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ILEX Services Inc., Orlando 8 Strategies for Sustainable Construction Using a Unique Rating System: A Case Study—
Rebecca M. Oliva
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42 Wastewater Treatment Cost Reduction: Stabilizing Chlorine Demand in Wastewater Effluent—
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Columns
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Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 3


Building Community Consensus
for a Regional Supplier
Patrick Lehman, Donald Ross, 900,000 in southwest Florida. By bankruptcy. The demise of GDU led sions, often for benefits they will not
and Michael Condran working within a regional consen- to acquisition of the existing Peace see in their term in office.
sus, the Authority has met the re- River Facility located in DeSoto To provide balance against
Democratic governance re- gion’s water supply and created a County and the existing transmis- these fears and support for fund-
quires consent of the governed. robust and reliable system success- sion pipeline that provided service ing decisions, public support
This is never truer than when fully meeting the challenges of to the water systems within the groups often spring up from in-
forging a cooperative approach to completing a capital expansion three counties served by GDU. frastructure users to advocate for
regional water supplies owned and program and constructing new in- Through the 1990s the Au- the projects with an organized
operated by different member frastructure to expand treatment thority planned for expansion of the voice. A number of states have
governments and serving addi- and interconnect the region’s Peace River Facility and extension of support groups for transportation
tional political entities. The suc- major water supply systems. the transmission pipeline system to projects, including Florida. These
cess of the Peace River Manasota The Authority is a wholesale provide increased capacity to the ex- groups are usually comprised of a
Regional Water Supply Authority supplier of drinking water to its isting water systems and to provide core membership of corporate
(Authority) has rested upon its member governments. The agency expanded water service to Charlotte, users who understand the eco-
transparent governance, outreach is operated through revenue col- DeSoto, and Sarasota Counties. nomic benefits of infrastructure
to all parties, and most impor- lected by water sales to its cus- The first decade of the 2000s development. A grocery store
tantly, community support tomers—the member counties and saw tremendous expansion of the chain in Florida, for instance, is a
through a not-for-profit educa- the City of North Port. The mission Authority’s infrastructure as it pro- member of a group called Florid-
tional organization dedicated to statement of the Authority is “to gressed into a major operating util- ians for Better Transportation, and
extolling the benefits of regional provide the region with a sufficient, ity. The Peace River Facility sees the benefit of road infrastruc-
water supplies. The Friends of high-quality drinking water supply treatment capacity was expanded ture to its distribution system.
Peace Water Inc. has been an es- that is reliable, sustainable, and pro- from 12 to 48 mil gal per day (mgd) The Friends group was char-
sential element of the Authority’s tective of our resources, now and and the regional transmission tered to support opportunities for
regional governance success. into the future.” pipeline system was extended from local communities to learn about
The Authority was created 7 mi to over 65 mi of large diameter their water supply. The founders be-
Authority Profile thirty years ago in 1982. Through transmission pipelines. lieved that many people are so used
the initial decade of the Authority, to readily available, pure water from
The Authority was created by the planning effort focused on in- Friends of Peace Water the tap that few understand what is
interlocal agreement among four terconnecting water systems. In required to keep the water flowing.
Florida counties—Charlotte, DeS- 1991 the privately owned water util- The not-for-profit, Friends of Such public ignorance is a deterrent
oto, Manatee, and Sarasota—to en- ity serving Charlotte and DeSoto Peace Water Inc. (Friends) has been to prudent planning and develop-
sure adequate, dependable, Counties and the North Port area of an essential element of this regional ment of water supplies, and Friends’
high-quality water supplies for a Sarasota County, General Develop- governance success. Organized by a mission is to foster a better under-
growing population of more than ment Utilities (GDU), went into group of local business leaders who standing in a variety of ways.
recognized the value of a reliable
water supply and its role in eco- Public Education
nomic growth and prosperity, Friends furthers its educational
Friends advances educational op- mission on two fronts. First, it hosts
portunities for communities to an annual educational event for
learn about their water supply, the elected officials, community leaders,
effects of human behavior on the citizens at large, and the media at
supply, the furtherance of public ed- the Authority’s Peace River Facility.
ucation, and the maintenance of In addition to facility tours, state
Florida’s water resources. political leaders address the impor-
Large, forward-looking infra- tance of regional water supply de-
structure projects often stretch the velopment. Friends raises the funds
imagination. They may seem un- to support the event with a catered
necessary, or even wasteful, at the barbeque that has become the hall-
time they are planned. The budgets mark of this traditional event. Being
are large, and the public often fears private and nongovernmental,
that they are overblown. Cynics be- Friends can collect and spend funds
lieve that the project is just a way for for events of this type that would be
insiders to make big money or con- prohibited by a public agency.
sider it a government boondoggle. Friends’ education mission
It’s against these headwinds that supports three themes:
Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority location map. elected officials make funding deci- Continued on page 6

4 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


operative efforts and economies of ity. In addition, the Authority sup- Collaborative Approach
scale of large alternative water sup- ports an extensive monitoring pro- for Local Governments
ply projects. gram in the estuary to measure the
Friends promotes the Author- effects, if any, of its withdrawals. Because elected officials from
ity’s regional approach by seeking Because these protective meas- each member government are re-
recognition from forward thinking ures cost the consumers money that sponsive to the voters of their re-
organizations in Florida, such as some may feel is unnecessary, spective counties, Friends works to
1000 Friends of Florida, Audubon Friends provides an educational create a grass roots consensus
of Florida, and the Collins Center event each year for the general pub- among voters in the four counties
for Sustainable Florida. Recognition lic at the Peace River Facility to ex- that regional cooperation is, in the
by these organizations helps shore plain the issue and provide tours of long term, best for the interests of
up the political consensus necessary the facilities, including its 6 bil gal all and has proven to be a catalyst
for regional governance. Friends has aboveground reservoir. within the business community for
prepared successful applications for articulating the value of water.
recognition of good regional gover- Managing Competition Water is vital to a growing
nance from these watchdog groups. Friends believe that when shar- economy. The promotion of the
Adam Putnam, Commissioner of the ing water resources, the economics value of water to the public and po-
Florida Department of Agriculture Environmental of all users has to be considered in litical leadership is critical to assur-
and Consumer Services, attending Sustainability fair allocation. Urban users consume ing a reliable, sustainable, and
the barbeque. less water than agricultural and in- affordable public water supply for
There are many instances of dustrial users in Florida, yet need to the residents and businesses in the
conflicts between water supply de- meet higher standards for water region. Friends has recognized the
Continued from page 4 mands and the environment, such quality. Agricultural and industrial value of water and its need for eco-
! Regionalism for water resource as the current issue between agri- users could easily be outbid for water nomic growth and prosperity. The
development and distribution cultural allocations to California’s if it were allocated by market pric- organization is instrumental in
! Environmental sustainability Central Valley and protection of the ing; therefore, rational allocation working with the public, local
! Managing competition among endangered delta smelt. While not among these disparate users requires elected officials, and business lead-
industrial, agricultural, and pub- as severe as the Central Valley issues, an understanding of the various ers to further the understanding of
lic supply demands the Authority faces the same kind of constraints and a willingness to find the importance of a sustainable
issue with its withdrawals from the an optimal solution for all users. water supply for the state.
Regionalism Peace River. Too much withdrawal Friends promotes the under-
Water resources rarely respect at the wrong time would have an standing required for managing
political boundaries, and much adverse impact on the Charlotte competition through education at
time, energy, and money has been Harbor estuary downstream. its annual public event at the Peace
wasted in litigation by public users The Authority has addressed River Facility. Keynote speakers are
over rights to water supplies. Adopt- environmental sustainability by invited from various sectors, in-
ing a regional framework for water building the storage capacity to cluding government, to address the
resource development helps diffuse allow it to provide a constant supply larger regional picture in which
the tensions among local jurisdic- of water to its customers, while only public supply is a part. Speakers,
tions about water use rights. Florida withdrawing from the Peace River such as the state commissioner of
law provides for the creation of re- when scientists determine it is safe. agriculture and the secretary of the
gional water supply authorities by The Authority’s investment in stor- Florida Department of Environ-
interlocal agreement among local age facilities represents a third of its mental Protection, have provided
governments for the provision of investment at the Peace River Facil- impetus to Friends’ message.
wholesale water supply to locally-
owned utilities.
Friends supports, through ed-
ucation, the regional governance of
the Authority. While not everyone
agrees with all collective decisions Friends of Peace Water Inc. roster board
of the Authority, all points of view recognizing membership.
are heard, and litigation is kept to
a minimum. Friends recognizes
that these internal workings deep Patrick Lehman is executive di-
in the machinery of government rector of Peace River Manasota Re-
are rarely understood or appreci- gional Water Supply Authority in
ated by the constituents served, and Lakewood Ranch; Donald Ross, is
it works to highlight and celebrate chair of Earth Balance in North Port;
these efforts. Ultimately, the con- and Michael Condran is regional
sumer pays for water, but through manager–water/wastewater services
intergovernmental cooperation with Conestoga-Rovers & Associates
among the member governments, in Tampa. !
all consumers benefit through co- Peace River Off-Stream Reservoir.

6 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


F W R J

Strategies for Sustainable Construction


Using a Unique Rating System: A Case Study
Rebecca M. Oliva

T
he Envision™ sustainable infrastructure utility sustainability. This rating system has be-
rating system is administered through the come increasingly recognized by project own- Rebecca M. Oliva, P.E., ENV SP, is an
Institute for Sustainable Infrastructure ers, planners, managers, and designers as an environmental engineer with CDM Smith in
(ISI) and designed to help users identify ways in appropriate water infrastructure rating tool Tampa.
which sustainable approaches can be used to since its introduction in 2012.
plan, design, construct, and operate infrastruc- A description of, and the need for, this rat-
ture projects. Applying this rating system to util- ing system are presented from various perspec- Water professionals familiar with the Lead-
ity infrastructure, such as a water resource tives, and numerous strategies for sustainable ership in Energy and Environmental Design
reclamation facility (WRRF), can provide own- construction through the case study example at (LEED™) rating system recognize that it focuses
ers, planners, managers, designers, and contrac- the AWTF are described. on buildings and facilities. What LEED does not
tors with a practical, numerical measure of provide is a comprehensive system to evaluate
sustainability. Hillsborough County (County) is Sustainable Construction Defined the sustainability of civil infrastructure projects.
currently expanding its South County Advanced Therefore, the Envision infrastructure sustain-
Wastewater Treatment Facility (AWTF) from 4.5 In their book, Design for Sustainability, Ji ability rating system was developed by ISI in
to 10 mil gal per day (mgd), a construction proj- and Plainiotis define sustainable construction partnership with the Zofnass Program for Sus-
ect that totals over $68 million. as “a process that is environmentally responsi- tainable Infrastructure at the Harvard Univer-
Although the project was not submitted ble and resource-efficient throughout a build- sity Graduate School of Design. No other United
to ISI for official verification and award, the ing's life cycle: from siting to design, States rating system covers all aspects of civil in-
rating system was applied to the construction construction, operation, maintenance, renova- frastructure, so Envision was developed, in part,
phase in order to assess sustainability meas- tion, and demolition. This requires close coop- to fill this gap.
ures carried out during this particular phase eration of the design team, the architects, the
of the project. The County retained three on- engineers, and the client at all project stages.” The Envision Rating System
site resident observers, one of whom is cre- Even though they state that the process is
dentialed by ISI as an Envision Sustainability through a building’s life cycle, this definition can This rating system has several components,
Professional (ENV SP). The perspective from also be applied to the life cycle of facilities and including a self-assessment checklist, the rating
which this article was written is unique—18 infrastructure, such as WRRFs, pipelines, and tool, a credential program for individuals, a
months of full-time construction experience pump stations. Furthermore, this definition project evaluation and verification program,
as a resident engineer on the job site, coupled highlights the importance of cooperation and a recognition program. The system is struc-
with being an ENV SP and having knowledge among all parties involved with the project at all tured around five categories: quality of life, lead-
of applying the rating system to other projects. stages. ership, resource allocation, natural world, and
This allows for the perfect marriage of con- climate and risk. The rating system’s guidance
struction knowledge and the rating system, Need for a Sustainable manual contains a table of point values, which
with the benefit of identifying specific strate- Infrastructure Rating System shows the five categories and numerous credits
gies that can be done to improve the sustain- (each row in the table is a credit). For the case
ability of the project. This perspective leads to The American Society of Civil Engineers study included here, specific strategies will be
the ability to align the rating-system aspects (ASCE) assessed the conditions of 15 cate- presented that show how these Envision sus-
with the dual nature of sustainability during gories of civil infrastructure. To communicate tainability goals, or credits, can be achieved dur-
construction. the results of its study, ASCE produced a report ing construction.
This article presents examples of how the card that states that the current condition of Levels of achievement indicate how well a
rating system can be used during utility con- America’s infrastructure should receive a grade credit meets the criteria described in the guid-
struction projects to improve sustainability per- of D (poor condition). For the drinking water ance manual, and are arranged in increasing
formance. For example, effective coordination and wastewater categories, leaking pipelines order from less sustainable to more sustain-
through the use of meetings and written plans and pump failures are examples contributing able. There are five levels of achievement, as
reduces the chance of issues arising during to this low grade. The ASCE estimates that a displayed on the right in the table of point val-
scheduled plant shut-downs and helps resume five-year investment of $2.2 trillion would ues: improved (encouraging), enhanced (on
reliable plant operations and service for cus- bring America’s infrastructure grade to a B the right track), superior (remarkable per-
tomers. The rating system provides a practical (good condition). It would be beneficial to formance), conserving (zero negative impacts),
measure of sustainability, making it easier to as- have a rating system that covers these cate- and restorative (restoration of resources and
sess, manage, and improve the conditions of gories so that money for infrastructure proj- ecological systems, economic, and social sys-
civil infrastructure and contribute to overall ects is well spent. Continued on page 10

8 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 9
Continued from page 8 tainable. Questions are arranged by the five rat- ! Team looks beyond purely technical aspects
tems). The higher the level of achievement on ing system categories, and the user completes of the project
a project, the more points that are achieved for the checklist by answering the questions as they ! Uses guidelines to meet the owner’s sustain-
a particular credit. Once the project is scored relate to the project. The available responses are ability goals
on the degree to which credits are met, the “yes,” “no,” or “not applicable.” The checklist is
project is eligible to receive an award. The ENV more or less a preliminary assessment to see Contractor
SP on the project team may submit the scoring where the project stands on its sustainable as- ! Save money using this system and more effi-
and supporting documentation to ISI. The ISI pects, and it is used for internal purposes only cient methods of construction execution
assigns an ENV SV (“Verifier”) to review and (not submitted to ISI). The checklist is recom- ! Possibility to obtain more work through spe-
confirm the points achieved as submitted by mended to be completed prior to the project cialty certifications
the ENV SP. The Verifier will then make a rec- undergoing full evaluation and scoring. The ! Recognition for awards
ommendation for an award based on the per- guidance manual published by ISI assists ENV
centage of possible points achieved: Platinum SPs with the scoring process and helps structure Public
(50 percent and greater), Gold (40 percent), the information for verification. This manual ! Care about the environment that citizens
Silver (30 percent), and Bronze (20 percent). includes detailed descriptions of all of the cred- breathe, see, live in, and use
With such a variety of ways to be sustainable, it its and the criteria that must be met within each ! Would want to ensure the sustainable invest-
is nearly impossible to incorporate them all level of achievement in order to receive points ment of tax dollars
into one project to earn all of the possible for that credit. ! Community priorities are addressed in civil
points. infrastructure projects
Benefits of using the system include mar- Perspectives
ket recognition for high levels of achievement in Regulatory
sustainability; demonstration of social, eco- The benefits of the rating system can be ! Sustainability aligns with the mission of reg-
nomic, and environmental stewardship; ability viewed from various perspectives as follows: ulatory agencies
to evaluate trade-offs and meet sustainability ! In many cases, using sustainable methods en-
goals; and increased potential to receive grant Owner sures permit compliance
funding. The rating system includes a credential ! Projects are to set or meet sustainability goals
program for individuals, through which they ! Opportunity to be a “green city” Construction Phase Focus
can become certified (ENV SPs and ENV SVs) ! Good public relations from Envision awards
to work on, submit, or verify projects for awards. The rating system looks at the degree of
The system’s “self-assessment checklist” is Engineering/Design Team sustainability during the whole project or phase.
an Excel-based questionnaire used to guide the ! ENV SPs provide services to increase sus- It supports the idea that project sustainability is
initial stages of planning for a project to be sus- tainability on projects cumulative and each phase contributes to the
overall sustainability of the project. The con-
struction phase is the link between the design
phase and the operations and maintenance
Table 1. South County Advanced Wastewater Treatment Facility Existing and Expanded Plant Data
(O&M) phase. During the design phase, the
team strategizes for sustainability and may write
sustainability features into specifications or in-
clude sustainable aspects on the drawing sheets.
Construction is where the design is imple-
mented, and O&M is the actual use of the asset.
It is recognized that operating the facility over
the long term has the most impact on the sus-
tainability of the project; however, the focus here
is on the construction phase. In other words, the
construction phase is short in relation to the
useful lifetime of an asset (e.g., three years ver-
sus 20 years), but strategies can still be imple-
mented during this phase.

