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DWH Material
Version 1.0

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REVISION HISTORY

The following table reflects all changes to this document.

Date Author / Contributor Version Reason for Change

01-Nov-2004 1.0 Initial Document

14-Sep-2010 1.1 Updated Document

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 4
1.1 Purpose 4
2 ORACLE 4
2.1 DEFINATIONS 4
NORMALIZATION: 5
First Normal Form: 5
Second Normal Form: 5
Third Normal Form: 5
Boyce-Codd Normal Form: 6
Fourth Normal Form: 6
ORACLE SET OF STATEMENTS: 6
Data Definition Language :(DDL) 6
Data Manipulation Language (DML) 6
Data Querying Language (DQL) 7
Data Control Language (DCL) 7
Transactional Control Language (TCL) 7
Syntaxes: 7
ORACLE JOINS: 9
Equi Join/Inner Join: 10
Non-Equi Join 10
Self Join 10
Natural Join 11
Cross Join 11
Outer Join 11
Left Outer Join 11
Right Outer Join 12

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Full Outer Join 12
What’s the difference between View and Materialized View? 12
View: 13
Materialized View: 13
Inline view: 14
Indexes: 19
Why hints Require? 19
Explain Plan: 22
Store Procedure: 23
Packages: 24
Triggers: 24
Data files Overview: 26
2.2 IMPORTANT QUERIES 27
3 DWH CONCEPTS 30
What is BI? 30
4 ETL-INFORMATICA 53
4.1 Informatica Overview 53
4.2 Informatica Scenarios: 92
4.3 Development Guidelines 99
4.4 Performance Tips 103
4.5 Unit Test Cases (UTP): 105
5 UNIX 108

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Detailed Design DocumentAutomation of Candidate
Extract and Load Process

1 Introduction

1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide the detailed information
about DWH Concepts and Informatica based on real-time training.

2 ORACLE

2.1 DEFINATIONS
Organizations can store data on various media and in different formats, such as
a hard-copy document

in a filing cabinet or data stored in electronic spreadsheets or in databases.

A database is an organized collection of information.

To manage databases, you need database management systems (DBMS). A


DBMS is a program that

stores, retrieves, and modifies data in the database on request. There are four
main types of databases:

hierarchical, network, relational, and more recently object relational(ORDBMS).

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NORMALIZATION:
Some Oracle databases were modeled according to the rules of normalization
that were intended to eliminate redundancy.

Obviously, the rules of normalization are required to understand your


relationships and functional dependencies

First Normal Form:

A row is in first normal form (1NF) if all underlying domains contain atomic
values only.

 Eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.


 Create separate tables for each group of related data and identify each
row with a unique column or set of columns (the primary key).

Second Normal Form:

An entity is in Second Normal Form (2NF) when it meets the requirement of


being in First Normal Form (1NF) and additionally:

 Does not have a composite primary key. Meaning that the primary key can
not be subdivided into separate logical entities.
 All the non-key columns are functionally dependent on the entire primary
key.

 A row is in second normal form if, and only if, it is in first normal form and
every non-key attribute is fully dependent on the key.

 2NF eliminates functional dependencies on a partial key by putting the


fields in a separate table from those that are dependent on the whole key.
An example is resolving many: many relationships using an intersecting
entity.

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Third Normal Form:

An entity is in Third Normal Form (3NF) when it meets the requirement of being
in Second Normal Form (2NF) and additionally:

 Functional dependencies on non-key fields are eliminated by putting them


in a separate table. At this level, all non-key fields are dependent on the
primary key.
 A row is in third normal form if and only if it is in second normal form and
if attributes that do not contribute to a description of the primary key are
move into a separate table. An example is creating look-up tables.

Boyce-Codd Normal Form:

Boyce Codd Normal Form (BCNF) is a further refinement of 3NF. In his later
writings Codd refers to BCNF as 3NF. A row is in Boyce Codd normal form if, and
only if, every determinant is a candidate key. Most entities in 3NF are already in
BCNF.

Fourth Normal Form:

An entity is in Fourth Normal Form (4NF) when it meets the requirement of


being in Third Normal Form (3NF) and additionally:

Has no multiple sets of multi-valued dependencies. In other words, 4NF states


that no entity can have more than a single one-to-many relationship.

ORACLE SET OF STATEMENTS:

Data Definition Language :(DDL)

Create

Alter

Drop

Truncate

Data Manipulation Language (DML)

Insert

Update

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Delete

Data Querying Language (DQL)

Select

Data Control Language (DCL)

Grant

Revoke

Transactional Control Language (TCL)

Commit

Rollback

Save point

Syntaxes:

CREATE OR REPLACE SYNONYM HZ_PARTIES FOR SCOTT.HZ_PARTIES

CREATE DATABASE LINK CAASEDW CONNECT TO ITO_ASA IDENTIFIED BY


exact123 USING ' CAASEDW’

Materialized View syntax:

CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW


EBIBDRO.HWMD_MTH_ALL_METRICS_CURR_VIEW

REFRESH COMPLETE

START WITH sysdate

NEXT TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)+ 4/24

WITH PRIMARY KEY

AS

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select * from HWMD_MTH_ALL_METRICS_CURR_VW;

Another Method to refresh:

DBMS_MVIEW.REFRESH('MV_COMPLEX', 'C');

Case Statement:

Select NAME,
(CASE
WHEN (CLASS_CODE = 'Subscription')
THEN ATTRIBUTE_CATEGORY
ELSE TASK_TYPE
END) TASK_TYPE,
CURRENCY_CODE
From EMP

Decode()

Select empname,Decode(address,’HYD’,’Hyderabad’,
‘Bang’, Bangalore’, address) as address from emp;

Procedure:

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE Update_bal (

cust_id_IN In NUMBER,

amount_IN In NUMBER DEFAULT 1) AS

BEGIN

Update account_tbl Set amount= amount_IN where cust_id= cust_id_IN

End

Trigger:

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CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER EMP_AUR

AFTER/BEFORE UPDATE ON EMP

REFERENCING

NEW AS NEW

OLD AS OLD

FOR EACH ROW

DECLARE

BEGIN

IF (:NEW.last_upd_tmst <> :OLD.last_upd_tmst) THEN

-- Insert into Control table record

Insert into table emp_w values('wrk',sysdate)

ELSE

-- Exec procedure

Exec update_sysdate()

END;

ORACLE JOINS:

Equi join
Non-equi join
Self join
Natural join

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Cross join
Outer join
 Left outer
 Right outer
 Full outer

Equi Join/Inner Join:

SQL> select empno,ename,job,dname,loc from emp e,dept d where


e.deptno=d.deptno;

USING CLAUSE

SQL> select empno,ename,job ,dname,loc from emp e join dept d


using(deptno);

ON CLAUSE

SQL> select empno,ename,job,dname,loc from emp e join dept d


on(e.deptno=d.deptno);

Non-Equi Join

A join which contains an operator other than ‘=’ in the joins condition.

Ex: SQL> select empno,ename,job,dname,loc from emp e,dept d where


e.deptno > d.deptno;

Self Join

Joining the table itself is called self join.

Ex1: SQL> select e1.empno,e2.ename ,e1.job,e2.deptno from emp e1,emp e2


where e1.mgr=e2.empno;

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Ex2:

SELECT worker. employee_id, manager.last_name as manger name

FROM employees worker, employees manager

WHERE worker.manager_id = manager.employee_id ;

Natural Join

Natural join compares all the common columns.

Ex: SQL> select empno,ename,job,dname,loc from emp natural join dept;

Cross Join

This will gives the cross product.

Ex: SQL> select empno,ename,job,dname,loc from emp cross join dept;

Outer Join

Outer join gives the non-matching records along with matching records.

Left Outer Join

This will display the all matching records and the records which are in left hand
side table those that are not in right hand side table.

Ex: SQL> select empno,ename,job,dname,loc from emp e left outer join dept
d on(e.deptno=d.deptno);

Or

SQL> select empno,ename,job,dname,loc from emp e,dept d where

e.deptno=d.deptno(+);

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Right Outer Join

This will display the all matching records and the records which are in right
hand side table those that are not in left hand side table.

Ex: SQL> select empno,ename,job,dname,loc from emp e right outer join


dept d on(e.deptno=d.deptno);

Or

SQL> select empno,ename,job,dname,loc from emp e,dept d where


e.deptno(+) = d.deptno;

Full Outer Join

This will display the all matching records and the non-matching records from
both tables.

Ex: SQL> select empno,ename,job,dname,loc from emp e full outer join dept
d on(e.deptno=d.deptno);

OR

SQL> select p.part_id, s.supplier_name


2 from part p, supplier s
3 where p.supplier_id = s.supplier_id (+)
4 union
5 select p.part_id, s.supplier_name
6 from part p, supplier s
7 where p.supplier_id (+) = s.supplier_id;

What’s the difference between View and Materialized View?

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View:

Why Use Views?

• To restrict data access

• To make complex queries easy

• To provide data independence

A simple view is one that:

– Derives data from only one table

– Contains no functions or groups of data

– Can perform DML operations through the view.

A complex view is one that:

– Derives data from many tables

– Contains functions or groups of data

– Does not always allow DML operations through the view

A view has a logical existence but a materialized view has


a physical existence.Moreover a materialized view can be
Indexed, analysed and so on....that is all the things that
we can do with a table can also be done with a materialized
view.

We can keep aggregated data into materialized view. we can schedule the MV to
refresh but table can’t.MV can be created based on multiple tables.

Materialized View:

In DWH materialized views are very essential because in reporting side if we do


aggregate calculations as per the business requirement report performance
would be de graded. So to improve report performance rather than doing
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report calculations and joins at reporting side if we put same logic in the MV
then we can directly select the data from MV without any joins and
aggregations. We can also schedule MV (Materialize View).

Inline view:

If we write a select statement in from clause that is nothing but inline view.

Ex:
Get dept wise max sal along with empname and emp no.

Select a.empname, a.empno, b.sal, b.deptno


From EMP a, (Select max (sal) sal, deptno from EMP group by deptno) b
Where
a.sal=b.sal and
a.deptno=b.deptno

What is the difference between view and materialized view?

View Materialized view

A view has a logical existence. It does A materialized view has a physical


not contain data. existence.

Its not a database object. It is a database object.

We cannot perform DML operation We can perform DML operation on


on view. materialized view.

When we do select * from view it will When we do select * from


fetch the data from base table. materialized view it will fetch the
data from materialized view.

In view we cannot schedule to In materialized view we can schedule


refresh. to refresh.

We can keep aggregated data into


materialized view. Materialized view
can be created based on multiple
tables.

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What is the Difference between Delete, Truncate and Drop?

DELETE

The DELETE command is used to remove rows from a table. A WHERE clause
can be used to only remove some rows. If no WHERE condition is specified, all
rows will be removed. After performing a DELETE operation you need to
COMMIT or ROLLBACK the transaction to make the change permanent or to
undo it.

TRUNCATE

TRUNCATE removes all rows from a table. The operation cannot be rolled back.
As such, TRUCATE is faster and doesn't use as much undo space as a DELETE.

DROP

The DROP command removes a table from the database. All the tables' rows,
indexes and privileges will also be removed. The operation cannot be rolled
back.

Difference between Rowid and Rownum?

ROWID

A globally unique identifier for a row in a database. It is created at the time the
row is inserted into a table, and destroyed when it is removed from a
table.'BBBBBBBB.RRRR.FFFF' where BBBBBBBB is the block number, RRRR is the
slot(row) number, and FFFF is a file number.

ROWNUM

For each row returned by a query, the ROWNUM pseudo column returns a
number indicating the order in which Oracle selects the row from a table or set
of joined rows. The first row selected has a ROWNUM of 1, the second has 2,
and so on.

You can use ROWNUM to limit the number of rows returned by a query, as in
this example:

SELECT * FROM employees WHERE ROWNUM < 10;

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Rowid Row-num

Rowid is an oracle internal id that is Row-num is a row number returned


allocated every time a new record by a select statement.
is inserted in a table. This ID is
unique and cannot be changed by
the user.

Rowid is permanent. Row-num is temporary.

Rowid is a globally unique identifier The row-num pseudocoloumn


for a row in a database. It is created returns a number indicating the
at the time the row is inserted into order in which oracle selects the
the table, and destroyed when it is row from a table or set of joined
removed from a table. rows.

Order of where and having:

SELECT column, group_function

FROM table

[WHERE condition]

[GROUP BY group_by_expression]

[HAVING group_condition]

[ORDER BY column];

The WHERE clause cannot be used to restrict groups. you use the

HAVING clause to restrict groups.

Differences between where clause and having clause

Where clause Having clause

Both where and having clause can be used to filter the data.
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Where as in where clause it is not But having clause we need to use it
mandatory. with the group by.

Where clause applies to the Where as having clause is used to test


individual rows. some condition on the group rather
than on individual rows.

Where clause is used to restrict rows. But having clause is used to restrict
groups.

Restrict normal query by where Restrict group by function by having

In where clause every record is In having clause it is with aggregate


filtered based on where. records (group by functions).

MERGE Statement

You can use merge command to perform insert and update in a single
command.

Ex: Merge into student1 s1

Using (select * from student2) s2

On (s1.no=s2.no)

When matched then

Update set marks = s2.marks

When not matched then

Insert (s1.no, s1.name, s1.marks) Values (s2.no, s2.name, s2.marks);

What is the difference between sub-query & co-related sub query?

A sub query is executed once for the parent statement

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whereas the correlated sub query is executed once for each

row of the parent query.

