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High Impedance Busbar Protection Scheme

Cheat Sheet: Summary of Fault Scenarios

What Happens During an External Fault When the 52-2 CT Saturates?

1. The 52-1 CT should export 83.33A, but a


normally insignificant amount of excitation
current (0.035A) is necessary to create a
magnetic field to maintain the current
transformation.
2. The 52-1 CT sends 83.295A out of its secondary
terminals.
3. When the 52-2 CT saturates, the magnetic field
requires more current than normal to maintain
the current transformation.
4. The 52-1 CT will not send the full amount of
current out of its secondary terminals. We’re
showing the worst-case scenario in this example
where full saturation occurs and 0A is injected
into the CT secondaries.

What Happens During an External Fault Without CT Saturation?

1. The 52-1 CT’s magnetic field requires 0.035A,


and the 52-2 CT’s magnetic field requires
0.044A to make the current transformations.
2. The actual 52-1 CT output is 83.295A, and the
52-2 CT output is 83.286A.
3. The difference in CT secondaries creates a
differential current of 0.009A that flows through
the 2000Ω high impedance busbar differential
circuit.
4. We can apply Ohm’s Law to determine that the
87Z pickup setting must be greater than 18.00V
to prevent misoperation during external faults.

© 2018 Chris Werstiuk and Valence Electrical Training Services. All rights reserved.
5005 S Kipling Pkwy Suite A7 PMB 395, Littleton CO 80127-1375
store@relaytraining.com relaytraining.com 303-250-8257
What Happens During an Internal Fault With One Source?

1. We can use our previously calculated 0.035A


and 0.044A respectively to make the current
transformations.
2. The actual 52-1 CT output is 83.295A and 52-2
CT will draw 0.044A to energize the CT, which
creates an effective open-circuit to the AC
system.
3. The difference in CT secondaries creates a
differential current of 82.351A that flows through
the 2000Ω high impedance busbar differential
circuit.
4. We can apply Ohm’s Law to determine that the
87Z voltage could rise to 164,702V before the
87Z operates. MOV’s are installed in parallel
with high-impedance differential circuits to
prevent high voltages like this.

What Happens During an Internal Fault With Multiple Sources?

1. Most distribution busses have multiple sources.


2. The CT secondary currents (83.295A for 52-1
CT, and 83.286A for 52-2 CT) flow in the same
direction.
3. Those currents will combine at the 87Z circuit to
theoretically produce 333,162V (166.581A *
2000W).
4. Both CTs will drive the highest voltage they can
while in parallel, which will trip the relay.

© 2018 Chris Werstiuk and Valence Electrical Training Services. All rights reserved.
5005 S Kipling Pkwy Suite A7 PMB 395, Littleton CO 80127-1375
store@relaytraining.com relaytraining.com 303-250-8257