Case Study Site Description


As previously stated, Hillsborough County
is currently expanding its AWTF from 4.5 to 10
mgd. This is the largest construction project the
County has ever undertaken and the expansion
doubles the footprint of the existing plant site.
The facility is located in Ruskin (southeast of
Tampa) and borders residential, agricultural,
commercial, and transportation types of land

10 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


use. South of the facility is a County potable able if the useful life of assets can be extended. Materials Recycling and
water repump station, and an office building Sustainable engineering designs can find a new Control Contribute to Effective
neighbors the plant site to the west. Another ad- use for existing unneeded plant components Resource Allocation
jacent property west of the plant site is a cattle after demolition rather than disposing of them.
field, and further west of that is an Amazon.com For example, the AWTF expansion design calls As previously stated, resource allocation is
distribution center. One benefit of the project for salvaging both existing oxidation ditches to one of the five rating system categories. Credits
location is that there are no residential zones serve as additional reject water storage in the fu- within this category encourage the efficient use
immediately bordering the site. The site is ture. Once the new bioreactor becomes opera- and allocation of materials, energy, and water.
unique because it is over a mile long, in a linear tional, the existing oxidation tanks can be Prior to the creation of Envision, this category
arrangement, and overlaps with the existing decommissioned, but not demolished. New summarized the typical idea of what sustain-
plant, making it subject to exacerbated short- equipment, such as the bioreactor mixers and ability meant: to use recycled materials, divert
term hazards. Table 1 lists the components of motors, are logged in the County’s asset man- waste from landfills, buy local, and reduce en-
the existing and expanded plant. agement system. The serial number, speed, ergy and water use. However, as shown in the
With so many new structures and equip- horsepower, date put into service, photographs, other strategies presented here, sustainable in-
ment, there are countless opportunities for sus- etc., of each individual asset is entered into the frastructure covers much more than just these
tainable construction to be practiced in the field asset management system, as well as any old goals.
at this point in the project’s life cycle. asset that is being taken out of service. This For the typical construction practice of
method assists the County not only with know- designating a concrete spoils pile (scraps,
Strategies for ing which assets it owns and where, but in the washout, leftovers from pours, demolished con-
Sustainable Construction future to know which ones may be reaching the crete, etc.), sustainable strategies would include
end of their useful life and may need to be re- transporting the concrete to a recycling facility,
The concept of the dual nature of sustain- placed. Long-term planning for asset manage- or using it as road base. Both strategies avoid it
ability during construction involves two major ment is essential for forecasting budget, time, being taken to a landfill. The AWTF has a desig-
components: the sustainable features of the de- and workforce constraints and needs to be in- nated stockpile area at the north end of the site
sign, and the sustainability during construction corporated into the County’s capital improve- for excavated soils. The sustainable practice is to
activities. It is important that sustainable fea- ment plan. reuse this soil for backfill. The site contains sev-
tures of the design are carried out during con- Construction projects have many parties eral large bins to collect metal waste, which
struction (e.g., conformance to drawings, involved—owner, consulting engineering firms, avoids it being sent to landfills and also allows
specifications, etc.) and built as designed. Sus- general contractor, subcontractors, construction the contractor to receive a rebate check ($/lb
tainability during construction activities in- manager, project managers, plant manager, soils value) from the recycling facility. Another ma-
cludes proper sequencing for maintenance of testing firms, resident observers, and field engi- terials recycling sustainable strategy was the
plant operations (MOPOs), saving water and neers—and the AWTF expansion is no different. reuse of wooden forms for concrete pours in-
energy using efficient methods, and appropriate A transparent dedication to teamwork and a stead of new pieces of wood each time. A rum-
field decisions made by the contractor and genuine commitment to the project’s success ble strip was placed at the main site
other field staff. The examples that follow illus- will earn points for “collaboration” in the sys- entrance/exit that allows soils to be vibrated off
trate both types of sustainability during con- tem’s leadership category. Interpretation of the the tires of vehicles and not leave the site.
struction. drawings, specifications, requests for informa- Restorative or innovative credits could be
tion, submittals, and change proposal requests awarded for the energy subcategory if the fol-
Leadership Leads to Sustainability require daily communication among field per- lowing idea can be developed: since this is an ex-
sonnel and office managers. Care must be taken pansion of an existing plant, devise a way to
Leadership is one of the five categories in to use the proper channels of communication capture methane gas from the current treatment
the rating system. During plant shutdowns for so that work is authorized by the appropriate process and use it for energy during construc-
pipeline tie-ins, sustainable strategies would in- person in charge. tion, such as for temporary power of construc-
clude effective coordination and communica- All parties involved want to feel that they tion equipment. Using renewable energy in this
tion among involved parties, organized are being kept informed on project status up- manner would allow the plant to be “energy
meetings, and written plans. For change orders, dates. Managers meet weekly at the AWTF gen- neutral” by the reuse of methane gas for an in-
the sustainable strategy would be that the owner eral contractor’s trailer to discuss project house power plant “generator.”
saves money with the reduction of change or- progress, schedule, and potential challenges, in- Construction activities at a WRRF should
ders, therefore reducing the amount of work cluding how to avoid and resolve them. From be planned for daylight as much as possible for
that is not competitively bid. For scheduling and those meetings, leaders manage their staff in ac- three main reasons:
phasing of work, the MOPOs need to be care- cordance with the agreed-upon items of the 1. Daylight is safer for the workers and observers
fully coordinated for the portion of the existing meeting. It is the managers’ responsibility to because visibility is not limited due to lack of
plant within the construction zone. Testing and communicate information to their staff, and it is natural light.
maintenance should be logged and well-docu- the responsibility of field personnel to inform 2. Organisms are not disturbed by artificial light
mented. One example of this is how the general their managers of any issues or questions from used during nighttime construction.
contractor performs regular maintenance on the field work. This includes clear and effective 3. The energy requirement to power lights for
pumps and other stored equipment as stated in verbal and written communication. In short, an nighttime work can be avoided.
the specific warranty paperwork. open line of communication among office and
For the Envision credit leadership category field staff is crucial to the success and sustain-
3.3, a project will undoubtedly be more sustain- ability of the project. Continued on page 12

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 11


Continued from page 11 existing plant provide service water for con- Site observers, resident project representatives,
struction activities. This benefit is twofold: workers, and other field staff should try to avoid
Effective Water Management potable water use is avoided, and the percentage fall/trip hazards, inspect ladders prior to use,
of plant reclaimed water use is increased (instead communicate with machine operators, have a
Earns Points
of that water being discharged directly into the partner for confined space entry, and wear ap-
receiving water body). A project may score high propriate personal protective equipment. When
A well-managed water use program during
in the subcategory of resource allocation for applying coatings inside of a pump station or
construction demonstrates a leader’s commit-
water if a way can be devised for the reclaimed any other enclosed structure, it is important to
ment to sustainability. When possible, it is best
water to be reused multiple times within the use air exchange fans and face masks to protect
to use reclaimed water instead of potable water.
construction process. For example, if a tank the workers within from harmful fumes and
Potable water quality is not necessary for opera-
structure can be filled with reclaimed water for a particles. At the AWTF it was common practice
tions such as hydroblasting concrete, dust con-
24-hour leak test and two days later a 30-in. for a worker to drive around the site in a water
trol, and machine washdown, so using reclaimed
pipeline needs to be pressure-tested, perhaps that truck (filled with plant reclaimed water) and
water saves money. For the typical practice of re-
same water can be used for both tests and grav- spray down the dirt roads for dust control on
fueling machinery (cranes, track hoes, forklifts,
ity flow (preferred), or pumped from one to the dry, windy days. This reduces the particulate
etc.), it is best to use double-wall fuel tanks and
other. A flow meter may be added to the hydrant matter, provides cleaner air for site personnel,
have kits nearby for quick cleanup of spills, so as
from which the general contractor obtains re- and reduces air pollutants to neighboring areas.
to not contaminate groundwater. For the
claimed water in order to monitor how much is Since this is an expansion of an existing
washout area for trucks, concrete scraps pile, and
being used for these activities. plant, the facility must still be able to operate
when cutting into pipelines, plastic liner systems
normally during the construction phase. Fur-
should be in place to prevent groundwater con-
tamination. When dealing with excessive rain, Resiliency to Hazards and thermore, phasing out the existing systems,
Adaptation to Change Allow the which are being replaced, takes careful planning
and during dewatering activities, silt fences and
Project to Overcome Challenges and coordination since portions of the new
GeoHay bales can be used and eroded slopes can
plant are within the existing plant’s footprint.
be restored. These strategies align with rating
The rating system recognizes the impor- The existing plant should be resilient to the con-
system credits RA3.1, RA3.2, RA3.3, and NW2.3.
tance of safety and emission reduction in sus- struction activities and be able to operate unin-
The AWTF expansion construction site is
set up where pipes of reclaimed water from the tainability (credits QL2.1, QL2.6, and CR1.2). Continued on page 14

12 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 13
Continued from page 12 tor, and subcontractors to discuss practical bers think about the sustainable aspects of a
terrupted. That was not the case at the AWTF; measures that can be implemented to im- project earlier on than they would have other-
system shutdowns, unintentional water line prove sustainability. wise. Using the plant expansion of the AWTF as
breaks during excavation, and plant drain pump ! Include sustainable methods in specifica- a case study, numerous strategies were presented
station overflows during high rain events have tions. that encourage sustainable practices during the
all occurred, which affected normal operation ! List the “lessons learned” at phase milestones; construction phase of a water infrastructure
of the existing plant. Having a response plan for what could be done better next time to im- project.
short-terms hazards increases the resiliency of prove sustainability.
the system and therefore makes it less vulnera- ! Implement the strategies described through- Acknowledgements
ble should a similar situation occur unexpect- out this document to increase the project’s
edly in the future. Envision credits CR2.2, “avoid score, therefore making the project a more sus- I would like to thank the following for their
traps and vulnerabilities,” and CR2.4, “prepare tainable infrastructure, as recognized by ISI. assistance: David Bloome and Lisa Murrin with
for short-term hazards,” illustrate that these Hillsborough County; Michael P. Smith, José
ideas contribute to sustainability. Conclusion Rodriguez, and Kevin Leo with CDM Smith;
and Tom Pedersen, CDM Smith (retired).
Recommendations Where the term “sustainability” used to be
a vague concept, the Envision rating system pro- References
In order to put the rating system concept vides a practical, numerical way to measure sus-
into practice, there are several recommenda- tainability, and a project can be characterized by • Yan Ji and Stellios Plainiotis (2006): Design for
tions that any construction project could un- its score. Evaluating a project based on the spe- Sustainability. Beijing, China Architecture and
dertake: cific credits makes it easier to assess, manage, Building Press. ISBN 7-112-08390-7.
! Utilize the Envision checklist at the beginning track, improve infrastructure, and ensure utility • Institute for Sustainable Infrastructure, The
of the project in order to consider sustainable sustainability. A higher score indicates the proj- Envision™ Guidance Manual Version 2.0,
aspects in the design phase, and later in the ect is more sustainable, which could lead to bet- (2012).
construction and O&M phases. ter recognition and the potential for more • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
! Hold a preconstruction workshop with the long-term cost savings. A major advantage of Report Card for America’s Infrastructure
owner, design team, site observers, contrac- the rating system is that the design team mem- (2009). !

14 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 15
University of Florida Constructs
Panama Canal Centennial Trail on Campus
The University of Florida’s George A. seven informational plaques corresponding to tercourse to life in a small-scale model where
Smathers Libraries, which houses the Panama landmarks along the channel explain the history, visitors can see the path that ships make passing
Canal Museum collection, recently constructed engineering, and construction of the canal. through the channel.
the Panama Canal Centennial Trail, a 1/100th The concept for the trail evolved when the Students and visitors begin the journey at
scale replica of the canal that traverses the cam- Panama Canal museum moved to the Univer- the library, which represents the Atlantic en-
pus and is seen daily by students on their way to sity in 2012 and became the go-to destination trance, and follow the blue dots through the
class. for canal history and research. locks found across a half-mile stretch of campus
The $15,000 exhibit commemorates the To display the length and significant land- and end at the Pacific entrance, near the J.
canal’s recent centennial anniversary, which was marks of the Panama Canal, Frank C. Wayne Reitz Union.
in 2014, as well as showcases the transforma- Townsend, F. ASCE, of Jones Edmunds and a Townsend conceived and provided design
tional expansion of the channel. A series of University professor, suggested bringing the wa- assistance for the trail. Born and raised in the
Panama Canal Zone, Townsend is a third gen-
eration “Zonian.” Both of his grandfathers
worked on the construction of the canal and
were recipients of the Roosevelt Medal, which
was issued by President Theodore Roosevelt to
canal workers who completed two or more years
of satisfactory service on the project.
“The completion of the Canal was compa-
rable, at the time, to the lunar landing,” said
Townsend. “The trail on campus honors the
legacy of the engineers’ masterwork. For me,
personally, it is a way of sharing my experiences
with the world.”
Jones Edmunds helped to sponsor one of
the exhibit’s zones. “The Panama Canal is a mas-
terful accomplishment in engineering history,
and these exhibits both honor the achievement
and share it with new generations,” said Bob Ed-
munds, one of the founders of the Florida-based
engineering firm.
As of late March, the Panama Canal expan-
sion project is 86 percent complete and is ex-
pected to be finished by 2016. !

