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NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY, JODHPUR

(JULY-NOVEMBER 2017)

HISTORY-I

C.A. II – BOOK REVIEW

“NETAJI SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE”

(SISIR KUMAR BOSE)

SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED TO:

GAURAV (1547) (SEC. A) DR. OM PRAKASH

B.A. LL.B (HONS) (FACULTY OF HISTORY)


SEMESTER I
Netaji subhas Chandra bose - Overview
A true revolutionary and an Indian nationalist leader, Subhas Chandra Bose is, undoubtedly,
one of the prominent names that feature in the list of people who gave their lives India’s
independence. He is popular across the country for his ideology, “Give me Blood and I will
give you Freedom”, which very well sums up his profound patriotism and love for the
country. Like many other Indian nationalist leaders, he envisioned an independent India and a
complete Swaraj from British Raj. Though Bose’s ideology and philosophy did not match
with Mahatma Gandhi and other Indian National Congress leaders, his vision was just the
same as any other nationalist hero. He is known for his political acumen and military
knowledge and his struggle which he often referred to as a moral crusade. Founder of the
Azad Hind Radio, Azad Hind Fauj and Azad Hind Government in exile, Bose made his
intentions clear right from the very beginning. Though he did not achieve much success in his
effort, his determination and hard work are nevertheless commendable. Interestingly,
Clement Attlee, under whose prime-ministerial rule India gained independence, is said to
have claimed that it was the Bose-led INA that weakened the very foundation of British
troops and inspired the Royal Navy mutiny in 1946, leading the British to believe that they no
longer were in a position to rule India.

Family background , netaji’s learning life and their connection


with Politics.
Netaji’s father Janakinath Bose belongs from a small town 24 Praganas in Bengal. But due to
their profession of law they were settled in cuttack for legal practise. Cuttack was a small
town and didn’t have rail connection with Calcutta, but later it becomes capital city of Orrisa.
When netaji born his father, Jankinath was at top level of their profession. His father was non
official chairman of cuttack municipality and he also attended sessions of Indian National
Congress. Netaji’s father was a great fond of khadi and he was also connected to swadeshi
and national education institutions.

Janakinath’s two sons namely, Subhas and Sarat and two of them were connected to Indian
national congress and they were receiving complete support by their father.

Netaji’s mother Prabhabati belongs to Datt family of north Calcutta. She had eight sons and
six daughters and netaji was 9th of them. She was women of strong and determined heart. Her
patriotism is shown from the very first incidence that she allows her two sons, Subhas and
Sarat to help in country’s freedom. She believes in Gandhi and his doctrine and she knows
that it would bring swaraj. Netaji’s father, Janakinath Bose, was an affluent and successful
lawyer in Cuttack and received the title of "Rai Bahadur". He later became a member of the
Bengal Legislative Council.

For further higher studies of netaji their parents sends him to Calcutta.

Subhash Chandra Bose was a brilliant student. He passed his B.A. in Philosophy from the
Presidency College in Calcutta. He was deeply influenced by Swami Vivekananda's
teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. In an incident where Bose beat up
his professor (E.F. Otten) for his racist remarks, brought him notoriety as a rebel-Indian in
eyes of the government. His father wanted Netaji to become a civil servant and therefore, sent
him to England to appear for the Indian Civil Service Examination. Bose was placed fourth
with highest marks in English. But his urge for participating in the freedom movement was
intense and in April 1921, he resigned from the coveted Indian Civil Service and came back
to India. In December 1921, Bose was arrested and imprisoned for organizing a boycott of
the celebrations to mark the Prince of Wales' visit to India.

Chittaranjan Das helped his colleagues including Subhas. A telegram was sent to Abdul
Kalam Ajad and Gandhiji to agree on the terms of settlement and Gandhiji was not satisfied
by the terms and their was situation of deadlock.

The later half of 1921 was an advancement for Nehru because he played a vital role in
politics as tricolor became national flag and khadi became national uniform. Netaji still
continues to be part of social movements.

In 1922, Gandhiji came up with a new plan known as no tax campaign in Gujrat. But after
Chauri Chaura incident in which police stations were set on fire and some of policemen were
killed Gandhiji suddenly withdraws the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji afterwards
arrested and sent to jail.

