Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Operating Manual

Nagyah Field S-1, CPF


Chemical Injection

Operating Manual - Section 12 -1- Revision 0

January 30, 2008
Operating Manual
Nagyah Field S-1, CPF

Table 12.1 Chemical Injection Summary (Below usage based on 12,000 BOPD and 2,700 BWPD, Feb 08)

Chemical Supplier Product Code Treated Injection Approx Estimated Notes

Description Stream Point Dosage Rate Quantities/yr
Emulsion Baker Tretolite Production Inlet Production 25 l/d 45 Drums May reduce
Breaker Petrolite DMO-86565 Stream Manifolds in summer

Paraffin Baker POA 80033 Production Inlet Production 20l/d 27 Drums Will use Disp
Inhibitor Petrolite Stream Manifolds In winter
Paraffin Baker POA-80033 Production Inlet Production 25l/d 15 Drums Only use in
Dispersant Petrolite Stream Manifolds Winter

Scale Inhibitor Baker SCW-82510 Produced P-143s 20l/d 35 Drums

Petrolite Water Suction
Oxygen Baker OSW-80490 Utility P-711s 5l/d 8.5 Drums
Scavenger Petrolite Water Suction
Corrosion Baker CRW-892140 Produced P-143s 25l/d 45 Drums
Inhibitor Petrolite Water Suction
Biocide Baker Produced P-143s Slug Treating 1.5 Drums
Petrolite Water Suction 20l/m
Hydrate Enoc Methanol Gas Gas 5-10l/d 10 Drums
Inhibitor Chemicals Compression Injection
and Interstage Line before
Condensate Sock Filters

Operating Manual - Section 12 -2- Revision 0

January 30, 2008
Operating Manual
Nagyah Field S-1, CPF

Chemical Injection Requirements

The injection of the below chemicals is necessary to assist in treating the An Nagyah
production to meet the crude oil export specifications and to mitigate scale deposition and
corrosion of the process streams within pressure vessels, tankage, and piping.

Emulsion Breaker
Injection of this chemical is required at the front of the CPF Process to break the water-
in-oil emulsion to enable water and salt removal from the oil. Injection amounts are
estimated at 12 parts per million (ppm), which equates to 2 liters per 1,000 barrels of
production (oil plus water). Exact amount of injection rates will be dependent on process
treatment temperature, residence time, and tightness of the emulsion. To establish the
required optimum cost effective rate will require field testing, monitoring and
adjustments, since the amounts injected may also vary with the seasons due to changing
arrival temperatures at the CPF. The emulsion breaker is injected at the Production Inlet

Paraffin Inhibitor and Paraffin Dispersant

This chemical may need to be injected to avoid paraffin (wax) deposition, in the piping
and process vessels. The need for this chemical will be dependent on field experience
and testing, and may vary with the seasonal temperatures which will change the
production arrival temperature at the CPF from about 80F in the Winter to 100F in the
Summer. Baker Petrolite has reported that based on 2005 testing, the WAT (wax
appearance temperature) was 39C (102F), and the Pour Point minus 9 C.

Scale Inhibitor
The formation water contains low amounts of Barium and Strontium, these elements can
combine with the sulfates in the water to form Barium and Strontium Sulfates. These
types of scale are very difficult to remove once formed. Work is still ongoing to
determine the need and quantities for such a scale inhibitor. To date, no evidence has
been found in regards to any scale deposition in the oil/gas/water separators recently
opened up for inspection, whilst these units were transferred from Battery 4&5 to the
CPF. The formation water is mixed with about 800 BWPD of fresh water in the Desalter
to help wash the salt out of the crude oil. Theoretical water compatibility analysis
indicates that scale inhibitor injection may not be required. Further work needs to be
done in this area to verify this. Injection of scale inhibitor if required most likely would
be done at the Production Manifolds.

Oxygen Scavenger
The purpose of the oxygen scavenger is to combine with any free oxygen in the water
(formation or fresh water) and convert it into another compound and thereby mitigating
the possibility of oxygen corrosion. Oxygen level needs to be reduced to less than 25
parts per billion (ppb) in the produced water, containing high levels of chloride salts. The
corrosiveness of fresh water containing low levels of chloride is low and therefore
Operating Manual - Section 12 -3- Revision 0
January 30, 2008
Operating Manual
Nagyah Field S-1, CPF

oxygen scavenger does not need to be injected into the fresh water system. However if
the Fresh Water contains any oxygen and enters the production stream and is mixed with
salt water, then oxygen scavenger should be injected to mitigate corrosion of the process

Corrosion Inhibitor
Corrosion Inhibitor is normally injected into the engine cooling water systems, and is
normally supplied or specified by the engine manufacturer, and therefore will not be
covered here.