16 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


T E C H N O L O G Y S P O T L I G H T

Key Largo Wastewater


Treatment District Utilizes
Aqua-Aerobic Systems Technology
Key Largo, the largest and northernmost In addition, the planning staff visited nearby acteristics and effluent objectives. Where nu-
of the Florida Keys, is a commercial fishing installations to see the potential technologies trient removal is required, a simple adjust-
hub and scuba diving mecca. Good water in operation. Following the selection re- ment to the SBR’s operating strategies
quality and a healthy ecosystem are critical to search, Key Largo chose the Aqua-Aerobic permits nitrification, denitrification, and bi-
its survival and a priority for the state of Systems three-basin AquaSBR® sequencing ological phosphorus removal.
Florida. Originally installed in 2005, the Key batch reactor, followed by two AquaDisk® The system is designed to meet the
Largo Wastewater Treatment District cloth media filters (12-disk units) for its up- plant’s effluent objectives of 5 mg/l biochem-
(WWTD) utilized a small alternative se- grade in 2010. The new system was designed ical oxygen demand (BOD), 5 mg/l total sus-
quencing batch reactor (SBR) for treating the to process 2.88 mil gal per day (mgd) or pended solids (TSS), 3 mg/l total nitrogen,
plant’s wastewater. After five years the plant 10,886 m3/day, average flow, and 5.75 mgd, or and 1 mg/l total phosphorus. Based on expe-
was in need of an upgrade in order to address 21,735 m3/day, peak flow (Figure 1). rience with the plant over the past few years,
increasing flow rates for the population of The AquaSBR system operates on a sim- Key Largo’s lead operator, Jered Primicierio,
15,000 it now serves, and for future stringent ple concept of introducing a quantity of states, “What I’ve noticed with the Aqua-Aer-
effluent limits. waste to a reactor, treating the waste in an ad- obic plant is that carbon usage is minimal in
To meet the strict nutrient limits it was equate time period, and subsequently dis- achieving nitrogen removal. We use the ac-
facing and ensure the health of the local charging a volume of effluent, plus waste tual strength of the wastewater or carbona-
economy, Key Largo needed an advanced sludge, that is equal to the original volume of ceous BOD within the influent to denitrify.
wastewater treatment solution capable of waste introduced to the reactor. This “fill and The standard for removing phosphorus bio-
meeting Florida’s advanced water treatment draw” principle of operation involves the logically is around 3 mg/l, and we treat up to
(AWT) requirements, including nutrient re- basic steps of fill, react, settle, decant, and 4 mg/l. We actually take out 4 mg/l of phos-
moval, while providing process flexibility sludge waste. The system may be designed to phorus biologically, so we’re well above the
that results in energy savings. The district include seven individual phases of operation, standard.”
began exploring options, including a five- but the inclusion or duration of any individ- Key Largo is able to further reduce its TSS
stage oxidation ditch and SBR technologies. ual phase is based upon specific waste char- and remove additional phosphorus with the
AquaDisk cloth media filtration system featur-
ing OptiFiber® media. With the outside-in
configuration of the AquaDisk filters, influent
enters the filter unit and contacts the outside
of the filter disk. Filtrate passes through the
pile cloth media by gravity and is removed
from the hollow area inside the filter disk
through a hollow shaft that supports the indi-
vidual disks. As solids accumulate on the sur-
face of the media, the water level surrounding
the disks rises. Once it reaches a predetermined
level, automatic backwashing begins. The disks
rotate as backwash shoes contact the media
surface and a vacuum is applied to remove the
captured solids. During backwash, fibers flu-
idize to provide an efficient release of stored
solids. Filtration is not interrupted and heav-
ier solids settle to the bottom of the tank and
are pumped to a digester or other collection
area of the treatment plant. According to Prim-
icierio, “After the treated water goes through
the cloth media disk filters, we’re actually
achieving a .6 mg/l in total phosphorus, and
that’s probably a two-year average.”
Figure 1. Key Largo system annual data. Continued on page 18

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 17


Continued from page 17
To enhance the plant’s process control
capabilities, Key Largo also incorporated an
IntelliPro® process monitoring and control
system. The IntelliPro system is designed to
offer an essential link among operations,
equipment, and treatment objectives. It ac-
tively influences the treatment process by
proactively responding to changes as they
happen and efficiently manages overall sys-
tem performance. Through the use of process
instrumentation, the system can actively con-
trol process parameters within the biological
system, such as dissolved oxygen (DO) and
system mass, and even modify the cycle struc-
ture. The addition of the nutrient module
and instrumentation adds the capability of
automatically monitoring and controlling bi-
ological and chemical nutrient removal.
Key Largo noticed a drastic improvement
in the monitoring and control of the biologi-
cal process, which is attributed in part to the
IntelliPro® process monitoring system. The
most beneficial aspect for Key Largo is the abil-
Key Largo Wastewater Treatment District Expansion. ity to fully monitor the process, such as real-
time oxidation-reduction potential (ORP),
pH, TSS, and DO concentrations in each SBR
basin. The plant also makes use of a majority
of the system’s additional features, including
active mass control and trending capabilities.
Says Primicierio, “The other beautiful thing
about the DO control is that we’ve actually
seen a cost savings of up to $10,000 a month in
the last year after we’ve dialed the air in, with
regard to time and the DO set point.”
The health of the environment certainly
has an economic impact on the Florida Keys.
Tourism is based on snorkeling, scuba div-
ing, and fishing, and many local livelihoods
depend on the commercial fishing industry
of the Keys. It is extremely important to keep
the environment clean and functioning. As
Key Largo continues to grow, the advanced
nutrient removal technologies and stream-
lined plant optimization technologies from
Aqua-Aerobic Systems will ensure that the
wastewater facility will grow with it, while
protecting the livelihood and habitat of the
region through exceptional water quality.
To learn more about these and other ad-
vanced water and wastewater treatment tech-
nologies from Aqua-Aerobic Systems Inc.
please visit www.aqua-aerobic.com or contact
the company’s local representative in Florida,
Two AquaDisk filters with covers.
Envirosales Inc., at (863) 314-0616. !

Technology Spotlight is a paid feature sponsored by the advertisement on the facing page. The Journal and its publisher do not endorse any product
that appears in this column. If you would like to have your technology featured, contact Mike Delaney at 352-241-6006 or at mike@fwrj.com.

18 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


SPOTLIGHT ON SAFETY

Doug Prentiss Sr.


FWEA Safety Committee
Begins New Leadership
S
ome of you may be aware that the FWEA Our goal is to gather utility professionals with ideas, templates, and business practices
Safety Committee is now under new lead- from around the state in an effort to begin that have proven successful in our experience.
ership and is actively seeking new mem- building a network of folks who have responsi- The FWEA Safety Committee goals are:
bers and participants. The committee is now bility for the safe operation of their water and ! Increase membership and participation in
chaired by Judd Mooso of Destin Water Users, wastewater facilities. The role of safety in our the committee.
and Scott Holowasko, with Gainesville Regional profession can be a daunting task, so it is our ! Provide safety-related information useful to
Utilities, serves as the vice chair. ambition to invigorate the committee and pool FWEA members.
The committee will meet once each year our resources to enable us to reach out and help ! Align safety committee activities with FWEA
during the Florida Water Resources Conference each other along the way. This will be a great op- goals and objectives.
(FWRC) and, at the conference in 2016, it plans portunity to get involved by becoming a volun-
to begin offering safety training classes with con- teer so we can begin to discuss topics of interest Please stop by the meeting if you are
tinuing education units. The instructors will be and plan for the way forward. interested; we’d love to meet you. If you
members of the committee and attendance will This article is our initial effort to determine have any questions, contact Judd Mooso,
be included with registration to the conference. the level of interest. It is not our intent to bur- the FWEA Safety Committee chair, at
This year, FWRC will be held May 3-6 at den anyone with extra work, but rather to es- jmooso@dwuinc.com or at 850-337-3915.
the Caribe Royale Resort in Orlando. The com- tablish an atmosphere that allows us to discuss
mittee will meet on Monday, May 4, at 1 p.m., in any safety issues our companies may face. Ulti- Doug Prentiss Sr. provides a wide range of
Bonnaire Room 5 and 6. mately, we’d like to be able to provide each other safety services throughout Florida. !

20 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


F W R J

Priorities: Getting the Most


From Your Capital Improvement Plan
Jason DeStigter

A
ging water and wastewater infrastruc- ! How improved decision making enhances
ture, managing capital costs, and the value from infrastructure investments and Jason DeStigter, P.E., is a manager within
ability to fund capital programs, are is- new plant and system improvements Black & Veatch’s asset management practice
sues that are continuously ranked by water and ! Examples from a recent utility capital plan- in Overland Park, Kansas.
wastewater utility leaders as the top five indus- ning engagement
try issues in Black & Veatch’s annual report,
“Strategic Directions: U.S. Water Industry.” Building an improved understanding of consistent to capture both the full costs and
The urgency of the highlighted issues risk and how that risk can impact a utility both benefits associated with each improvement or
demonstrates the growing need for compre- financially and in other ways (such as environ- change to an asset or system. Identified projects
hensive asset management programs and solu- mental impacts, safety, etc.) is a key outcome of typically have several investment drivers, such
tions around the prioritization and the process. as growth, regulatory, safety, efficiency or cost
optimization of capital expenditures. savings, repair and rehabilitation, and customer
Good practice asset management focuses Capital Prioritization service.
on balancing performance, cost, and risk. Ad- and Planning The prioritization and optimization
ditionally, a critical component in any asset process has the flexibility to include all of these
management program is the development and The goal of the budget prioritization and different types of projects. Projects are gathered
proper implementation of a robust capital pri- optimization process is to minimize long-term from the current capital improvement plan
oritization and optimization process. system costs, while maintaining high levels of (CIP), master plans, asset management systems,
Over the course of the past decade, Black & service and mitigating unacceptable system and condition assessment evaluations.
Veatch has developed an innovative budget pri- risks. Figure 1 is a high-level flowchart of the Once the candidate projects are deter-
oritization and application process that uses ad- capital prioritization and optimization process mined, a data-collection step validates the in-
vanced analytics to quantify and optimize used to achieve this goal. Each of the steps in puts that will later be used in the prioritization
planning outcomes that explicitly take into ac- the flowchart is described in the subsections process. This helps assure that assumptions are
count uncertainty and risk. that follow the figure. valid, realistic, and reasonable. The required
This article provides an overview of the skill sets that are necessary for this project iden-
process and highlights the following: Project Identification and Justification tification and assumptions evaluation include
! How the process supports improved utility Project identification is a key step to en- engineering, regulatory, commercial/financial,
decision making sure that projects are identified in a manner and utility asset management.

The capital prioritization and optimization


process described helps utilities achieve balance
among performance, cost, and risk through objective Figure 1.
investment planning.

22 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Project Assumptions
Once each project is identified, an associ-
ated assumptions form is completed as part of
the capital prioritization process. A template was
developed to consistently and transparently de-
velop the assumptions necessary for each proj-
ect and it’s tailored to each utility performing
this process. Additionally, this form serves as an
important quality control tool as it ensures as-
sumptions are reviewed prior to their use in the
financial templates.
The form contains a section for qualitative
and quantitative assumptions for each project.
Qualitative assumptions are based on the main
drivers for each utility to complete a project, in-
cluding planning criteria assumptions (e.g., reg-
ulatory, safety, service level, environmental,
criticality, etc.). Each planning criterion is then
scored using predefined scoring scales and def-
initions.
Quantitative assumptions include capital
costs, operations and maintenance (O&M) costs
(before and after the project is completed),
growth rates, potential revenues (if any), failure
costs (including lost revenue), and failure prob-
ability curves. Assumptions are commonly de- Figure 2. Example Probability Distribution
veloped using the results of condition
assessments and by obtaining feedback from
utility staff during a series of assumptions form
workshops. Table 1. Criteria Weighting Factors

Financial Efficiency Simulation and Ranking


The process links each project assump-
tions form to a financial template that is used
for Monte Carlo simulations, which calculate
the range of net present value (NPV) cost for
each project through its life cycle. The proba-
bilistic results generated by the financial tem-
plates form the basis for prioritizing the
financial efficiency and cost-effectiveness of
projects. Rather than single-point estimates, probability distribution of NPV results. This
the results are probability distributions of pro- A benefit of this process is the ability to metric measures the amount of risk or uncer-
jected NPV costs, such as the one depicted in evaluate ranges of potential costs and even tainty mitigated by implementing the project.
Figure 2. avoided costs (e.g., failure costs). By modeling The prioritization process is also used to
In Figure 2, the x-axis of the probability the full range of consequences, project risk ex- identify projects where the financial benefits do
distribution shows the range in NPV capital posure can be evaluated and quantified for de- not necessarily outweigh the costs of doing the
costs for the project given a designated planned cision making purposes. projects. Projects such as these may have addi-
installation year. The y-axis of the distribution In order to take into account the magni- tional factors other than cost that risk influ-
shows the relative probability of a certain cost tude and probability of cost risk, several finan- encing their selection, such as safety
occurring. Input distributions for the following cial efficiency parameters are calculated. These considerations or regulatory constraints. These
assumptions are included in the financial tem- financial efficiency parameters help organize factors are taken into account during the prior-
plate for each candidate project (note: not all the probabilistic results into results that can be itization process through the balanced score re-
projects will include values for all of these as- easily compared across projects for comparison sults discussed later, as well as by constraining
sumptions): and prioritization. the optimization model.
! Capital cost The first parameter is the expected finan- For each project, the optimization model
! O&M before project install cial efficiency of the project that measures a includes constraints on the earliest available in-
! O&M after project install ratio of the NPV benefit of the project com- stall year and the latest required install year to
! Revenue (linear, nonlinear, rate, and volume pared to the project cost. Risk exposure is meas- allow for qualitative drivers to schedule proj-
basis) ured by calculating a risk-mitigated ratio for ects. The next section discusses in further de-
! Failure consequence the project that looks at the extremes of the Continued on page 24

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 23


Continued from page 23 One of the valuable aspects of the finan- through simulations. At this step in the opti-
tail the optimization model. cial efficiency approach is that the financial mization process, projects are timed so that
templates and assumptions forms are able to utility risk tolerance levels are not exceeded.
evaluate a wide variety of project installation The optimization model uses the combi-
Prioritization and Timing of Projects years in a relatively short amount of time nation of the budget scenario and nonfinancial
planning criteria constraints with the NPV re-
sults to maximize the NPV benefit for the util-
Table 2. Example Financial Prioritization Results ity given these constraints. In other words, it
checks every combination of project installa-
tion dates that will:
! Maximize NPV benefit
! Stay within the annual budget and schedule
constraint levels for each scenario

The NPV benefits and budget/schedule


constraints are achieved using a genetic algo-
rithm software tool. Similar to the @Risk™
Monte Carlo simulation software, the optimiza-
tion process uses an off-the-shelf Microsoft
Excel™ add-on software module (Evolver™) to
perform the genetic algorithm. The module
software is a companion tool to the simulation
software as part of the Palisade’s Decision Tools
Suite, which is an integrated set of programs for
risk analysis and decision making.
Project timing optimization is then con-
ducted for all projects to arrive at a portfolio

24 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


optimization result. Particular focus is given to
investments that have a significant budget im- Table 3. Example Project Rankings
pact or are being considered for delay beyond
their planned installation date due to utility
budget constraints.
The projects are first scheduled based on
the risk tolerance levels of the utility. Once all
projects are within the defined risk tolerance,
projects are scheduled based on the maximum
financial benefit to the utility. The result is a
target schedule without regard to budget con-
straints. Next, budget constraints are incorpo-
rated into the scheduling process and any
changes to install years due to budget con-
straints are then recalculated.
In addition to prioritizing projects using
financial efficiency, the planning criteria are
used to balance all relevant nonfinancial issues.
Each project is scored against each planning cri-
terion using a scale of 1 to 10, with standard
definitions and scoring scale for each criterion.
The score is then multiplied with the applica-
ble weighting percent for that criterion to cre-
ate a balanced scorecard result for the project.
Table 1 provides an example of the criteria
weighting factors that a utility can use when de-
veloping the balanced scorecard.
The final step of the prioritization process
is to incorporate planning criteria scores, proj-
ect rankings, and budget constraints into the
implementation schedule.

