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Research Article

Research Article A Comprative Analysis of Multitransform Techniques for Enhancement of Multifocus Image Fusion Gurjot kaur
Research Article A Comprative Analysis of Multitransform Techniques for Enhancement of Multifocus Image Fusion Gurjot kaur

A Comprative Analysis of Multitransform Techniques for Enhancement of Multifocus Image Fusion

Gurjot kaur 1 , Arun Begill 2 , Umesh Sehgal 3

Abstract

Image Fusion is procedure of combination of the numerous images into particular image which provides enhanced quality of fused image with high resolution than source images. Image fusion provides a superior significance in defence, military affairs, civilian sector and medical area. So, now these days image resolution and fusion enhancement is very necessary. By using different multi-transform techniques image resolution and image fusion enhancement is possible. This Comparison paper delivers the study of multi-transform techniques DWT+SWT and DWT+LWT.Execution performance of these image fusion multi-transform techniques is evaluated by different parameters like Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Root mean square error, Entropy, Structural similarity index, spatial frequency and computation time. On the basis of these techniques it is concluded that DWT+LWT is best multi-transform technique as compare to DWT+SWT. In this paper merits and demerits of both techniques are also defined.

Keywords: Comparison, DWT+SWT, DWT+LWT, Image Fusion, Multi-transform techniques, Performance parameters

Introduction

Image fusion is a substantial area in image and signal processing. Image fusion is a procedure of extracting useful information from source images to reduce volume of data and create a composite and fused image [1].The foremost objective of Image fusion is to compose the fused image suitable not only for human graphical system but also for further image processing errands like image augmentation and de-noising, breakdown, compression, feature recognition, classification and object recognition [2]. Image fusion has many applications in remote or satellite area for proper view of satellite vision. It is also used in medical area for analysis of diseases through imaging vision. Image fusion is used in military areas to detect the threats. It has so many applications in area of human vision, robotics and neural networks also. When we click the image with digital camera then all objects are not focused together. Only the target plane look sharp and other areas behind or frontage of target plane remain blur. So image fusion extracts the important information from different images of a particular scene and makes a composite fused image with high resolution and high useful information.The three main levels have been deal in literature of image fusion- pixel level, feature level, decision level. Pixel-level could be the mixture of natural knowledge from numerous images into

single image. Feature-level perform the operations on features extracted from source images. Decision-level mix the outcomes from numerous methods to provide the final merged image.

1 Research scholar, 2,3 Assistant professor, Faculty of computational sciences at GNA university, punjab, india.

Correspondence: Gurjot kaur, Faculty of computational sciences at GNA university, punjab, india.

E-mail Id: kaur.gurjot2017@gmail.com

Orcid Id: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7104-7098

How to cite this article: kaur G, Begill A, Sehgal U. CA Comprative Analysis of Multitransform Techniques for Enhancement of Multifocus Image Fusion. J Adv Res Image Proc Appl 2017; 4(3&4): 1-6.

© ADR Journals 2017. All Rights Reserved.

kaur G et al.

J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2017; 4(3&4)

G et al. J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2017; 4(3&4) Figure 1.Levels of Image Fusion

Figure 1.Levels of Image Fusion

Image fusion technique contains following domains

Spatial Domain

identified many other fusion parameters to get improved values of fusion results. This method is not suitable for noise removal and irregularity of edges, curves etc. [1].

In Spatial field method we simply deal with pixels and mold the pixels to get fused resultant image. It includes many algorithms like Simple average, select maximum, select minimum, PCA etc. Spatial domain includes region based and block based techniques. Region based techniques divide the images into regions and block based method divides images into different blocks.

Transform Domain

In transform domain method images are decomposed into multiple scales and transform coefficients are merged together according to specific fusion rules. Finally, the fused image is constructed with inverse transform of the fused coefficients. Wavelet based algorithms are contained in transform domain method.

Thispaper presents the comparison of two multi-transform techniques based on different performance parameters Peak signal noise ratio, Root mean square error, Spatial frequency, Entropy, Structure similarity index and computation time are used to compare the both multi- transform techniques.