Sub Query:

Example:

Select deptno, ename, sal from emp a where sal in (select sal from Grade
where sal_grade=’A’ or sal_grade=’B’)

Co-Related Sun query:

Example:

Find all employees who earn more than the average salary in their department.

SELECT last-named, salary, department_id FROM employees A

WHERE salary > (SELECT AVG (salary)

FROM employees B WHERE B.department_id =A.department_id

Group by B.department_id)

EXISTS:

The EXISTS operator tests for existence of rows in

the results set of the subquery.

Select dname from dept where exists


(select 1 from EMP
where dept.deptno= emp.deptno);

Sub-query Co-related sub-query

A sub-query is executed once for Where as co-related sub-query is


the parent Query executed once for each row of the
parent query.

Example: Example:

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Select * from emp where deptno in Select a.* from emp e where sal >=
(select deptno from dept); (select avg(sal) from emp a where
a.deptno=e.deptno group by
a.deptno);

Indexes:

1. Bitmap indexes are most appropriate for columns having low distinct
values—such as GENDER, MARITAL_STATUS, and RELATION. This
assumption is not completely accurate, however. In reality, a bitmap
index is always advisable for systems in which data is not frequently
updated by many concurrent systems. In fact, as I'll demonstrate here, a
bitmap index on a column with 100-percent unique values (a column
candidate for primary key) is as efficient as a B-tree index.

2. When to Create an Index

3. You should create an index if:

4. A column contains a wide range of values

5. A column contains a large number of null values

6. One or more columns are frequently used together in a WHERE clause


or a join condition

7. The table is large and most queries are expected to retrieve less than 2
to 4 percent of the rows

8. By default if u create index that is nothing but b-tree index.

Why hints Require?

It is a perfect valid question to ask why hints should be used. Oracle comes with
an optimizer that promises to optimize a query's execution plan. When this
optimizer is really doing a good job, no hints should be required at all.

Sometimes, however, the characteristics of the data in the database are


changing rapidly, so that the optimizer (or more accuratly, its statistics) are out
of date. In this case, a hint could help.

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You should first get the explain plan of your SQL and determine what changes
can be done to make the code operate without using hints if possible. However,
hints such as ORDERED, LEADING, INDEX, FULL, and the various AJ and SJ hints
can take a wild optimizer and give you optimal performance

Tables analyze and update Analyze Statement

The ANALYZE statement can be used to gather statistics for a specific table,
index or cluster. The statistics can be computed exactly, or estimated based on a
specific number of rows, or a percentage of rows:

ANALYZE TABLE employees COMPUTE STATISTICS;

ANALYZE TABLE employees ESTIMATE STATISTICS SAMPLE 15 PERCENT;

EXEC DBMS_STATS.gather_table_stats('SCOTT', 'EMPLOYEES');

Automatic Optimizer Statistics Collection

By default Oracle 10g automatically gathers optimizer statistics using a


scheduled job called GATHER_STATS_JOB. By default this job runs within
maintenance windows between 10 P.M. to 6 A.M. week nights and all day on
weekends. The job calls the DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DATABASE_STATS_JOB_PROC
internal procedure which gathers statistics for tables with either empty or stale
statistics, similar to the DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DATABASE_STATS procedure
using the GATHER AUTO option. The main difference is that the internal job
prioritizes the work such that tables most urgently requiring statistics updates
are processed first.

Hint categories:

Hints can be categorized as follows:

 ALL_ROWS
One of the hints that 'invokes' the Cost based optimizer
ALL_ROWS is usually used for batch processing or data warehousing
systems.

(/*+ ALL_ROWS */)

 FIRST_ROWS
One of the hints that 'invokes' the Cost based optimizer
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FIRST_ROWS is usually used for OLTP systems.

(/*+ FIRST_ROWS */)

 CHOOSE
One of the hints that 'invokes' the Cost based optimizer
This hint lets the server choose (between ALL_ROWS and FIRST_ROWS,
based on statistics gathered.

 Hints for Join Orders,

 Hints for Join Operations,

 Hints for Parallel Execution, (/*+ parallel(a,4) */) specify degree either 2
or 4 or 16

 Additional Hints

 HASH
Hashes one table (full scan) and creates a hash index for that table. Then
hashes other table and uses hash index to find corresponding records.
Therefore not suitable for < or > join conditions.

/*+ use_hash */

Use Hint to force using index

SELECT /*+INDEX (TABLE_NAME INDEX_NAME) */ COL1,COL2 FROM


TABLE_NAME

Select ( /*+ hash */ ) empno from

ORDERED- This hint forces tables to be joined in the order specified. If you
know table X has fewer rows, then ordering it first may speed execution in a
join.

PARALLEL (table, instances)This specifies the operation is to be done in


parallel.

If index is not able to create then will go for /*+ parallel(table, 8)*/-----For
select and update example---in where clase like st,not in ,>,< ,<> then we will
use.

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Explain Plan:

Explain plan will tell us whether the query properly using indexes or not.whatis
the cost of the table whether it is doing full table scan or not, based on these
statistics we can tune the query.
The explain plan process stores data in the PLAN_TABLE. This table can be
located in the current schema or a shared schema and is created using in
SQL*Plus as follows:

SQL> CONN sys/password AS SYSDBA


Connected
SQL> @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlxplan.sql
SQL> GRANT ALL ON sys.plan_table TO public;

SQL> CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM plan_table FOR sys.plan_table;

What is your tuning approach if SQL query taking long time? Or how do u
tune SQL query?

If query taking long time then First will run the query in Explain Plan, The
explain plan process stores data in the PLAN_TABLE.

it will give us execution plan of the query like whether the query is using the
relevant indexes on the joining columns or indexes to support the query are
missing.

If joining columns doesn’t have index then it will do the full table scan if it is full
table scan the cost will be more then will create the indexes on the joining
columns and will run the query it should give better performance and also
needs to analyze the tables if analyzation happened long back. The ANALYZE
statement can be used to gather statistics for a specific table, index or cluster
using

ANALYZE TABLE employees COMPUTE STATISTICS;

If still have performance issue then will use HINTS, hint is nothing but a clue.
We can use hints like

 ALL_ROWS
One of the hints that 'invokes' the Cost based optimizer
ALL_ROWS is usually used for batch processing or data warehousing
systems.
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(/*+ ALL_ROWS */)

 FIRST_ROWS
One of the hints that 'invokes' the Cost based optimizer
FIRST_ROWS is usually used for OLTP systems.

(/*+ FIRST_ROWS */)

 CHOOSE
One of the hints that 'invokes' the Cost based optimizer
This hint lets the server choose (between ALL_ROWS and FIRST_ROWS,
based on statistics gathered.

 HASH
Hashes one table (full scan) and creates a hash index for that table. Then
hashes other table and uses hash index to find corresponding records.
Therefore not suitable for < or > join conditions.

/*+ use_hash */

Hints are most useful to optimize the query performance.

Store Procedure:
What are the differences between stored procedures and triggers?

Stored procedure normally used for performing tasks


But the Trigger normally used for tracing and auditing logs.

Stored procedures should be called explicitly by the user in order to execute


But the Trigger should be called implicitly based on the events defined in the
table.

Stored Procedure can run independently


But the Trigger should be part of any DML events on the table.

Stored procedure can be executed from the Trigger


But the Trigger cannot be executed from the Stored procedures.

Stored Procedures can have parameters.

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But the Trigger cannot have any parameters.

Stored procedures are compiled collection of programs or SQL statements in


the database.

Using stored procedure we can access and modify data present in many
tables.

Also a stored procedure is not associated with any particular database object.

But triggers are event-driven special procedures which are attached to a


specific database object say a table.

Stored procedures are not automatically run and they have to be called
explicitly by the user. But triggers get executed when the particular event
associated with the event gets fired.

Packages:

Packages provide a method of encapsulating related procedures, functions, and


associated cursors and variables together as a unit in the database.

package that contains several procedures and functions that process related to
same transactions.

A package is a group of related procedures and functions, together with the


cursors and variables they use,

Packages provide a method of encapsulating related procedures, functions, and


associated cursors and variables together as a unit in the database.

Triggers:

Oracle lets you define procedures called triggers that run implicitly when an
INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table

Triggers are similar to stored procedures. A trigger stored in the database can
include SQL and PL/SQL

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Types of Triggers

This section describes the different types of triggers:


 Row Triggers and Statement Triggers

 BEFORE and AFTER Triggers

 INSTEAD OF Triggers

 Triggers on System Events and User Events

Row Triggers

A row trigger is fired each time the table is affected by the triggering statement.
For example, if an UPDATE statement updates multiple rows of a table, a row
trigger is fired once for each row affected by the UPDATE statement. If a
triggering statement affects no rows, a row trigger is not run.

BEFORE and AFTER Triggers

When defining a trigger, you can specify the trigger timing--whether the trigger
action is to be run before or after the triggering statement. BEFORE and AFTER
apply to both statement and row triggers.

BEFORE and AFTER triggers fired by DML statements can be defined only on
tables, not on views.

Difference between Trigger and Procedure

Triggers Stored Procedures

In trigger no need to execute Where as in procedure we need to


manually. Triggers will be fired execute manually.
automatically.

Triggers that run implicitly when an


INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement
is issued against the associated table.

Differences between stored procedure and functions

Stored Procedure Functions

Stored procedure may or may not Function should return at least one
return values. output parameter. Can return more
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than one parameter using OUT
argument.

Stored procedure can be used to solve Function can be used to calculations


the business logic.

Stored procedure is a pre-compiled But function is not a pre-compiled


statement. statement.

Stored procedure accepts more than Whereas function does not accept
one argument. arguments.

Stored procedures are mainly used to Functions are mainly used to compute
process the tasks. values

Cannot be invoked from SQL Can be invoked form SQL statements


statements. E.g. SELECT e.g. SELECT

Can affect the state of database using Cannot affect the state of database.
commit.

Stored as a pseudo-code in database Parsed and compiled at runtime.


i.e. compiled form.

Data files Overview:

A tablespace in an Oracle database consists of one or more physical datafiles. A


datafile can be associated with only one tablespace and only one database.

Table Space:

Oracle stores data logically in tablespaces and physically in datafiles associated


with the corresponding tablespace.

A database is divided into one or more logical storage units called tablespaces.
Tablespaces are divided into logical units of storage called segments.

Control File:

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A control file contains information about the associated database that is
required for access by an instance, both at startup and during normal operation.
Control file information can be modified only by Oracle; no database
administrator or user can edit a control file.

2.2 IMPORTANT QUERIES

1. Get duplicate rows from the table:

Select empno, count (*) from EMP group by empno having count (*)>1;

2. Remove duplicates in the table:

Delete from EMP where rowid not in (select max (rowid) from EMP group by
empno);

3. Below query transpose columns into rows.

Name No Add1 Add2

abc 100 hyd bang

xyz 200 Mysore pune

Select name, no, add1 from A

UNION

Select name, no, add2 from A;

4. Below query transpose rows into columns.

select

emp_id,

max(decode(row_id,0,address))as address1,

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max(decode(row_id,1,address)) as address2,

max(decode(row_id,2,address)) as address3

from (select emp_id,address,mod(rownum,3) row_id from temp order by


emp_id )

group by emp_id

Other query:

select

emp_id,

max(decode(rank_id,1,address)) as add1,

max(decode(rank_id,2,address)) as add2,

max(decode(rank_id,3,address))as add3

from

(select emp_id,address,rank() over (partition by emp_id order by


emp_id,address )rank_id from temp )

group by

emp_id

5. Rank query:

Select empno, ename, sal, r from (select empno, ename, sal, rank () over (order
by sal desc) r from EMP);

6. Dense rank query:

The DENSE_RANK function works acts like the RANK function except that it
assigns consecutive ranks:

Select empno, ename, Sal, from (select empno, ename, sal, dense_rank () over
(order by sal desc) r from emp);

7. Top 5 salaries by using rank:

Select empno, ename, sal,r from (select empno,ename,sal,dense_rank() over


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(order by sal desc) r from emp) where r<=5;

Or

Select * from (select * from EMP order by sal desc) where rownum<=5;

8. 2 nd highest Sal:

Select empno, ename, sal, r from (select empno, ename, sal, dense_rank () over
(order by sal desc) r from EMP) where r=2;

9. Top sal:

Select * from EMP where sal= (select max (sal) from EMP);

10.How to display alternative rows in a table?

SQL> select *from emp where (rowid, 0) in (select rowid,mod(rownum,2)


from emp);

11.Hierarchical queries

Starting at the root, walk from the top down, and eliminate employee Higgins
in the result, but

process the child rows.

SELECT department_id, employee_id, last_name, job_id, salary

FROM employees

WHERE last_name! = ’Higgins’

START WITH manager_id IS NULL

CONNECT BY PRIOR employee_id = menagerie;

3 DWH CONCEPTS

What is BI?
Business Intelligence refers to a set of methods and techniques that are used by
organizations for tactical and strategic decision making. It leverages methods
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and technologies that focus on counts, statistics and business objectives to
improve business performance.

The objective of Business Intelligence is to better understand customers and


improve customer service, make the supply and distribution chain more
efficient, and to identify and address business problems and opportunities
quickly.

Warehouse is used for high level data analysis purpose.It


is used for predictions, timeseries analysis, financial
Analysis, what -if simulations etc. Basically it is used
for better decision making.

What is a Data Warehouse?

Data Warehouse is a "Subject-Oriented, Integrated, Time-Variant Nonvolatile


collection of data in support of decision making".

In terms of design data warehouse and data mart are almost the same.

In general a Data Warehouse is used on an enterprise level and a Data Marts is


used on a business division/department level.