Process Results
As described previously, the prioritization
process involves combining project prioritiza-
tion based on financial risk with project prior-
itization using a balanced scorecard approach
(financial efficiency and planning criteria).
Table 2 shows the expected outcome NPV re-
sults for a subset of projects for a recent client.
The combination of the quantitative and
qualitative results provides a balanced scorecard
evaluation for each project. Each project is eval-
uated using a weighted criteria matrix scoring
process. In the example in Table 3, four plan-
ning criteria are used in the scoring process:
! Financial efficiency
! Regulatory and environmental
! Safety
! Customer service

Each criterion is defined at the beginning


of the prioritization process before the as-
sumption forms are completed.
Financial efficiency is evaluated using the
financial evaluation template, and the other
three criteria are scored when the assumptions
form is complete. Prioritization results are used Figure 3. Example Prioritization Results
to derive the capital plan schedule in order to
Continued on page 26

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 25


Continued from page 25
schedule projects to minimize financial risk,
while at the same time taking into account the
nonfinancial project drivers. Table 3 is an ex-
ample of the project ranking table results and
Figure 3 visually compares project scores for a
number of example projects.
The prioritization model is used to calcu-
late the risk-weighted 40-year net NPV of fu-
ture cash flows for several scenarios of the full
portfolio of capital projects, including:
! Run-to-failure scenario – assumes projects
are delayed until assets fail or installation is
required for another reason (e.g. regulatory
constraint)
! Current CIP scenario - if the existing CIP is
implemented as planned
! Optimized CIP scenario – if the recom-
mended capital schedule using the opti-
mization results is followed

Figure 4 calculates the risk-weighted fi-


nancial results for all three capital schedules
listed. The Current CIP has an expected out-
Figure 4. 40-Year Net Present Value Cost Comparison for the System come of $76 million in risk-weighted NPV sav-
ings ($247 million minus $171 million results
in $76 million in NPV cost savings), while the
optimized CIP scenario results in an expected
outcome of $89 million in risk-weighted NPV
savings ($247 million minus $158 million).
The current CIP shows a 31 percent re-
duction in NPV cost compared to the run-to-
failure scenario, while the optimized CIP has a
36 percent reduction. The 5 percent additional
reduction, or $13 million, represents a 36 per-
cent decrease in overall system risk through op-
timization of the current CIP, demonstrating
the value of performing capital optimization
even with the same budget constraints.
The results noted in Figure 4 show the risk
reduction from a risk-weighted financial per-
spective. The next set of example results incor-
porate the nonfinancial criteria, in addition to
the financial efficiency results.
The planning criteria score other risks to
the utility that are difficult to quantify from a
financial perspective. For many utilities, these
include well-established triple-bottom-line
scoring criteria. Figure 5 shows the financial
and nonfinancial risk reduction for an example
portfolio of projects and compares it to cumu-
lative capital expenditures by year.
As part of the capital planning process, it is
Figure 5. Portfolio Risk Reduction Compared to Cumulative Capital Spend valuable to understand the risk of delaying a
project so that this risk can be considered in
Most of the forecasted risk reduction achieved by the investments occurs in the first part of the study pe- making budget decisions. Figure 6 is an exam-
riod, while more steady risk reduction occurs during the second half of the period. This validates that ple of what is developed to understand and
near-term capital dollars are being utilized on the projects and assets that expose the utility to the most quantify this risk for each project.
risk, while projects with less or no risk are scheduled later in the study period.
Implementation Schedule
One of the final results of the prioritiza-

26 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


tion process is an optimized implementation
schedule and project rankings that meet utility
risk tolerance levels, achieve maximum cost ef-
fectiveness, and incorporate budget constraints.
The planning criteria scoring matrix is used
to calibrate the scheduling of projects to ensure
that nonfinancial criticality scores are incorpo-
rated in the planning process appropriately. For
some clients, the balanced scorecard prioritization
results are used as the primary prioritization and
optimization metric to drive the capital plan
schedule. Figure 7 shows an example implemen-
tation schedule for the optimized CIP.
For this example, since the budget con-
straint is based on an existing CIP, the optimiza-
tion model allows for unused funds to be carried
over from year to year. A corresponding set of
prioritization results (similar to the example
NPV and balanced scorecard tables and figures)
match the optimized schedule shown in figure 7.

Conclusion Figure 6. Project Delay Impact


Good practice asset management pro-
The figure shows the NPV cost of a two-year delay (moving from the optimized blue curve to the grey
grams strive to optimally balance performance,
‘two-year delay’ curve). As the project is further delayed, the NPV of cost will approach the run-to-
Continued on page 28 failure cost range (red-dashed curve).

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 27


Continued from page 27
cost, and risk across the enterprise. Through
good practice asset management, decision mak-
ing is made more objective and investments are
better aligned with the utility strategic plan.
Capital prioritization enables objective deci-
sion making because it is driven by explicit finan-
cial risk results and a balanced scorecard that
incorporates nonfinancial project and system
drivers.
The incorporation of budget constraints
and integration with a utility financial/rate
model enable the prioritization and optimiza-
tion process and help drive integrated planning
across the utility. The results provide an impor-
tant bridge between a utility financial plan (typ-
ically focused on balancing cost) and the
balancing of system risk and performance,
along with customer cost impacts.
Ultimately, the entire process helps utility
management take a long-term and objective
Figure 7. Capital Schedule: Optimized CIP Under Budget Constraint view towards achieving value for customers
through the balancing of performance, cost,
The stacked bar charts in the figure break down the total capital cost by the various asset and risk. The water utility client referenced in
classes shown in the legend. The red curve shows the budget constraint used in the opti- this article, for example, identified more than
mization process. $10 million in savings through capital prioriti-
zation, without affecting risk levels. !

28 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR
SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY!
May
4-7 ....Backflow Tester ........................................Deltona ............$375/405
18-21 ....Backflow Tester ........................................St. Petersburg ....$375/405
18-22 ....Stormwater Level C, B ..............................Deltona ............$260/280
29 ....Backflow Tester Recert*** ........................Deltona ............$85/115

June
8-12 ....Wastewater Collection C, B ....................Deltona ............$325/355
15-18 ....Backflow Tester ........................................St. Petersburg ....$375/405
22-26 ....Wastewater Collection A..........................Deltona ............$275/305
22-26 ....Water Distribution 1 ................................Deltona ............$275/305
22-26 ....Stormwater A ............................................Deltona ............$275/305
26 ....Backflow Tester Recert*** ........................Deltona ............$85/115

July
6-10 ....Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....Deltona ............$350/380
13-15 ....Backflow Repair ........................................St. Petersburg ....$275/305
24 ....Backflow Tester Recert*** ........................Deltona ............$85/115
27-30 ....Backflow Tester ........................................Deltona ............$375/405

Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional


information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please
contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org.

* Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow


Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona You are required to have your
** Evening classes own calculator at state short schools
*** any retest given also
and most other courses.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 29


Certification Boulevard
Test Your Knowledge of Operations
and Utility Management Topics
5. What safety precaution should be taken 9. What 15-minute test will help to identify
when starting a positive displacement pump? the concentration of aeration mixed
liquor suspended solids (MLSS) or
A. The discharge valve should be closed. thickened sludge from a gravity belt
Roy Pelletier B. The inlet valve must be grounded. thickener system?
C. The discharge valve must be opened.
D. There should be no people near the A. Laboratory total suspended solids
1. What is the best parameter to use pump. (TSS)
indicating that trouble is starting in an B. Settleometer
anaerobic digester? 6. What is the system called that requires C. Centrifuge spindown
proper documentation associated with the D. Sludge judge
A. Increase in carbon dioxide person who collects samples, the person
B. Decrease in pH who receives the samples in the lab, and 10. A spray field has a total of 25 acres and is
C. Increase in sludge volume the lab technician who performs the tests? divided into four equal zones. Only one
D. Increase in volatile acid/alkalinity zone may be operated at a time and the
relationship A. Sample performance permit states that no more than 4 in. of
B. Chain of custody water can be applied to the zone. How
2. If polymer consumed in a belt filter press C. Mapping long can a zone be operated at a rate of
(BFP) is identified to be about $25 per D. Sample journal 0.5 mil gal per day (mgd) before it must
dry ton, is this an acceptable cost of be rotated to another zone?
polymer usage for a BFP? 7. What is a typical percent volatile content
of activated sludge mixed liquor A. 48 hours B. 1.4 days
A. No, it is way too high. suspended solids for municipal activated C. 4.2 days D. 144 hours
B. Yes, this is acceptable. sludge processes?
C. There is not enough data to calculate
this parameter. A. 5 to 15 percent Answers on page 62
B. 30 to 40 percent
3. Which of the following is a harmful C. 50 to 60 percent
physical agent to microbiology? D. 70 to 80 percent

A. Hydrochloric acid B. Methane 8. Of the items in the list of answers, what


SEND US YOUR
C. Solvents D. Temperature may be the FIRST corrective action taken QUESTIONS
to resolve suspended flocculation
4. Which term is most related to vector conditions in a secondary clarifier if the
attraction reduction in an aerobic microscopic exam reveals an abundance Readers are welcome to submit
of filamentous organisms? questions or exercises on water
digester?
or wastewater treatment plant
operations for publication in
A. Settleometer A. Decrease the dissolved oxygen (DO)
Certification Boulevard. Send
B. Pathogen B. Increase the DO
your question (with the answer)
C. Specific oxygen utilization rate C. Increase the waste activated sludge or your exercise (with the
(SOUR) (WAS) rate solution) by email to:
D. Food-to-mass ratio (F/M) D. Reduce the return activated sludge roy.pelletier@cityoforlando.net,
(RAS) rate or by mail to:

LOOKING FOR ANSWERS? Roy Pelletier


Wastewater Project Consultant
Check the Archives City of Orlando
Public Works Department
Are you new to the water and wastewater field? Want to boost your knowledge
Environmental Services
about topics youʼll face each day as a water/wastewater professional?
Wastewater Division
All past editions of Certification Boulevard through 2000 are available on the Florida
Water Environment Associationʼs website at www.fwea.org. Click the “Site Map” button 5100 L.B. McLeod Road
on the home page, then scroll down to the Certification Boulevard Archives, located Orlando, FL 32811
below the Operations Research Committee. 407-716-2971

30 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE
This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

Kristiana Dragash, winner of the


University of Florida Team. 2014 YP of the Year award. University of Miami team.

Students and Young Professionals (S&YP) Committee


Affiliation: Federation Technical Exhibition and FWRC:
FWEA Conference (WEFTEC) to participate in the • Student Design Competition
national competition. The USF took first place • Career Panel/Resume Workshop (part of the
Current chair: in the wastewater category and UMiami took SDC)
Danielle Bertini, Carollo Engineers fourth place in the environmental category. • First Annual S&YP Poster Competition
Florida teams continue to do well in • Joint AWWA/FWEA YP Social
Scope of work: representing the state at the national level!
To develop and implement programs to This is also the first year we are hosting the Future work:
increase the activity and membership of students S&YP Poster Competition at the Florida Water Our goals for 2015/2016 include:
and young professionals within the association. Resources Conference (FWRC). Students and • Continuing to provide guidance and
We support and invest in our students and young young professionals will be presenting their assistance to local universities.
professionals by hosting the Student Design projects and research outside the exhibit hall. • Expanding our student outreach efforts to
Competition (SDC) and Poster Competition, Poster themes will include wastewater grade school students.
awarding the Norm Casey Scholarship, selecting engineering, water resources, and other • Promoting both engineering and
the YP of the Year, and coordinating various YP environmental/sustainability topics. nonengineering career tracks.
events throughout the state. • Hosting a student paper competition at the
Current projects: 2016 FWRC.
Recent accomplishments: Lindsay Marten, with Stantec in Sarasota, • Fundraising so we can continue to offer
This past year, our committee has focused on: was recently selected as the 2015 YP of the Year. benefits to our participants/award winners
• Establishing a stronger connection with Lindsay was recognized for her dynamic
colleges throughout the state. leadership and involvement with FWEA this Committee members:
• Providing more guidance to faculty advisors past year and her potential as a future FWEA • Tim Ware, vice chair, American Water
and students earlier in the competition leader. She will be representing Florida at the • Kristiana Dragash, director at large, Carollo
process. national AWWA/WEF YP Summit in 2016. Engineers
• Connecting students with industry The S&YP Committee will also be hosting • Rebecca Oliva, past chair, CDM Smith
professionals and/or local utilities. several events on Monday, May 4, 2015, at • Isaac Holowell, CDM Smith
• Samantha Hanzel, Greeley & Hansen
We have accomplished these by • David Hernandez, Hazen & Sawyer
streamlining the information given to the • Kristen Andre, Arcadis
students and by reaching out to local utilities • Lauren Davis, Arcadis
and industry professionals to provide problem • Matt Munz, MWH
statements or act as a mentor. Committee • George Dick, University of South Florida
members have also visited most universities to • Yanni Polematidis, CDM Smith
promote the SDC . • Samantha Nehme, Stantec !
Last year, the University of South Florida
(USF) and the University of Miami (UMiami),
won first place in their categories at the SDC. Tim Ware and Danielle Bertini, committee vice chair
We sent both teams to the Water Environment and chair.

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 31


FWRJ READER PROFILE

cadets on all classes that pertain to water Environmental Protection (FDEP) Class
distribution. 1 Distribution System Operator License
I am also an instructor for FWPCOA on- No. 0016478. I have served on the FDEP
the-road classes for water distribution, level two Technical Advisory Committees and am
and level three, and classes for backflow currently serving on the Exam Review
assembly tester certification and backflow repair Committee, Office of Certification
and maintenance certification. I attended the Programs for Water Distribution.
first backflow assembly tester certification class
taught in Florida at the University of Florida How has the organizations helped your
Training, Research, and Education for career?
Environmental Occupations (TREEO) Center The FWPCOA has played a key role
in 1979. throughout my career as a water
distribution operator. Networking with
Raymond Bordner What do you like best about your job? other dedicated and professional
Retired Water distribution has been my livelihood operators from around the state has
and passion for the past 46 years. As an provided me with a wealth of information
Work title and years of service. instructor I really do enjoy passing on what I in the professional operation and
I worked for City of St. Petersburg as the have learned over the years to those who are maintenance of water systems,
water distri-bution supervisor and retired after currently oversee the maintenance and information and support that can only be
37 years of service. For the past nine years I operation of water distribution systems, as well gained through personal contact with
have worked part time for Pinellas Technical as those who protect distribution systems from other dedicated and knowledgeable
College as an instructor for the Public Works cross-connection through backflow prevention operators.
Academy. I teach classes for the academy’s cadet programs.
program and for the water distribution What do you like best about the
apprenticeship program. What organizations do you belong to? industry?
I have been a member of FWPCOA since I was born and raised in Florida and
What does your job entail? 1982 serving the association and its members as have seen many changes in the state’s
As a water distribution supervisor my committee chair of the Systems Operators water environment. Having the
responsibilities included the field services Committee for over 10 years. I also serve on the knowledge and understanding that there
division (meters, backflow prevention, and Education Committee and Backflow are so many dedicated and professional
reclaimed water), valve and hydrant Committee. I am an honorary life member of members of FWPCOA, FSAWWA, and
maintenance, new small services, and the association and had the honor of serving as FWEA who work around the clock to
horizontal directional drilling sections. At the its president in 2011 and 2012. protect Florida’s water and ensure that
Public Works Academy I instruct academy I hold an active Florida Department of there will be plenty of clean safe water for
future generations who visit or who call
Florida their home is heartening.
I’m proud that I have had the
opportunity to play a small part in
protecting our drinking water supplies as
that water flows through a water
distribution system so no one who visits
or resides here will have to ask, “Is the
water I am about to use safe?”