Literature Survey

There arenumerous algorithms that have been suggested for the fusion of images.

Mohammed H. has proposed a procedure in which two input images are merged together to get highly fused image. Fused image is obtained with more useful information. This method has objective to attain fusion metrics from image related distinction metrics. In this procedure researcher

Yang Y. used Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) centeredon multi-focus image fusion technique. DWT and inverse DWT are achieved while coefficients of low and high frequency sub-bands are mergingwith novel fusion rules. Low frequency whichcomprises the maximum information about perceptiveness focus strategy and high frequency implements maximum energy strategy. DWT of an image offers non-redundant image demonstration and gives better spatial and spectral localization of image information. The proposed method is not translation invariant. So, performance will decline due to movement of objects in source images [2].

N. paramanandham et al. proposed multi-transform

technique using DWT+SWT and its fusion quality not too good and this technique is used with single level decomposition because it takes more time. Otherwise complexity can be increased. This technique has no faster implementation. It produces some noise artifacts. But this

technique is better than DWT and SWT. It is not best for filtering operations [3].

Lin XZ et al. has proposed a method which is based on multi-wavelet transform. This method is known for its advancement and its probability on various applications. Lifting wavelet is used in this method as a tool to generate new wavelet transform. By using multi-wavelet and lifting scheme it gives better results than existing methods [4].

R. Vijayarajan has suggested a method of image fusion

for mixing suitable and matching data from source images without deprivation to obtain a fused image. It is simple pixel based image fusion method in which source images

are splitted in blocks and principal component averaging

J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2017; 4(3&4)

kaur G et al.

technique is applied on input images has been discovered to calculate the principal components. Basically it is iterative block level principal component averaging fusion method

[5].

Galande and Ashwani have proposed the medical image fusion method based on non-identical imaging tools like magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography to improve the information of images during fusion. This method is based on both spatial and transforms domain categories and merging the MRI and CT images. Quantitative analysis is done on the basis of fusion symmetry; entropy etc. fuzzy inference system gives better results on the basis of visual perspective. It is very difficult to design a universal fusion method which is suitable for all applications and algorithms [6].

Multitransform techniques

DWT+SWT Multi-transform Method

This is multi-transform technique which is combination of DWT and SWT. In this technique DWT is applied on source images for decomposition. Then source images decomposed into four frequency bands LL, LH, HLand HH. Further decomposition of wavelet coefficients is performed by SWT. Apply different fusion rules to fuse the coefficients and inverse DWT and SWT are used for reconstruction. In the end final fused image is obtained. DWT&SWT is method which is used in many applications like pattern recognition, Object identification, and Image enhancement. This method is good for enhancement of image fusion but it has many limitations also. SWT increases the redundant data [7].

many limitations also. SWT increases the redundant data [7]. Figure 2.DWT+SWT Multi-transform Method This figure shows

Figure 2.DWT+SWT Multi-transform Method

This figure shows the source images are loaded and wavelet decomposition is applied on them by using DWT&SWT. After that fusion rules are applied to fuse the coefficients and inverse wavelet transform is applied. In the end fused image is obtained. This technique can be used in speech recognition, pathological brain detection, image de-noising etc. [8].

DWT+LWT Multi-transform Method

Further decomposition of wavelet coefficients is performed by LWT. In this method LWT is applied on LL frequency band because LL band contains average information of image and other bands contain directional information. Apply different fusion rules to fuse the coefficients and inverse DWT and LWT are used for reconstruction. In the end final fused image is obtained. LWT has easiest implementation and it is best for filtering operation.It takes half calculations less time than other methods [9].

This is multi-transform technique which is combination of DWT and LWT. In this technique DWT is applied on source images for decomposition. Then source images decomposed into four frequency bands LL, LH, HL and HH.

Flow Chart

Flow chart of this method includes the many steps. It shows the whole process of DWT&LWT.

kaur G et al.

J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2017; 4(3&4)

G et al. J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2017; 4(3&4) Figure 3.DWT+LWT Multi-transform Method. This

Figure 3.DWT+LWT Multi-transform Method.