Subject Oriented:

Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a


company's ongoing operations.

Integrated:

Data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety of sources and
merged into a coherent whole.

Time-variant:

All data in the data warehouse is identified with a particular time period.

Non-volatile:

Data is stable in a data warehouse. More data is added but data is never
removed.

What is a DataMart?

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Datamart is usually sponsored at the department level and developed with a
specific details or subject in mind, a Data Mart is a subset of data warehouse
with a focused objective.

What is the difference between a data warehouse and a data mart?

In terms of design data warehouse and data mart are almost the same.

In general a Data Warehouse is used on an enterprise level and a Data Marts is


used on a business division/department level.

A data mart only contains data specific to a particular subject areas.

Difference between data mart and data warehouse

Data Mart Data Warehouse

Data mart is usually sponsored at the Data warehouse is a “Subject-


department level and developed with Oriented, Integrated, Time-Variant,
a specific issue or subject in mind, a Nonvolatile collection of data in
data mart is a data warehouse with a support of decision making”.
focused objective.

A data mart is used on a business A data warehouse is used on an


division/ department level. enterprise level

A Data Mart is a subset of data from a A Data Warehouse is simply an


Data Warehouse. Data Marts are built integrated consolidation of data from
for specific user groups. a variety of sources that is specially
designed to support strategic and
tactical decision making.

By providing decision makers with The main objective of Data


only a subset of data from the Data Warehouse is to provide an integrated
Warehouse, Privacy, Performance and environment and coherent picture of
Clarity Objectives can be attained. the business at a point in time.

what is fact less fact table?

A fact table that contains only primary keys from the dimension tables,
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and that do not contain any measures that type of fact table is called fact less
fact table .

What is a Schema?

Graphical Representation of the datastructure.

First Phase in implementation of Universe

What are the most important features of a data warehouse?

DRILL DOWN, DRILL ACROSS, Graphs, PI charts, dashboards and TIME


HANDLING

To be able to drill down/drill across is the most basic requirement of an end


user in a data warehouse. Drilling down most directly addresses the natural
end-user need to see more detail in an result. Drill down should be as generic
as possible becuase there is absolutely no good way to predict users drill-down
path.

What does it mean by grain of the star schema?

In Data warehousing grain refers to the level of detail available in a given fact
table as well as to the level of detail provided by a star schema.

It is usually given as the number of records per key within the table. In general,
the grain of the fact table is the grain of the star schema.

What is a star schema?

Star schema is a data warehouse schema where there is only one "fact table"
and many denormalized dimension tables.

Fact table contains primary keys from all the dimension tables and other
numeric columns columns of additive, numeric facts.

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What is a snowflake schema?

Unlike Star-Schema, Snowflake schema contain normalized dimension tables


in a tree like structure with many nesting levels.

Snowflake schema is easier to maintain but queries require more joins.

What is the difference between snow flake and star schema

Star Schema Snow Flake Schema

The star schema is the simplest data Snowflake schema is a more complex
warehouse scheme. data warehouse model than a star
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schema.

In star schema each of the In snow flake schema at least one


dimensions is represented in a single hierarchy should exists between
table .It should not have any dimension tables.
hierarchies between dims.

It contains a fact table surrounded by It contains a fact table surrounded by


dimension tables. If the dimensions dimension tables. If a dimension is
are de-normalized, we say it is a star normalized, we say it is a snow flaked
schema design. design.

In star schema only one join In snow flake schema since there is
establishes the relationship between relationship between the dimensions
the fact table and any one of the tables it has to do many joins to fetch
dimension tables. the data.

A star schema optimizes the Snowflake schemas normalize


performance by keeping queries dimensions to eliminated
simple and providing fast response redundancy. The result is more
time. All the information about the complex queries and reduced query
each level is stored in one row. performance.

It is called a star schema because the It is called a snowflake schema


diagram resembles a star. because the diagram resembles a
snowflake.

What is Fact and Dimension?

A "fact" is a numeric value that a business wishes to count or sum. A


"dimension" is essentially an entry point for getting at the facts. Dimensions are
things of interest to the business.

A set of level properties that describe a specific aspect of a business, used for
analyzing the factual measures.

What is Fact Table?

A Fact Table in a dimensional model consists of one or more numeric facts of


importance to a business. Examples of facts are as follows:

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 the number of products sold

 the value of products sold

 the number of products produced

 the number of service calls received

What is Factless Fact Table?

Factless fact table captures the many-to-many relationships between


dimensions, but contains no numeric or textual facts. They are often used to
record events or coverage information.

Common examples of factless fact tables include:

 Identifying product promotion events (to determine promoted products


that didn’t sell)

 Tracking student attendance or registration events

 Tracking insurance-related accident events

Types of facts?

There are three types of facts:

 Additive: Additive facts are facts that can be summed up through all of
the dimensions in the fact table.

 Semi-Additive: Semi-additive facts are facts that can be summed up for


some of the dimensions in the fact table, but not the others.

 Non-Additive: Non-additive facts are facts that cannot be summed up for


any of the dimensions present in the fact table.

What is Granularity?

Principle: create fact tables with the most granular data possible to support
analysis of the business process.

In Data warehousing grain refers to the level of detail available in a given fact
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table as well as to the level of detail provided by a star schema.

It is usually given as the number of records per key within the table. In general,
the grain of the fact table is the grain of the star schema.

Facts: Facts must be consistent with the grain.all facts are at a uniform grain.

 Watch for facts of mixed granularity

 Total sales for day & montly total

Dimensions: each dimension associated with fact table must take on a single
value for each fact row.

 Each dimension attribute must take on one value.

 Outriggers are the exception, not the rule.

Dimensional Model

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What is slowly Changing Dimension?

Slowly changing dimensions refers to the change in dimensional attributes


over time.

An example of slowly changing dimension is a Resource dimension where


attributes of a particular employee change over time like their designation
changes or dept changes etc.

What is Conformed Dimension?

Conformed Dimensions (CD): these dimensions are something that is built once
in your model and can be reused multiple times with different fact tables. For
example, consider a model containing multiple fact tables, representing
different data marts. Now look for a dimension that is common to these facts
tables. In this example let’s consider that the product dimension is common
and hence can be reused by creating short cuts and joining the different fact
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tables.Some of the examples are time dimension, customer dimensions,
product dimension.

What is Junk Dimension?

A "junk" dimension is a collection of random transactional codes, flags and/or


text attributes that are unrelated to any particular dimension. The junk
dimension is simply a structure that provides a convenient place to store the
junk attributes. A good example would be a trade fact in a company that
brokers equity trades.

When you consolidate lots of small dimensions and instead of having 100s of
small dimensions, that will have few records in them, cluttering your database
with these mini ‘identifier’ tables, all records from all these small dimension
tables are loaded into ONE dimension table and we call this dimension table
Junk dimension table. (Since we are storing all the junk in this one table) For
example: a company might have handful of manufacture plants, handful of
order types, and so on, so forth, and we can consolidate them in one dimension
table called junked dimension table

It’s a dimension table which is used to keep junk attributes

What is De Generated Dimension?

An item that is in the fact table but is stripped off of its description, because the
description belongs in dimension table, is referred to as Degenerated
Dimension. Since it looks like dimension, but is really in fact table and has been
degenerated of its description, hence is called degenerated dimension..

Degenerated Dimension: a dimension which is located in fact table known as


Degenerated dimension

Dimensional Model:

A type of data modeling suited for data warehousing. In a dimensional


model, there are two types of tables: dimensional tables and fact tables.
Dimensional table records information on each dimension, and fact table
records all the "fact", or measures.

Data modeling

There are three levels of data modeling. They are conceptual, logical, and
physical. This section will explain the difference among the three, the order

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with which each one is created, and how to go from one level to the other.

Conceptual Data Model

Features of conceptual data model include:

 Includes the important entities and the relationships among them.

 No attribute is specified.

 No primary key is specified.

At this level, the data modeler attempts to identify the highest-level


relationships among the different entities.

Logical Data Model

Features of logical data model include:

 Includes all entities and relationships among them.

 All attributes for each entity are specified.

 The primary key for each entity specified.

 Foreign keys (keys identifying the relationship between different entities)


are specified.

 Normalization occurs at this level.

At this level, the data modeler attempts to describe the data in as much detail
as possible, without regard to how they will be physically implemented in the
database.

In data warehousing, it is common for the conceptual data model and the
logical data model to be combined into a single step (deliverable).

The steps for designing the logical data model are as follows:

1. Identify all entities.

2. Specify primary keys for all entities.

3. Find the relationships between different entities.

4. Find all attributes for each entity.


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5. Resolve many-to-many relationships.

6. Normalization.

Physical Data Model

Features of physical data model include:

 Specification all tables and columns.

 Foreign keys are used to identify relationships between tables.

 Demoralization may occur based on user requirements.

 Physical considerations may cause the physical data model to be quite


different from the logical data model.

At this level, the data modeler will specify how the logical data model will be
realized in the database schema.

The steps for physical data model design are as follows:

1. Convert entities into tables.

2. Convert relationships into foreign keys.

3. Convert attributes into columns.

9. http://www.learndatamodeling.com/dm_standard.htm

10.Modeling is an efficient and effective way to represent the


organization’s needs; It provides information in a graphical way to the
members of an organization to understand and communicate the
business rules and processes. Business Modeling and Data Modeling are
the two important types of modeling.

The differences between a logical data model and physical data model is
shown below.

Logical vs Physical Data Modeling

Logical Data Model Physical Data Model

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Represents business information Represents the physical implementation
and defines business rules of the model in a database.

Entity Table

Attribute Column

Primary Key Primary Key Constraint

Alternate Key Unique Constraint or Unique Index

Inversion Key Entry Non Unique Index

Rule Check Constraint, Default Value

Relationship Foreign Key

Definition Comment

Below is the simple data model

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Below is the sq for project dim

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EDIII – Logical Design

ACW_ORGANIZATION_D
ACW_DF_FEES_STG ACW_DF_FEES_F Primary Key
Non-Key Attributes Primary Key ORG_KEY [PK1]
SEGMENT1 ACW_DF_FEES_KEY Non-Key Attributes
ORGANIZATION_ID [PK1] ORGANIZATION_CODE
ITEM_TYPE
Non-Key Attributes CREA TED_BY
BUYER_ID CREA TION_DATE
PRODUCT_KEY
COST_REQUIRED
ORG_KEY LAST_UPDATE_DATE
QUARTER_1_COST LAST_UPDATED_BY
DF_MGR_KEY
QUARTER_2_COST
COST_REQUIRED D_CREATED_BY
QUARTER_3_COST D_CREATION_DATE
DF_FEES PID for DF Fees
QUARTER_4_COST
COSTED_BY D_LAST_UPDATE_DATE
COSTED_BY
COSTED_DATE D_LAST_UPDATED_BY
COSTED_DATE
APPROV ING_MGR
APPROV ED_BY
APPROV ED_DATE
APPROV ED_DATE
D_CREATED_BY
D_CREATION_DATE ACW_USERS_D
D_LAST_UPDATE_BY Primary Key
D_LAST_UPDATED_DATE USER_KEY [PK1]
Non-Key Attributes
EDW_TIME_HIERARCHY
PERSON_ID
EMAIL_ADDRESS
ACW_PCBA_A PPROVAL_F LAST_NAME
Primary Key FIRST_NAME
ACW_PCBA_A PPROVAL_STG FULL_NAME
PCBA _APPROVAL_KEY
Non-Key Attributes [PK1] EFFECTIV E_STA RT_DATE
INV ENTORY_ITEM_ID Non-Key Attributes EFFECTIV E_END_DATE
LATEST_REV PART_KEY EMPLOYEE_NUMBER
LOCATION_ID LAST_UPDATED_BY
CISCO_PART_NUMBER
LOCATION_CODE SUPPLY_CHANNEL_KEY LAST_UPDATE_DATE
APPROV AL_FLAG CREA TION_DATE
NPI
ADJUSTMENT APPROV AL_FLAG CREA TED_BY
APPROV AL_DATE D_LAST_UPDATED_BY
ADJUSTMENT
TOTA L_ADJUSTMENT D_LAST_UPDATE_DATE
APPROV AL_DATE
TOTA L_ITEM_COST D_CREATION_DATE
ADJUSTMENT_AMT
DEMAND D_CREATED_BY
SPEND_BY _ASSEMBLY
COMM_MGR COMM_MGR_KEY ACW_PRODUCTS_D
BUYER_ID Primary Key
BUYER_ID
BUYER RFQ_CREATED ACW_PART_TO_PID_D PRODUCT_KEY [PK1]
RFQ_CREATED Users
Primary Key Non-Key Attributes
RFQ_RESPONSE
RFQ_RESPONSE
CSS PART_TO_PID_KEY [PK1] PRODUCT_NA ME
CSS D_CREATED_BY Non-Key Attributes BUSINESS_UNIT_ID
D_CREATED_DATE PART_KEY BUSINESS_UNIT
D_LAST_UPDATED_BY CISCO_PART_NUMBER PRODUCT_FAMILY_ID
ACW_DF_A PPROVAL_STG D_LAST_UPDATE_DATE PRODUCT_KEY PRODUCT_FAMILY
Non-Key Attributes PRODUCT_NA ME ITEM_TYPE
LATEST_REVISION D_CREATED_BY
INV ENTORY_ITEM_ID ACW_DF_A PPROVAL_F
D_CREATED_BY D_CREATION_DATE
CISCO_PART_NUMBER Primary Key
D_CREATION_DATE D_LAST_UPDATE_BY
LATEST_REV
DF_APPROVAL_KEY D_LAST_UPDATED_BY D_LAST_UPDATED_DATE
PCBA _ITEM_FLAG [PK1]
APPROV AL_FLAG D_LAST_UPDATE_DATE
Non-Key Attributes
APPROV AL_DATE
LOCATION_ID PART_KEY
LOCATION_CODE CISCO_PART_NUMBER
BUYER SUPPLY_CHANNEL_KEY
BUYER_ID PCBA _ITEM_FLAG
RFQ_CREATED APPROV ED ACW_SUPPLY_CHA NNEL_D
RFQ_RESPONSE APPROV AL_DATE
Primary Key
CSS BUYER_ID
RFQ_CREATED SUPPLY_CHANNEL_KEY
[PK1]
RFQ_RESPONSE
CSS Non-Key Attributes
D_CREATED_BY SUPPLY_CHANNEL
D_CREATION_DATE DESCRIPTION
D_LAST_UPDATED_BY LAST_UPDATED_BY
D_LAST_UPDATE_DATE LAST_UPDATE_DATE
CREA TED_BY
CREA TION_DATE
D_LAST_UPDATED_BY
D_LAST_UPDATE_DATE
D_CREATED_BY
D_CREATION_DATE

