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MA-100 METHODS OF RESEARCH

Submitted to: Adriano Sabado Submitted by: Minerva C. Merin

What is Research?

Research is a process of systematic inquiry that entails collection of


data; documentation of critical information; and analysis and interpretation
of that data/information, in accordance with suitable methodologies set by
specific professional fields and academic disciplines.

Research is conducted to evaluate the validity of a hypothesis or an


interpretive framework; to assemble a body of substantive knowledge and
findings for sharing them in appropriate manners; and to generate
questions for further inquiries.

Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to


increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture
and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new
applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of
previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or
develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on
past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further
knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they
can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for
future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or
experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the
project as a whole.
Research is a scientific way of answering questions and testing
hypothesis.

Research is the systematic and objective analysis and recording of


controlled observations that may lead to the development of
generalizations, principles, or theories, resulting in prediction and possible
control of events .

The basic concepts, principles and methods of research.

Research methods provide the specific details of how one


accomplishes a research task (procedures and methods); It provides
specific and detailed procedures of how to initiate, carry out, and complete
a research task by mainly focusing on how to do it. Research methodology
deals with general approaches or guidelines to conducting research. It
provides the principles for organizing, planning, designing, and conducting
research, but it cannot tell you in detail how to conduct a specific,
individual research.

In carrying out an applied and quantitative economic research, there are


several necessary backgrounds. The researcher should first have solid
training in economic theory, quantitative methods(statistics and
econometrics), data analysis techniques, and adequate training in micro-
computer technology, as well as some training in research methods.
Unfortunately, undergraduate students beginning their research most often
do not have these backgrounds. Therefore, they are going to be
overwhelmed and intimidated by the lack of necessary skills. Many often
give up in frustration, even if they are willing to persevere and to learn
these skills. What is sorely need is a practical guide to initiate, conduct,
and complete an applied and quantitative economic research. One proven
and effective way of learning these various skills which economists use is
learning by doing by example.

What is descriptive research?

Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a


population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions
about how/when/why the characteristics occurred. Rather it addresses the
"what" question (what are the characteristics of the population or situation
being studied?) The characteristics used to describe the situation or
population are usually some kind of categorical scheme also known as
descriptive categories. For example, the periodic table categorizes the
elements. Scientists use knowledge about the nature of electrons, protons
and neutrons to devise this categorical scheme. We now take for granted
the periodic table, yet it took descriptive research to devise it. Descriptive
research generally precedes explanatory research. For example, over time
the periodic table’s description of the elements allowed scientists to explain
chemical reaction and make sound prediction when elements were
combined. Hence, descriptive research cannot describe what caused a
situation. Thus, descriptive research cannot be used as the basis of a
causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words,
descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal
validity.
Historical Research

One type of qualitative research is historical research, which involves


examining past events to draw conclusions and make predictions about
the future. The steps in historical research are: formulate an idea,
formulate a plan, gather data, analyze data, and analyze the sources of
data

Experimental Research

The word experimental research has a range of definitions. In the


strict sense, experimental research is what we call a true experiment. This
is an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and
control/randomizes the rest of the variables.

Philosophical Research

Research philosophy is a vast topic and here we will not be


discussing this topic in great details. In business and economics
dissertations at Bachelor’s level, you are not expected to discuss research
philosophy in a great level of depth, and about one page in methodology
chapter devoted to research philosophy usually suffices. For a business
dissertation at Master’s level you may need to provide more discussion of
the philosophy of your study, but even there, about two pages of
discussions has to be accepted as sufficient by your supervisor.

Prognostics Research

Prognostics—the estimation of the remaining life of an equipment item,


subsystem, or system—and health management methods aim to maintain
breakdown-free manufacturing production at top efficiency. Using a range of
sensing technologies, these methods monitor the performance and operating
conditions of equipment and systems, assess their health, and predict how
long an operation can continue to perform as intended. Knowing when faults
are likely to occur permits equipment to be repaired or replaced with little to
no interruption. Should faults occur, however, PHM can be used to diagnose
the root cause.

Sociological Research

Social research is a research conducted by social scientists


following a systematic plan. Social research methodologies can be
classified as quantitative or qualitative.

Creative action Research

Creative Action research is either research initiated to solve an


immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving
led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community
of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems.

Action research involves actively participating in a change situation,


often via an existing organization, whilst simultaneously conducting
research. Action research can also be undertaken by larger organizations
or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim
of improving their strategies, practices and knowledge of the environments
within which they practice. As designers and stakeholders, researchers
work with others to propose a new course of action to help their community
improve its work practices.
What is hypothesis?

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a


phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific
method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific
hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be
explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words
"hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific
hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a
provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.

Research problem

Problems can be conceptualized at a number of levels. At one level we are all


searching for the answer to the question “why do organisms behave the way
they do?” Questions with more specificity could proceed from; why do
humans behave the way they do, to how does reinforcement affect behavior,
to how does reinforcement affect studying, to how does reinforcement affect
studying for tests in university males.

Beginners tend to start with relatively specific research problems focused on


the face value of the question, but eventually develop a broad research
question with great generality. For example, what started as “how can I help
my roommate study more?” evolves into “what controls studying in people?”
At the beginning, the roommate’s behavior is at issue for itself. Later the
person and the behavior are seen as arbitrary instances of a much more
important and challenging question. Career long research problems tend to
emerge following several years of specific research topics, and require many
specific research studies to solve. This section details some of the sources for
an initial, relatively specific, research problem. It is intended to help you come
up with research which is manageable, enjoyable, and productive.