The whole charge then was shfted to Deshbandu and in 1922, Netaji became principal
lieutenant of Deshbandu. Netaji along with Jawahar lal Nehru emerged as a shining stars
because of their youth movement became a strong force.

Netaji’s envolement in Politics

On return from England Subhas met Mahatma Gandhi. On his advice he came into contact
with Chitta Ranjan Das. Subhas became his ardent disciple from 1921-25 and Bengal was his
field of activities. Subhas organised the congress party being attracted by the Non-
cooperation movement.

He also served as a Principal of National College established by Deshbandhu Chitta Ranjan


Das at Calcutta. Subhas though took active in the Non-cooperation movement, was not
satisfied with Gandhi's ways and supproted Motilal and C.R. Das in organising the Swaraj
Party. As a result of his efforts Swaraj Party became very strong and in the elelction of
Calcutta cooperation the party got a majority and subhas was appointed the chief executive
officer of the cooperation. Subhas edited "Forward", English daily and stabilised the Swaraj
Party.

The progressive activities of subhas and the Successful conduct of boycott to Prince of Wales
when he visited Calcutta, soon invited the displeasure of the Government. He was deputed to
Mandalay, but his countrymen showed him their gratitude and elected him to Bengal
Legislative Council in his absence.

In the prison subhas was taken ill and had to be released because the Government was afraid
of consequences of his death in custody. After regaining his health subhas again took active
part in the political life interest nation. Subhas Chandra Bose held mahatma in high esteem
but differed from him in many ideological and strtaegical aspects. Subhas along with
Jawaharlal Nehru represented the left and progressive views inside congress. These two
leaders became the symbol of change in the congress.

By 1927, he emerged, along with Jawaharlal Nehru, as leader of the new youth movement,
which came into its own by playing a major role in the anti-Simon Commission agitation
which swept India that year. He was also the chief organiser of the Calcutta session of the
Indian National Congress (INC) in December 1928, which demanded that the goal of the
Congress be changed to 'Purna Swaraj' or 'Complete Independence'.

Civil Disobedience Movement-

Jawaharlal Nehru was made the president of Indian national congress in 1929 and Gandhi
himself came up with new resolution of complete independence. Netaji aimed at raising voice
to having a parallel government in the country. In mid between of Lahore congress netaji
said-“Mine is a programme of all round boycott...If you are not prepared to go in for total
boycott, it will be no use your boycotting councils only...

I am extremist and my principle is all or none. A round table conference is a conference


between two belligerent parties, between pleniopotentiaries representing opposite sides. I ask
you whether the people of india are invited to send any of their representatives with full
power to negotiate with the representatives of the British Government?....

“I submit that civil disobedience will never come until we can organise the workers and
peasants and depressed classes..”

Early in 1930, Congress committee announced 26th January as Independence Day and the
committee also issued manifesto in form of a declaration. Gandhiji was somewhat depressed
but leftist elements reassured that “civil disobedience once begun can’t be stopped”.

While there was great upheaven in country but a revolution took place in Chittagong in april,
a band of death defying youngmen attack the armoury and the possession of weapons. This
episode shook the whole nation and it is considered as a immoral saga of patriotism. Gandhiji
then was arrested and Netaji watched the ongoing progess of movement with great
enthusiasm. While in prison Netaji was elected as Mayor of Calcutta and he pronounce
further plan of progress.
On 2nd Independence day in 1931 there was an attack by police on netaji and netaji was
seriously injured. He was released in march from prison and he started full discussion on
policy of independence with Gandhiji. The situation forced the British Government to
negotiate with the Congress for a rapprochement. As a result of a long negotiation, on
5th March 1931, the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed. The government agreed to remove all
repressive ordinances, to restore the confiscated property, to set free all prisoners except
those who were guilty of having committed any violence. The government also allowed the
manufacture of salt by the people and for peaceful picketing before the liquor shops and
foreign goods shops. Il return, the Congress agreed to suspend the Civil Disobedience
Movement and to attend the Second Round Table Conference. With this pact, the government
indirectly accepted the Congress as the representative organisation of the Indians.

Since the British Government did not accept any important demands of the Congress, the pact
was made subject to criticism. The Congress ratified the pact at the Karachi Session of march
1931. But there was protest against it. Even Gandhi was shown black flags when he arrived to
attend the session.

