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Volume 2018, Article ID 3286479, 13 pages

https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3286479

Research Article

Modeling of Photovoltaic System with Modified Incremental

Conductance Algorithm for Fast Changes of Irradiance

Laboratory of Production Engineering, Energy and Sustainable Development, Higher School of Technology, SMBA University,

Fez, Morocco

Copyright © 2018 Saad Motahhir et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,

which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The ﬁrst objective of this work is to determine some of the performance parameters characterizing the behavior of a particular

photovoltaic (PV) panels that are not normally provided in the manufacturers’ speciﬁcations. These provide the basis for

developing a simple model for the electrical behavior of the PV panel. Next, using this model, the eﬀects of varying solar

irradiation, temperature, series and shunt resistances, and partial shading on the output of the PV panel are presented. In

addition, the PV panel model is used to conﬁgure a large photovoltaic array. Next, a boost converter for the PV panel is

designed. This converter is put between the panel and the load in order to control it by means of a maximum power point

tracking (MPPT) controller. The MPPT used is based on incremental conductance (INC), and it is demonstrated here that this

technique does not respond accurately when solar irradiation is increased. To investigate this, a modiﬁed incremental

conductance technique is presented in this paper. It is shown that this system does respond accurately and reduces the steady-

state oscillations when solar irradiation is increased. Finally, simulations of the conventional and modiﬁed algorithm are

compared, and the results show that the modiﬁed algorithm provides an accurate response to a sudden increase in solar irradiation.

the series and shunt resistors, and the ideality factor [8].

The energy generated by the PV systems depends on various Hence, in [7, 9, 10], researchers have proposed diﬀerent

parameters, either environmental as temperature and irradi- methods to extract the lacking characteristics based on the

ance or internal parameters of the PV panel, namely, the datasheet values, but these methods require an implementa-

series and shunt resistors [1, 2]. Thus, the load imposes its tion and this can increase the time spent in the development

own characteristic on the output power [3]. Therefore, in of a PV application. Therefore, this paper aims ﬁrstly to

order to predict and analyze the eﬀect of these parameters extract lacking parameters in the manufacturers’ datasheet

on the PV power, the model of the PV panel should be by using a simple tool provided by MathWorks [11] and then

previously studied and achieved, and this model should be model the PV panel. The single-diode model is used in this

in accordance with the real comportment of the PV panel. work because it gives a high compromise between accuracy

Therefore, diﬀerent models were proposed in the literature. and simplicity [12], and several researchers have used it in

In [4], a single diode model is used; in [5], a two-diode model their works [13, 14]. In addition, this work shows the eﬀect

is proposed to illustrate the inﬂuence of the recombination of of parameters that may change the performance of the

carriers; and in [6], a model of three diodes is used to present PV panel. Then, this model will be a platform to design

the eﬀects which are neglected by the two-diode model. a PV array.

However, the single-diode model is the most adopted due On the other side, the maximization of the PV power

to its good simplicity and accuracy [7]. Moreover, manufac- always remains a major challenge. Researchers have pro-

turers of PV panels oﬀer only some characteristics. But other posed diﬀerent MPPT algorithms to maximize PV power,

characteristics required to model PV panel are missed in the namely, FSCC, FOCV, fuzzy logic, neural network, P&O,

2 International Journal of Photoenergy

and INC [15, 16]. FSCC and FOCV are the simplest MPPT Rs I

algorithms, which are based on the linearity of short-circuit

+

current or open-circuit voltage to the maximum power point Ish

Id

current or voltage. However, these techniques isolate the PV

panel to measure the short-circuit current or open-circuit

Rsh V

voltage. Therefore, the loss of energy is increased due to the Iph

periodic isolation of the panel [17]. Alternatively, fuzzy logic

and neural network obtain a consistent MPPT technique due

to their ability to treat the nonlinearity of the PV panel. But −

the main drawback of fuzzy logic is that the eﬀectiveness of

this algorithm depends a lot on choosing the right error Figure 1: PV panel equivalent circuit.

computation and an appropriate rule base [18]. In addition,

neural network presents many disadvantages like the fact

Table 1: Characteristics of MSX-60 PV panel at STC.