Corrosion inhibitor is normally also injected into two phase systems carrying oil and
water. The need for corrosion inhibitor is especially important when the gas contains
significant amounts of CO2, H2S, or other corrosive gases. The AnNagyah field does not
contain significant amounts of corrosive gases, and experience has shown there has been
no significant ongoing corrosion in the flowlines nor the process vessels. Below are
some comments re the potential need for corrosion inhibitor injection to protect various

• Flowlines – since the production is sweet, ie no significant CO2 and nil H2S,
and there is no entry point for oxygen from the wells to the CPF, it is not
considered necessary for the injection of either oxygen scavenger or corrosion
inhibitor in the flowlines from the producing wells to the CPF. Also, since all
new flowlines are 6 inch Sch 80 having a 0.432 inch wall thickness, they have a
significant corrosion allowance.

• CPF Facilities – Since none of the CPF vessels, including tankage have any
internal lining for corrosion protection, and the high chloride content produced
water likely will form a bottom water layer, this area needs to be of continuous
concern. In the storage tanks, the tank bottoms should be recycled on a weekly
basis to remove any bottom water from the tanks. Consideration is being given
to the injection of Oxygen Scavenger into the Wash Water going to the Desalter,
to ensure any oxygen entering the process system via the Fresh Water is

• Injection Line to Water Disposal Well and Well Tubulars – These are also
internally bare steel, and corrosion in these lines must be avoided, both to ensure
long life of the piping and tubulars, and to prevent the development of corrosion
products which could work its way down the disposal well and result in well

• Crude Oil Export Pipeline to Halewah – Since the water cut and salt content in
this line is controlled to a very tight specification (less than 0.5% BS&W and
less than 5 lb salt per thousand barrels of oil (ptb), there is nil risk of internal
corrosion in this line, and it does not require any corrosion inhibitor.

Operating Manual - Section 12 -4- Revision 0

January 30, 2008
Operating Manual
Nagyah Field S-1, CPF

• Gas Injection Piping – Since the gas at An Nagyah is sweet corrosion rates
would be very low, and at present we do not foresee the need to inject any
corrosion inhibitor.

Hydrate Inhibitor

The potential need for hydrate inhibitor injection is discussed below, also refer to
attached Fig 20.3 titled Water Content of Hydrocarbon Gas, which shows the Hydrate
Formation Line of natural gas if there is sufficient water content in the gas for the water
to be in the free form. Note, water content which is below the saturation point of water in
the gas, will not result in any hydrate formation. For instance, from Fig 20.3 it can be
seen that the saturation water content of gas at 1,000 psia and 0 F is about 2 lbs water per
million cubic feet of gas. So, theoretically hydrates could form if the water content is
above 2 lbs/MMSCF, and a temperature range up to 60F. To ensure that hydrates cannot
form (in V-150 Fuel Gas Cold Separator and downstream piping), the temperature of the
vessel should be maintained above 10F at which temperature, water content up to 3
lb/MMSCF is still below the saturation point of water in the gas at that condition. Note
the spec of the Glycol Dehy unit is to dry the gas to the 3 lb/MMSCF specification.

Other areas subject to potential hydrate formation are:

High Pressure Gas Injection Line – If the temperature of the gas drops below 70F there
is the risk of hydrate formation at 2,000 psia. Hydrate formation in gas systems, usually
occur at areas of high turbulence, such as at or downstream of pressure control valves or
other restrictions to flow.

HP Compressor Interstage Gas Scrubbers and Condensate Let-down to flare – Interstage

pressure is about 500 psia, as the condensate is let down to flare line pressure, extreme
cooling likely to minus 0F will occur, and gas will break out of the condensate at the low
pressure. This condition presents an ideal hydrate formation regime, and has occurred in
our early operations. Plans are underway to heat trace these condensate lines to heat up
the fluid to avoid hydrate formation.

Please see Fig 20.3 taken from the GPSA Manual, re hydrate formation conditions.

Operating Manual - Section 12 -5- Revision 0

January 30, 2008
Operating Manual
Nagyah Field S-1, CPF


Operating Manual - Section 12 -6- Revision 0

January 30, 2008