What do you do when you’re not


working?
My life outside my profession is my
family. I cannot spend enough time with
my grandchildren, John Ray and Katie.
They have a special way of making me
think that I am younger than I am and I
enjoy every minute of time I have with
them.
I also enjoy ridding my Honda
Shadow on back roads, relaxing and
refreshing my spirit with the wind
blowing in my face while enjoying our
beautiful state. !

32 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


University of Central Florida
Receives Gift for Engineering Department
Student researchers at the mation to share as a guest lecturer tal engineering research. “It has sincerely been a pleas-
University of Central Florida during Dr. Steve Duranceau’s envi- Jones Edmunds’ partnership ure to work with the University of
(UCF) College of Engineering were ronmental systems engineering de- with the engineering department Central Florida for all these years
very lucky this St. Patrick’s Day sign class. In addition to his dates back more than a decade. In and see our relationship continue
when they were visited by the Jones engineering expertise, Edmunds the past 10 years, it has contributed to grow,” said Edmunds. “Our firm
Edmunds cofounder and director, also presented a check from his nearly $100,000 toward UCF’s re- is constantly impressed by the work
Bob Edmunds. firm for $15,000 to the University search in water quality, treatment, of these students and proud to con-
Edmunds arrived at UCF on of Central Florida Research Foun- storage, and distribution of tribute to their education. We look
March 17 with a wealth of infor- dation in support of environmen- portable water systems. forward to seeing the impact they
have in the field of environmental
engineering.”
The firm and the university’s
engineering team recently worked
together on the design of the Polk
County Imperial Lakes Water
Treatment Plant. Soon after it was
placed into operation, Duranceau
and several of his students toured
the facility. The university helped
with the pilot testing for the plant’s
treatment technology, which was a
good way to “close the loop” with
the students and let them see the
Dr. Steve Duranceau (middle left) receives check from Bob Edmunds (middle right). finished product.

34 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT

Florida Section AWWA Hosts Regional


Meeting of Section Officers
ideas with other sections. This year was certainly nity to relax and get to know other section lead-
Mark Lehigh no different. ers in a casual, laid-back atmosphere.
Chair, FSAWWA Planning for this event started at the 2014 The meetings kicked off first thing Thurs-
Florida Water Resources Conference and day morning with an informative presentation
ramped up at our Fall Conference at the end of by AWWA Treasurer David Rager on “AWWA

E
very ten years the last year. With so many locations throughout the 2020 : A Path to One AWWA.” His talk was based
Florida Section of state to choose from for the meeting site, it was on the AWWA strategic plan and its five main
AWWA gets the op- a difficult decision to settle on one. Grace Johns, pillars:
portunity to host the Association’s Regional the current FSAWWA vice chair, had such vision ! First, that sections are AWWA’s primary busi-
Meeting of Section Officers (RMSO). It was our and passion to have the event in Key Largo that ness partner.
turn again this year, and on March 25-27, we we choose it by a unanimous decision. Grace ! Second, that AWWA is a provider of total
took the opportunity to show off Florida and took the lead and treated everyone to a beauti- water solutions.
the section. ful location and perfectly planned event. Thank ! Third, that while AWWA is a North Ameri-
The AWWA structure has its 43 sections you, Grace! Our guest section leaders and can association, its impact is felt globally.
grouped into five regions in North America. AWWA staff were given a front-row seat to some ! Fourth, that utilities are core members.
Florida is a part of Region II, along with the fol- of the best natural scenery and entertainment ! And lastly, that this would be a plan for all of
lowing sections in the southeast region: North Florida has to offer. AWWA.
Carolina, South Carolina, Puerto Rico, West Vir- On Wednesday, March 25, as everyone ar-
ginia, Alabama-Mississippi, Georgia, Virginia, rived, the Florida Section hosted a meet and Most of the rest of the day was dedicated to
and Kentucky-Tennessee. greet reception. We were trolleyed over from the section members sharing ideas about member-
What is RMSO you ask? It’s a great oppor- hotel to a glass-bottom boat to take us to our ship and education. This is one of my favorite
tunity! And it’s a yearly opportunity for section destination. As we floated on top of the crystal components of RMSO. These sharing opportu-
leadership to meet with AWWA staff and other clear water and glided across the Molasses Reef, nities have transitioned from annual reports of
section leaders from our region. These meetings we were treated to a beautiful display of coral, general section activities to topical, focused dis-
are one of the most important tools for gaining fish, turtles, and even a shark. There were a lot of cussions. The quality of information shared has
updated information on AWWA and sharing oohs and aahs from all. It was a great opportu- led to greater adoption of new ideas, programs,

Viewing sea life through the glass bottom boat. Attendees share their ideas at one of the meetings.

36 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Tom Curtis had the honor of sounding the ship’s horn
FSAWWA staff and officers, and meeting attendees, at the hosted dinner. at sunset.

and initiatives among the sister sections. These


are the ideas and programs that work—the
things that the other sections are doing that are
successful and bring value back to the member-
ship.
This is the true value of RMSO and why it’s
such a successful event. You leave re-energized,
with a handful of ideas and opportunities to
serve your members. You build relationships
with the other sections in your region that con-
tinue throughout the year. The ideas are not just
shared; sections make them a reality by sup-
porting and assisting each other to become
“One AWWA.”
The evening was capped off with a recep-
tion and dinner at Snooks Bayside Restaurant.
The weather was perfect, the sunset was gor-
geous, the food was tasty, and the fellowship was
enjoyed by all 96 attendees. It was simply a per-
fect location and a great event hosted by the sec- Items available for bid at the Water For People auction.
tion. Thanks again to Grace Johns for taking the
time to plan and coordinate this event and to
Hazen and Sawyer for supporting her.
Early Friday morning the sections assem- Poole coordinated this effort and brought in On a side note, we missed seeing Christo-
bled again for an informative presentation on many eclectic, Florida-made and Florida- pher McGinness, our section services manager
branding and a legislative update from AWWA themed items, from art work and jewelry to an from AWWA. He was pulled away by a last-
Deputy Executive Director Tom Curtis. Tom autographed picture of Dale Earnhardt Sr. to minute, but very welcome new addition to his
provided a recap of the recent DC Fly-In, which craft beer and wine. We also offered items from family! Congratulations Christopher, from the
is held every year to inform new legislators in some of the countries where Water For People Florida Section and all the members of Region
Washington about drinking water issues. He has its projects. The Puerto Rico Section II.
pointed out some the key issues on Capitol Hill, brought a bottle of Rum that kicked off a bid- I’m looking forward to the meeting next
chanting his mantra “Free WIFIA.” ding war and was won by a Florida Section rep- year and the opportunity to renew old friend-
The event was capped off with a silent auc- resentative. This was a fun and successful event ships, build new ones, and steal some more great
tion to raise money for Water For People. Barika that raised over $1500. ideas! !

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 37


Turning a Pollutant Into
a Resource: An Overview of
Nutrient Removal and Recovery at
Water Resource Recovery Facilities
Barry Liner and Sam Jeyanayagam Select species of bacteria can accumulate aeration basin together with BOD oxidation, as
phosphorus, while others can transform nitro- they both require aerobic conditions. In con-
In excess, nutrients can be harmful water gen, and a few can do both. Achieving significant trast, denitrification takes place in an anoxic re-
pollutants. Nutrients are found in agricultural reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus re- actor with the nitrate providing the required
and home fertilizers, as well as agricultural op- quires careful design, analysis, and process con- oxygen. As denitrification occurs, nitrogen gas
erations. Sources include confined animal feed- trol to optimize the environment of is produced and released safely into the atmos-
ing operations, industrial pretreatment facilities, nutrient-removing organisms. The uptake of nu- phere, where nitrogen gas is more abundant
septic systems, and water resource recovery fa- trients and growth of microorganisms could be than oxygen. Nitrogen gas is inert and does not
cilities (WRRFs), as well as municipal and in- inhibited by a limiting nutrient, available carbon, pollute the atmosphere.
dustrial stormwater runoff. or other factors, including oxygen levels. When performing biological nitrogen re-
According to the U.S. Environmental Pro- Some nutrient removal systems rely on two moval, it is important that the activated sludge
tection Agency (EPA), more than 100,000 mi2 of separate processes for nitrogen and phosphorus has enough available carbon to sustain denitri-
rivers and streams, close to 2.5 million acres of removal. In some cases, BNR is used to remove fication. The bacteria that mediate denitrifica-
lakes and ponds, and more than 800 mi2 of bays the majority of nitrogen and phosphorus, and tion need carbon to build new cells as they
and estuaries are affected by nitrogen and phos- then chemical methods are used to further re- remove nitrogen. This means that utilities must
phorus pollution. Excess nutrients can lead to duce phosphorus concentrations. Mainstream make decisions on how best to use the carbon
algal blooms, which can produce toxins and re- nutrient treatment takes place within the typical for the combinations of nutrient removal/re-
sult in hypoxic zones. Algal blooms cost the plant process flow. However, sidestream treat- covery, energy generation, and/or recovery of
tourism industry some $1 billion annually. ment refers to liquid resulting from biosolids value-added nonnutrient products.
These substantial impacts are the reason regu- treatment (anaerobic digestion and dewatering) The nitrogen removal rate is also depend-
latory nutrient limits are expanding across the that is intercepted with an additional treatment ent on the amount of time that sludge spends in
country. goal—to remove nutrients from a concentrated the reactor (solids retention time), the reactor
stream and minimize mainstream impacts. Like temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and in-
Nutrient Removal at WRRFs mainstream nutrient treatment processes, side- hibitory compounds. Optimal conditions differ
Nutrient management begins with nutri- stream treatment can also vary from biological for nitrification and denitrification, but both
ent removal to meet permit requirements. The to physical and chemical removal methods. can be carried out simultaneously in the same
WRRFs can achieve very low nutrient discharges unit if anoxic and aerobic zones exist. Some
through a variety of processes, primarily bio- Nitrogen Removal process configurations, such as oxidation
logical nutrient removal (BNR), physical sepa- Nitrogen can be removed from wastewater ditches and sequencing batch reactors, combine
ration, and chemical methods. Most through physiochemical methods, such as air nitrification and denitrification within a single
technologies capable of removing both nitrogen stripping at high pH, but it is more cost-efficient tank, while others incorporate two separate
and phosphorus utilize BNR, which relies on to use BNR. Conventionally, this method utilizes stages. Nitrogen removal processes can also be
bacteria to transform nutrients present in waste- the natural nitrogen cycle, which relies on am- broken down into two categories based on
water. In BNR, bacteria are exposed to the in- monia-oxidizing bacteria to transform ammo- whether bacteria are suspended within the waste
fluent from primary treatment. The selection of nia into nitrites (NO2-) after which stream or fixed to media. Examples include in-
a BNR process should be based on influent flow nitrite-oxidizing bacteria form nitrates (NO3- tegrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) and
and loadings, such as biochemical oxygen de- )—a process called nitrification. Other species denitrification filters.
mand (BOD), nutrient concentrations, and of bacteria can transform these compounds into A method of nitrogen removal that has
other constituents, as well as target effluent re- nitrogen, a harmless gas (N2)—a process called gained favor over the past decade is deammoni-
quirements. denitrification. Nitrification can occur in the Continued on page 40

38 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 39
Continued from page 38 Phosphorus Removal ficiency. It is common practice to add a standby
fication, a two-step process that avoids nitrate Unlike nitrogen, phosphorus cannot be re- chemical system to account for poor EBPR per-
formation. Aerobic ammonia oxidation to ni- moved from wastewater as a gas. Instead, it must formance. Many existing biological nitrogen re-
trite occurs in the first phase, then nitrogen gas be removed in particulate form through chem- moval processes can be modified to remove
is produced through anaerobic ammonium ox- ical, biological, or hybrid chemical–biological phosphorus by adding an anaerobic phase.
idation, also known as Anammox, which is a bi- processes, or nanoprocesses. Nano methods in- However, economic and environmental
ological process carried out by specialized volve membranes and include reverse osmosis, trade-offs exist, such as greenhouse gas produc-
bacteria that oxidize ammonia, and nitrite is nanofiltration, and electrodialysis reversal. tion in the form of nitrous oxide, as well as in-
used as an electron acceptor (oxygen source) Chemical methods (chem-P) typically utilize creased energy demands. Nutrient removal
under anaerobic conditions. metal ions, such as alum or ferric chloride. techniques can also affect biogas production
These compounds bind with phosphorus and and dewatering. The dewatering process is neg-
cause it to precipitate and be removed by sedi- atively affected by bio-P. During anaerobic di-
mentation and filtration. Chemical methods are gestion, flow from the bio-P process can
influenced by a number of factors, including the decrease the efficiency of dewatering and re-
phosphorus species, choice of chemical, chemi- quire additional polymer as a coagulant, partic-
cal-to-phosphorus ratio, the location and num- ularly when there are fewer beneficial metal
ber of feed points, mixing, and pH. ions, such as iron and aluminum.
Enhanced biological phosphorus removal
(EBPR, or bio-P) relies on phosphorus-accumu- From Removal to Recovery
lating organisms (PAOs) capable of removing Beyond simply removing nutrients,
phosphorus in excess of metabolic requirements. WRRFs also can reclaim nutrients. Recovery not
While many factors impact the EBPR process, only prevents nutrients from entering water-
the two most important requirements are avail- bodies, but provides a supply of these essential
ability of a readily biodegradable carbon source resources. The most straightforward way of re-
(food) and cycling of the PAOs between anaero- covering nutrients is through biosolids. The EPA
bic and aerobic conditions. In the anaerobic estimates that the approximately 16,000 WRRFs
zone, PAOs take up and store carbon. The energy in the United States generate about 7 million
required for this is obtained by releasing inter- tons of biosolids. About 60 percent of these
nally stored phosphorus. In the subsequent aer- biosolids are beneficially applied to agricultural
obic zone, the stored carbon is assimilated and land, with only 1 percent of crops actually fer-
the energy is used to uptake excess phosphorus. tilized with biosolids. However, generating solid
Consequently, the design and operation of fertilizer from biosolids is the most common
EBPR systems must consider the availability of a method of nutrient recovery from wastewater.
readily biodegradable carbon source (such as Wastewater operations that have adopted
volatile fatty acids) and the integrity of the the “principles of becoming a utility of the fu-
anaerobic zone by eliminating dissolved oxygen ture” are using the nutrient removal process to
and/or nitrate contributions from the influent, produce marketable products beyond simple
return streams, and backflow from the down- biosolids, including nutrients, energy, electric-
stream aerobic zone. As with biological nitrogen ity, and vehicle fuels. Phosphorus used for fer-
removal, oxygen levels, solids retention time, and tilizer is a finite resource, with some estimating
temperature play an important role in EBPR ef- that demand will outpace supply within the next

Nutrient removal is an essential part of wastewater treatment to help prevent algal blooms, as shown in this 2011
satellite photo of an especially severe case in Lake Erie. (Credit: MERIS/NASA; processed by
NOAA/NOS/NCCOS)