A very serious impediment facing new researchers is well illustrated by trying


to use a foreign language dictionary to learn what foreign words mean. Until
you know "enough" of a language, you cannot find out what the words mean.
Until you know "enough" of a paradigm, you do not know what unresolved
questions remain, or when the paradigm is wrong. "A" below is generally a
person's first exposure to a research project for that reason.

In addition to not knowing what unresolved problems remain, is missing the


more fundamental broader issue underlying any specific behavior change.
When looking at the world, try to see each functional relationship as only an
instance of a more general class of relationships.

Sometimes people research an issue simply because it occurred to them


and it seemed important. The systematic development of the idea is
lacking. This is "intuitive" or good guess research. It is risky because you
may not be able to get other researchers to understand why the research
is important. It is fun because you get to do what interests you at the
moment. Alternatively, it could be the application of a general rule of thumb
or guessing that a new problem is actually a well-understood function in
disguise.

Example: While feeling especially competent after explaining course


material to three friends you realize that orally presenting material may
help test performance. You conducted a study in which material was orally
presented before the test on a random half of the occasions. The research
was based on your insightful realization that oral presentation may
increase test performance.
MA-101 STATISTICS

Submitted to: Adriano Sabado Submitted by: Minerva C. Merin

WHAT IS STATISTICS?

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection,


analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.[1][2] In
applying statistics to, for example, a scientific, industrial, or social problem,
it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model
process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all
people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics
deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in
terms of the design of surveys and experiments.[1] See glossary of
probability and statistics.

When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by


developing specific experiment designs and survey samples.
Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can
reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole. An
experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under
study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements
using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified
the values of the measurements. In contrast, an observational study does
not involve experimental manipulation.
What are the uses of statistics?

“The use of statistics in a scientific way is entirely modern. In ancient times


there were counts of people, but no scientific use made of the results.
Censuses were taken in ancient times to assess the military strength.
David undertook to enumerate the people, and it got him into great
difficulty. Every man who has taken a census since that time has had
sympathy for David.”

(1) Statistics helps in providing a better understanding and exact


description of a phenomenon of nature.
(2) Statistics helps in the proper and efficient planning of a statistical
inquiry in any field of study.
(3) Statistics helps in collecting appropriate quantitative data.
(4) Statistics helps in presenting complex data in a suitable tabular,
diagrammatic and graphic form for easy and clear comprehension of the
data.
(5) Statistics helps in understanding the nature and pattern of variability of
a phenomenon through quantitative obersevations.
(6) Statistics helps in drawing valid inferences, along with a measure of
their reliability about the population parameters from the sample data.

What are the importance of statistics?

The field of statistics is the science of learning from data. Statistical


knowledge helps you use the proper methods to collect the data, employ
the correct analyses, and effectively present the results. Statistics is a
crucial process behind how we make discoveries in science, make
decisions based on data, and make predictions. Statistics allows you to
understand a subject much more deeply.

In this post, I cover two main reasons why studying the field of statistics is
crucial in modern society. First, statisticians are guides for learning from
data and navigating common problems that can lead you to incorrect
conclusions. Second, given the growing importance of decisions and
opinions based on data, it’s crucial that you can critically assess the quality
of analyses that others present to you.

What is Sampling?

In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the


selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within
a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.
Two advantages of sampling are that the cost is lower and data collection
is faster than measuring the entire population.

Each observation measures one or more properties (such as weight,


location, colour) of observable bodies distinguished as independent
objects or individuals. In survey sampling, weights can be applied to the
data to adjust for the sample design, particularly stratified
sampling. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are
employed to guide the practice. In business and medical research,
sampling is widely used for gathering information about a
population.[2] Acceptance sampling is used to determine if a production lot
of material meets the governing specifications.
Why do we need to study statistics and how it affects us?

Why statistics are important in our life? Statistics are the sets of
mathematical equations that we used to analyze the things. It keeps us
informed about, what is happening in the world around us. Statistics are
important because today we live in the information world and much of this
information’s are determined mathematically by Statistics Help. It means to
be informed correct data and statics concepts are necessary. To be more
specific about the importance of statics in our life, here are 10 amazing
reasons that we have heard on several occasions.

1) Everybody watches weather forecasting. Have you ever think how do


you get that information? There are some computers models build on
statistical concepts. These computer models compare prior weather with
the current weather and predict future weather.

2) Statistics mostly used by the researcher. They use their statistical skills
to collect the relevant data. Otherwise, it results in a loss of money, time
and data.

3) What do you understand by insurance? Everybody has some kind of


insurance, whether it is medical, home or any other insurance. Based on an
individual application some businesses use statistical models to calculate
the risk of giving insurance.

4) In financial market also statistic plays a great role. Statistics are the key
of how traders and businessmen invest and make money.
5) Statistics play a big role in the medical field. Before any drugs
prescribed, scientist must show a statistically valid rate of effectiveness.
Statistics are behind all the study of medical.

6) Statistical concepts are used in quality testing. Companies make many


products on a daily basis and every company should make sure that they
sold the best quality items. But companies cannot test all the products, so
they use statistics sample.

7) In everyday life we make many predictions. For examples, we keep the


alarm for the morning when we don’t know that we will be alive in the
morning or not. Here we use statistics basics to make predictions.

8) Doctors predict disease on based on statistics concepts. Suppose a


survey shows that 75%-80% people have cancer and not able to find the
reason. When the statistics become involved, then you can have a better
idea of how the cancer may affect your body or is smoking is the major
reason for it.

9) News reporter makes a prediction of winner for elections based on


political campaigns. Here statistics play a strong part in who will be your
governments.

10) Statistics data allow us to collect the information around the world. The
internet is a devise which help us to collect the information. The
fundamental behind the internet is based on statistics and mathematics
concepts.