that the data needed for the training process have to be spe-

ciﬁcally acquired for every PV array and location, and also, PV panel parameters Values

the PV characteristics change with time, so the neural

Maximum power, Pmax 60 W

network has to be periodically trained [18]. On the other

hand, P&O and INC are mostly used. These techniques Maximum power voltage, Vmp 17.1 V

use the (P‐V) characteristic of the PV panel. For P&O, Maximum power current, Imp 3.5 A

steady-state oscillations occur after the MPP is found due Short-circuit current, Isc 3.8 A

to the perturbation made by this technique to maintain the Open-circuit voltage, VCO 21.1 V

MPP, which in turn increases the loss of power [19]. For Voltage/temp. coeﬃcient, KV −0.38%/°C

INC, it is founded in the fact that slope of P‐V characteristic Current/temp. coeﬃcient, KI 0.065%/°C

is zero at the maximum power, and theoretically, there is no

The number of cells, Ns 36

perturbation after the MPP is found. Therefore, oscillations

are minimized. However, during implementation, the zero

value is hardly found on the slope of the P‐V characteristic

G

due to the truncation error in digital processing. Thus, the I ph = I SC + K i T − 298 15 , 2

INC technique can make an inaccurate response when the 1000

irradiation is suddenly increased [20]. Therefore, this work

aims also to propose and implement a modiﬁed INC algo- I SC + K i T − 298 15

IS = 3

rithm, which can overcome the wrong response made by exp q V OC + K V T − 298 15 /aKTNS −1

the conventional INC algorithm when the irradiance is

suddenly increased. Therefore, this work proposes a new Hence, the physical behavior of the PV panel depends

technique to detect the increase in solar irradiation. The var- on the shunt and series resistances, solar irradiation, and

iation of voltage (ΔV) and current (ΔI) are used to identify temperature. Therefore, in this work, the impact of these

the increase in irradiation instead of the slope (ΔP/ΔV) of parameters on the output of the PV panel is investigated.

the P‐V characteristic. The modiﬁed algorithm detects the The panel used in this work is MSX-60 panel, and as

increase of irradiance and makes a correct decision. More- presented in Table 1, the datasheet of PV panel provides only

over, a mini error is accepted to admit that the slope is near some characteristics of PV panel. Thus, other characteristics

to zero and minimize the steady-state oscillations. required to model PV panel are missed in the datasheet, as

This paper is structured as follows. Following the intro- the photocurrent, the diode saturation current, the series

duction, Section 2 presents the modeling of PV panel and and shunt resistors, and the ideality factor. Hence,

array and presents the impact of diﬀerent environmental researchers have proposed diﬀerent methods to extract the

and internal parameters. Section 3 presents the design of lacking characteristics based on the datasheet [7, 9, 10]. But

the boost converter, the conventional algorithm, and the these methods require an implementation and this can

proposed algorithm. increase the time spent in the development of a PV system.

Therefore, this work aims ﬁrstly to extract these parameters

2. Modeling of PV Panel and Array by using a simple tool provided by MathWorks which is

“PV array;” the latter is available in Simulink 2015 or later

2.1. Model of PV Panel. As shown in Figure 1, the single- [11]. Hence, as shown in Figure 2, we only have to set the

diode model of PV panel can be presented by a photocurrent datasheet values and automatically it will generate the

source and a diode connected with series and shunt resis- lacking parameters.

tances. The mathematical model of the PV panel can be Equations (1), (2), and (3) are modeled using PSIM

presented by the following equations [19]: (software for power electronics simulation), and Figure 3

presents the PSIM model.

Figure 4 shows the I‐V and P‐V curves of experimental

q V + Rs I V + IRs

I = I ph − I S exp −1 − , 1 and PSIM model under STC. The experimental data P(V)

aKTNs Rsh and I(V) are taken from the manufactured datasheet [21].

International Journal of Photoenergy 3

. .

