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Paper N° 3591 (Abstract ID)

Registration Code: S-Q1461699743

INERTIA MASS DAMPER

(1)

KAYABA SYSTEM MACHINERY CO.,LTD.

Abstract

It resulted a large and long-time shaking in the high-rise buildings of Osaka plain and Tokyo metropolitan area, which made

many people felt great fear by The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. After that, we had feared a massive

earthquake in Nankai Trough. We also supposed this massive earthquake might cause serious shaking to more high-rise

buildings that we never expected before. Therefore, it’s necessary to establish an effective method for upgrade the damping

performance of buildings for reducing magnitude and shortening shaking time of building during earthquakes.

Recently years, by rotating the spindle using a ball screw mechanism, equipment (Rotational Inertia Mass Damper)

has been put into practical use large inertia mass effect resulting in several thousand to several hundred times of mass of the

weight. Using this principle of rotational inertia mass damper can be greatly reduced the seismic displacement of the

building compared with conventional vibration-control-devices.

Rotational Inertia Mass Damper is expected to able to build vibration control system with high mass ratio for the

mass of the building due to large inertia mass effect. Furthermore, this damper is possible to shorten the construction period

because it has high effect of vibration-control with per damper and number of installation location can be reduced compared

with conventional vibration-control-devices. In addition, this damper has an overload protector as fail-safe mechanism to

cut off the power of the damper burden of an unexpected [1].

In this paper, we report the principle and application example of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper.

Keywords: Inertia mass; Ball screw; Overload prevention mechanism; Vibration control system

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

1. Introduction

It resulted a large and long-time shaking in the high-rise buildings of Osaka plain and Tokyo metropolitan area,

which made many people felt great fear by The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. In the massive

earthquake typified by Nankai Trough earthquake that occurred is feared, the high-rise buildings are quite likely

to suffer a serious shaking. Therefore, it’s necessary to establish an effective method for upgrade the damping

performance of buildings for reducing magnitude and shortening shaking time of building during earthquakes.

The oil dampers produced by Kayaba System Machinery Co., Ltd (KSM) are widely used in many

buildings for vibration-control and seismic isolation system. Moreover, we also have kept developing various

dampers with special functions. However, it will cost huge expense if we install the conventional vibration-

control-devices in a common building according to an existing design method. The reason is not only the

expense of the vibration-control-devices, but also the increase of the installation charge. In order to decrease the

cost, we have to reduce number of installation vibration-control-devices compared with conventional ones.

Because Rotational Inertia Mass Damper can reduce the installation number as compared with the

conventional vibration-control-devices by using a large inertia mass, it is expected to shorten a construction

period and reduce a construction cost. In this paper, we describe the structures, the characteristics, and the results

of performance evaluation test of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper, and we introduce vibration control effects of

using this damper as an application example.

This damper was developed jointly with NSK Ltd., Shimizu Corporation, and KSM.

Figure 1 shows appearance of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper. There are vibration-control-devices that have

been used a lot conventionally as hysteretic dampers represented by a yield-point steel and viscous dampers

represented by an oil damper. These dampers reduce earthquake response by using a rigid or a viscous term in a

motion equation. There is Tuned Mass Damper (so-called TMD) as a device by using a mass term in the motion

equation. Recently, large-typed TMD have been developed for improving seismic safety. However, there is a

limit to mass capacity of conventional TMD, and the main target was often limited to livability measures against

wind shaking. On the other hand, Rotational Inertia Mass Damper which converting linear motion into rotational

motion is the device that produces large inertia mass of several thousand times of actual mass. Since producing

large inertia mass, this damper reduces vibration of the building by utilizing mass effect.

Figure 2 shows internal structure of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper. Rotational Inertia Mass Damper converts

linear motion into rotational motion by utilizing the mechanism of nut-rotation-typed ball screw. It is composed

a ball screw which rotational motion is constrained and a ball nut which linear motion is constrained and four

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16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

bearings which hold the ball nut, when the ball screw is in linear motion, the ball nut is in rotational motion,

torque is transmitted to the weight through the friction plate, and the cylindrical weight is in rotational motion

with the ball nut.

