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Research Article

Advances in Mechanical Engineering


1–8
Ó The Author(s) 2015
Evaporation of nanofluid droplet on DOI: 10.1177/1687814015578358
aime.sagepub.com
heated surface

Yeung Chan Kim

Abstract
In this study, an experiment on the evaporation of nanofluid sessile droplet on a heated surface was conducted. A nano-
fluid of 0.5% volumetric concentration mixed with 80-nm-sized CuO powder and pure water were used for experiment.
Droplet was applied to the heated surface, and images of the evaporation process were obtained. The recorded images
were analyzed to find the volume, diameter, and contact angle of the droplet. In addition, the evaporative heat transfer
coefficient was calculated from experimental result. The results of this study are summarized as follows: the base dia-
meter of the droplet was maintained stably during the evaporation. The measured temperature of the droplet was
increased rapidly for a very short time, then maintained constantly. The nanofluid droplet was evaporated faster than the
pure water droplet under the experimental conditions of the same initial volume and temperature, and the average eva-
porative heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid droplet was higher than that of pure water. We can consider the
effects of the initial contact angle and thermal conductivity of nanofluid as the reason for this experimental result.
However, the effect of surface roughness on the evaporative heat transfer of nanofluid droplet appeared unclear.

Keywords
Evaporation, heat transfer, nanofluid, droplet, surface roughness, heat transfer enhancement

Date received: 5 November 2014; accepted: 12 February 2015

Academic Editor: Moran Wang

Introduction reported that the thermal conductivity of nanofluid


could be enhanced compared to pure liquid, and stud-
The boiling and evaporation of droplet are very impor- ies on the application of nanofluid in phase change heat
tant phenomena for industrial applications using ato- transfer (boiling, evaporation, etc.) have been con-
mized liquids such as fuel spray, spray cooling, and ducted.13–15 In prior studies by the author, the contact
spray painting.1–3 Baumeister and Simon4 studied the angle of nanofluid droplet was experimentally
evaporation of droplets on a hot surface and reported researched as a basic approach to the phase change
a prediction technique for the Leidenfrost temperature. heat transfer of nanofluid.16 The result of this study
Toda5 developed a heat transfer model of a single dro- showed that the initial contact angle of the droplet
plet impacting on a hot surface. Thereafter, several increased with the surface roughness and that the
researchers conducted theoretical studies to develop a
heat transfer mechanism for the evaporation of dro-
plet.6–8 Recently, studies aimed at improving the eva- Department of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Andong National
porative heat transfer using enhanced surfaces have University, Andong, South Korea
been actively conducted.9–10 They found that enhanced
Corresponding author:
surfaces such as microporous coated or micro- Yeung Chan Kim, Department of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering,
structured silicon surface increase the evaporative heat Andong National University, Andong 760-749, South Korea.
transfer of spray cooling. Choi and colleagues11,12 Email: yeung@anu.ac.kr

Creative Commons CC-BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
(http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without
further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (http://www.uk.sagepub.com/aboutus/
openaccess.htm).
2 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Computer

Syringe

Droplet
Video camera

Lighter
Thermocouple

Test surface
Data logger

Cartridge heater

Figure 3. Photograph of the copper block surface: (a) #2000,


Figure 1. Schematic of the experimental apparatus.
(b) #400, and (c) #60.