This figure represents the source images left and right blurred images and normalization is applied on source images to make consistent and look like same. Wavelet transform applied on these images and fusion rules are used to fuse the coefficients. In the end inverse wavelet transform is used to get final fused image. This technique can be used in feature detection, lossless image compression, fingerprint detection etc. This method has many advantages. This method takes less computation time. It takes half calculations during processing than other methods. This method has high fusion quality on the basis of different performance parameters like spatial frequency, peak signal to noise ratio, entropy etc [10]. In this method if source images are decomposed at multi- levels then fusion quality increases at further levels than previous levels. This method is best for noise removal because after fusion fused image gets some mix noise that can be remove by using any filter. This method preserves the edges, corners of image.

High frequency components preserve the directional information also.

Performance Parameters

Peak Signal to Noise Ratio

It is proportion of maximum possible value of signal and power of distorting noise. Higher value of PSNR gives higher visual quality of image [11]. To measure the PSNR we use following formula:

of image [11]. To measure the PSNR we use following formula: Where F is fused image

Where F is fused image and M, N is no. of rows and columns respectively. i is index of row and j is index of column.

Entropy

The amount of information content in an image is measured by the metric entropy. A higher value of entropy greater variation captured through fusion. The formula for calculation of entropy is:

J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2017; 4(3&4)

kaur G et al.

Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2017; 4(3&4) kaur G et al. Where p i is the

Where p i is the probability and i-th intensity level.

Root Mean Square Error

It calculates the change per pixel that occurs during processing[12]. The formula to calculate RMSE between source images and composite image is given by:

RMSE between source images and composite image is given by: Spatial Frequency It measures The overall

Spatial Frequency

It measures The overall clarity, information levels, sharpness in fused image. The equation is given below:

sharpness in fused image. The equation is given below: Table 1.Comparison of Multi-transform Methods on the

Table 1.Comparison of Multi-transform Methods on the basis of Different performance parameters.

Performance Parameters

DWT+SWT Multi-transform Method

DWT+LWT Multi transform Method

PSNR

Less than DWT+LWT

More than DWT+SWT

RMSE

More than DWT+LWT

Less than DWT+SWT

Spatial Frequency

Less than DWT+LWT

More than DWT+SWT

Entropy

Less than DWT+LWT

More than DWT+LWT

Computation Time

More than DWT+SWT

Less than DWT+SWT

Table 2.Merits and Demerits of Multi-transform Methods

DWT+SWT Multi-transform Method

DWT+LWT Multi-transform Method

Advantages

Disadvantages

Advantages

Disadvantages

This method has good results at single level decomposition

This method does not pro- vide good results for mul- tilevel decompositions due to complexity.

This method is suitable for multilevel decompositions with no artifacts and blur- ring.

In this method little bit computation time increases when moves toward further decomposition levels.

This method has better results than DWT, SWT, DT-CWT.

This method has less fu- sion quality than DWT+L- WT method on the basis of performance parame- ters PSNR, RMSE, SF, EN- TROPY etc.

This method has high fu- sion quality than existing method on the basis of performance parameters PSNR, RMSE, SF, ENTROPY, SSIM

This method removes the lack of translation invariance

This method take more computation time than DWT+LWT

This method is fast and takes less time for compu- tation

Visual quality of image may be affected after fusion.

In this method distortion may occur in fused image.

This method has no any distortion problem.

Conclusion

This paper is carried out the comparison of two multi- transform domain techniques that help to enhance the multi-focus image fusion. These techniques are more suited for image fusion than other techniques. From comparison analysis of both multitransform techniques, it is observed

that DWT+LWT based multi-transform technique provides best results in enhancement of multifocus image fusion and provides fused images with high fusion quality andmore resolution. So DWT+LWT based technique is much better than DWT+SWT based technique with high fusion quality and many other advantages. This technique is better than many other methods also.

kaur G et al.

J. Adv. Res. Image Proc. Appl. 2017; 4(3&4)

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