Assuming an internal cylindrical weight of the damper as inertia mass, the outer diameter of the

cylindrical weight of the damper is D, the internal diameter is d, moment of inertia is I and actual mass is m.

When axial displacement of the ball screw is x, the cylindrical weight is rotated θ, and axial load of the ball

screw will be generated by this displacement is F. Eq. (1) shows relationship of F and x. Ld is pitch of the ball

screw this time.

Iθ 2π π 2 (D 2 + d 2 )

F= = ( ) 2 I x = mx = ψ x (1)

Ld /(2π ) Ld 2 Ld

2

Ψ is equivalent inertia mass in the axial direction of the ball screw at Eq. (1), it is possible to enlarge

value several thousand times of actual mass m. This force (inertial force) F is found to be proportional to

(relative acceleration of the ball screw and the ball nut) acceleration in the axial direction.

If the inertia mass load exceeds more than the limit, slip occurs between the weight and the friction plate, and

rotational motion will be limited to transmit from the ball nut to the cylindrical weight. According to this

mechanism, it is possible to control maximum axial load of the damper as relief load, and it can avoid the

transmission of excessive reaction force to building structural flames.

In order to realize this mechanism, some coil springs that pressing force is variable are placed on one side

of the cylindrical weight, the amount of deflection of the springs controls surface pressure of the friction plate

which is placed on the other side. By setting the transmission of torque moment with surface pressure of the

friction plate, it is possible to control operation of overload prevention mechanism. At the same time, it is

possible to prevent damage of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper.

3. Product Specification

Table 1 shows specification of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper. The lineup of products has three types by

equivalent inertia mass (6,500, 4,000, 2,500[ton]). Actual mass that produces equivalent inertia mass 6,500[ton]

is 880[kg], it can be seen that amplified about 7,000 times by converting into rotational motion. Furthermore,

installation environment is indoor in principle.

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16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

Model name BDM6500 BDM4000 BDM2500

Equivalent inertia mass [ton] 6,500 4,000 2,500

Equivalent inertia mass of weight [ton] 6,121 3,609 2,113

Relief load [kN] 800～1,200 600～1,100 500～1,000

Maximum axial load [kN] 2050 2050 2050

Actual mass of cylindrical weight [ton] 0.88 0.64 0.46

Mass amplified ratio of weight [-] 6,955 5,640 4,594

Rotational Inertia Mass Damper generates inertial force that is proportional to relative acceleration between both

sides of the damper. Therefore, when the damper is vibrated by a sine wave, relative acceleration is in the

opposite phase with respect to displacement, and negative gradient appears in relationship of load and relative

displacement of the damper. Using this characteristic, we evaluated the performance on the basis of relationship

of load and relative displacement obtained from the vibration test with actual devices.

Figure 3 shows the performance evaluation test on the electric-testing-machine. We used the electric-

testing-machine of ball screw type what our company owned on the vibration test. Table 2 shows specification of

electric-testing-machine. Figure 4 shows relationship of load and relative displacement of the damper when we

input the sine wave of 0.5 [Hz]-±10 [mm] to the damper. Since load is proportional to relative acceleration, the

slope of the line connecting maximum and minimum points of displacement (red line in Fig. 4) becomes

downward-sloping. Now, when relative displacement is x and relative acceleration is x , input frequency is f,

equivalent inertia mass isΨ, and axial load is F. F/x equals numeric value what is read from the slope of the

vibration test, and we can calculate equivalent inertia mass using Eq. (2.4). Moreover, when the area surrounded

by the loop in Fig. 4 is ∆W , equivalent viscous damping coefficient Ceq is represented by Eq. (3). Eq. (4) and

(5) show the calculation examples at the case of 0.5 [Hz]-±10 [mm].

x = A sin ωt , ( ω = 2πf ) (2.1)

x = −ω 2 A sin ωt = −ω 2 x (2.2)

F = ψ ⋅ x (2.3)