Heat transfer surface droplet. The temperature of the heat transfer surface
Thermocouple #1
was maintained at a constant value. Then, 9–10 ml
droplet nanofluid droplets were applied to the surface, and
images of the evaporation process were obtained. The
0.5mm recorded images were analyzed to find the volume, dia-
0.75mm meter, and contact angle of the droplet.
As illustrated in Figure 2, two 0.5 mm-diametered
K-Type thermocouples were used for the measurement.
Thermocouple #2 One was placed at 0.5 mm away from the heat transfer
surface for the measurement of droplet temperature
Figure 2. Measurement of droplet temperature (thermocouple during the evaporation. The experiment for the mea-
1 for droplet, thermocouple 2 for the heat transfer surface). surement of droplet temperature was conducted sepa-
rately. The thermocouple 1 shown in Figure 2 was
contact angle of the nanofluid droplets tended to applied only for the experiment measuring the droplet
become slightly smaller than that of pure water. temperature. The other was inserted into a site 0.75 mm
However, there remain many unidentified phases in the below the heat transfer surface for the measurement of
evaporation of nanofluid droplet. In this study, an the heat transfer surface. The temperature of the heat
experiment on the evaporation of nanofluid sessile dro- transfer surface was calculated using the measured tem-
plet on a heated surface was conducted. Droplet was perature and Fourier’s law of heat conduction. The
applied to the heated surface, and images of the eva- heat transfer surface was made using a cylindrical cop-
poration process were obtained. The recorded images per block with a diameter of 9.0 mm. Nine cartridge
were analyzed to find the volume, diameter, and con- heaters (220 W) were installed in the copper block to
tact angle of the droplet. The evaporative heat transfer control the temperature of the heat transfer surface. As
coefficient was calculated based on experimental result. mentioned, the effect of the surface roughness on the
In addition, the effect of surface roughness on the eva- evaporative heat transfer was also investigated. The
porative heat transfer was investigated. heat transfer surfaces were ground using #2000, #220,
and #60 sand paper, and then the surface roughness
was measured before the experiment. An ultrasonic
Experimental apparatus and method humidifier was employed to maintain the relative
humidity of the laboratory at a constant level.
A nanofluid of 0.5% volumetric concentration mixed
with 80-nm-sized CuO powder and pure water were
used. No additive was employed to enhance the float-
ing stability of the nanoparticles, but the nanofluid was
Experimental results and discussion
stably floated by supersonic vibration for 2 h before the Photographs of the ground heat transfer surfaces with
experiment. The experimental apparatus is illustrated the #2000, #400, and #60 sand paper are shown in
in Figure 1. Droplet shape analysis system (Krüss Figure 3. The measured average Ra values were 0.23,
DSA100) was applied to analyze the shape of the 0.66, and 2.29 mm, respectively.16
Kim 3

ͦ͢͡ XYW
ΖΩΡΖΣΚΞΖΟΥΒΝ͑ΕΒΥΒ

ͣ͢͡ XWW

{ ‹ ”GSGG୅
ͪ͡
΅Τ ͑͑͑͝ఁ

_W

ͧ͡ ]W

ͤ͡
[W
{‹ G୒GY\୅
͡
͡ ͢͡ ͣ͡ ͤ͡ ͥ͡ YW
ͣ͡ ͥ͡ ͧ͡ ͩ͡ ͢͡͡ ͣ͢͡
΁ΠΨΖΣ͑͑͝ΈΒΥΥ
{ š GSGఁ
Figure 4. Surface temperature versus power supply.
Figure 6. Mean droplet temperature versus surface
temperature.

ͩ͡

ͨ͡ liquid droplet
š›ˆ™› Œ•‹
{Œ”—Œ™ˆ›œ™ŒGGSGG୅

bubble
ͧ͡

ͦ͡
heat transfer surface
(a)
ͥ͡

ͤ͡ { šœ™™ GO୒{ ‹ P

ͣ͡
͡ ͦ͡ ͢͡͡ ͦ͢͡ ͣ͡͡ ͣͦ͡
(b)
{”ŒGSGšŒŠ

Figure 5. Results of measured droplet and surface


temperature.
(c)
Figure 7. Schematics of bubble generation and growth for
The relationship between the power supplied to the various surface temperatures: (a) Ts = 35 °C–56 °C (no bubbles
cartridge heater and the surface temperature is illu- or a few bubbles), (b) Ts = 70 °C–85 °C (many small bubbles),
strated in Figure 4. In the experiment, power ranging and (c) Ts = 97 °C–105 °C (big bubbles and growing fast).
from 5 to 32 W was supplied to the heater, and then the
steady-state temperature of the surface was measured.
The surface temperature gradually increased to the was calculated using this experimental result. Figure 6
range of 35 °C–106 °C along with the increase of the illustrates the correlations between the mean tempera-
power supply. It was also observed that the surface ture of the droplet and the surface temperature.
temperature was kept almost stable while the droplet Figure 7 illustrates the observed results of the bubble
evaporated. generation and growth for the various surface tempera-
Figure 5 illustrates the typical result of the measured tures using pure water. In the low surface temperature
droplet temperature during the evaporation at regime, no bubbles were observed on the surface. Many
Ts 71 °C. The measured temperature of the heat small bubbles appeared in the middle surface tempera-
transfer surface was also presented in Figure 5. The ini- ture regime as illustrated in Figure 7(b). However, bub-
tial droplet temperature (Tdi) was about 25 °C. As illu- bles were not growing during the evaporation in this
strated in Figure 5, the surface temperature was stable temperature regime. Big bubbles were observed and
during the evaporation. The droplet temperature was bubbles were growing fast in the temperature regime
increased rapidly for a very short time, then maintained near the saturated temperature of liquid as illustrated
constantly. The mean temperature of the droplet (Tdm) in Figure 7(c).
4 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