Author: S. MOTAHHIR

Iph-Id Rs Parameters of one single module:

+ . . . . Ro

I

− Sweep −+ G −+ Gref −+ Kv

V −+ Io , n −+ Isc −+ Voc

−+ Rs −+ A

−+ Rsh

Model equations: (a × k × NS)

A= q

+ . n

V ÷

I + exp (x)−1

Io ×

Rs × Spec of solarex MSX-60 module:

− Iph-Id

A × Iph Pmax = 60 w

+

T Vmp = 17.1 V

B Imp = 3.5 A

Voc = 21.1 V

. B Voc

Ki × + ÷ Io T-Tref ISC = 3.8 A

+

+ m ÷ . × Kv NS = 36

+

T-Tref exp (x)−1

Isc

Ki P

V V

T-Tref × + × Iph + T-Tref

. T I ×

+ G ÷ −

Isc Tref V

Gref V

And as presented, the model data are in accordance with the irradiance (2). The model of this equation is presented

experimental data both in the current and power curves. in Figure 5, and Figure 6 presents I‐V and P‐V curves

for diﬀerent values of solar irradiation.

2.2. Eﬀect of Solar Irradiation Variation. Figure 3 contains As presented in Figure 6, the PV panel current depends

the model of the three equations: one of these equations heavily on solar irradiation. However, the voltage increases

computes the photocurrent based on temperature and just by 1 V once the irradiance is increased from 400 W/m2

4 International Journal of Photoenergy

4.5 70

4 60

3.5

50

3

40

P (W)

2.5

I (A)

2 30

1.5

20

1

0.5 10

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

V (V) V (V)

Model data

Experimental data

+ Iph

Ki × × +

T dT

dT + G ÷

Isc Tn −

Gn

4 60

3

40

P (W)

I (A)

2

20

1

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

V (V) V (V)

800 W/m2 400 W/m2 800 W/m2 400 W/m2

to 1000 W/m2. Therefore, the irradiance change aﬀects and show its eﬀect on the PV panel output. As shown in

heavily the PV panel current. Figure 9, the change of the series resistor results on the devi-

ation of the MPP.

2.3. Eﬀect of the Temperature Variation. Figure 3 contains The simulation was made for three values of series

also the modeling of (3), which computes the diode satura- resistance (1 mΩ, 4 mΩ, and 8 mΩ). Moreover, as shown in

tion current based on the temperature. The model of this Figure 9, the upper values of series resistance decrease the

equation is shown in Figure 7, and Figure 8 shows the I‐V output power. In addition, the ﬁll factor presented by (4)

and P‐V curves for diﬀerent values of temperature. decreases as series resistance increases [22].

Generally, as shown in Figure 8, for a ﬁxed solar irradia-

tion and when the temperature increases, the open-circuit Pmax

FF = 4

voltage decreases and the short-circuit current increases with V OC I SC

a little value. Therefore, the temperature change aﬀects

strongly the PV panel voltage. 2.5. Eﬀect of Shunt Resistor Variation. As presented in

Figure 10, Rsh should be quite large for a good ﬁll factor.

2.4. Eﬀect of Series Resistor Variation. The series resistor In fact, when Rsh is small, the current collapses more

value is very small, and it may be neglected in some cases. strongly, then the loss of power is high, and the ﬁll factor

Nevertheless, to make the appropriate model for any PV is low. Therefore, Rsh of any PV panel should be large

panel, it is recommended to make a variation of this resistor enough for a good eﬃciency.

International Journal of Photoenergy 5

B Voc

Ki × + Io

÷ + dT

+ m × Kv

dT ×

Isc +

exp. (x) −1

4 60

3

40

P (W)

I (A)

2

20

1

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

V (V) V (V)

35˚C 35˚C

4

60

3

40

P (W)

I (A)

20

1

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

V (V) V (V)

1 mΩ 8 mΩ 1 mΩ 8 mΩ

4 mΩ 4 mΩ

4 60

3

40

P (W)

I (A)

20

1

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

V (V) V (V)

500 Ω 500 Ω

Figure 10: I‐V and P‐V curves for diﬀerent values of Rsh.

