pumps In this type of indirect active transport, the driving ion (Na + ) and the pumped molecule pass through the membrane pump in the same direction.

Example: Na + /glucose cotransporter

and the pumped molecule pass through the membrane pump in the same direction. Example: Na +

Indirect Active transport

Antiport Pumps the driving ion (Na + ) diffuses through the pump in one direction providing the energy for the active transport

of some other molecule or ion in the opposite direction.

Example: Ca 2+ ions are pumped out of cells by sodium- driven antiport pumps

Bulk Transport

Used for materials to large to enter via passive or active transport

Vesicles created by folding of cell membrane onto itself to either engulf or expel materials

2 types:

1. endocytosis

2. exocytosis

Endocytosis

the transport of large particles into the cell in

vesicles formed by folding

in of the cell surface membrane

3 types:

1. Pinocytosis (cell drinking) intake of small droplet of

extracellular fluid along

with solute particles.

• 3 types: 1. Pinocytosis (cell drinking) intake of small droplet of extracellular fluid along with

Endocytosis

2. Phagocytosis (cell eating)

intake of large droplet of extracellular fluid including particulate matter (bacteria or organic matter)

occurs only in specialised cells like amoeba or macrophages (bacteria fighting immune cells)

or organic matter) • occurs only in specialised cells like amoeba or macrophages (bacteria fighting immune

Endocytosis

3. Receptor-assisted endocytosis

involves intake of specific molecules that attach to

special protiens in cell membrane that serve as receptors

have a unique shape that fit only to one specific

molecule

ex. animal cells use this to bring cholesterol into cell

Exocytosis

The reverse process and is used to secrete proteins, e.g digestive enzymes, out of the cells.

Vesicle forms inside cell moves to membrane and

empties contents outside of cell

ex. pancreas secretes insulin

• Vesicle forms inside cell moves to membrane and empties contents outside of cell • ex.

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