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EDII– Physical Design

ACW_DF_FEES_F ACW_ORGANIZAT ION_D


ACW_DF_FEES_STG Columns Columns
Columns ACW_DF_FEES_KEY NUMB ER(10) [P K1] ORG_KE Y NUMB ER(10) [P K1]
SEGMENT 1 VARCHAR2(40) PRODUCT_KEY NUMB ER(10) ORGA NIZATION_CODE CHA R(30)
ORGA NIZATION_IDNUMB ER(10) ORG_KE Y NUMB ER(10) CRE ATED_BY NUMB ER(10)
IT EM_TYPE CHA R(30) DF_MGR_K EY NUMB ER(10) CRE ATION_DATE DAT E
BUY ER_ID NUMB ER(10) COST_REQUIRED CHA R(1) LAST_UPDATE_DATE DAT E
COST_REQUIRED CHA R(1) DF_FE ES FLOAT(12) LAST_UPDATED_BY NUMB ER
QUARTE R_1_COSTFLOAT(12) COSTED_B Y NUMB ER(10) D_CREA TED_BY CHA R(10)
QUARTE R_2_COSTFLOAT(12) COSTED_DATE DAT E D_CREA TION_DATE DAT E
QUARTE R_3_COSTFLOAT(12) APP ROV ING_MGR NUMB ER(10) D_LAST_UPDATE_DATE DAT E
QUARTE R_4_COSTFLOAT(12) APP ROV ED_DATE DAT E D_LAST_UPDATED_BYCHA R(10)
COSTED_B Y NUMB ER(10) D_CREA TED_BY CHA R(10)
COSTED_DATE DAT E D_CREA TION_DATE DAT E
PID_for_DF_Fees
APP ROV ED_BY NUMB ER(10) D_LAST_UPDATE_BY CHA R(10)
APP ROV ED_DATE DAT E D_LAST_UPDATED_DAT CHA
E R(10)

EDW_TIME_HIE RARCHY
ACW_US ERS_D
ACW_PCBA_APPROVAL_F Columns
Columns USE R_K EY NUMB ER(10) [P K1]
PCB A_A PPROVAL_KEY CHA R(10) [PK1] PERSON_ID CHA R(10)
ACW_PCBA_APPROVAL_STG
PART_K EY NUMB ER(10) EMAIL_ADDRESS CHA R(10)
Columns
CISCO_PA RT _NUMBE R CHA R(10) LAST_NAM E VARCHAR2(50)
INVENTORY_IT EM_ID NUMB ER(10) FIRST _NAME VARCHAR2(50)
LATEST _REV CHA R(10) SUP PLY _CHANNE L_KEYNUMB ER(10)
NPI CHA R(1) FULL_NAM E CHA R(10)
LOCATION_ID NUMB ER(10) EFFECTIVE_START _DATE
DAT E
APP ROV AL_FLAG CHA R(1)
LOCATION_CODE CHA R(10) EFFECTIVE_END_DAT E DAT E
APP ROV AL_FLAG CHA R(1) ADJUSTME NT CHA R(1)
APP ROV AL_DA TE DAT E EMPLOYEE_NUMBER NUMB ER(10)
ADJUSTME NT CHA R(1) SEX NUMB ER
APP ROV AL_DA TE DAT E ADJUSTME NT_AMT FLOAT(12)
SPE ND_BY_ASSE MBLYFLOAT(12) LAST_UPDATE_DATE DAT E
TOT AL_ADJUSTMENT CHA R(10) CRE ATION_DATE DAT E
TOT AL_ITEM _COST FLOAT(10) COMM_MGR_K EY NUMB ER(10)
BUY ER_ID NUMB ER(10) CRE ATED_BY NUMB ER(10)
DEMA ND NUMB ER D_LAST_UPDATED_BY CHA R(10)
COMM_MGR CHA R(10) RFQ_CREATED CHA R(1)
RFQ_RE SPONSE CHA R(1) D_LAST_UPDATE_DATE DAT E
BUY ER_ID NUMB ER(10) D_CREA TION_DATE DAT E
BUY ER VARCHAR2(240) CSS CHA R(10)
D_CREA TED_BY CHA R(10) D_CREA TED_BY CHA R(10)
RFQ_CREATED CHA R(1)
D_CREA TED_DAT E CHA R(10)
RFQ_RE SPONSE CHA R(1)
CSS CHA R(10) D_LAST_UPDATED_BY CHA R(10)
D_LAST_UPDATE_DATEDAT E

ACW_PRODUCTS_D
Columns
ACW_DF_APPROVA L_STG
PRODUCT_KEY NUMB ER(10) [P K1]
Columns
PRODUCT_NAME CHA R(30)
INVENTORY_IT EM_ID NUMB ER(10) BUS INESS _UNIT_ID NUMB ER(10)
CISCO_PA RT _NUMBE RCHA R(30) ACW_DF_APPROVA L_F ACW_PA RT_TO_PID_D
BUS INESS _UNIT VARCHAR2(60)
LATEST _REV CHA R(10) Columns Columns
PRODUCT_FAM ILY_ID NUMB ER(10)
PCB A_ITEM_FLAG CHA R(1) DF_APPROVAL_KEY NUMB ER(10) [P K1] PART_T O_PID_KEY NUMB ER(10) [P K1] PRODUCT_FAM ILY VARCHAR2(180)
APP ROV AL_FLAG CHA R(1) PART_K EY NUMB ER(10) PART_K EY NUMB ER(10) IT EM_TYPE CHA R(30)
APP ROV AL_DA TE DAT E CISCO_PA RT_NUMBE R CHA R(30) CISCO_PA RT_NUMBE RCHA R(30) D_CREA TED_BY CHA R(10)
LOCATION_ID NUMB ER(10) SUP PLY _CHANNE L_KEYNUMB ER(10) PRODUCT_KEY NUMB ER(10) D_CREA TION_DATE DAT E
SUP PLY _CHANNE L CHA R(10) PCB A_ITEM_FLAG CHA R(1) PRODUCT_NAME CHA R(30)
D_LAST_UPDATE_BY CHA R(10)
BUY ER VARCHAR2(240) APP ROV ED CHA R(1) LATEST _REVIS ION CHA R(10) D_LAST_UPDATED_DAT CHA
E R(10)
BUY ER_ID NUMB ER(10) APP ROV AL_DA TE DAT E D_CREA TED_BY CHA R(10)
RFQ_CREATED CHA R(1) BUY ER_ID NUMB ER(10) D_CREA TION_DATE DAT E
RFQ_RE SPONSE CHA R(1) RFQ_CREATED CHA R(1) D_LAST_UPDATED_BYCHA R(10)
CSS CHA R(10) RFQ_RE SPONSE CHA R(1) D_LAST_UPDATE_DATE DAT E
CSS CHA R(10)
D_CREA TED_BY CHA R(10)
D_CREA TION_DATE DAT E
D_LAST_UPDATED_BY CHA R(10)
D_LAST_UPDATE_DATEDAT E
ACW_SUPPLY_CHANNEL_D
Columns
SUP PLY _CHANNE L_KEYNUMB ER(10) [P K1]
SUP PLY _CHANNE L CHA R(60)
DES CRIPT ION VARCHAR2(240)
LAST_UPDATED_BY NUMB ER
LAST_UPDATE_DATE DAT E
CRE ATED_BY NUMB ER(10)
CRE ATION_DATE DAT E
D_LAST_UPDATED_BY CHA R(10)
D_LAST_UPDATE_DATEDAT E
D_CREA TED_BY CHA R(10)
D_CREA TION_DATE DAT E

Users

Types of SCD Implementation:

Type 1 Slowly Changing Dimension


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In Type 1 Slowly Changing Dimension, the new information simply overwrites
the original information. In other words, no history is kept.

In our example, recall we originally have the following table:

Customer Key Name State

1001 Christina Illinois

After Christina moved from Illinois to California, the new information replaces
the new record, and we have the following table:

Customer Key Name State

1001 Christina California

Advantages:

- This is the easiest way to handle the Slowly Changing Dimension problem,
since there is no need to keep track of the old information.

Disadvantages:

- All history is lost. By applying this methodology, it is not possible to


trace back in history. For example, in this case, the company would
not be able to know that Christina lived in Illinois before.

- Usage:

About 50% of the time.

When to use Type 1:

Type 1 slowly changing dimension should be used when it is not necessary for
the data warehouse to keep track of historical changes.

Type 2 Slowly Changing Dimension

In Type 2 Slowly Changing Dimension, a new record is added to the table to


represent the new information. Therefore, both the original and the new record
will be present. The newe record gets its own primary key.
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In our example, recall we originally have the following table:

Customer Key Name State

1001 Christina Illinois

After Christina moved from Illinois to California, we add the new information as
a new row into the table:

Customer Key Name State

1001 Christina Illinois

1005 Christina California

Advantages:

- This allows us to accurately keep all historical information.

Disadvantages:

- This will cause the size of the table to grow fast. In cases where the number of
rows for the table is very high to start with, storage and performance can
become a concern.

- This necessarily complicates the ETL process.

Usage:

About 50% of the time.

When to use Type 2:

Type 2 slowly changing dimension should be used when it is necessary for the
data warehouse to track historical changes.

Type 3 Slowly Changing Dimension

In Type 3 Slowly Changing Dimension, there will be two columns to indicate the
particular attribute of interest, one indicating the original value, and one
indicating the current value. There will also be a column that indicates when
the current value becomes active.
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In our example, recall we originally have the following table:

Customer Key Name State

1001 Christina Illinois

To accommodate Type 3 Slowly Changing Dimension, we will now have the


following columns:

 Customer Key

 Name

 Original State

 Current State

 Effective Date

After Christina moved from Illinois to California, the original information gets
updated, and we have the following table (assuming the effective date of
change is January 15, 2003):

Customer Key Name Original State Current State Effective Date

1001 Christina Illinois California 15-JAN-2003

Advantages:

- This does not increase the size of the table, since new information is updated.

- This allows us to keep some part of history.

Disadvantages:

- Type 3 will not be able to keep all history where an attribute is changed more
than once. For example, if Christina later moves to Texas on December 15,
2003, the California information will be lost.

Usage:

Type 3 is rarely used in actual practice.

When to use Type 3:


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Type III slowly changing dimension should only be used when it is necessary for
the data warehouse to track historical changes, and when such changes will
only occur for a finite number of time.

What is Staging area why we need it in DWH?

If target and source databases are different and target table volume is high it
contains some millions of records in this scenario without staging table we need
to design your informatica using look up to find out whether the record exists or
not in the target table since target has huge volumes so its costly to create cache
it will hit the performance.

If we create staging tables in the target database we can simply do outer join in
the source qualifier to determine insert/update this approach will give you good
performance.

It will avoid full table scan to determine insert/updates on target.


And also we can create index on staging tables since these tables were designed
for specific application it will not impact to any other schemas/users.

While processing flat files to data warehousing we can perform cleansing.


Data cleansing, also known as data scrubbing, is the process of ensuring that a
set of data is correct and accurate. During data cleansing, records are checked
for accuracy and consistency.

 Since it is one-to-one mapping from ODS to staging we do truncate


and reload.

 We can create indexes in the staging state, to perform our source


qualifier best.

 If we have the staging area no need to relay on the informatics


transformation to known whether the record exists or not.

Data cleansing

Weeding out unnecessary or unwanted things (characters and spaces etc)


from incoming data to make it more meaningful and informative

Data merging

Data can be gathered from heterogeneous systems and put together


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Data scrubbing

Data scrubbing is the process of fixing or eliminating individual pieces of


data that are incorrect, incomplete or duplicated before the data is passed
to end user.

Data scrubbing is aimed at more than eliminating errors and redundancy.


The goal is also to bring consistency to various data sets that may have
been created with different, incompatible business rules.

ODS (Operational Data Sources):

My understanding of ODS is, its a replica of OLTP system and so the need of
this, is to reduce the burden on production system (OLTP) while fetching data
for loading targets. Hence its a mandate Requirement for every Warehouse.

So every day do we transfer data to ODS from OLTP to keep it up to date?

OLTP is a sensitive database they should not allow multiple select statements it
may impact the performance as well as if something goes wrong while fetching
data from OLTP to data warehouse it will directly impact the business.

ODS is the replication of OLTP.

ODS is usually getting refreshed through some oracle jobs.

enables management to gain a consistent picture of the business.

What is a surrogate key?