It was due to his failure to get the release of Bhagat Singh and two of his comrades who had
been given death sentence and were executed only two days before the Karachi session of the
Congress. However, the Congress suspended the Civil Disobedience Movement and deputed
Gandhiji as the sole representative of the Congress to participate in the Second Round Table
Conference.

Imprisonment in the Civil Disobedience movement followed by bad health in 1932 took him
to Europe where he observed European politics, particularly Fascism under Mussolini and
Communism in the Soviet Union. He was impressed by both and believed that authoritarian
rule was essential for achieving radical social goals.

In fact, it is in this period that the political views of Nehru and Bose begin to diverge sharply,
especially on the issue of Fascism and Nazism. Nehru was so vehemently opposed to Fascism
that he refused to meet Mussolini even when the latter sought him out, whereas Bose not only
met Mussolini but was impressed by him. Nehru was sharply critical of the growing danger to
the world from the rise of Hitler. Bose, on the other hand, never expressed that kind of
aversion to Fascism, and was quite willing to seek the support of Germany and later Japan
against Britain. However, he was not happy with the German attack on Soviet Union in 1941,
and that was one reason why he left Germany for Japan

The Pact provided representation to depressed classes along with the caste Hindus and their
seats were to be reserved on the basis of their population. However, it is alleged that the
Poona Pact shifted the attention of the Indian leaders from the central motive of the
movement. When Gandhiji became concerned with the Harijan movement, his lion became
weak on the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Netaji’s constant attempt from 1936-1942.
Returning to India in 1936 in defiance of a Government ban on his entry, he was again
arrested and imprisoned for a year. Soon after the General Election of 1937 and the accession
of the Congress to power in seven Provinces, Netaji found himself a free man again, and
shortly afterwards was unanimously elected President of the Haripura Congress Session in
1938. In his Presidential address he stressed the revolutionary potentialities of the Congress
Ministries formed in seven Provinces.

Contrary to the popular notion regarding Jawaharlal Nehru's role in Planning, it was Netaji
who as Congress President in 1938, talked of planning in concrete terms and set up a
National Planning Committee in October that year. The year that followed saw the steady
worsening of international relations, and clouds of war gathering on the European horizon.

At the end of his first term, the presidential election to the Tripuri Congress session took
place early in 1939. Netaji was re - elected defeating Dr Pattabhi Sitaramayaa who had been
backed by the Mahatma.

Soon after the election, the members of the Congress Working Committee resigned, and the
Congress met at Tripuri under the shadow of a crisis within the Party as well as
internationally.

Netaji was a sick man at Tripuri, but even so, with amazing and almost prophetic foresight,
he warned that an imperialist war would break out in Europe within six months. He
demanded that the Congress should deliver a six - month ultimatum to Britain and in the
event of its rejection a country-wide struggle for 'Poorna Swaraj' should be launched.

His warning and advice went unheeded, and what was worse, his powers as President were
sought to be curtailed. He therefore resigned in April 1939, and announced in May 1939 the
formation of the Forward Bloc within the Congress. In August he was removed from the
Presidency of the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee, and further debarred from holding
any elective office in the Congress for a period of three years. In September 1939 war broke
out in Europe, and Netaji’s prophecy at Tripuri came true almost to the very day.

India was dragged into the Imperialist War. The Congress Ministries in seven Provinces
resigned in October 1939, but Mahatma Gandhi declared that he would not like to embarrass
the British Government during the war. In March 1940 Netaji convened an Anti-Compromise
Conference at Ramgarh, Bihar, under the joint auspices of the Forward Bloc and the Kisan
Sabha.

The Conference resolved that a world-wide struggle should launched on 6 April, the first day
of the National Week, calling upon the people not to help the Imperialist War with men,
money or materials, and to resist by all means and at all costs the exploitation of Indian
resources for the preservation of Empire.

The Indian people, hungry for freedom, participated in their thousands in the struggle
launched throughout the country by the Forward Bloc on 6 April. Subhas Babu was arrested
in July by the Bengal Government on the eve of the Anti - Holwell Monument Satyagraha in
Calcutta, and sent to jail.
While in prison, he resorted to hunger-strike, whereupon he was released in December 1940.
A month later, on the historic 'Independence Day' 26 January, 1941, an astounded India heard
the news that Netaji had suddenly disappeared from his house under the very nose of the
C.I.D.

