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MOBILE PHONE

OPERATED LAND ROVER

Abstract:
In the present project the robot is controlled by a mobile phone which makes a call to the mobile phone
attached to the robot. In the course of a call if any button is pressed a tone corresponding to the button
pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is called DTMF tone. The robot perceives this
DTMF tone with the help of a phone stacked in the robot. The processing of the received tone is done by
ATmega 16 microcontroller with the help of DTMF decoder, HT9170. The decoder decodes the DTMF
tone in to its equivalent binary digit and this binary number is sent to the microcontroller. The
microcontroller is preprogrammed to take a decision for any given input. The microcontroller outputs its
decision to motor drivers to drive the motors in order to have forward or backward motion or a turn.
Any mobile which makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in the robot will act as remote. So, this is a
simple robotic project which even does not require the construction of receiver and transmitter kits, but
has an innovated application of cell phone and robust control.

Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice-
frequency band to the call switching center. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is
known by the trademarked term Touch-Tone. DTMF assigns a specific frequency (consisting of two
separate tones) to each key so that it can easily be identified by a microcontroller. The signal generated
by a DTMF encoder is a direct algebraic summation, in real time, of the amplitudes of two sine (cosine)
waves of different frequencies, i.e. pressing '5' will send a tone made by adding 1336 Hz and 770 Hz to
the other end of the line.
DID YOU SAY ROBOTICS??

 Robotics is the Engineering Science and Technology


of Robots and their design, manufacture and
application.

 Robotics is related to electronics, mechanics and


software, and is usually accompanied by a large
working knowledge of many subjects.

 Although the appearance and capabilities of robots


vary vastly, all robots share the features of a
mechanical, movable structure under some form of
autonomous control.

 The origin of the word is the Old Church


Slavonic rabota "servitude" ("work" in contemporary
Russian)
TYPES OF ROBOTS:

 Industrial Robots
 Mobile Robots
 Domestic Robots
 Military Robots
 Agribots
 Nanorobots
 Space Robots
MOBILE ROBOTS:

 Mobile robots have the capability to move around


in their environment and are not fixed to one physical
location.

 In contrast, industrial robots usually consist of a


jointed arm (multi-linked manipulator) and gripper
assembly (or end effectors) that is attached to a fixed
surface.
WHAT IS DTMF:

 DTMF is Dual Tone Multi Frequency

 Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) signaling


is used for telephone signaling over the line in
the voice - frequency band to the call switching
center.

 The version of DTMF used for telephone


tone dialing is known by the trademarked term
Touch-Tone.
WORKING OF DTMF:

 DTMF assigns a specific frequency


(consisting of two separate tones) to each key so
that it can easily be identified by a
microprocessor.

 The signal generated by a DTMF encoder is a


direct algebraic summation, in real time,
of the amplitudes of two sine (cosine) waves
of different frequencies, i.e. pressing '5' will send
a tone made by adding 1336 Hz and 770 Hz to
the other end of the line.

ASSIGNED FREQUENCIES:

Frequencies 1209 1336 1477 1633


Hz Hz Hz Hz
697 Hz 1 2 3 A
770 Hz 4 5 6 B
852 Hz 7 6 9 C
941 Hz * 0 # D
APPLICATIONS OF DTMF
TECHNOLOGY:

 Paging Systems
 Repeater Systems/mobile Radio
 Remote Control
 Personal Computers
 Telephone Answering Machine
 Receiver System for British Telecom (BT)
 CEPT Spec (MT8870D-1)
MOBILE CONTROLLED
WIRELESS LAND ROVER:

 What is it ???
 It is a 4 wheeled vehicle controlled wireless by
the Dual Tone Multiple Frequency Mobile
Technology.

 What it can do???


 Once we have to call the mobile which is placed
on the onboard of the robot. After that both the
mobiles i.e. gets connected & the Land Rover
will move.
ADVANTAGES:

 Every number has its own frequency.

 It can be used with the cam also.

 The BIT Rate or the signaling rate is high in


DTMF Technology

 The Power Consumption is low.

 It can be used in various Autonomous Robots.


DISADVANTAGES:

 The Bandwidth is Low.

 Low Range of the DTMF.

 Accuracy in the sending of Bits is Difficult.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
IC’s INVOLVED:

 NOT Gate IC

 L293D Motor Driving IC

 Decoder IC – MT8870

 Atmega16 Microcontroller
WHAT IS IC:

 An IC or Integrated Circuit is a miniaturized


electronic circuit that has been manufactured in the
surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material.