A surrogate key is a substitution for the natural primary key. It is a unique


identifier or number ( normally created by a database sequence generator ) for
each record of a dimension table that can be used for the primary key to the
table.

A surrogate key is useful because natural keys may change.

What is the difference between a primary key and a surrogate key?

A primary key is a special constraint on a column or set of columns. A primary


key constraint ensures that the column(s) so designated have no NULL values,
and that every value is unique. Physically, a primary key is implemented by the
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database system using a unique index, and all the columns in the primary key
must have been declared NOT NULL. A table may have only one primary key,
but it may be composite (consist of more than one column).

A surrogate key is any column or set of columns that can be declared as the
primary key instead of a "real" or natural key. Sometimes there can be several
natural keys that could be declared as the primary key, and these are all called
candidate keys. So a surrogate is a candidate key. A table could actually have
more than one surrogate key, although this would be unusual. The most
common type of surrogate key is an incrementing integer, such as an auto
increment column in MySQL, or a sequence in Oracle, or an identity column in
SQL Server.

4 ETL-INFORMATICA

4.1 Informatica Overview

Informatica is a powerful Extraction, Transformation, and Loading tool and is been deployed at
GE Medical Systems for data warehouse development in the Business Intelligence Team.
Informatica comes with the following clients to perform various tasks.

 Designer – used to develop transformations/mappings

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 Workflow Manager / Workflow Monitor replace the Server Manager -
used to create sessions / workflows/ worklets to run, schedule, and
monitor mappings for data movement
 Repository Manager – used to maintain folders, users, permissions, locks,
and repositories.
 Integration Services – the “workhorse” of the domain. Informatica Server
is the component responsible for the actual work of moving data
according to the mappings developed and placed into operation. It
contains several distinct parts such as the Load Manager, Data
Transformation Manager, Reader and Writer.
 Repository Services- Informatica client tools and Informatica Server
connect to the repository database over the network through the
Repository Server.

Informatica Transformations:

Mapping: Mapping is the Informatica Object which contains set of


transformations including source and target. Its look like pipeline.

Mapplet:

Mapplet is a set of reusable transformations. We can use this mapplet in any


mapping within the Folder.

A mapplet can be active or passive depending on the transformations in the


mapplet. Active mapplets contain one or more active transformations. Passive
mapplets contain only passive transformations.

When you add transformations to a mapplet, keep the following restrictions in


mind:

 If you use a Sequence Generator transformation, you must use a reusable


Sequence Generator transformation.

 If you use a Stored Procedure transformation, you must configure the


Stored Procedure Type to be Normal.

 You cannot include the following objects in a mapplet:

o Normalizer transformations

o COBOL sources

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o XML Source Qualifier transformations

o XML sources

o Target definitions

o Other mapplets

 The mapplet contains Input transformations and/or source definitions


with at least one port connected to a transformation in the mapplet.

 The mapplet contains at least one Output transformation with at least one
port connected to a transformation in the mapplet.

Input Transformation: Input transformations are used to create a logical


interface to a mapplet in order to allow data to pass into the mapplet.

Output Transformation: Output transformations are used to create a logical


interface from a mapplet in order to allow data to pass out of a mapplet.

System Variables

$$$SessStartTime returns the initial system date value on the machine hosting
the Integration Service when the server initializes a session. $$$SessStartTime
returns the session start time as a string value. The format of the string
depends on the database you are using.

Session: A session is a set of instructions that tells informatica Server how to


move data from sources to targets.

WorkFlow: A workflow is a set of instructions that tells Informatica Server how


to execute tasks such as sessions, email notifications and commands. In a
workflow multiple sessions can be included to run in parallel or sequential
manner.

Source Definition: The Source Definition is used to logically represent database


table or Flat files.

Target Definition: The Target Definition is used to logically represent a database


table or file in the Data Warehouse / Data Mart.

Aggregator: The Aggregator transformation is used to perform Aggregate


calculations on group basis.

Expression: The Expression transformation is used to perform the arithmetic


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calculation on row by row basis and also used to convert string to integer vis
and concatenate two columns.

Filter: The Filter transformation is used to filter the data based on single
condition and pass through next transformation.

Router: The router transformation is used to route the data based on multiple
conditions and pass through next transformations.

It has three groups

1) Input group

2) User defined group

3) Default group

Joiner: The Joiner transformation is used to join two sources residing in


different databases or different locations like flat file and oracle sources or two
relational tables existing in different databases.

Source Qualifier: The Source Qualifier transformation is used to describe in SQL


the method by which data is to be retrieved from a source application system
and also

used to join two relational sources residing in same databases.

What is Incremental Aggregation?

A. Whenever a session is created for a mapping Aggregate Transformation, the


session option for Incremental Aggregation can be enabled. When PowerCenter
performs incremental aggregation, it passes new source data through the
mapping and uses historical cache data to perform new aggregation
calculations incrementally.

Lookup: Lookup transformation is used in a mapping to look up data in a flat


file or a relational table, view, or synonym.

Two types of lookups:

1) Connected

2) Unconnected

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Differences between connected lookup and unconnected lookup

Connected Lookup Unconnected Lookup

This is connected to pipleline and Which is not connected to pipeline


receives the input values from and receives input values from the
pipleline. result of a: LKP expression in
another transformation via
arguments.

We cannot use this lookup more We can use this transformation


than once in a mapping. more than once within the mapping

We can return multiple columns Designate one return port (R),


from the same row. returns one column from each row.

We can configure to use dynamic We cannot configure to use dynamic


cache. cache.

Pass multiple output values to Pass one output value to another


another transformation. Link transformation. The
lookup/output ports to another lookup/output/return port passes
transformation. the value to the transformation
calling: LKP expression.

Use a dynamic or static cache Use a static cache

Supports user defined default Does not support user defined


values. default values.

Cache includes the lookup source Cache includes all lookup/output


column in the lookup condition and ports in the lookup condition and
the lookup source columns that are the lookup/return port.
output ports.

Lookup Caches:

When configuring a lookup cache, you can specify any of the following options:

 Persistent cache

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 Recache from lookup source

 Static cache

 Dynamic cache

 Shared cache

Dynamic cache: When you use a dynamic cache, the PowerCenter Server
updates the lookup cache as it passes rows to the target.

If you configure a Lookup transformation to use a dynamic cache, you can only
use the equality operator (=) in the lookup condition.

NewLookupRow Port will enable automatically.

NewLookupRow
Description
Value

The PowerCenter Server does not update or insert the


0
row in the cache.

1 The PowerCenter Server inserts the row into the cache.

2 The PowerCenter Server updates the row in the cache.

Static cache: It is a default cache; the PowerCenter Server doesn’t update the
lookup cache as it passes rows to the target.

Persistent cache: If the lookup table does not change between sessions,
configure the Lookup transformation to use a persistent lookup cache. The
PowerCenter Server then saves and reuses cache files from session to session,
eliminating the time required to read the lookup table.

Differences between dynamic lookup and static lookup

Dynamic Lookup Cache Static Lookup Cache

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In dynamic lookup the cache In static lookup the cache memory
memory will get refreshed as soon will not get refreshed even though
as the record get inserted or record inserted or updated in the
updated/deleted in the lookup lookup table it will refresh only in
table. the next session run.

When we configure a lookup It is a default cache.


transformation to use a dynamic
lookup cache, you can only use the
equality operator in the lookup
condition.

NewLookupRow port will enable


automatically.

Best example where we need to use If we use static lookup first record it
dynamic cache is if suppose first will go to lookup and check in the
record and last record both are lookup cache based on the
same but there is a change in the condition it will not find the match
address. What informatica mapping so it will return null value then in
has to do here is first record needs the router it will send that record
to get insert and last record should to insert flow.
get update in the target table.
But still this record dose not
available in the cache memory so
when the last record comes to
lookup it will check in the cache it
will not find the match so it returns
null value again it will go to insert
flow through router but it is
suppose to go to update flow
because cache didn’t get refreshed
when the first record get inserted
into target table.

Normalizer: The Normalizer transformation is used to generate multiple


records from a single record based on columns (transpose the column data into
rows)

We can use normalize transformation to process cobol sources instead of


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source qualifier.

Rank: The Rank transformation allows you to select only the top or bottom rank
of data. You can use a Rank transformation to return the largest or smallest
numeric value in a port or group.

The Designer automatically creates a RANKINDEX port for each Rank


transformation.

Sequence Generator: The Sequence Generator transformation is used to


generate numeric key values in sequential order.

Stored Procedure: The Stored Procedure transformation is used to execute


externally stored database procedures and functions. It is used to perform the
database level operations.

Sorter: The Sorter transformation is used to sort data in ascending or


descending order according to a specified sort key. You can also configure the
Sorter transformation for case-sensitive sorting, and specify whether the
output rows should be distinct. The Sorter transformation is an active
transformation. It must be connected to the data flow.

Union Transformation:

The Union transformation is a multiple input group transformation that you can
use to merge data from multiple pipelines or pipeline branches into one
pipeline branch. It merges data from multiple sources similar to the UNION ALL
SQL statement to combine the results from two or more SQL statements.
Similar to the UNION ALL statement, the Union transformation does not
remove duplicate rows.Input groups should have similar structure.

Update Strategy: The Update Strategy transformation is used to indicate the


DML statement.

We can implement update strategy in two levels:

1) Mapping level

2) Session level.

Session level properties will override the mapping level properties.

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Aggregator Transformation:

Transformation type:

Active

Connected

The Aggregator transformation performs aggregate calculations, such as


averages and sums. The Aggregator transformation is unlike the Expression
transformation, in that you use the Aggregator transformation to perform
calculations on groups. The Expression transformation permits you to perform
calculations on a row-by-row basis only.

Components of the Aggregator Transformation:

The Aggregator is an active transformation, changing the number of rows in the


pipeline. The Aggregator transformation has the following components and
options

Aggregate cache: The Integration Service stores data in the aggregate cache
until it completes aggregate calculations. It stores group values in an index
cache and row data in the data cache.

Group by port: Indicate how to create groups. The port can be any input,
input/output, output, or variable port. When grouping data, the Aggregator
transformation outputs the last row of each group unless otherwise specified.

Sorted input: Select this option to improve session performance. To use sorted
input, you must pass data to the Aggregator transformation sorted by group by
port, in ascending or descending order.

Aggregate Expressions:

The Designer allows aggregate expressions only in the Aggregator


transformation. An aggregate expression can include conditional clauses and
non-aggregate functions. It can also include one aggregate function nested
within another aggregate function, such as:

MAX (COUNT (ITEM))

The result of an aggregate expression varies depending on the group by ports

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used in the transformation

Aggregate Functions

Use the following aggregate functions within an Aggregator transformation. You


can nest one aggregate function within another aggregate function.

The transformation language includes the following aggregate functions:

(AVG,COUNT,FIRST,LAST,MAX,MEDIAN,MIN,PERCENTAGE,SUM,VARIANCE and
STDDEV)

When you use any of these functions, you must use them in an expression
within an Aggregator transformation.

Perfomance Tips in Aggregator

Use sorted input to increase the mapping performance but we need to sort the
data before sending to aggregator transformation.

Filter the data before aggregating it.

If you use a Filter transformation in the mapping, place the transformation


before the Aggregator transformation to reduce unnecessary aggregation.

SQL Transformation

Transformation type:

Active/Passive

Connected

The SQL transformation processes SQL queries midstream in a pipeline. You can
insert, delete, update, and retrieve rows from a database. You can pass the
database connection information to the SQL transformation as input data at run
time. The transformation processes external SQL scripts or SQL queries that you
create in an SQL editor. The SQL transformation processes the query and
returns rows and database errors.

For example, you might need to create database tables before adding new
transactions. You can create an SQL transformation to create the tables in a
workflow. The SQL transformation returns database errors in an output port.
You can configure another workflow to run if the SQL transformation returns no
errors.
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When you create an SQL transformation, you configure the following options:

Mode. The SQL transformation runs in one of the following modes:

Script mode. The SQL transformation runs ANSI SQL scripts that are externally
located. You pass a script name to the transformation with each input row. The
SQL transformation outputs one row for each input row.

Query mode. The SQL transformation executes a query that you define in a
query editor. You can pass strings or parameters to the query to define dynamic
queries or change the selection parameters. You can output multiple rows
when the query has a SELECT statement.

Database type. The type of database the SQL transformation connects to.

Connection type. Pass database connection information to the SQL


transformation or use a connection object.

Script Mode

An SQL transformation configured for script mode has the following default
ports:

Port Type Description

ScriptName Input Receives the name of the script to execute for the current
row.

ScriptResult Outpu Returns PASSED if the script execution succeeds for the
t row. Otherwise contains FAILED.

ScriptError Outpu Returns errors that occur when a script fails for a row.

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t

Java Transformation Overview

Transformation type:

Active/Passive

Connected

The Java transformation provides a simple native programming interface to


define transformation functionality with the Java programming language. You
can use the Java transformation to quickly define simple or moderately complex
transformation functionality without advanced knowledge of the Java
programming language or an external Java development environment.

For example, you can define transformation logic to loop through input rows
and generate multiple output rows based on a specific condition. You can also
use expressions, user-defined functions, unconnected transformations, and
mapping variables in the Java code.

Transaction Control Transformation

Transformation type:

Active

Connected

PowerCenter lets you control commit and roll back transactions based on a set
of rows that pass through a Transaction Control transformation. A transaction is
the set of rows bound by commit or roll back rows. You can define a transaction
based on a varying number of input rows. You might want to define
transactions based on a group of rows ordered on a common key, such as
employee ID or order entry date.