F 1 F

ψ = =− 2 ⋅ (2.4)

x ω x

∆W

Ceq = (3)

2(πA) 2 f

Calculation example:

Equivalent inertia mass

F

[kN / mm]， ψ = − 1 ⋅ −64.12 = 6497 [ton]

= −64.12 (4)

x 2π ⋅ 0.5

Equivalent viscous damping coefficient

A = 0.0098 [mm]、 ∆W = 3.66 [kN ⋅ m]

3.66

Ceq = = 3,861 [kN ⋅ s / m] (5)

2π ⋅ 0.0098 2 ⋅ 0.5

2

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16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

It is considered that equivalent viscous damping coefficient Ceq of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper is

generated by viscous resistance of grease which sealed between the ball screw and the ball nut or the bearings. In

the damper of three types, from the vibration test results with the parameter of frequency and damper amplitude,

it is confirmed that the damper has frequency dependability of what equivalent viscous damping coefficient

increases with a rise of frequency. On the other hand, it is considered that the damper does not have dependence

of damper amplitude at same frequency. Figure 5 shows frequency dependability of viscous damping coefficient

of BDM- 6500 based on the vibration test results with the actual devices.

Load capacity [kN] ±2000

Stroke [mm] ±150

Waveform Sine, Random

Frequency [Hz] 0.02～4.00

BDM 6500

Frequency : 0.5 [Hz]

Amplitude : ±10 [mm]

Negative gradient

ΔW

5

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

Figure 6 shows vibration control system conceptual model using Rotational Inertia Mass Damper. This is a kind

of TMD system (Tuned Mass Damper) to demonstrate the vibration control by using mass effect. As mentioned

previously, since large equivalent inertia mass can be obtain from small actual mass, this damper can realize the

TMD which controls the structural response for earthquake with large mass ratio while reducing load to the

building structure.

For conventional vibration control devices, it’s the common method in high-rise building to distribute the

devices into from middle floors to upper floors. However, Rotational Inertia Mass Damper, it can be controlled

shaking of the whole building due to be placed intensively only in lower floors. Figure 7 shows the placement

method of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper to the buildings. In general, mass and stiffness of the building

structures are different in each building. By tuning the period of additional vibration control system (Equivalent

inertia mass of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper, additional damping, and additional stiffness) and the period of

main frame, it is possible to obtain reasonable vibration control system. If necessary, using the oil damper as

additional damping and the axle spring device with disc springs or damper mounting braces as an additional

stiffness.

Additional damping

Damping of Structure

Additional vibration

Stiffness of Structure control system

Additional

stiffness Inertia mass

6

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

Area of Renovation

Area of Renovation

method by using conventional Rotational Inertia Mass Dampers

vibration control devices (Place centrally on lower floors)

6. Application Example

As an application example of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper, we examine vibration control effect of using this

damper in the virtual building with analysing.

6.1 Analysis Model and Analysis Condition

The target building is steel frame office building what has 20 floors above ground and the height 80 [m].

Analysis model is 20 degree-of-freedom systems, and the structural damping ratio which is proportional to

the stiffness is 2% at primary natural period. Relationship of story shear force and story drift at each floor

applied Normal Tri-Linear model based on the incremental loading analysis result. 8 Rotational Inertia Mass

Dampers what equivalent inertia mass is 6,500[ton] were placed only on the first floor. Figure 8 shows analysis

model, and figure 9 shows relationship of story shear force and story drift at each floor. Table 3 shows

specification of analysis model, and table 4 shows input seismic motions. Now, compared the response analysis

of with dampers or without, we examined the effect of response reduction of the damper.

6.2 Decision Procedure of Damper Specification

We set the Rotational Inertia Mass Damper which effective mass ratio was aiming for 5%. According to the

fixed-point theory, as tuning the period of additional vibration system and the natural period in elastic range of

the building, we determined the equivalent mass and stiffness. Table 5 shows natural period of the building,

figure 9 shows the curve of amplification ratio of displacement. The optical value of additional damping can be

determined theoretically, but due to using damper which viscous damping coefficient confirmed experimentally

is 3,850 [kN･s/m] , it is slightly larger to the optimum value. As a result, effective mass ratio became 5.2 [%] of

primary natural period of building because of placed the 8 dampers which has inertia mass of 6,500 [ton]. Then,

equivalent damping factor was increased to 6.4 [%] from 2 [%] of only structural damping.