6 International Journal of Photoenergy

−+ T P

4700 𝜇F

1000 W/m2 String1

I

−+ G N

Ro

298.15k

V

−+ T P

4700 𝜇F

700 W/m2 String2

−+ G N

Illuminated

cells

4 50 45.1 W

3 40 B

32.2 W

30

P (W)

I (A)

2 A

20

1 10

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

V (V) V (V)

Figure 12: I‐V and P‐V characteristics of the PV panel under nonuniform irradiation.

2.6. Eﬀect of Shading. Partial shading also presents a major Therefore, conventional MPPT algorithms are unable to

impact on PV output power. When the insolation received track the global peak which is the real MPP [19].

by a part of the PV panel (shaded cells) is less than the

insolation received by another part (illuminated cells), the 2.7. Photovoltaic Array. To get beneﬁt from the model

current generated by the illuminated cells is greater than developed, a PV array of 18 PV panels has been built in order

the current produced by the shaded cells; this mismatch to supply a solar pumping station, not studied in this paper.

makes the diode of shaded cells reverse biased; consequently, Therefore, as shown in Figure 13, three strings of six PV

the power will be lost in the shaded cells and that may cause a panels have been linked in parallel and each group is

hot spot problem which is the reason of permanent damage composed of six panels in series.

to the PV panel [19]. Hence, in order to overcome this The model of the PV array has been achieved on PSIM,

problem, the bypass diodes can be connected in parallel with and simulation result obtained is presented in Figure 14.

PV cells [19]. As presented in Figure 14, the panels connected in

To simulate the eﬀect of shading, a bypass diode is parallel increase the current and the panels connected in

associated with each string of the panel, and it should be series increase the voltage. However, as discussed in the

mentioned that the panel used includes two strings and each previous section, this connection between panels can lead

string is a set of 18 cells. Thus, as shown in Figure 11, the to hot spot problem when the insolation received by a part

ﬁrst string is exposed by 1000 W/m2 and the second string of the PV array (shaded panels) is less than the insolation

by 700 W/m2. received by another part (illuminated panels).

Under uniform irradiation, the bypass diodes have no

impact because they are reversely biased. But under shading, 3. Modified INC Algorithm with

the current ﬂows through the bypass diode instead of the Boost Converter

shaded string because the bypass diode is directly biased,

and as a result, no power will be lost in the shaded cells and PV panel provides I‐V and P‐V curves presented in

only the illuminated cells generate power. Figure 12 shows Figure 15; these curves highlight one point where the power

the eﬀect of bypass diodes on the PV panel characteristics is maximum. As presented above, this point depends on solar

and as presented, multiple peaks may occur on the P‐V irradiation and temperature. Moreover, as presented in

curve; as in this case, there are two peaks, point A which is Figure 15, in general, load’s characteristic is diﬀerent from

the global peak and point B which is the local peak. the MPP. Therefore, the boost converter controlled by a duty

International Journal of Photoenergy 7

PV array

Author: S. MOTAHHIR

+

+ −+ T P + −+ T P

−+ T P PV PV

PV module 2200 uF module 2200 uF

I

module 2200 uF G N −+ G N

G N −+

−+

−+ T P −+ T P

−+ T P PV PV

PV module 2200 uF module 2200 uF

module 2200 uF G N −+ G N

G N −+

−+

V

−+ T P −+ T P

−+ T P PV PV

PV module 2200 uF module 2200 uF

module 2200 uF G N −+ G N

G N −+

−+

−+ T P −+ T P

−+ T P PV PV

PV module 2200 uF 2200 uF

module 2200 uF module

−+ G N −+ G N

−+ G N

−+ T P

−+ T P −+ PV

−+ T P PV module 2200 uF

PV module 2200 uF

module 2200 uF −+ G N

−+ G N −+

−+ G N

−+ T P

PV

−+ T P −+ module 2200 uF

−+ T P PV G N

PV module 2200 uF −+

module 2200 uF −+ G N −+

−+ G N −

−

−

12 1200

1074 W

10 1000

8 800

P (W)

I (A)

6 600

4 400

2 200

0 0

0 40 80 120 0 40 80 120

V (V) V (V)

4 80

Load_1

LoadMax

Im

X: 17.03

Y: 60.5

3 60

MPP

Current (A)