In PowerCenter, you define transaction control at the following levels:

Within a mapping. Within a mapping, you use the Transaction Control


transformation to define a transaction. You define transactions using an
expression in a Transaction Control transformation. Based on the return value
of the expression, you can choose to commit, roll back, or continue without any
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transaction changes.

Within a session. When you configure a session, you configure it for user-
defined commit. You can choose to commit or roll back a transaction if the
Integration Service fails to transform or write any row to the target.

When you run the session, the Integration Service evaluates the expression for
each row that enters the transformation. When it evaluates a commit row, it
commits all rows in the transaction to the target or targets. When the
Integration Service evaluates a roll back row, it rolls back all rows in the
transaction from the target or targets.

If the mapping has a flat file target you can generate an output file each time
the Integration Service starts a new transaction. You can dynamically name
each target flat file.

On the Properties tab, you can configure the following properties:

Transaction control
expression

Enter the transaction control expression in the Transaction Control Condition


field. The transaction control expression uses the IIF function to test each row
against the condition. Use the following syntax for the expression:

IIF (condition, value1, value2)

The expression contains values that represent actions the Integration Service
performs based on the return value of the condition. The Integration Service
evaluates the condition on a row-by-row basis. The return value determines
whether the Integration Service commits, rolls back, or makes no transaction
changes to the row. When the Integration Service issues a commit or roll back
based on the return value of the expression, it begins a new transaction. Use
the following built-in variables in the Expression Editor when you create a
transaction control expression:

TC_CONTINUE_TRANSACTION. The Integration Service does not perform


any transaction change for this row. This is the default value of the
expression.

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TC_COMMIT_BEFORE. The Integration Service commits the transaction,
begins a new transaction, and writes the current row to the target. The
current row is in the new transaction.

TC_COMMIT_AFTER. The Integration Service writes the current row to the


target, commits the transaction, and begins a new transaction. The current
row is in the committed transaction.

TC_ROLLBACK_BEFORE. The Integration Service rolls back the current


transaction, begins a new transaction, and writes the current row to the
target. The current row is in the new transaction.

TC_ROLLBACK_AFTER. The Integration Service writes the current row to the


target, rolls back the transaction, and begins a new transaction. The current
row is in the rolled back transaction.

Transaction Control transformation. Create the following transaction control


expression to commit data when the Integration Service encounters a new
order entry date:

IIF(NEW_DATE = 1, TC_COMMIT_BEFORE, TC_CONTINUE_TRANSACTION)

What is the difference between joiner and lookup

Joiner Lookup

In joiner on multiple matches it will In lookup it will return either first


return all matching records. record or last record or any value or
error value.

In joiner we cannot configure to use Where as in lookup we can configure


persistence cache, shared cache, to use persistence cache, shared
uncached and dynamic cache cache, uncached and dynamic cache.

We cannot override the query in We can override the query in lookup


joiner to fetch the data from multiple tables.

We can perform outer join in joiner We cannot perform outer join in


transformation. lookup transformation.

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We cannot use relational operators in Where as in lookup we can use the
joiner transformation.(i.e. <,>,<= and relation operators. (i.e. <,>,<= and so
so on) on)

What is the difference between source qualifier and lookup

Source Qualifier Lookup

In source qualifier it will push all the Where as in lookup we can restrict
matching records. whether to display first value, last
value or any value

In source qualifier there is no Where as in lookup we concentrate


concept of cache. on cache concept.

When both source and lookup are in When the source and lookup table
same database we can use source exists in different database then we
qualifier. need to use lookup.

Have you done any Performance tuning in informatica?

1) Yes, One of my mapping was taking 3-4 hours to process 40 millions rows
into staging table we don’t have any transformation inside the mapping its
1 to 1 mapping .Here nothing is there to optimize the mapping so I
created session partitions using key range on effective date column. It
improved performance lot, rather than 4 hours it was running in 30
minutes for entire 40millions.Using partitions DTM will creates multiple
reader and writer threads.

2) There was one more scenario where I got very good performance in the
mapping level .Rather than using lookup transformation if we can able to
do outer join in the source qualifier query override this will give you good
performance if both lookup table and source were in the same database.
If lookup tables is huge volumes then creating cache is costly.

3) And also if we can able to optimize mapping using less no of


transformations always gives you good performance.

4) If any mapping taking long time to execute then first we need to look in to
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source and target statistics in the monitor for the throughput and also find
out where exactly the bottle neck by looking busy percentage in the
session log will come to know which transformation taking more time ,if
your source query is the bottle neck then it will show in the end of the
session log as “query issued to database “that means there is a
performance issue in the source query.we need to tune the query using .

Informatica Session Log shows busy percentage

If we look into session logs it shows busy percentage based on that we need to
find out where is bottle neck.

***** RUN INFO FOR TGT LOAD ORDER GROUP [1], CONCURRENT SET [1] ****

Thread [READER_1_1_1] created for [the read stage] of partition point


[SQ_ACW_PCBA_APPROVAL_STG] has completed: Total Run Time = [7.193083]
secs, Total Idle Time = [0.000000] secs, Busy Percentage = [100.000000]

Thread [TRANSF_1_1_1] created for [the transformation stage] of partition


point [SQ_ACW_PCBA_APPROVAL_STG] has completed. The total run time was
insufficient for any meaningful statistics.

Thread [WRITER_1_*_1] created for [the write stage] of partition point


[ACW_PCBA_APPROVAL_F1, ACW_PCBA_APPROVAL_F] has completed: Total
Run Time = [0.806521] secs, Total Idle Time = [0.000000] secs, Busy Percentage
= [100.000000]

If suppose I've to load 40 lacs records in the target table and the workflow
is taking about 10 - 11 hours to finish. I've already increased
the cache size to 128MB.
There are no joiner, just lookups
and expression transformations

Ans:

(1) If the lookups have many records, try creating indexes


on the columns used in the lkp condition. And try
increasing the lookup cache.If this doesnt increase
the performance. If the target has any indexes disable
them in the target pre load and enable them in the
target post load.
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(2) Three things you can do w.r.t it.

1. Increase the Commit intervals ( by default its 10000)


2. Use bulk mode instead of normal mode incase ur target doesn't have
primary keys or use pre and post session SQL to
implement the same (depending on the business req.)
3. Uses Key partitionning to load the data faster.

(3)If your target consists key constraints and indexes u slow

the loading of data. To improve the session performance in

this case drop constraints and indexes before you run the

session and rebuild them after completion of session.

What is Constraint based loading in informatica?

By setting Constraint Based Loading property at session level in Configaration


tab we can load the data into parent and child relational tables (primary foreign
key).

Genarally What it do is it will load the data first in parent table then it will load
it in to child table.

What is use of Shortcuts in informatica?

If we copy source definaltions or target definations or mapplets from Shared


folder to any other folders that will become a shortcut.

Let’s assume we have imported some source and target definitions in a shared
folder after that we are using those sources and target definitions in another
folders as a shortcut in some mappings.

If any modifications occur in the backend (Database) structure like adding new
columns or drop existing columns either in source or target I f we reimport into
shared folder those new changes automatically it would reflect in all
folder/mappings wherever we used those sources or target definitions.

Target Update Override

If we don’t have primary key on target table using Target Update Override

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option we can perform updates.By default, the Integration Service updates
target tables based on key values. However, you can override the default
UPDATE statement for each target in a mapping. You might want to update the
target based on non-key columns.

Overriding the WHERE Clause

You can override the WHERE clause to include non-key columns. For example,
you might want to update records for employees named Mike Smith only. To do
this, you edit the WHERE clause as follows:

UPDATE T_SALES SET DATE_SHIPPED =:TU.DATE_SHIPPED,


TOTAL_SALES = :TU.TOTAL_SALES WHERE EMP_NAME = :TU.EMP_NAME and
EMP_NAME = 'MIKE SMITH'

If you modify the UPDATE portion of the statement, be sure to use :TU to
specify ports.

How do you perform incremental logic or Delta or CDC?

Incremental means suppose today we processed 100 records ,for tomorrow


run u need to extract whatever the records inserted newly and updated after
previous run based on last updated timestamp (Yesterday run) this process
called as incremental or delta.

Approach_1: Using set max var ()

1) First need to create mapping var ($$Pre_sess_max_upd)and assign initial


value as old date (01/01/1940).

2) Then override source qualifier query to fetch only LAT_UPD_DATE >=$


$Pre_sess_max_upd (Mapping var)

3) In the expression assign max last_upd_date value to $


$Pre_sess_max_upd(mapping var) using set max var

4) Because its var so it stores the max last upd_date value in the
repository, in the next run our source qualifier query will fetch only the
records updated or inseted after previous run.

Approach_2: Using parameter file

1 First need to create mapping parameter ($$Pre_sess_start_tmst )


and assign initial value as old date (01/01/1940) in the parameterfile.
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2 Then override source qualifier query to fetch only LAT_UPD_DATE
>=$$Pre_sess_start_tmst (Mapping var)

3 Update mapping parameter($$Pre_sess_start_tmst) values in the


parameter file using shell script or another mapping after first session
get completed successfully

4 Because its mapping parameter so every time we need to update


the value in the parameter file after comptetion of main session.

Approach_3: Using oracle Control tables

1 First we need to create two control tables cont_tbl_1 and cont_tbl_1


with structure of session_st_time,wf_name

2 Then insert one record in each table with session_st_time=1/1/1940


and workflow_name

3 create two store procedures one for update cont_tbl_1 with session
st_time, set property of store procedure type as Source_pre_load .

4 In 2nd store procedure set property of store procedure type as Target


_Post_load.this proc will update the session _st_time in Cont_tbl_2
from cnt_tbl_1.

5 Then override source qualifier query to fetch only LAT_UPD_DATE


>=(Select session_st_time from cont_tbl_2 where workflow
name=’Actual work flow name’.

SCD Type-II Effective-Date Approach

 We have one of the dimension in current project called resource


dimension. Here we are maintaining the history to keep track of SCD
changes.

 To maintain the history in slowly changing dimension or resource


dimension. We followed SCD Type-II Effective-Date approach.

 My resource dimension structure would be eff-start-date, eff-end-date, s.k


and source columns.

 Whenever I do a insert into dimension I would populate eff-start-date with


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sysdate, eff-end-date with future date and s.k as a sequence number.

 If the record already present in my dimension but there is change in the


source data. In that case what I need to do is

 Update the previous record eff-end-date with sysdate and insert as a new
record with source data.

Informatica design to implement SDC Type-II effective-date approach

 Once you fetch the record from source qualifier. We will send it to lookup
to find out whether the record is present in the target or not based on
source primary key column.

 Once we find the match in the lookup we are taking SCD column from
lookup and source columns from SQ to expression transformation.

 In lookup transformation we need to override the lookup override query


to fetch Active records from the dimension while building the cache.

 In expression transformation I can compare source with lookup return


data.

 If the source and target data is same then I can make a flag as ‘S’.

 If the source and target data is different then I can make a flag as ‘U’.

 If source data does not exists in the target that means lookup returns null
value. I can flag it as ‘I’.

 Based on the flag values in router I can route the data into insert and
update flow.

 If flag=’I’ or ‘U’ I will pass it to insert flow.

 If flag=’U’ I will pass this record to eff-date update flow

 When we do insert we are passing the sequence value to s.k.

 Whenever we do update we are updating the eff-end-date column based


on lookup return s.k value.

Complex Mapping

 We have one of the order file requirement. Requirement is every day in


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source system they will place filename with timestamp in informatica
server.

 We have to process the same date file through informatica.

 Source file directory contain older than 30 days files with timestamps.

 For this requirement if I hardcode the timestamp for source file name it
will process the same file every day.

 So what I did here is I created $InputFilename for source file name.

 Then I am going to use the parameter file to supply the values to session
variables ($InputFilename).

 To update this parameter file I have created one more mapping.

 This mapping will update the parameter file with appended timestamp to
file name.

 I make sure to run this parameter file update mapping before my actual
mapping.

How to handle errors in informatica?

 We have one of the source with numerator and denominator values we


need to calculate num/deno

 When populating to target.

 If deno=0 I should not load this record into target table.

 We need to send those records to flat file after completion of 1st session
run. Shell script will check the file size.

 If the file size is greater than zero then it will send email notification to
source system POC (point of contact) along with deno zero record file and
appropriate email subject and body.

 If file size<=0 that means there is no records in flat file. In this case shell
script will not send any email notification.

 Or

 We are expecting a not null value for one of the source column.
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 If it is null that means it is a error record.

 We can use the above approach for error handling.

Why we need source qualifier?

Simply it performs select statement.

Select statement fetches the data in the form of row.

Source qualifier will select the data from the source table.

It identifies the record from the source.

Parameter file it will supply the values to session level variables and mapping
level variables.

Variables are of two types:

 Session level variables

 Mapping level variables

Session level variables are of four types:

 $DBConnection_Source

 $DBConnection_Target

 $InputFile

 $OutputFile

Mapping level variables are of two types:

 Variable

 Parameter

What is the difference between mapping level and session level variables?

Mapping level variables always starts with $$.

A session level variable always starts with $.

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Flat File

Flat file is a collection of data in a file in the specific format.

Informatica can support two types of files

 Delimiter

 Fixed Width

In delimiter we need to specify the separator.

In fixed width we need to known about the format first. Means how many
character to read for particular column.

In delimiter also it is necessary to know about the structure of the delimiter.


Because to know about the headers.

If the file contains the header then in definition we need to skip the first row.

List file:

If you want to process multiple files with same structure. We don’t need
multiple mapping and multiple sessions.