 Integrated circuits are used in almost all


electronic equipment in use today and have
revolutionized the world of electronics.
NOT GATE IC:

Input Output
1 0
0 1

The output Q is true when the input A is NOT true, the


output is the inverse of the input: Q = NOT A

A NOT gate can only have one input. A NOT gate is also
called an inverter.

MOTOR DRIVING IC:


L293D:
 The L293D is an integrated
circuit motor driver that can be used for simultaneous,
bi-directional control of two small motors.
 If we want to move the motor
forward, we have to give high to the first input
terminal & low to the second.

 If we want it to move backward,


we will give low to the first & high to the second.

 If we give both the outputs either


low or high, the motor will halt.

 Now if we want to move the 2


wheeled vehicle left, we will move the right motor &
halt the left one.

 For the rightward movement, we


will move the left motor & halt the right one.
DECODER IC:
FEATURES:

 Low Power Consumption


 Internal Gain Setting Amplifier
 Adjustable Guard Time
 Power Down Mode
 Inhibit Mode

The MT8870D/MY8870D-1 is a complete DTMF receiver


integrating both the band split filter and digital decoder
functions.

The Filter Section uses the switched capacitor techniques


for high & low group filter; the decoded uses digital
counting techniques to detect and decode all 16 DTMF
tone-pairs into a 4-bit code.
WORKING:

 It has 2 sections:

 Band split filter section, which separates the high


& low group tones

 Digital Counting Section which verifies the


frequency and duration of the received tones
before passing the corresponding code to the
output bus.
The Crystal oscillator is used for the timing purpose.
WHAT IS A MICROCONTROLLER:

A Microcontroller (also microcontroller unit, MCU or µC)


is a small computer on a single integrated circuit consisting
of a relatively simple CPU combined with support
functions such as a crystal oscillator, timers, watchdog
timer, serial and analog I/O etc

 Microcontrollers are designed for


small or dedicated applications.

 Some microcontrollers may


operate at clock rate frequencies as low as 4 kHz, as
this is adequate for many typical applications,
enabling low power consumption

 They have the ability to retain


functionality while waiting for an event such as a
button press or other interrupt.
TYPES OF
MICROCONTROLLERS:

 The Most prominent


Microcontrollers are:

 8051 Microcontroller
 PIC Series Microcontroller
 AVR Atmega Microcontrollers (Atmega8,
Atmega16, Atmega32)
 ARM32, etc
 Rabbit 2000
 TI Series Microcontroller
Atmega 16:
BLOCK DIAGRAM:
ROLE OF DECODER IC:

 The HT9170
series are Dual Tone Multi
Frequency receivers (DTMF decoders).
All types of the HT9170 series use
digital counting techniques to detect and
decode all the16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit
code output.
 A built-in dial tone rejection circuit is
provided to eliminate the need for pre-filtering.
When input signals given at VP (1) and VN (2)
pins are recognized to be effective, DV (15)
becomes high and the correct 4bit code of the
tone (DTMF) is transferred to the output pins,
D(11), D(14). Figure 2 shows the IC’s pin
assignment. Figure shows the DTMF data output table
of HT9170 series
ROLE OF AVR
MICROCONTROLLER:

 Its used here to


make a decision to the certain inputs & give certain
outputs. i.e. for a particular input which output will
come.

 The Table below


will explain the outputs of the decoder IC, which is
fed into the Microcontroller & what are the outputs
corresponding to them.
ROLE OF MOTOR DRIVER IC:

 The output of the


AVR Atmega16 will then fed into the Motor Driver
IC.

 For the particular


motion of the Motor, the required output, the
Microcontroller will give & then the required voltage
the motor driver L293D will give to the motors
attached to its output terminal.
C PROGRAM CODE:

#include<iom16v.h>
#include<macros.h>
Void delay(unsigned int i)

{unsigned int j;
while(i--)
for(j=0;j<=1000;j++);
}

Void main()
{unsigned int k,h;
DDRA=0x00;
DDRD=0xFF;
DDRB=0xFF;

while(1)
{k =~PINA;
h=k & 0x0F;
PORTB=h;

switch(h)
{case 0x02: {PORTD=0x09; // if the i/p is 0x02, then give
break; // the o/p 0x09 i.e. to move forward
}
case 0x08: {PORTD=0x06;
break;
}

case 0x04: {PORTD=0x05;


break;
}
case 0x06: {PORTD=0x0A;
break;
}
case 0x05: {PORTD=0x00;
break;
}
}

}
}

DRAWBACKS OF DTMF
TECHNOLOGY:

 The First & the


foremost Disadvantage is the calling cost.
 The Demerit of
range.
 Cannot control
more then marked number of remotes.
THANK YOU

BY: Jatin Wadhawan


Branch: ECE
Enrollment no: 0361482807
Group: E2