40 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


century. In a similar vein, ammonia is produced o Struvite precipitation and recovery. By this roadmap provides a straightforward, high-level
via the Haber-Bosch process, which consumes method, both phosphorus and ammo- framework for planning, implementing, and
natural gas (a nonrenewable resource), is an en- nium can be simultaneously recovered, evaluating different steps of a net-zero nutrient
ergy-intensive process, and is associated with producing a high-quality fertilizer from discharge strategy and can be found at
greenhouse gas emissions. Interest in recovering some sidestream systems. www.wef.org/nutrientroadmap.
nutrients from wastewater has increased over o Other methods of phosphate precipitation
the last decade. However, the maturity of nutri- such as brushite are also becoming common. Note: The information provided in this article
ent recovery technologies varies, and each has ! Water reuse is designed to be educational. It is not intended to
its advantages and disadvantages. o Irrigation with reclaimed water can have provide any type of professional advice including
Sidestream treatment of sludge and sludge some nitrogen and phosphorus benefits. without limitation legal, accounting, or engineering.
liquor, where nutrients are more concentrated, is ! Chemical recovery Your use of the information provided here is volun-
generally the preferable target for nutrient recov- o Structural materials can be obtained from tary and should be based on your own evaluation
ery, but resource recovery complexity can vary carbonates and phosphorus compounds. and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your
widely depending on local conditions. In addition o Proteins and other chemicals, such as am- use, and any potential risks of using the information.
to nutrients, there are other types of products that monia, hydrogen peroxides, and methanol, The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author,
can be recovered, such as metals, heat, and potable can be recovered. and the publisher of this article assume no liability of
or drinking water, which may bring financial re- o Solids can be stored for future mining. any kind with respect to the accuracy or complete-
wards and benefits to help offset utility costs. ness of the contents and specifically disclaim any im-
These are some nutrient-based and other A Roadmap to Nutrient Recovery plied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use
resources that can be recovered at a WRRF: With the complexity of nutrient removal for a particular purpose. Any references included are
! Solid fertilizer from biosolids and recovery alternatives available, utility staff provided for informational purposes only and do not
o Land application of biosolids recycles ni- may wonder how to move forward to address constitute endorsement of any sources.
trogen, phosphorus, carbon, and other current needs or plan for future impacts of nu-
macronutrients. trient limits. The Water Environment Federa-
o Soil blends and composts are potential tion (Alexandria, Va.) has released a Nutrient Barry Liner, Ph.D., P.E., is director of the
phosphorus recovery products. Roadmap to support the movement toward Water Environment Federation (WEF) Water Sci-
o Incinerator ash is also a source of phos- smarter and sustainable nutrient management ence & Engineering Center. Sam Jeyanayagam,
phorus for recovery. in the context of each WRRF’s specific regula- Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, is chair of the WEF Nutrient
! Solid fertilizer from the treatment process tory climate and stakeholder preference. The Roadmap publication task force. !

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 41


F W R J

Wastewater Treatment Cost Reduction:


Stabilizing Chlorine Demand in
Wastewater Effluent
Charles Nichols, David Carr, Mark Lowenstine, and Craig Fuller

T
he operation of wastewater treatment fa- mgd, with peak month averages approaching
cilities requires significant expense, espe- 3 mgd. Charles Nichols is a regional wastewater
cially when the facilities must provide The wastewater effluent from the Facility treatment supervisor, David Carr is a
public access reuse or advanced wastewater has average effluent qualities of 1/0.5/4/1.5 mg/l wastewater treatment plant operator, and
treatment-quality water. The highest expenses as defined previously. The contribution of am- Mark Lowenstine is the water and
are normally for power, operations, equipment monia as nitrogen averages approximately 0.1 wastewater manager with Polk County
maintenance, and chemicals. If the facility uti- mg/l, which is especially important to note due Utilities in Winter Haven. Craig Fuller, P.E., is
lizes sodium hypochlorite for primary and to its high consumption rate of chlorine. Dur- a senior water and wastewater engineer at
residual disinfection, these are often the highest ing the past two years, the Facility has had an AECOM in Bartow.
chemical costs. A new low-cost addition at Polk average total chlorine use of approximately 18.2
County’s Northeast Regional Wastewater Treat- mg/l +/- 7.2 mg/l (1.96 sigma), with an effluent
ment Facility (Facility) has lowered the con- residual averaging 3 mg/l. This equates to a con-
sumption of disinfection chemicals, while sumption of 15.2 mg/l with greater than 50 per- ure 1 shows the monthly average chlorine use
maintaining a more constant residual. The Fa- cent variability. Removing the months of as a dosage (mg/l) before the shade balls were
cility has been able to stabilize chlorine demand January and February 2013 due to assisting a installed. The months of January and February
and lower the total chlorine demand, while not facility owned by others that was known to have 2013 were removed due to an unusual event
significantly modifying the existing infrastruc- higher than typical ammonia and CBOD5 lev- when the Facility treated flow from another
ture. Additional benefits include lowered main- els, the average total chlorine use was approxi- source that required higher than normal chlo-
tenance costs and lower algal growth. The small mately 17.5 mg/l +/- 5.9 mg/l. This would rine utilization.
addition to the Facility is the Environmental equate to a consumption of 14.5 mg/l with 47 With chlorine demand and variability so
Control Company’s floating balls, also known as percent variability over a two-year period. Fig- high and with minimal inorganic demand, Polk
shade balls, to cover the chlorine contact basins
(see photo).

Chlorine Demand Before Shade Balls


The Facility is an existing wastewater
treatment facility rated for an average annual
treatment capacity of 6 mil gal per day (mgd),
capable of treatment with effluent discharging
below 5/5/5/3 mg/l as five-day carbonaceous
biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5), total
suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN),
and total phosphorous (TP). The Facility cur-
rently treats an annual average daily flow of 2.5

Figure 1. Chlorine Dose at Facility Without Shade Balls

42 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


County decided to investigate options for de- culations for evaporation, the average amount This leaves an average of approximately 7.4
creasing the total chlorine demand. The County of chlorine lost due to evaporation can be esti- mg/l of chlorine consumed by UV or oxidation
considered installing an overhead shade at the mated. The calculations assume an average con- of material growth. Both UV consumption and
Facility to decrease the temperature and ultravi- centration in the contact basin of 8 mg/l, a water the evaporation consumption are highly vari-
olet (UV) consumption of chlorine. The County temperature of 27°C, and an average wind speed able and depend on atmospheric conditions.
has installed an overhead shade at the Northwest of 10 mi per hour (mph), which are similar con-
Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility (North- ditions to the average in Davenport. Theoretical Calculations
west Facility) with good results, and the County The chlorine average loss due to evapora- for Shade Ball Addition
desired to implement similar measures through- tion is estimated to be approximately 1.1 mg/l. It
out its service area. At the Facility, the chlorine should be noted that this calculation assumes The addition of the shade balls had some
contact basins had a much larger footprint than the evaporation losses of water to be relatively apparent benefits. The majority of the chlorine
the Northwest Facility, and the installation of an inconsequential compared to the losses of chlo- contact basin liquid was shaded from sunlight,
overhead shade would have been much more ex- rine (Sung, H.M.); it should also be noted that resulting in lower temperatures and lower UV
pensive. The County found a less invasive option the main contributor to the losses is wind. Al- light exposure. Reviewing literature from the
by contacting a neighboring utility. The City of though temperature plays a role, it is relatively manufacturer, the balls would cover 91 percent
Lakeland (City) had been utilizing the floating constant. While vapor pressure of chlorine in- of the surface where they are applied, effectively
balls to limit algal growth in a basin within the creases at elevated temperatures, the solubility allowing only 9 percent of the water to be ex-
County. The City had decided to decommission capabilities of water increases. If the water tem- posed to UV light. The added benefit was that
the use of the balls, and the County requested the perature increases 10°C (a greater variability with only 9 percent of the water surface being
use of the balls for trial purposes. By inserting than exists in the effluent), the losses only in- exposed, there was significantly less area for the
the floating balls into the chlorine contact at the crease by 0.5 mg/l. However, if the wind speed chlorine to off-gas from the liquid where the
Facility, it had hoped to accomplish similar re- increases by 10 mph, the losses increase by 0.8 balls are present. This would notably decrease
sults to the overhead shade, but found that addi- mg/l. The following equation shows example the variability of evaporation losses and de-
tional benefits were gained and results were calculations: crease the consumption of chlorine. Based on
better than expected. the area exposed and the decreased chlorine de-
mand, it is estimated that the average chlorine
Chlorine Calculations losses from evaporation should decrease from
approximately 1.1 mg/l to 0.2 mg/l, or a reduc-
The County’s chlorine use at the Facility is E = Evaporation rate in lb/min tion of 0.9 mg/l in chlorine demand.
attributable to disinfection and maintenance U = Wind speed in m/s The UV and other materials demand
use. Disinfection chlorine consumed in a con- M = Molecular weight of compound should decrease by at least the same level. As-
tact basin is attributable to the initial demand A = Area of exposed liquid surface in ft2 suming that the UV losses were decreased by the
(CBOD5, inorganics), evaporation losses (off- Pv = Partial vapor pressure of compound evap- fractional area where the shade balls were added,
gassing), UV losses, and losses due to oxidation orated it is expected that the UV demand will drop
of unwanted material growth in the basin. The T = Absolute temperature in kelvin from 7.4 mg/l to 1.9 mg/l, or a reduction of 5.5
initial demand was already minimized through mg/l in chlorine demand.
treatment process optimization in the chlorine To calculate the partial pressure using Adding the chlorine consumption savings
contact basin, but the other losses were still af- Raoult’s Law, the vapor pressure of chlorine at together, it is estimated that the shade balls
fecting the operational stability of the Facility. the known temperature must be considered. would save approximately 6.4 mg/l of chlorine.
The initial demand can be directly meas- Utilizing the Air Liquide Encyclopedia, the pure This would be a drop in total chlorine con-
ured by comparing the dose to the residual im- vapor pressure is 7 bar (5,250 mmHg). With a sumption from 14.5 mg/l to 8.1 mg/l (excluding
mediately after dose. Before the shade balls were mol fraction of 2.03 X 10-6, the partial pressure the effluent residual). Decreasing outside de-
put into the Facility, the average dosage was de- of chlorine gas is approximately 0.011 mmHg. mands, such as UV and evaporation, should
sired to be approximately 13.5 mg/l, leaving an The other losses (UV and oxidation of un- also decrease the variability of the chlorine de-
8 mg/l just after dose. The target set point was wanted materials) can be grouped together as mand. As demonstrated previously, the chlorine
elevated due to changing field conditions to they are interrelated. The UV and nitrates pres- demand had a variability of 47 percent within
leave an effluent residual of 3 mg/l, which re- ent in effluent wastewater cause growth to occur, two standard deviations. If the variability of de-
sulted in an actual average dosage of approxi- while the UV also reacts with the chlorine to de- mand decreases by the amount of liquid ex-
mately 17 mg/l. The average instantaneous crease the residual. From the previous equations posed, the theoretical variability in chlorine
chlorine demand was calculated to be approxi- and known information, the following can be demand should drop to 12 percent of the de-
mately 5.5 mg/l under normal conditions. It deduced: mand value. That should result in a chlorine de-
should be noted that the maintenance amount mand decrease from 14.5 +/- 5.9 mg/l to 8.1 +/-
averages about 0.5 mg/l for cleaning other parts Total chlorine average: 17.5 mg/l 1.5 mg/l, excluding effluent residual.
of the plant, such as the tertiary filters and clar- Maintenance use: 0.5 mg/l
ifiers. Initial/instantaneous demand: 5.5 mg/l Shade Ball Results
The next type of loss that can be estimated Evaporation losses: 1.1 mg/l
is evaporation. Utilizing Raoult’s Law of partial Effluent residual: 3.0 mg/l At the start of September 2013, the shade
pressures and Off-Site Consequences Analysis Additional losses: 7.4 mg/l balls were installed and it was almost immediately
(OCA) Guidance (Kirk-Othmer), which is a Total Chlorine Consumption: 14.5 mg/l noted that the chlorine residual stayed much
modified version of Mackay and Matsugu’s cal- Continued on page 44

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 43


Continued from page 43
more constant. Due to the tighter controls, the ef-
fluent residual is now 4 mg/l rather than the ex-
pected 3 mg/l and the dose set point residual is
now 5.5 mg/l with a dosage of 11 mg/l. From Sep-
tember 2013 through the end of December 2013,
the chlorine use and flow was tracked to deter-
mine the demand. Removing the 4.0 mg/l average
residual from the calculations, the total chlorine
demand is now 7.3 +/- 1.0 mg/l for the four-
month period, including 5.5 mg/l of instanta-
neous chlorine demand. The results were better
than calculations predicted, but it is possible that
a 12-month period will have a closer correlation
to the expected 8.1 +/- 1.5 mg/l. It is also possible
that the majority of the evaporation and UV ex-
posure was occurring where the shade balls were
added. The following is the estimated breakdown
of chlorine uses after the shade ball’s addition:

Total chlorine average: 11.3 mg/l


Maintenance use: 0.5 mg/l
Initial/instantaneous demand: 5.5 mg/l
Evaporation losses: 0.2 mg/l
Effluent residual: 4.0 mg/l
Additional losses: 1.3 mg/l
Figure 2. Chlorine Dose at Facility With and Without Shade Balls
Total Chlorine Consumption: 7.3 mg/l

Figure 2 illustrates the monthly average


chlorine use as a dosage since the shade balls
were added.
The average savings of 6.2 mg/l of chlorine
(17.5 mg/l versus 11.3 mg/l consumption) repre-
sents a daily savings of nearly 129 gal per day
(gpd) of chlorine solution (12 percent wt/vol). At
a low cost of $0.70/gal, this represents a yearly
savings of nearly $33,000. The balls have a 10-year
warranty and are replaced if there are any issues
within the life of the ball. This would represent a
chemical savings of $330,000 over a 10-year pe-
riod, even if the chlorine cost did not increase
and the influent flow remained unchanged.
The improved operational performance at
the Facility is as important as the cost savings.
The shade balls have tightened the chlorine con-
tact control capability, leaving only 17 percent
of the previous deviation in chlorine demand.
This is a decrease in deviation from +/- 5.9 mg/l
to only +/- 1.0 mg/l, increasing the operation
staff’s confidence in the Facility to provide water
with adequate chlorine residual.
It has also been noted that the maintenance
on the chlorine contact basins has decreased.
Previously, a tank had to be taken down for pre-
ventative maintenance and scrubbed one day
per month to remove iron deposits, algae
growth, and dirt that had accumulated. The
time it took to scrub a tank was approximately
Figure 3. Chlorine Dose at Southwest Facility With and Without Shade Balls four hours. The tanks are now taken down one
day every two and a half months, but do not
Continued on page 46