It was not until November of that year that news trickled in from Berlin that he had gone out
of India, in order, "to supplement from outside the struggle going on at home".

In January 1942, he began his regular broadcasts from Radio Berlin, which aroused
tremendous enthusiasm in India. In the midst of the war, Netaji left Germany early in 1943,
and after a perilous three-month voyage in a submarine arrived in Singapore on 2 July 1943.

The dramatic appearance of the dynamic leader was a signal for wild jubilation among the
Indian prisoners - of - war as well as the civilian community in Singapore and elsewhere in
East Asia. Two days later, he took over from Rash Behari Bose the leadership of the Indian
Independence Movement in East Asia, organised the Azad Hind Fauj (the Indian National
Army), and becoming its Supreme Commander on August 25, proclaimed the Provisional
Government of Azad Hind on October 21.

He was hailed as Netaji by the Army as well as by the Indian civilian population in East Asia.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands were liberated in November and renamed Shaheed and
Swaraj Islands respectively.

Netaji Campaign in Capital


"Netaji's call was significant. He urged the British-enslaved people of the country to go
forward and capture the seat of power," says a veteran tribal freedom fighter associated with
the Indian National Army (INA). He, however, does not want to be named.The freedom
fighter, who is a regular at every birthday celebration of Netaji in the city, added, "Look, we
can't do anything. We can't even move an inch literally without the consent of New Delhi.
Netaji, being the great patriot, politician, administrator, statesman and a person who could
foresee the future coined this slogan, which will relevant for Indians for ages to come."

Rounak Hazarika, a student pursuing history, has a very different take on Netaji's historic
call. "Even the insurgent outfits in the northeast have Delhi in mind. It is a symbolic
confrontation with the perceived atrocities heaped on them by Delhi against whom they are
fighting," he added.

James Syngkhon, a social worker who has been closely studying the insurgent movement in
the North East and its "similarity" with the armed war that Subhash Bose had launched to
dislodge the British from India, said, "Even Ulfa and NSCN are looking up to Delhi to
resolve their problems. It's after all Delhi, where there are going to arrive, if at all, at a final
solution'."
The patriotic fervour of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, which is a source of inspiration for
people struggling across the globe, could also provide light for a solution to the decades-old
"India-Naga problem", especially at a time when peace negotiations are on, feel Vekho
Swuro, author of the book "Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: Delhi Chalo Last Camp in
Nagaland."

Netaji Ideology
Bose’s correspondences prove his faith in democracy in Independent India. Bose’s primary
ideology was always the freedom of his motherland even if meant taking help from fascists
like Mussolini or Hitler.

Netaji Legacy
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose has left deep impact on the psyche of his countrymen. His
slogan, ‘Jai Hind’ is still used in reverence to the country. The International airport in
Kolkata has been named Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport to commemorate
the charismatic leader.

Concise Analysis
1. Netaji left Indian civil services to join the national movement.

2. During non-cooperation movement he organized national schools and colleges and worked
for Hindu Muslim Unity. He was appointed the principal of National College in Calcutta.

3. He along with Pd. Jwahar Lal Nehru set up Left wing of congress to spread idea of
socialism and communism and advocated
radical solutions for socio-economic and political ills.

4. He stressed upon the need to combine nationalism with anti-imperialism and complete
independence.

5. He organized underground activities to support the movement.

6. During Simon commission protest, he traveled extensively addressing and presiding


conferences giving the protest a militant flavor. It aroused many youth and spread radical
ideas.

7. He was a member of Nehru constitution drafting committee, but was dissatisfied with the
dominion status proposal in report and hence established Independence of India League for
complete independence support.

8. Under his congress presidentship, efforts were taken on planning under National Planning
committee.
9. He formed forward bloc and then joined India National Army where he gave the slogan
“Tum Mujhe Khoon so, main tumhe Azadi
Doonga”

10. He set up provisional Indian government in Singapore.

11. He also supported worker’s union for labour reforms kept close contact with AITUC

His radical ideas and non-flexible attitude could not hold the masses for long. Violent
revolution as supported by him needed sacrifices while not everyone is always ready to
follow this. Though his enormous contribution has raised a sense of nationalism and pride
feelings among people. He is a great inspiration of national spirit.