We can use one mapping one session using list file option.

First we need to create the list file for all the files. Then we can use this file in
the main mapping.

Parameter file Format:

It is a text file below is the format for parameter file. We use to place this file in
the unix box where we have installed our informatic server.

[GEHC_APO_DEV.WF:w_GEHC_APO_WEEKLY_HIST_LOAD.WT:wl_GEHC_APO_W
EEKLY_HIST_BAAN.ST:s_m_GEHC_APO_BAAN_SALES_HIST_AUSTRI]

$InputFileName_BAAN_SALE_HIST=/interface/dev/etl/apo/srcfiles/HS_025_20
070921

$DBConnection_Target=DMD2_GEMS_ETL

$$CountryCode=AT

$$CustomerNumber=120165
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[GEHC_APO_DEV.WF:w_GEHC_APO_WEEKLY_HIST_LOAD.WT:wl_GEHC_APO_W
EEKLY_HIST_BAAN.ST:s_m_GEHC_APO_BAAN_SALES_HIST_BELUM]

$DBConnection_Sourcet=DEVL1C1_GEMS_ETL

$OutputFileName_BAAN_SALES=/interface/dev/etl/apo/trgfiles/HS_002_20070
921

$$CountryCode=BE

$$CustomerNumber=101495

Difference between 7.x and 8.x

Power Center 7.X Architecture.

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Power Center 8.X Architecture.

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Developer Changes:

For example, in PowerCenter:

• PowerCenter Server has become a service, the Integration Service

• No more Repository Server, but PowerCenter includes a Repository


Service

• Client applications are the same, but work on top of the new services
framework

Below are the difference between 7.1 and 8.1 of infa..

1) powercenter connect for sap netweaver bw option

2) sql transformation is added

3) service oriented architecture

4) grid concept is additional feature

5) random file name can genaratation in target

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6) command line programms: infacmd and infasetup new commands were
added.

7) java transformation is added feature

8) concurrent cache creation and faster index building are additional feature in
lookup transformation

9) caches or automatic u dont need to allocate at transformation level

10) push down optimization techniques,some

11) we can append data into the flat file target.

12)Dynamic file names we can generate in informatica 8

13)flat file names we can populate to target while processing through list file .

14)For Falt files header and footer we can populate using advanced options in
8 at session level.

15) GRID option at session level

Effective in version 8.0, you create and configure a grid in the Administration
Console. You configure a grid to run on multiple nodes, and you configure one
Integration Service to run on the grid. The Integration Service runs processes on
the nodes in the grid to distribute workflows and sessions. In addition to
running a workflow on a grid, you can now run a session on a grid. When you
run a session or workflow on a grid, one service process runs on each available
node in the grid.

Pictorial Representation of Workflow execution:

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1. A PowerCenter Client request IS to start workflow

2. IS starts ISP

3. ISP consults LB to select node

4. ISP starts DTM in node selected by LB

Integration Service (IS)

The key functions of IS are

 Interpretation of the workflow and mapping metadata from the


repository.

 Execution of the instructions in the metadata

 Manages the data from source system to target system within the
memory and disk

The main three components of Integration Service which enable data


movement are,

 Integration Service Process

 Load Balancer

 Data Transformation Manager

Integration Service Process (ISP)

The Integration Service starts one or more Integration Service processes to run
and monitor workflows. When we run a workflow, the ISP starts and locks the
workflow, runs the workflow tasks, and starts the process to run sessions. The
functions of the Integration Service Process are,

 Locks and reads the workflow

 Manages workflow scheduling, ie, maintains session dependency

 Reads the workflow parameter file

 Creates the workflow log

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 Runs workflow tasks and evaluates the conditional links

 Starts the DTM process to run the session

 Writes historical run information to the repository

 Sends post-session emails

Load Balancer

The Load Balancer dispatches tasks to achieve optimal performance. It


dispatches tasks to a single node or across the nodes in a grid after performing
a sequence of steps. Before understanding these steps we have to know about
Resources, Resource Provision Thresholds, Dispatch mode and Service levels

 Resources – we can configure the Integration Service to check the


resources available on each node and match them with the resources
required to run the task. For example, if a session uses an SAP source, the
Load Balancer dispatches the session only to nodes where the SAP client is
installed

 Three Resource Provision Thresholds, The maximum number of runnable


threads waiting for CPU resources on the node called Maximum CPU Run
Queue Length. The maximum percentage of virtual memory allocated on
the node relative to the total physical memory size called Maximum
Memory %. The maximum number of running Session and Command
tasks allowed for each Integration Service process running on the node
called Maximum Processes

 Three Dispatch mode’s – Round-Robin: The Load Balancer dispatches tasks


to available nodes in a round-robin fashion after checking the “Maximum
Process” threshold. Metric-based: Checks all the three resource provision
thresholds and dispatches tasks in round robin fashion. Adaptive: Checks
all the three resource provision thresholds and also ranks nodes according
to current CPU availability

 Service Levels establishes priority among tasks that are waiting to be


dispatched, the three components of service levels are Name, Dispatch
Priority and Maximum dispatch wait time. “Maximum dispatch wait time”
is the amount of time a task can wait in queue and this ensures no task
waits forever

A .Dispatching Tasks on a node


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1. The Load Balancer checks different resource provision thresholds on the
node depending on the Dispatch mode set. If dispatching the task causes
any threshold to be exceeded, the Load Balancer places the task in the
dispatch queue, and it dispatches the task later

2. The Load Balancer dispatches all tasks to the node that runs the master
Integration Service process

B. Dispatching Tasks on a grid,

1. The Load Balancer verifies which nodes are currently running and enabled

2. The Load Balancer identifies nodes that have the PowerCenter resources
required by the tasks in the workflow

3. The Load Balancer verifies that the resource provision thresholds on each
candidate node are not exceeded. If dispatching the task causes a
threshold to be exceeded, the Load Balancer places the task in the
dispatch queue, and it dispatches the task later

4. The Load Balancer selects a node based on the dispatch mode

Data Transformation Manager (DTM) Process

When the workflow reaches a session, the Integration Service Process starts the
DTM process. The DTM is the process associated with the session task. The
DTM process performs the following tasks:

 Retrieves and validates session information from the repository.

 Validates source and target code pages.

 Verifies connection object permissions.

 Performs pushdown optimization when the session is configured for


pushdown optimization.

 Adds partitions to the session when the session is configured for dynamic
partitioning.

 Expands the service process variables, session parameters, and mapping


variables and parameters.

 Creates the session log.

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 Runs pre-session shell commands, stored procedures, and SQL.

 Sends a request to start worker DTM processes on other nodes when the
session is configured to run on a grid.

 Creates and runs mapping, reader, writer, and transformation threads to


extract, transform, and load data

 Runs post-session stored procedures, SQL, and shell commands and sends
post-session email

After the session is complete, reports execution result to ISP

Approach_1: Using set max var ()

1) First need to create mapping var ($$INCREMENT_TS)and assign initial


value as old date (01/01/1940).
2) Then override source qualifier query to fetch only LAT_UPD_DATE >=($
$INCREMENT_TS (Mapping var)
3) In the expression assign max last_upd_date value to ($
$INCREMENT_TS (mapping var) using set max var
4) Because its var so it stores the max last upd_date value in the
repository, in the next run our source qualifier query will fetch only the
records updated or inseted after previous run.

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Logic in the mapping variable is

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Logic in the SQ is

In expression assign max last update date value to the variable using function
set max variable.

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Logic in the update strategy is below

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Approach_2: Using parameter file

First need to create mapping parameter ($$LastUpdateDate Time )and assign


initial value as old date (01/01/1940) in the parameterfile.

Then override source qualifier query to fetch only LAT_UPD_DATE >=($


$LastUpdateDate Time (Mapping var)

Update mapping parameter($$LastUpdateDate Time) values in the parameter


file using shell script or another mapping after first session get completed
successfully

Because its mapping parameter so every time we need to update the value in
the parameter file after comptetion of main session.

Parameterfile:

[GEHC_APO_DEV.WF:w_GEHC_APO_WEEKLY_HIST_LOAD.WT:wl_GEHC_APO_W
EEKLY_HIST_BAAN.ST:s_m_GEHC_APO_BAAN_SALES_HIST_AUSTRI]

$DBConnection_Source=DMD2_GEMS_ETL

$DBConnection_Target=DMD2_GEMS_ETL

$$LastUpdateDate Time =01/01/1940

Updating parameter File

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Logic in the expression

Main mapping

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Sql override in SQ Transformation

Workflod Design

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4.2 Informatica Scenarios:

1) How to populate 1st record to 1st target ,2nd record to 2nd target
,3rd record to 3rd target and 4th record to 1st target through
informatica?

We can do using sequence generator by setting end value=3 and enable cycle
option.then in the router take 3 goups

In 1st group specify condition as seq next value=1 pass those records to 1st
target simillarly

In 2nd group specify condition as seq next value=2 pass those records to 2nd
target

In 3rd group specify condition as seq next value=3 pass those records to 3rd
target.

Since we have enabled cycle option after reaching end value sequence
generator will start from 1,for the 4th record seq.next value is 1 so it will go to
1st target.
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2) How to do Dymanic File generation in Informatica?

I want to generate the separate file for every State (as per state, it should
generate file).It has to generate 2 flat files and name of the flat file is
corresponding state name that is the requirement.

Below is my mapping.

Source (Table) -> SQ -> Target (FF)

Source:

State Transaction City

AP 2 HYD

AP 1 TPT

KA 5 BANG

KA 7 MYSORE

KA 3 HUBLI

This functionality was added in informatica 8.5 onwards earlier versions it was
not there.

We can achieve it with use of transaction control and special "FileName" port in
the target file .

In order to generate the target file names from the mapping, we should make
use of the special "FileName" port in the target file. You can't create this special
port from the usual New port button. There is a special button with label "F" on
it to the right most corner of the target flat file when viewed in "Target
Designer".

When you have different sets of input data with different target files created,
use the same instance, but with a Transaction Control transformation which
defines the boundary for the source sets.

in target flat file there is option in column tab i.e filename as column.
when you click that one non editable column gets created in metadata of
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target.

in transaction control give condition as


iif(flag=1,tc_commit_before,tc_continue_tranaction)

map the state column to target's filename column

ur mapping will be like this

source -> sq->expression-> transaction control-> target

run it ,separate files will be created by name of state

3) How to concatenate row data through informatica?


Source:

Ename EmpNo

stev 100

methew 100

john 101

tom 101

Target:

Ename EmpNo

Stev 100
methew

John tom 101

Approach1: Using Dynamic Lookup on Target table:

If record doen’t exit do insert in target .If it is already exist then get
corresponding Ename vale from lookup and concat in expression with current
Ename value then update the target Ename column using update strategy.

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Approch2: Using Var port :

Sort the data in sq based on EmpNo column then Use expression to store
previous record information using Var port after that use router to insert a
record if it is first time if it is already inserted then update Ename with concat
value of prev name and current name value then update in target.

4) How to send Unique (Distinct) records into One target and


duplicates into another tatget?

Source:

Ename EmpNo

stev 100

Stev 100

john 101

Mathew 102

Output:

Target_1:

Ename EmpNo

Stev 100

John 101

Mathew 102

Target_2:

Ename EmpNo

Stev 100

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Approch 1: Using Dynamic Lookup on Target table:

If record doen’t exit do insert in target_1 .If it is already exist then send it to
Target_2 using Router.

Approch2: Using Var port :

Sort the data in sq based on EmpNo column then Use expression to store
previous record information using Var ports after that use router to route the
data into targets if it is first time then sent it to first target if it is already
inserted then send it to Tartget_2.

5) How to Process multiple flat files to single target table through


informatica if all files are same structure?

We can process all flat files through one mapping and one session using list file.

First we need to create list file using unix script for all flat file the extension of
the list file is .LST.

This list file it will have only flat file names.

At session level we need to set

source file directory as list file path

And source file name as list file name

And file type as indirect.

6) How to populate file name to target while loading multiple files


using list file concept.

In informatica 8.6 by selecting Add currently processed flatfile name option in


the properties tab of source definition after import source file defination in
source analyzer.It will add new column as currently processed file name.we can
map this column to target to populate filename.

7) If we want to run 2 workflow one after another(how to set the


dependence between wf’s)

 If both workflow exists in same folder we can create 2 worklet rather than
creating 2 workfolws.
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 Finally we can call these 2 worklets in one workflow.

 There we can set the dependency.

 If both workflows exists in different folders or repository then we cannot


create worklet.

 We can set the dependency between these two workflow using shell
script is one approach.

 The other approach is event wait and event rise.

If both workflow exists in different folrder or different rep then we can use
below approaches.

1) Using shell script

 As soon as first workflow get completes we are creating zero byte file
(indicator file).

 If indicator file is available in particular location. We will run second


workflow.

 If indicator file is not available we will wait for 5 minutes and again we will
check for the indicator. Like this we will continue the loop for 5 times i.e
30 minutes.

 After 30 minutes if the file does not exists we will send out email
notification.

2) Event wait and Event rise approach

We can put event wait before actual session run in the workflow to wait a
indicator file if file available then it will run the session other event wait it will
wait for infinite time till the indicator file is available.

8) How to load cumulative salary in to target ?

Solution:

Using var ports in expression we can load cumulative salary into target.

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4.3 Development Guidelines
General Development Guidelines

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The starting point of the development is the logical model created by the Data
Architect. This logical model forms the foundation for metadata, which will be
continuously be maintained throughout the Data Warehouse Development Life
Cycle (DWDLC). The logical model is formed from the requirements of the
project. At the completion of the logical model technical documentation defining
the sources, targets, requisite business rule transformations, mappings and
filters. This documentation serves as the basis for the creation of the Extraction,
Transformation and Loading tools to actually manipulate the data from the
applications sources into the Data Warehouse/Data Mart.