44 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 45
Continued from page 44 dosage at the facility was 18.8 mg/l from Jan. 1, Acknowledgment
need to be scrubbed. They are also taken down 2012, through Dec. 31, 2014. After adding the
to remove dirt or sand deposits from the floor shade balls, between Jan. 1, 2014, and Sept. 30, The authors wish to thank Jake Rohrich,
that may have blown in, and the time has de- 2014, the average chlorine dosage had dropped operations director for Polk County Utilities, for
creased to only about one hour of work. This by 1.0 mg/l to 17.8 mg/l. his support of this project. Without him, the in-
represents a decrease of about 43 hours/year for In late September 2014, additional changes vestigative work and installation would not have
maintenance. At a loaded cost of roughly were made to the biological treatment process, been possible.
$25/hour, that represents a yearly savings of over changing how the return activated sludge (RAS)
$1,075 and, more importantly, it allows staff to was sent back to the activated sludge process at the References
complete tasks that may be of higher priority. Southwest Facility. The RAS changes resulted in
The cost to purchase the shade balls would 1.3 mg/l less chlorine demand for a total savings of • Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Fa-
have been only $4,700, or $2.45 per sq ft of sur- 2.3 mg/l. The chlorine dosage at the Southwest Fa- cility Staff – Jason Jennings, Jeff Goolsby, and
face area. To keep the shade balls within the cility averaged 16.5 mg/l between Oct. 1, 2014, and James Hickman.
basin, a vertical grate was installed in each chan- Dec. 31, 2014. Figure 3 depicts the savings, along • Southwest Regional Wastewater Treatment Fa-
nel of the chlorine contact basin upstream of the with the deviation in demand for those periods. cility Staff – Todd Potter, William Altman, James
overflow weir. The grate allows water to flow Note that in the first month of 2015, the bio- Hall, William Mack, and Cynthia Sammons.
through it, limiting excessive forces and keeping logical treatment process was notably changed at • Kirk-Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical
the balls in their floating position. The total cost the Southwest Facility, altering anoxic return and Technology, 4th ed., Wiley, New York, 1991.
would have been less than $10,000 for all equip- providing for an environment that would allow si- • Mackay, D. and Matsugu, R., “Evaporation
ment and installation if performed by a con- multaneous nitrification/denitrification. The re- Rate of Hydrocarbon Spill on Water and
tractor. The cost savings in chlorine alone pays sult of the changes was a decrease in chlorine Land,” Canadian Journal of Chemical Engi-
for the ball installation in less than one year. demand of an additional 2.3 mg/l. The resulting neering, p. 434, Vol 5., 1973.
With the positive results observed at the Fa- monthly average chlorine dosage decreased from • Sung, H.M., “Accidental Releases Analysis for
cility, Polk County implemented the use of 18.8 mg/l to 14.2 mg/l between 2012 and 2015. Toxic Aqueous Solutions,” Trinity Consult-
shade balls at the Southwest Regional Waste- The total decrease in chlorine demand at the facil- ants, 1998.
water Treatment Facility (Southwest Facility) at ity resulted in a savings of approximately 61 • Air Liquide Gas Encyclopedia, Chlorine/Dichlo-
the start of 2014. The total average chlorine gal/day or an annual savings of $15,600. rine Gas, Vapor Pressure Graph, 2013. !

46 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge!

Members of the Florida Water & Wastewater Treatment Cost Reduction:


Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) Stabilizing Chlorine Demand in
may earn continuing education units
through the CEU Challenge! Answer the Wastewater Effluent
questions published on this page, based
Charles Nichols, David Carr, Mark Lowenstine, and Craig Fuller
on the technical articles in this month’s (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW)
issue. Circle the letter of each correct
answer. There is only one correct 1. Including ALL months during the two years preceding this evaluation,
answer to each question! Answer 80
percent of the questions on any article a. average Northeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility (NE Facility) total
correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your chlorine dosage was 15.2 mg/l.
license. Retests are available. b. average NE Facility chlorine demand was 18.2 mg/l.
c. NE Facility chlorine demand variability exceeded 50 percent.
d. average NE Facility effluent residual chlorine exceeded 3.0 mg/l.
This month’s editorial theme is,
Operations and Utility Management. 2. Theoretically, it was anticipated that addition of the shade balls would reduce NE
Look above each set of questions to see Facility chlorine losses by evaporation by ___ mg/l.
if it is for water operators (DW),
distribution system operators (DS), or a. 0.2
wastewater operators (WW). Mail the b. 0.5
c. 0.9
completed page (or a photocopy) to:
d. 1.1
Florida Environmental Professionals
Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach
3. Which of the following is not listed as a benefit of shade balls at the NE Facility?
Gardens, FL 33420-3119. Enclose $15 a. Reduction in trihalomethane formation potential
for each set of questions you choose to b. Reduction in chlorine purchase cost
answer (make checks payable to c. Reduction in chlorine contact basin maintenance
FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA d. Reduction in the variability of chlorine demand
member before you can submit your
answers! 4. The greatest reduction in chlorine dosage at the Southwest Regional Wastewater
Treatment Facility resulted from

a. the addition of shade balls.


b. process changes involving return activated sludge.
___________________________________________ c. a switch from liquid to gas chlorine supply.
SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)
d. a reduction in plant flow.

5. The idea to use shade balls at the NE Facility chlorine contact chamber
Article 1 ________________________________________
LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded originated with a

If paying by credit card, fax to a. successful experiment installing overhead shade for the chamber.
(561) 625-4858 b. neighboring utility.
providing the following information: c. marketing call.
d. trade journal article.

___________________________________________
(Credit Card Number)
Earn CEUs by answering questions
from previous Journal issues!
___________________________________________ Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340.
(Expiration Date)
Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

48 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 49
New Products
The PekaSys Bubbler from Anua
batches treatment in cycles, including aerobic and
anaerobic steps, to clean water and reduce total ni-
trogen for residential and commercial applica-
tions. As a sequencing batch reactor, it allows the
treatment steps to occur in the same chamber.
Smart controls automatically adjust aeration,
which optimizes treatment, saves energy, and pre-
vents sludge bilking. Flexible tank configurations
include retrofitting to existing tanks or failed sys-
tems. Its single treatment chamber saves space. It
provides total suspended solids of less than 10
mg/l and greater than 50 percent total nitrogen re-
duction. (www.anua-us.com)

!
The bioForce liquid from Chempace Corp.
contains a blend of highly active microorganisms
effective in degrading a wide range of organic
waste found in many applications, such as house-
hold and institutional, wastewater treatment, and
odor control. The bacteria consortia have been
chosen for their accelerated degradation capabil-
ities of organic compounds, such as grease, fats,
proteins, starches, sugar, and cellulose, Regular use
lowers biochemical oxygen demand and chemical
oxygen demand. It controls odors through a dual-
odor control elimination package, as the microbes
digest the odor-casuing substitutes while the fresh
fragrance deodorizes the area of use. It is nontoxic
and biodegradable. (www.chempace.com)

!
The drivers app from Clear Computing,
which runs on Apple and Android devices, gives
drivers a real-time route list for service stops and
work orders, with all the information needed to
complete and update the status of each job. In-
cluded are voice directions from the current loca-
tion for each stop, maps, and update forms for key
operational fields, including quantity, units serv-
iced, and start/end times. It includes customer
email notification of service completion and gen-
erates reports for profit and loss by stop. Updates
flow immediately to the back office with comple-
tion date and time. Service verification statements
are available for emailing to customers.
(www.clearcomputing.com)

!
Forbest Products Co. created the FB-
PIC3688 pan-and-tilt pipe inspection camera sys-
tem that allows users to take panorama pictures,
with remote directional control for over 20,000
continuous hours. It comes with 400 ft of 9-mm
fiberglass cable and a reel with meter counter and
2-in. waterproof 360/180-degree pan-tilt high-res-
olution color camera head with zooming that can
work under the water no more than 30 meters. The
heavy-duty waterproof control box includes a 10-

50 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


in. LCD color screen with USB and built-in SD
card for recording. The built-in rechargeable bat-
! video to an onboard 32 GB SDHC memory card,
which is easily removed to view video on an iPad
The JetScan Mini video nozzle from
tery pack lasts about three hours. or other DSHC-compatible device.
Envirosight can be deployed in pipes from 6 to
(www.forbestusa.net) (www.envirosight.com) !
10 in. in diameter and gives sewer cleaning crews
! visual feedback to select the proper tools,
troubleshoot backups, identify buried safety
IM-Series injection-molded septic and
hazards, and document successful cleaning. The
potable water tanks from Infiltrator Systems
device captures HD video footage from
have integral heavy-duty lids, structurally rein-
underground pipes for offline tablet viewing. It
forced access ports, reinforced structural ribbing
records up to 8 hours of 720 pixel HD MPEG
and fiberglass support posts to provide additional
strength. They require no special installation,
backfill, or water filling procedures. The tanks
provide strength in a two-piece design that effi-
ciently nests for reduced shipping costs and local
assembly. Available septic and pump tanks include
the IM-1530 and IM-1060 septic tanks, and the
IM-540 pump tank. Potable water tanks are NSF
61 certified, designed for buried water tank appli-
cations, and available in 552, 1,287, and 1.787-gal
capacities. (www.infiltratorsystems.com)

!
The Pipemaster, a manually operated, high-
pressure hose rotating system from
Hammelmann Corp. is used to remove both soft
and very hard deposits from the insides of pipes
and pipelines, including those with bends and ver-
tical sections. As an alternative to self-rotating
nozzles, rotary action is achieved by rotating the
high-pressure hose. A high-pressure supply hose
line is fixed between the pump and the rotary joint
on the rotating unit. A second hose is connected to
the rotary joint and runs via the deployment unit
into a protective base to the positioning device.
The rotation of the second high-pressure hose
around its longitudinal axis is affected by a chain
drive from a pneumatic motor to the rotary joint.
The rotation speed can be adjusted by throttle
check valves. Actuating the control lever of the
unit causes the hose to start rotating, which pro-
duces the deployment motion. (www.hammel-
mann.com)

!
The Depth Ray liquid level monitoring and
control system from Eldredge Equipment Serv-
ices provides continuous display and control of
tank liquid levels during loading and unloading
using contact, noncontact radar, and ultrasonic
technology. Systems can be used in vacuum/pres-
sure and nonpressure tanks from 4 to 66 ft. They
can be powered by 12-volt DC, 120-volt AC or
battery/solar. Installation doesn’t require tank
entry. The digital LED display is mounted in a
NEMA 4 enclosure for outside or cab mounting.
It has controls for opening and closing valves or
sounding alarms. A 500-ft-range wireless remote
control unit is available. (www.depthray.com)

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 51


News Beat
February rainfall was above average across much
of the South Florida Water Management District
(SFWMD), with a significant portion falling the last
day of the month.
Significantly, the Kissimmee basins continued
their trend of above-average rainfall feeding Lake
Okeechobee. Rainfall for the month north of the lake
was about double the historical average for February.
The two basins received 5.13 and 4.20 in. of rainfall
respectively, representing 216 percent and 184 percent
of average for the month.
“Above-average Kissimmee rainfall continues to
contribute to the already high lake stages,” said Jeff
Kivett, SFWMD division director of operations, en-
gineering and construction. “Operations continue
moving water south of the lake, and the District has
increased pumping at temporary water storage areas
where possible.”
District-wide, 3.07 in. of rain fell during Febru-
ary, representing 135 percent of average, or 0.80 in.
above average. February 28 saw a District-wide aver-
age of about 1 in., or about a third of the month’s
rainfall. Areas of eastern Palm Beach County experi-
enced local maximums of 10 in. that day.
Lake Okeechobee also received above-average
rainfall, with 2.94 in. of direct rainfall, representing
138 percent of average, or 0.81 in. above average. The
lake stood at 14.71 ft national geodetic vertical datum
(NGVD) today, which is 0.20 ft above its historic av-
erage for this time of year and nearly a ft higher than
this time last year.
Most of the remainder of the District also saw
above-average rainfall in February. Martin and St.
Lucie counties, among the wettest areas of the 16-
county district, saw 4.65 in. of rain, representing 185
percent of average, or 2.14 in. above average. The
Southwest Coast and East Caloosahatchee received
119 percent and 105 percent of average rainfall, re-
spectively. Big Cypress Preserve was one of the few
areas to receive below-average rainfall, with 1.70 in.
representing 77 percent of average, or 0.51 in. below
average.

!
The St. Johns River Water Management Dis-
trict is partnering with the city of Vero Beach on a
project to help improve water quality in the Indian
River Lagoon.
The Vero Beach Hybrid Septic Tank Effluent
Pumping System (STEP) project will reduce nutrients
flowing to the lagoon. The STEP project will divert
septic system effluent, currently entering the ground-
water along the Indian River Lagoon, to a central fa-
cility for treatment, preventing up to 40,500 pounds
of nutrients per year from entering the groundwater.
By reducing septic effluent and associated nutrients
from entering the groundwater, less nutrients flow to
the lagoon from septic systems near the shallow estu-
ary.
Continued on page 54

52 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


C FACTOR
Thomas King
President, FWPCOA Anatomy of a Short School
T
he FWPCOA held its from teaching, Kendra is a good example of the cuse to drink tequila works for me.
spring short school new generation of leaders that will take over A frequent comment from many students was
March 16-21 in Ft. from us tired old dinosaurs. Thanks from all of not getting their books early enough. I know that
Pierce. I was honored to be among those giving us at FWPCOA to those utilities who loan us many utilities have students who still have books
back to our industry by teaching and passing on their talented supervisors and staff members to from previous years who could share them until the
some of our mentionable experiences. We will for- spend time teaching. new students attend class. At my office I have set up
ever keep the unmentionable ones to ourselves. I can’t mention a short school without talking a working library of old training manuals for the
The school’s utility maintenance class is con- about Shirley Reeves. Shirley worked through a bad employees to use to study, and I would encourage
tinuing to grow in popularity, and David Patchuki case of a cold, the flu, or the black plague to put up other utilities to do the same. Having a book a few
has now added a level II certification. The hands-on with the thousands of questions that came from weeks prior to the class would help the students and
alignment training was one of the many impressive students and instructors. Some were good ques- encourage an exchange of knowledge before they
lessons offered. More than a few of the students tions, some were just whining, and some came attend the short school.
commented about the added value they would take from people in the wrong class (like the lady look- Our next big state-sponsored event will be the
back to their utility. I will also take this opportunity ing for the tax seminar). Thanks to Shirley, we con- fall short school. There are scholarships available
to mention that Dave is the new state chair of the tinue to have an education office that runs like a that cover the cost of the short school and expenses
Utility Maintenance Committee. well-oiled machine. up to $800. Each year, your region can award a
Classes on water distribution, stormwater, As for me, I truly love teaching. I get so much scholarship (Pat Robinson Award) to a deserving
wastewater collection, utility management, back- from students who enjoy the learning experience member. If you know someone to be nominated,
flow preventer training, backflow preventer repair, of an FWPCOA short school. I strive to infuse a or believe you are that person, please contact your
electrical basics, and reclaimed water were also of- sense of environmental responsibility into those region director.
fered. I was once again impressed by the dedication students who attend my classes. I have spent many If you are interested in a great learning envi-
of the instructors—they are the volunteers that a Patron-induced night of writing course material ronment shared by others in our industry, I hope to
make FWPCOA work. Many of those instructors and looking for videos to match. Actually, any ex- see you there. !
were taking their vacation time to teach classes to
the new generation of utility managers. We had ap-
proximately 240 students and greatly appreciate
those utilities that sent them.
I spent some time talking to the students as
we passed each other in the hall. I was glad to
see them exchanging ideas and “talking shop.” I
have always said the students go back to their
utilities with more than just the new knowledge
of the classes they attend; we also teach a phi-
losophy of dedication and caring that we hope
will guide the environmental caretakers of the
future.
The students were all noteworthy, but my
space is limited. I met Darin Lajoie from Welling-
ton who has worked for utilities for over 20 years
and now has a diversified background. I spoke with
Bill Peters from Palm Bay, a maintenance superin-
tendent, who was interested in all factions of the
utility management class. Chris Woolweaver from
the Ft. Lauderdale area took the stormwater class
striving to get all the certifications available to help
him move up in the field. Of course, Brad Hayes
from FWEA was there with his troops. Brad is
never at a loss for words and is one of those man-
agers who pushes his workers to attend classes in
order to better themselves and their utility.
I also spent some time with young and en-
ergetic instructors teaching for their first or sec-
ond time at a short school. Kendra Phillips from
Hillsborough County Utilities is just what the
industry needs. Full of ideas and willing to share
her knowledge while learning what we all get

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 53


New Products "Vero Beach has for years been interested According to William Tredik, leader of the
Continued from page 52 in promoting and improving water condi- District's Indian River Lagoon Protection Ini-
The project will save residents thousands of tions in the lagoon," said Vero Beach Vice tiative, "Reducing nutrient inputs from all
dollars by connecting their septic tanks to a cen- Mayor Jay Kramer. "However, when it came sources is critical to the recovery and future
tral sewer system, as compared to the costs of tra- time to look at the costs of removing septic health of the Indian River Lagoon, Groundwa-
ditional septic-to-sewer conversion projects. systems from the river, the community was ter is continually entering the lagoon and im-
Residents will be allowed to keep their septic concerned about the high costs. The STEP provements that reduce the flow of nutrients to
drainfields in place in the event of temporary system really saved us; we can now be envi- the lagoon from groundwater are an important
power outages that would impact the STEP ronmentally active while keeping the costs part of the overall solution."
pumping system. down for the community." The total cost of the project will be
$885,000, with the District providing $292,050
of the funding.

