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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PHILOSOPHY

- Myth – attempt to explain what is happening. Greek philosophers find natural, rather than
supernatural, explanations for natural processes.

Natural Philosophers

Nothing came from nothing


- Earliest philosophers believed that there had to be a certain basic substance at the root of all
change
- “there must be something” that all things came from and returned to

Three Philosophers from Miletus


- Thales – source of all things was water
o Travelled to Egypt
o Ice to vapour
- Anaximander – there are many worlds that evolve and dissolve in something he called the
boundless
- Miletus and Anaximenes – source of all things must be air or vapour – water came from condensed
air

Philosophers from Elea


- Parmenides – everything that exists had always existed
o Nothing that exists can become nothing
o Reason versus senses
o He believed that our senses give us an incorrect picture of the world, a picture that does
not tally with our reason. As a philosopher, he saw it as his task to expose all forms of
perceptual illusion.
o Rationalism – belief and reliance in human reason human reason is the primary source of
our knowledge of the world
- Heraclitus – Ephesus in Asia minor
o Constant change is the most basic characteristic of nature
o Everything is in constant flux and movement
o When I step into the river for the second time, neither I nor the river are the same.
o World is characterized by opposites
o If we were never ill, we would not know what it was to be well. If we never knew hunger,
we would take no pleasure in being full. If there were never any war, we would not
appreciate peace.
o Logos was something that embraced the whole world - there must be a kind of “universal
reason” guiding everything that happens in nature
- Empedocles
o Nothing changes
o We must believe in our senses
o There are four elements: earth, air, fire, and water – all natural processes were due to the
coming together and separating of these four elements
o Paano ito napagsasama-sama?
o There are two forces at work in nature:
 Love binds things together
 Strife separates them

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Something of Everything in Everything
- Anaxagoras
o held that nature is built up of an infinite number of minute particles invisible to the eye
o everything can be divided into even smaller parts, but even in the minutest parts there are
fragments of all other things.

- Democritus
o Everything was built up of tiny invisible blocks, each of which was eternal and immutable
o He called it atoms – meaning uncuttable
o These atoms are eternal
o Not identical
o Atoms can dispersed
o Parang lego
o Did not believe in force that could intervene in natural processes