ͦ͢ ͣ͢
‫ ڍډڏړ୒ ێ گٻڇڋڋڋڍپ‬ఁ ΧΠΝΦΞΟ ΧΠΝΦΞΟ
JYWWWSG{š ୒_]UX ୅

Ν͑͗͑͵ΚΒΞΖΥΖΣ͑͑͝ΞΞ
·ΠΝΦΞΖ͑͑͑͝൚Ν͑͗͑͵ΚΒΞΖΥΖΣ͑͑͝ΞΞ
·ΠΝΦΞΖ͑͑͑͝൚ Ν͑͗͑͵ΚΒΞΖΥΖΣ͑͑͝ΞΞ

ΕΚΒΞΖΥΖΣ ΕΚΒΞΖΥΖΣ
ͣ͢
ͪ

ͧ
ͧ
·ΠΝΦΞΖ͑͑͑͝

·ΠΝΦΞΖ͑͑͑͝
ͤ ͤ

͡
͡ ͣ͡ ͥ͡ ͧ͡ ͩ͡ ͡
͡ ͢͡ ͣ͡ ͤ͡ ͥ͡ ͦ͡
΅ΚΞΖ͑͑͝ΤΖΔ
΅ΚΞΖ͑͑͝ΤΖΔ
(a)
ͦ͢ (a)
ͣ͡
ΧΠΝΦΞΟ
‫ ڏډڐڋڌ୒ ێ گٻڇڋڋڋڍپ‬ఁ
JYWWWSG{š ୒XW\UY ୅
·ΠΝΦΞΖ͑͑͑͝൚ Ν͑͗͑͵ΚΒΞΖΥΖΣ͑͑͝ΞΞ

ΕΚΒΞΖΥΖΣ ΧΠΝΦΞΟ

Ν͑͗͑͵ΚΒΞΖΥΖΣ͑͑͝ΞΞ
·ΠΝΦΞΖ͑͑͑͝൚Ν͑͗͑͵ΚΒΞΖΥΖΣ͑͑͝ΞΞ
ͣ͢ ΕΚΒΞΖΥΖΣ

ͦ͢

͢͡
ͧ
·ΠΝΦΞΖ͑͑͑͝

·ΠΝΦΞΖ͑͑͑͝

ͤ ͦ

͡
͡ ͣ͡ ͥ͡ ͧ͡ ͩ͡ ͡
͡ ͢͡ ͣ͡ ͤ͡ ͥ͡ ͦ͡
΅ΚΞΖ͑͑͝ΤΖΔ
΅ΚΞΖ͑͑͝ΤΖΔ
(b) (b)
Figure 8. Time history of droplet volume and diameter
Figure 9. Time history of droplet volume and diameter
(water): (a) Ts = 84.2 °C and (b) Ts = 105.4 °C.
(nanofluid): (a) Ts = 86.1 °C and (b) Ts = 105.2 °C.

Figure 8 illustrates the measured results of the


changes in volume and the diameter of pure water dro- nanofluid droplets did not reach 0 completely, because
plet during the evaporation for the middle and high sur- the nanoparticles remained on the surface after the eva-
face temperature regimes. Figure 8(a) and (b) shows the poration was completed.
results of each experiment conducted at surface tem- Shape images of pure water and nanofluid droplet
peratures of 84.2 °C and 105.4 °C. As shown in Figure during the evaporation are shown in Figure 10(a) and
8(a), the volume of the droplet with a surface tempera- (b), respectively. For the pure water droplet shown in
ture of 84.2 °C gradually decreased over time, but the Figure 10(a) with a surface temperature of 105 °C, the
base diameters of the droplets were almost stable. The rapid growth of bubbles was observed at the initial
gradual growth of small bubbles on the surface was stage of the droplet evaporation. It was hard to observe
observed. However, as shown in Figure 8(b), the vol- any bubbles inside the nanofluid droplet shown in
ume of droplet initially increased rapidly and decreased Figure 10(b) because the nanofluid was murky.
gradually thereafter with a surface temperature of However, we can recognize the bubble growth inside
105.4 °C. This is attributable to the rapid bubble growth the nanofluid droplet from the shape images. Also, the
inside the droplet on the surface heated over the satura- deposition of nanoparticles on the heat transfer surface
tion temperature of the liquid. was observed at the end of the droplet evaporation.
The experimental results of the nanofluid droplet The measured thickness of the deposition layer was
are illustrated in Figure 9. Each of the results at surface about 100–150 mm.
temperatures of 86.1 °C and 105.2 °C is illustrated in Figure 11 illustrates the measured evaporation time
Figure 9(a) and (b). The results of the nanofluid droplet of pure water and nanofluid droplet. The experiment
were similar to those of pure water droplet, as illu- was conducted under the same condition of the initial
strated in Figure 8, but the volume and diameter of the droplet volume and temperature. The experimental
Kim 5