!
The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer De-
partment (WASD) has awarded Woolpert a five-
year contract, with one five-year option to renew,
to provide consulting services relating to capacity
management, operations, and maintenance
(CMOM) programs. Woolpert will work with
WASD to review, modify, and develop the CMOM
plans and programs as required by the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV’s
consent decree. Woolpert’s CMOM programs will
take into account the vulnerability of the facilities
to climate-change impacts such as sea level rise,
storm surge, wind, and flooding. Woolpert will
also ensure that the programs and plans are con-
sistent with EPA’s guidance and are completed and
submitted within the specific deadlines on the
consent decree.

!
Gov. Rick Scott has announced the reap-
pointments of Charles “Chuck” Drake and
Frederick “Fred” Roberts Jr. to the St. Johns
River Water Management District.
Drake, 56, of Orlando, is the vice president
and a hydrogeologist with Tetra Tech Inc. He cur-
rently serves as a member of the National Ground
Water Association and previously served as an ex-
ecutive committee member for the American In-
stitute of Professional Geologists. Drake received
his associate’s degree from Valencia Community
College and his bachelor’s degree from the Uni-
versity of Florida. He is reappointed for a term be-
ginning March 27, 2015, and ending March 1,
2019.
Roberts, 36, of Ocala, is an attorney with
Klein and Klein LLC. He currently serves as the
vice chair of the College of Central Florida
Foundation board of directors and the chair of
the Boys and Girls Club of Marion County
Board of Directors. Roberts received his bach-
elor’s degree from the University of Florida and
his law degree from the Stetson University Col-
lege of Law. He is reappointed for the same term
as Drake.
The appointments are subject to confirma-
tion by the Florida Senate. !

54 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


ENGINEERING DIRECTORY

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And Management
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Engineering • Inspection
Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists
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863-354-9010
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ENGINEERING DIRECTORY

EQUIPMENT &
SERVICES DIRECTORY
EQUIPMENT & SERVICES DIRECTORY

Motor & Utility Services, LLC

CEC Motor & Utility Services, LLC


1751 12th Street East
Palmetto, FL. 34221
Phone - 941-845-1030
Fax – 941-845-1049
Instrumentation,Controls Specialists prademaker@cecmotoru.com
• Motor & Pump Services Test Loaded up
Instrumentation Calibration
to 4000HP, 4160-Volts
Troubleshooting and Repair Services
On-Site Water Meter Calibrations • Premier Distributor for Worldwide
Preventive Maintenance Contracts Hyundai Motors up to 35,000HP
Emergency and On Call Services
• Specialists in rebuilding motors, pumps,
Installation and System Start-up
blowers, & drives
Lift Station Controls Service and Repair
• UL 508A Panel Shop,
engineer/design/build/install/commission
Central • Lift Station Rehabilitation Services, GC
Florida License # CGC1520078

Controls,Inc. • Predictive Maintenance Services,


vibration, IR, oil sampling
Florida Certified in water meter testing and repair
• Authorized Sales & Service for Aurora
P.O. Box 6121 • Ocala, FL 34432 Vertical Hollow Shaft Motors
Phone: 352-347-6075 • Fax: 352-347-0933
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EQUIPMENT & SERVICES DIRECTORY
Showcase Your Company in the
Engineering or Equipment
& Services Directory
Contact Mike Delaney at
352-241-6006
ads@fwrj.com

CLASSIFIEDS
Positions Av ailable

WASTEWATER PLANT SUPERVISOR


The City of Lakeland is seeking a Wastewater Plant Supervisor. The Salary
is $44,803.20 - $69,513.60 annually (DOE). This is skilled and technical work
Utilities Treatment Plant Operations Supervisor in the operation and maintenance of the City’s wastewater treatment plants.
Requires a high school diploma from an accredited school or a G.E.D. and
$54,099 - $76,123/yr. Assists in the admin & technical work in the mgmt,
ops, & maint of the treatment plants. Class “A” Water lic. & a class “C” three (3) years of wastewater plant operations experience. Must possess and
Wastewater lic. req. with 5 yrs supervisory exp. maintain a state of Florida Class “B” wastewater plant operator certification.
Continuous – Position may close at any time without notice. Applicants must
Utilities Treatment Plant Will Call Operator complete an online application at: http://www.lakelandgov.net/
$18.29-$28.38/hour. Part time. Must have passed the C drinking water or employmentservices/employment-services/job-opportunities
wastewater exam.
Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Positions are open until
filled. E/O/E
Field Inspector 1
Pinellas County Government is seeking to hire two “Field Inspector 1”
candidates to conduct cross-connection inspections. Must possess at least
Town of Oakland 2 years experience in cross-connection control and possess and maintain
a valid Florida Driver’s License. Highly desirable: Current certificate from
UTILITY DISTRIBUTION TECHNICIAN I an approved training facility as a "Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector",
The Town of Oakland is recruiting for a full-time Utility Distribution and 1 year experience as a cross connection inspector or backflow pre-
Tech. 1. Requires HS diploma/equivalent, valid FL CDL class "B" license, vention assembly tester. Apply by: May 9, 2015. To apply visit:
Level 3 FDEP Water Distribution License. Other equivalent combinations https://Employment.PinellasCounty.org. Ph: 727-464-3367.
of education, training and experience in Public Utilities or Public Works EOE/AA/ADA/DFW/VP. Certain service members and veterans, and the
operations will be considered. Three years work exp. a plus. spouses and family members of the service members and veterans, receive
preference and priority in employment by the state and are encouraged to
Open until filled. Compensation commensurate with experience. apply for the positions being filled.
Send resume to HR Director Tonna Duvall at: tduvall@oaktownusa.com
or dial direct 407.656.1117 x2102. EOE; M/F/D/V; DFWP
City of Tampa Engineer II
PUMP MECHANIC & FIELD TECHNICIAN The City of Tampa is currently recruiting for an Engineer II.

VERTICAL TURBINE-HORIZONTAL SPLIT CASE-END Primary responsibilities include: performing professional level work in
SUCTION PUMPS engineering in the Engineering Division of the Water Department.
TITUSVILLE SALES SERVICE & REPAIR CENTER/
386-690-1075 Apply online
http://apps.tampagov.net/appl_personnel_job_openings/job_
detail.asp?posting_id=3462

58 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


City of Largo Wastewater Plant Operator C License
WASTEWATER Marathon, Florida Keys
COLLECTION TECHNICIAN I Category: Full-Time
Progressively intensive manual labor work in the collection of
Description: This position is responsible for wastewater treatment plant
wastewater. An employee in this position is responsible for performing a
operation and process control data collection and reporting, ensuring that
wide variety of skilled to semi skilled tasks, and performing any other
the plant operates within the required State of Florida Department of En-
work in connection with the sanitary wastewater collection system
vironmental permit standards.
MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: High School Diploma or General
Miscellaneous: Email application/resume to HR@ci.marathon.fl.us or fax
Education Diploma (G.E.D.); Class "B" CDL with Tanker endorsement
to 305-289-4143. See website for full description: www.ci.marathon.fl.us
(CDL),FWPCOA Wastewater Collections "C" Certification; CPR/First
Aid Training

Full time, excellent benefit package Licensed Water Plant Operator


Online applications only: www.largo.com/jobs
The North Springs Improvement District is seeking for Water Plant Op-
erators. Must possess Class C or higher FL Drinking Water license.
Director of Public Works & Utilities Trainees with sufficient education & training may be considered .
Please email Mimi Ortega at Mireyao@nsidfl.gov with your application.
The City of Newberry seeks an enthusiastic, dynamic leader for its Utility
& Public Works department that has a strong background in utility &
public works operations. Position is responsible for the City’s electric,
water, and wastewater utilities (1,900 customers), and streets & drainage,
Positions Wanted
solid waste, mosquito control, and cemetery. PHILIP LEON – Holds a Florida dual license, B Water and C Wastewater
with 14 years experience. Prefers the Tampa Bay area, Brandon, Lakeland,
Ideal applicant must have ten (10) or more years of progressively Plant City but is willing to relocate. Interested in overseas employment as
responsible related experience in a managerial or leadership capacity well. Contact at 5404 Boca Grande Circle, Dover, Fl. 33527. 772-485-2775
within public utilities or utility enterprises.
RACHEL WOOD – Seeking a Water/Wastewater Trainee position. Has
Applications and full job description are available online at passed tests and needs plant hours to obtain license. Prefers Orange, Semi-
www.ci.newberry.fl.us or call 352-472-2161 ext 112. nole, Volusia, or Brevard County. Contact at 298 Hickory Ave,, Oak Hill,
Fl. 32759. 386-847-1814

Looking For a Job?


The FWPCOA Job Placement
Committee Can Help!
Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465
or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Classified
Advertising Rates
Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60
character line (including spaces and
punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes
publication in both the magazine and our Web
site. Short positions wanted ads are run one
time for no charge and are subject to editing.

ads@fwrj.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • May 2015 59


Certification Boulevard Answer Key
From page 30

February 2014 1. D) Increase in volatile acid/alkalinity relationship


Because the alkalinity is so high in an anaerobic digester, the pH is slow changing and the
Editorial Calendar digester will basically go “sour” before the pH begins to drop. This is why the acid/alkalinity
ratio is the best process tool to use to monitor the performance efficiency of anaerobic digestion.

January ......Wastewater Treatment


2. B) Yes, this is acceptable.
February ....Water Supply; Alternative Sources An acceptable cost of polymer used per dry ton (dt) processed in a BFP depends on the type
of sludge and sludge conditioning process. Typically, with anaerobically digested sludge,
March ........Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship acceptable polymer consumption is about $25 per dt processed, although more polymer
April............Conservation and Reuse may be used to create higher cake solids. Even with the increased cost for the additional
polymer, the overall cost of operation may be reduced due to hauling higher cake solids, less
May ............Operations and Utilities Management; water to haul, and the lower cost per dry ton.
Florida Water Resources Conference
3. D) Temperature
June ..........Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production These other agents can certainly be harmful to microbiology; however, they are chemical
July ............Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; and not physical agents.

FWRC Review 4. C) Specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR)


August........Disinfection; Water Quality Vector attraction reduction is related to volatile solids reduction, which identifies long-term
stability of the conditioned sludge. The SOUR test is the one most used to determine the
September..Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management vector attraction reduction performance of aerobically digested sludge. The maximum SOUR
value allowed to meet vector attraction reduction for Class B standards is 1.5 mg/hr/gm total
October ......New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades solids, providing that the total solids (TS) content is no more than 2 percent TS.
November ..Water Treatment
December ..Distribution and Collection 5. C) The discharge valve must be opened.
If a positive displacement pump is started with the discharge valve closed, severe damage can
occur within the pump and discharge piping. This can be a very dangerous condition, as
Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance pieces of the pump, pipe, or devices on the pipe (like pressure gauges) can become projectiles.
and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for
the March issue). 6. B) Chain of custody
The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, Chain of custody (CoC) refers to the chronological documentation, or paper trail,
showing the seizure, custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of physical or
notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else electronic evidence; in this case, samples from a water or wastewater facility.
including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example,
September 1 for the October issue). 7. D) 70 to 80 percent
For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for Younger sludge will generally have a higher volatile content, while older sludge will
writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as have a lower volatile fraction of the mixed liquor total suspended solids.
the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements,
go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006. 8. B) Increase the dissolved oxygen (DO)
Typically, filamentous microorganisms grow rapidly when the aeration DO is low—
maybe between 0.4 to 0.8 parts per million (ppm)—and possibly accompanied with a
low F/M ratio. Because filaments are strict aerobes, increasing the aeration DO above
Display Advertiser Index 0.8 pp and maybe to about 1.5 ppm, they will NOT decrease the filament growth rate;
however, it will increase the healthy floc former growth rate, and the overall ratio of
filaments to floc formers will decrease.
Aqua - Aerobic ..................................19 Hydro International ............................28
Auto Meg ..........................................54 ISA ....................................................15
9. C) Centrifuge spindown
Blue Planet ........................................61 LFManufacturing................................51
A centrifuge spindown test takes about 15 minutes and provides excellent indication of
Brown & Caldwell ..............................13 Mathews..............................................9 solids inventory. Comparing spindown test results to laboratory total solids testing can
CEU Challange ..................................48 PC Construction ................................54 identify increasing or decreasing solids concentration. The centrifuge is not intended to
Conshield/Permaform....................20,46 PCL....................................................21 replace a laboratory TS (or TSS) test, but only to supplement the lab data with quick
Crom..................................................50 Reiss Engineering ..............................40 indicators for field process control parameters.
Data Flow ..........................................45 Stacon ................................................2
Evoqua ..............................................41 Stantec ..............................................16 10. B) 1.4 days
Florida Aquastore ..............................52 Treeo ................................................39 Step 1: 25 acres divided by 4 zones
= 6.25 acres per zone
Fluid Control ......................................32 USA Blue Book ....................................7
1 acre = 43,560 ft2
FSAWWA Ace ....................................14 Wade Trim..........................................53
FSAWWA Call For Papers....................34 Xylem ................................................62 Step 2: 4 in. divided by 12 in. per ft
FSAWWA Confernce ..........................49 = 0.333 ft of water applied per zone
FSAWWA Likins..................................24 FWRC PROGRAM ADVERTISER INDEX Step 3: 6.25 acres x 43,560 ft2 per acre
FWPCOA Region IV ............................47 Atkins ..................................................4 = 272,250 ft2 x 0.333 ft of water applied per zone
FWPCOA Training ..............................29 Florida Gateway College ....................19 = 90,659.25 ft3of water applied per zone
Garney ................................................5 Hanson ..............................................25 Step 4: 90,659.25 ft3 x 7.48 gal per ft3
Gemini Group ....................................35 MAXEFF ............................................26 = 678,131.19 gal of water applied per zone, applying 4 in. of water
GML Coatings ..............................12,27 Ovivo ..................................................9
Hudson Pumps ..................................33 Raven ................................................16 Step 5: 678,131.19 gal of water per zone divided by 500,000 gal per day flow rate
= 1.356 days

60 May 2015 • Florida Water Resources Journal


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