6.3 Result of Analysis

Figure 11 show maximum response displacement of the building, and figure 12 shows maximum story drift. In

the figures, solid line shows the case with the dampers, while broken line shows the case without the dampers. In

input seismic motions of El-Centro NS and Long-Distance Phase of public notice, maximum story drifts are over

7

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

1/100 in the case of without the dampers, while maximum story drift were able to less than 1/100 in the case of

with the dampers. The rate of response reduction was 24.1 [%] at maximum. In response displacement, it is

seemed similarly reduction, it can be reduced about 20 [%] in Long-Distance Phase of public notice. From these

result, intensively placed Rotational Inertia Mass Damper in only first floor, reduction effect of displacement and

story drift were confirmed.

Floor Mass[ton] Horizontal Stiffness[kN/m]

RF 144

20 360 66,500

19 480 190,000

18 600 285,000

17 780 427,500

16 780 617,500

15 780 646,000

14 780 665,000

13 780 674,500

12 780 703,000

11 780 722,000

10 780 741,000

Additional vibration 9 780 769,500

control system 8 780 798,000

Additional stiffness 7 780 832,600

6 780 880,000

Additional damping 5 780 910,000

4 780 950,000

Inertia mass

3 780 1,045,000

2 840 1,187,500

1 960 1,425,000

Fig. 8 – Analysis model

8

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

Seismic motion Abbreviation Maximum acceleration [cm/s2] Duration [s]

EL-CENTRO 1940 NS EL 511(50cm/s fitting) 53

TAFT 1952 EW TA 497(50cm/s fitting) 53

HACHINOHE 1968 NS HA 337(50cm/s fitting) 53

short-range phase of P.N.※ KS 424 82

long-distance phase of P.N.※ KL 440 200

※ Ground motion based on the velocity response spectrum stipulated in building standard law of Japan

P.N. : Public Notice

Natural period [s]

Primary 2.19

Secondary 0.80

Tertiary 0.52

9

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

RF

7. Conclusion

We describe the structures, the characteristics, and the performance evaluation test results, and more of

Rotational Inertia Mass Damper. In addition, we introduced about reducing number of the damper compared

with conventional dampers. As a result, it is expected the advantages of cost reduction, shortening construction

term, and improving width of building plan. In this paper, Rotational Inertia Mass Damper was used only in the

application example, but it need the installation of the oil damper if the damping of Rotational Inertia Mass

Damper is greatly smaller than optimum additional damping or it is significant impact to higher-order mode.

Since The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, it is growing need for improving seismic

performance of the existing building for massive earthquake. However, in renovation of improving seismic

control performance, since there are people in the building, it is often required the renovations that has many

restrictions. For installation location is less, vibration control system of Rotational Inertia Mass Damper has

many advantages of shortening construction term including cost reduction for owner of the building. In addition,

reduction of number of vibration control devices will be improving the width of the building plan in new

buildings.

In Japan after The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, it has started to be reconsidered input

seismic motions in structural design. To massive earthquake that greatly exceeds conventional input seismic

motions, in the situation which seismic performance is required, we hope that our method will be one of

countermeasure.

In the future, we will keep effort to disseminate Rotational Inertia Mass Damper with compactification

and to increase the capacity of inertia mass.

10

16th World Conference on Earthquake, 16WCEE 2017

Santiago Chile, January 9th to 13th 2017

8. References

[1] Isoda K, Hanzawa T, Hukukita A, Hukasawa, T (2010): Development of Inertia Mass Damper with Overload

Prevention Function. Part 1. Purpose of Development and Summary of the Damper. Summaries of Technical Papers of

Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan, Hokuriku,2010, B-2 Structure 2 453-454.

11

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