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7V Ȕ 7V Ȕ 7V Ȕ 7V Ȕ

    


 



 



  

   

   

(a) (b)
Figure 10. Time history of droplet shape during evaporation: (a) pure water (#2000) and (b) nanofluid (#2000).

ZWW ͢͢͡
ͺΟΚΥΚΒΝ͑ΕΣΠΡΝΖΥ͑ΧΠΝΦΞΖఎ͢͟͡͡ՐΝ
k™–—“Œ›G–“œ”ŒGaGZUW¥Y^UWGɆ“
ͺΟΚΥΚΒΝ͑ΕΣΠΡΝΖΥ͑ΥΖΞΡΖΣΒΥΦΣΖ͑ఎͣͦఁ
—œ™ŒGžˆ›Œ™
͑ΡΦΣΖ͑ΨΒΥΖΣ
WUXLG•ˆ•–“œ‹
͖͑ͦ͑͟͡ΟΒΟΠΗΝΦΚΕ
lˆ—–›ˆ›–•G{”ŒGSGšŒŠ

j–•›ˆŠ›Gˆ•Ž“ŒGGSGGȣ

WU\LG•ˆ•–“œ‹
YWW ͪ͡

XWW ͨ͡

W ͦ͡
YW [W ]W _W XWW ͡ ͦ͟͡ ͢ ͦ͢͟ ͣ ͣͦ͟

{ š T{‹GSG୅ yˆ GSG»”

Figure 11. Comparison of evaporation time between pure Figure 12. Comparison of contact angles between pure water
water and nanofluid droplet on the heated surface. and nanofluid droplet.16

result shows that the evaporation rate of nanofluid dro- contact angle increased in both pure water and nano-
plet was higher than that of pure water. We can con- fluid droplet as the surface roughness increased. In a
sider the effects of the initial contact angle and thermal comparison of initial contact angle between pure water
conductivity of nanofluid as the reason for this experi- and nanofluid droplet, the contact angle of nanofluid
mental result. Figure 12 shows the result of the initial droplet was slightly smaller than that of pure water.
contact angle measurement for pure water and nano- This fact means that the liquid–solid contact area of
fluid droplet.16 The result showed that the initial nanofluid droplet increases with the decrease of the
6 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

ͣ͢͡͡͡
Qe,ds Qsurr ͖ͦ͑͟͡ΟΒΟΠΗΝΦΚΕ
ͺΟΚΥΚΒΝ͑ΕΣΠΡΝΖΥ͑ΧΠΝΦΞΖఎ͢͟͡͡ՐΝ
ͺΟΚΥΚΒΝ͑ΕΣΠΡΝΖΥ͑ΥΖΞΡΖΣΒΥΦΣΖ͑ఎͣͦఁ
Qb ͪ͡͡͡ ͔ͣ͡͡͡
Qe,hs ͔ͥ͡͡
͔ͧ͡

Ι͑͑͑͝Έ͠Ξͣఁ
ͧ͡͡͡

Qtotal
(a) ͤ͡͡͡

Tdm
͡
͡ ͤ͡ ͧ͡ ͪ͡

Rcond. Rconv. ΅ Τ ͑͑͞΅ ΕΚ ͑͑͝ఁ

Figure 15. Effect of surface roughness on evaporative heat


transfer in nanofluid droplet.