To start development on any data mart you should have the following things set
up by the Informatica Load Administrator

 Informatica Folder. The development team in consultation with the BI


Support Group can decide a three-letter code for the project, which
would be used to create the informatica folder as well as Unix directory
structure.
 Informatica Userids for the developers
 Unix directory structure for the data mart.
 A schema XXXLOAD on DWDEV database.

Transformation Specifications

Before developing the mappings you need to prepare the specifications


document for the mappings you need to develop. A good template is placed in
the templates folder You can use your own template as long as it has as much
detail or more than that which is in this template.

While estimating the time required to develop mappings the thumb rule is as
follows.

 Simple Mapping – 1 Person Day


 Medium Complexity Mapping – 3 Person Days
 Complex Mapping – 5 Person Days.
Usually the mapping for the fact table is most complex and should be allotted
as much time for development as possible.

Data Loading from Flat Files

It’s an accepted best practice to always load a flat file into a staging table before

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any transformations are done on the data in the flat file.

Always use LTRIM, RTRIM functions on string columns before loading data into
a stage table.

You can also use UPPER function on string columns but before using it you need
to ensure that the data is not case sensitive (e.g. ABC is different from Abc)

If you are loading data from a delimited file then make sure the delimiter is not
a character which could appear in the data itself. Avoid using comma-separated
files. Tilde (~) is a good delimiter to use.

Failure Notification

Once in production your sessions and batches need to send out notification
when then fail to the Support team. You can do this by configuring email task
in the session level.

Naming Conventions and usage of Transformations

Port Standards:

Input Ports – It will be necessary to change the name of input ports for lookups,
expression and filters where ports might have the same name. If ports do have
the same name then will be defaulted to having a number after the name.
Change this default to a prefix of “in_”. This will allow you to keep track of
input ports through out your mappings.
Prefixed with: IN_

Variable Ports – Variable ports that are created within an expression

Transformation should be prefixed with a “v_”. This will allow the developer to
distinguish between input/output and variable ports. For more explanation of
Variable Ports see the section “VARIABLES”.
Prefixed with: V_

Output Ports – If organic data is created with a transformation that will be


mapped to the target, make sure that it has the same name as the target port
that it will be mapped to.

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Prefixed with: O_

Quick Reference

Object Type Syntax

Folder XXX_<Data Mart Name>

Mapping m_fXY_ZZZ_<Target Table


Name>_x.x

Session s_fXY_ZZZ_<Target Table


Name>_x.x

Batch b_<Meaningful name representing


the sessions inside>

Source Definition <Source Table Name>

Target Definition <Target Table Name>

Aggregator AGG_<Purpose>

Expression EXP_<Purpose>

Filter FLT_<Purpose>

Joiner JNR_<Names of Joined Tables>

Lookup LKP_<Lookup Table Name>

Normalizer Norm_<Source Name>

Rank RNK_<Purpose>

Router RTR_<Purpose>

Sequence Generator SEQ_<Target Column Name>

Source Qualifier SQ_<Source Table Name>

Stored Procedure STP_<Database Name>_<Procedure


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Name>

Update Strategy UPD_<Target Table Name>_xxx

Mapplet MPP_<Purpose>

Input Transformation INP_<Description of Data being


funneled in>

Output Tranformation OUT_<Description of Data being


funneled out>

Database Connections XXX_<Database Name>_<Schema


Name>

4.4 Performance Tips


What is Performance tuning in Informatica

The aim of performance tuning is optimize session

performance so sessions run during the available load window

for the Informatica Server.

Increase the session performance by following.

The performance of the Informatica Server is related to

network connections. Data generally moves across a network

at less than 1 MB per second, whereas a local disk moves

data five to twenty times faster. Thus network connections

ofteny affect on session performance. So avoid work

connections.

1. Cache lookups if source table is under 500,000 rows and DON’T cache for
tables over 500,000 rows.

2. Reduce the number of transformations. Don’t use an Expression


Transformation to collect fields. Don’t use an Update Transformation if
only inserting. Insert mode is the default.
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3. If a value is used in multiple ports, calculate the value once (in a variable)
and reuse the result instead of recalculating it for multiple ports.

4. Reuse objects where possible.

5. Delete unused ports particularly in the Source Qualifier and Lookups.

6. Use Operators in expressions over the use of functions.

7. Avoid using Stored Procedures, and call them only once during the
mapping if possible.

8. Remember to turn off Verbose logging after you have finished debugging.

9. Use default values where possible instead of using IIF (ISNULL(X),,) in


Expression port.

10.When overriding the Lookup SQL, always ensure to put a valid Order By
statement in the SQL. This will cause the database to perform the order
rather than Informatica Server while building the Cache.

11.Improve session performance by using sorted data with the Joiner


transformation. When the Joiner transformation is configured to use
sorted data, the Informatica Server improves performance by minimizing
disk input and output.

12.Improve session performance by using sorted input with the Aggregator


Transformation since it reduces the amount of data cached during the
session.

13.Improve session performance by using limited number of connected


input/output or output ports to reduce the amount of data the
Aggregator transformation stores in the data cache.

14. Use a Filter transformation prior to Aggregator transformation to reduce


unnecessary aggregation.

15. Performing a join in a database is faster than performing join in the


session. Also use the Source Qualifier to perform the join.

16.Define the source with less number of rows and master source in Joiner
Transformations, since this reduces the search time and also the cache.

17.When using multiple conditions in a lookup conditions, specify the

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conditions with the equality operator first.

18.Improve session performance by caching small lookup tables.

19.If the lookup table is on the same database as the source table, instead of
using a Lookup transformation, join the tables in the Source Qualifier
Transformation itself if possible.

20.If the lookup table does not change between sessions, configure the
Lookup transformation to use a persistent lookup cache. The Informatica
Server saves and reuses cache files from session to session, eliminating
the time required to read the lookup table.

21.Use :LKP reference qualifier in expressions only when calling unconnected


Lookup Transformations.

22.Informatica Server generates an ORDER BY statement for a cached lookup


that contains all lookup ports. By providing an override ORDER BY clause
with fewer columns, session performance can be improved.

23.Eliminate unnecessary data type conversions from mappings.

24.Reduce the number of rows being cached by using the Lookup SQL
Override option to add a WHERE clause to the default SQL statement.

4.5 Unit Test Cases (UTP):


QA Life Cycle consists of 5 types of

Testing regimens:

1. Unit Testing

2. Functional Testing

3. System Integration Testing

4. User Acceptance Testing

Unit testing: The testing, by development, of the application modules to verify


each unit (module) itself meets the accepted user requirements and design and
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development standards

Functional Testing: The testing of all the application’s modules individually to


ensure the modules, as released from development to QA, work together as
designed and meet the accepted user requirements and system standards

System Integration Testing: Testing of all of the application modules in the


same environment, database instance, network and inter-related applications,
as it would function in production. This includes security, volume and stress
testing.

User Acceptance Testing(UAT): The testing of the entire application by the end-
users ensuring the application functions as set forth in the system requirements
documents and that the system meets the business needs.

UTP Template:
Actual Pass Tested
Results, or Fail By

(P or
Step Description Test Conditions Expected Results F)

SAP-
CMS
Interf
aces

1 Check for the SOURCE: Both the source and target Should be Pass Stev
total count table load record count same as the
of records in SELECT count(*) FROM should match. expected
source tables XST_PRCHG_STG
that is
fetched and
the total TARGET:
records in
the PRCHG Select count(*) from
table for a _PRCHG
perticular
session
timestamp

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Actual Pass Tested
Results, or Fail By

(P or
Step Description Test Conditions Expected Results F)

2 Check for all select PRCHG_ID, Both the source and target Should be Pass Stev
the target table record values should same as the
columns PRCHG_DESC, return zero records expected
whether they
are getting DEPT_NBR,
populated
correctly EVNT_CTG_CDE,
with source
data. PRCHG_TYP_CDE,

PRCHG_ST_CDE,

from T_PRCHG

MINUS

select PRCHG_ID,

PRCHG_DESC,

DEPT_NBR,

EVNT_CTG_CDE,

PRCHG_TYP_CDE,

PRCHG_ST_CDE,

from PRCHG

3 Check for Identify a one record from It should insert a record into Should be Pass Stev
Insert the source which is not in target table with source data same as the
strategy to target table. Then run the expected
load records session
into target
table.

4 Check for Identify a one Record It should update record into Should be Pass Stev
Update from the source which is target table with source data same as the
strategy to already present in the for that existing record expected
load records target table with different
into target PRCHG_ST_CDE or
table. PRCHG_TYP_CDE values
Then run the session

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5 UNIX

How strong you are in UNIX?

1) I have Unix shell scripting knowledge whatever informatica required like

If we want to run workflows in Unix using PMCMD.

Below is the script to run workflow using Unix.

cd /pmar/informatica/pc/pmserver/

/pmar/informatica/pc/pmserver/pmcmd startworkflow -u $INFA_USER -p


$INFA_PASSWD -s $INFA_SERVER:$INFA_PORT -f $INFA_FOLDER -wait $1 >>
$LOG_PATH/$LOG_FILE

2) And if we suppose to process flat files using informatica but those files were
exists in remote server then we have to write script to get ftp into informatica
server before start process those files.

3) And also file watch mean that if indicator file available in the specified
location then we need to start our informatica jobs otherwise will send email
notification using

Mail X command saying that previous jobs didn’t completed successfully


something like that.

4) Using shell script update parameter file with session start time and end time.

This kind of scripting knowledge I do have. If any new UNIX requirement comes
then I can Google and get the solution implement the same.

Basic Commands:

Cat file1 (cat is the command to create none zero byte file)
cat file1 file2 > all -----it will combined (it will create file if it doesn’t exit)
cat file1 >> file2---it will append to file 2
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o > will redirect output from standard out (screen) to file or printer or
whatever you like.

o >> Filename will append at the end of a file called filename.

o < will redirect input to a process or command.

How to create zero byte file?

Touch filename (touch is the command to create zero byte file)

how to find all processes that are running

ps -A

Crontab command.
Crontab command is used to schedule jobs. You must have permission to run
this command by Unix Administrator. Jobs are scheduled in five numbers, as
follows.

Minutes (0-59) Hour (0-23) Day of month (1-31) month (1-12) Day of week (0-
6) (0 is Sunday)

so for example you want to schedule a job which runs from script named
backup jobs in /usr/local/bin directory on sunday (day 0) at 11.25 (22:25) on
15th of month. The entry in crontab file will be. * represents all values.

25 22 15 * 0 /usr/local/bin/backup_jobs

The * here tells system to run this each month.


Syntax is
crontab file So a create a file with the scheduled jobs as above and then type
crontab filename .This will scheduled the jobs.

Below cmd gives total no of users logged in at this time.

who | wc -l
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echo "are total number of people logged in at this time."

Below cmd will display only directories

$ ls -l | grep '^d'

Pipes:

The pipe symbol "|" is used to direct the output of one command to the input

of another.

Moving, renaming, and copying files:

Cp file1 file2 copy a file

mv file1 newname move or rename a file

mv file1 ~/AAA/ move file1 into sub-directory AAA in your home


directory.

rm file1 [file2 ...] remove or delete a file

To display hidden files

ls –a

Viewing and editing files:

cat filename Dump a file to the screen in ascii.

More file name to view the file content

head filename Show the first few lines of a file.

head -5 filename Show the first 5 lines of a file.

tail filename Show the last few lines of a file.

Tail -7 filename Show the last 7 lines of a file.

Searching for files :

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find command

find -name aaa.txt Finds all the files named aaa.txt in the current directory
or

any subdirectory tree.

Sed (The usual sed command for global string search and replace is this)

If you want to replace 'foo' with the string 'bar' globally in a file.

$ sed -e 's/foo/bar/g' myfile.txt

find / -name vimrc Find all the files named 'vimrc' anywhere on the system.

find /usr/local/games -name "*xpilot*"

Find all files whose names contain the string 'xpilot' which

exist within the '/usr/local/games' directory tree.

You can find out what shell you are using by the command:

echo $SHELL

If file exists then send email with attachment.

if [[ -f $your_file ]]; then


uuencode $your_file $your_file|mailx -s "$your_file exists..."
your_email_address
fi

Below line is the first line of the script

#!/usr/bin/sh

Or

#!/bin/ksh

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What does #! /bin/sh mean in a shell script?

It actually tells the script to which interpreter to refer. As you know, bash shell
has some specific functions that other shell does not have and vice-versa. Same
way is for perl, python and other languages.

It's to tell your shell what shell to you in executing the following statements in
your shell script.

Interactive History

A feature of bash and tcsh (and sometimes others) you can use

the up-arrow keys to access your previous commands, edit

them, and re-execute them.

Basics of the vi editor

Opening a file

Vi filename

Creating text

Edit modes: These keys enter editing modes and type in the text

of your document.

i Insert before current cursor position

I Insert at beginning of current line

a Insert (append) after current cursor position

A Append to end of line

r Replace 1 character

R Replace mode

<ESC> Terminate insertion or overwrite mode

Deletion of text

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x Delete single character

dd Delete current line and put in buffer

:w Write the current file.

:w new.file Write the file to the name 'new.file'.

:w! existing.file Overwrite an existing file with the file currently being edited.

:wq Write the file and quit.

:q Quit.

:q! Quit with no changes.

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