Ts
where Qt is the total heat transfer from the heat trans-
(b)
fer surface, Qb is the sensible heat transfer to the dro-
plet, Qe is the latent heat transfer, and Qsurr is the heat
Figure 13. Heat transfer model for a droplet on the heated
surface: (a) heat balance for evaporating droplet on the heated transfer to surround through the droplet (convection
surface and (b) thermal resistance for heat transfer through and radiation). Qb and Qe can be calculated using the
droplet. following equations, respectively

Qb = rCVd ðTdm  Tdi Þ, Qe = rVd Lv ð2Þ

Qsurr is small in the phase change heat transfer, so


ͣ͢͡͡͡

ͺΟΚΥΚΒΝ͑ΕΣΠΡΝΖΥ͑ΧΠΝΦΞΖఎ͢͟͡͡ՐΝ
these heat transfers are negligible. Meanwhile, Qe can
ͺΟΚΥΚΒΝ͑ΕΣΠΡΝΖΥ͑ΥΖΞΡΖΣΒΥΦΣΖ͑ఎͣͦఁ be expressed as the sum of Qe,hs and Qe,ds. Qe,ds means
͔ͣ͡͡͡͞ΡΦΣΖ͑ΨΒΥΖΣ
ͪ͡͡͡ ͔͖ͣͦ͑͟͡͡͡͞͡ΟΒΟΠΗΝΦΚΕ the latent heat transfer in the droplet surface (liquid–
air contact), and Qe,hs means the latent heat transfer in
Ι͑͑͑͝Έ͠Ξͣఁ

the heat transfer surface (liquid–solid contact). In the


ͧ͡͡͡
low surface temperature regime, Qe,hs is very small.
However, Qe,hs increases with the increase of the sur-
face temperature. Also, the total heat transfer can be
ͤ͡͡͡ expressed using the combined heat transfer coefficient
as

͡ Qt = hAðTs  Tdm ÞDt ð3Þ


͡ ͤ͡ ͧ͡ ͪ͡

΅ Τ ͑͑͞΅ ΕΚ͑͑͝ఁ where h is the combined heat transfer coefficient and


defined as the evaporative heat transfer coefficient in
Figure 14. Comparison of evaporative heat transfer between this study. A is the liquid–solid contact area and Dt is
pure water and nanofluid droplet. the evaporation time. The following equation can be
obtained from equations (1) to (3) ignoring the Qsurr
initial contact angle under the same condition of the
droplet volume, which makes the droplet evaporate rCVd (Tdm  Tdi ) + rVd Lv
h= ð4Þ
faster. A(Ts  Tdm )Dt
Figure 13 illustrates the heat transfer model of the
evaporating single droplet for evaluating the effect of The evaporative heat transfer coefficients calculated
thermal conductivity. The heat balance for the evapor- from the experimental results are illustrated in
ating droplet can be expressed as Figure 14. For the calculation of the evaporative heat
transfer, the mean temperature (Tdm) of the droplet
Qt = Qb + Qe + Qsurr ð1Þ was used. The contact area was also calculated using
the measured mean diameter of the droplet. The
Kim 7

experimental uncertainty for the evaporative heat average evaporative heat transfer coefficient of
transfer coefficients can be expressed as follows17 the nanofluid droplet was higher than that of
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pure water. We can consider the effects of the
 2  2    2 initial contact angle and thermal conductivity of
Uh UQt UA UDT 2 UDt
= + + + ð5Þ nanofluid as the reason for this experimental
h Qt A DT Dt
result.
By considering the errors due to the measured Qt 2. The effect of surface roughness on the evapora-
( Qe), A, DT (= Ts 2 Tdm), and Dt, the uncertainty of tive heat transfer of nanofluid droplet appeared
the evaporative heat transfer coefficients was estimated unclear. The deposition of nanoparticles on sur-
within 12%. As illustrated in Figure 14, the evaporative faces reduced the difference of surface rough-
heat transfer coefficient increased rapidly with the sur- ness, which made its effect insignificant on the
face temperature. The average evaporative heat transfer evaporative heat transfer of nanofluid droplet.
coefficient of the nanofluid droplet was higher than
that of pure water. As mentioned, it was presumed that
Acknowledgement
this experimental result was caused by both the initial
contact angle and the thermal conductivity of nano- This research was supported by Basic Science Research
Program through the National Research Foundation of
fluid. As illustrated in Figure 13(b), we can consider
Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science
the conduction and convection resistance for the heat
and Technology (No. 2011-0007117).
transfer through the droplet. A good thermal conduc-
tivity of the nanofluid decreases the conduction resis-
tance. In the regime of the high surface temperature Declaration of conflicting interests
near the saturated temperature of the liquid, the con-
The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.
vection can be replaced with the boiling heat transfer.
Figure 15 illustrates the effect of surface roughness
on the evaporative heat transfer coefficients of nano- References
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Appendix 1 U uncertainty
Vd initial droplet volume
Notation
Dt evaporation time
A contact area
r liquid density
C specific heat
Lv latent heat