Power (W)

Load_2

2 40

1 20

0 0

0 5 10 15 Vm 20 25

Voltage (V)

8 International Journal of Photoenergy

I L Io

Cin Co

PV panel V Vo R

α

IL, ICIN

IL i = IL + ICIN

IL,PEAK

IL ΔIL

IL,MIN

ICIN

t

ΔIL

tON tOFF

Figure 17: Current waveforms of the input capacitor and inductor in CCM.

cycle (α) generated by the MPPT controller is put between where ΔIL can be computed as below, and r is the induc-

the panel and the load [23]. The interest of this addition is tor current ripple ratio, which is optimal in the range

to remove the mismatch between the panel and the load, [0.3, 0.5] [26]:

and then the PV panel can operate at MPP.

ΔI L = r × I 8

3.1. Boost Converter Design. Figure 16 presents the circuit of

the boost converter; this converter is used as an adapter Therefore, the optimum inductor value can be computed

between the source and the load [24]. by using

The operation principle of this converter is described by Vα

the following equations [25]: L≥ 9

rIF

V Based on Figure 17, in order to guarantee the perfor-

VO = ,

1−α 5 mance of boost converter in the continuous conduction

IO = I 1 − α mode, the following equation must be veriﬁed:

ΔI L

I≥ ⇒ΔI L ≤ 2I 10

By using (5), (6) is obtained, which is the relationship 2

between the resistance seen by the PV panel (Req) and the

load resistance (R). Hence, based on this equation, the Therefore,

MPPT controller can ﬁnd the optimum α to remove the α 1 − α 2R

mismatch between the load and MPP. Therefore, The boost L≥ 11

converter is required to get maximum power available from 2F

the panel. 3.1.2. Selection of the Output Capacitor. The choice of the

2

output capacitor is made by using output voltage ripple

V VO 1 − α 2 as follows:

Req = = =R 1−α 6

I IO During TON,

ΔV O αI O

3.1.1. Selection of the Inductor. The choice of the inductor can I O = CO ⇒CO = 12

T ON ΔV O F

directly inﬂuence the performance of the boost converter.

Moreover, the selection of the inductance is a trade-oﬀ

between its cost, its size, and the inductor current ripple. A Therefore, the output capacitor value can be calculated

higher inductance value results in a minor inductance as below, where the desired ΔVO equals to 2% of output

current ripple; however, that results in a higher cost and voltage [24]:

larger inductor’s size, which means a larger PCB surface. α

CO ≥ 13

By the way, the inductance value can be given as follows: 0 02 × F × R

During TON state,

3.1.3. Selection of the Input Capacitor. An input capacitor is

ΔI Vα

V = L L ⇒L = , 7 used to decrease the input voltage ripple and to deliver an

T ON ΔI L F alternative current to the inductor. The input voltage ripple

International Journal of Photoenergy 9

ICIN

ΔIL/2 L 1.2 mH

tOFF/2 tON/2 Cin 75 μF

Charge Discharge CO 75 μF

F 10 kHz

tOFF tON

R 50 Ω

αMPP 0.69

Figure 18: Current waveforms of the input capacitor in CCM.

< − right to MPP 21

capacitor, and during this phase, ICin is greater than zero, dV V

so this phase is illustrated by the blue area in Figure 18;

therefore, this area is used to calculate the input capacitor The ﬂowchart of the INC algorithm is presented in

as follows: Figure 19 [28]. This algorithm measures the current and

voltage of the panel. If (21) is met, the duty cycle is increased,

ΔV I Δt and vice versa if (20) is met. Then, there is nothing to do if

I Cin = Cin ⇒ΔV = Cin 14

Δt C in (19) is met. Therefore, theoretically, if MPP is reached, there

is no more perturbation of α; consequently, steady-state

Based on Figure 18, and by using (14): oscillations are decreased, and that is the main advantage of

INC algorithm.

ΔI L ΔI L Vα

ΔV = ⇒Cin = = 2 15 However, the conventional INC algorithm fails to make

8FCin 8FΔV 8F LΔV a good decision when the irradiance is suddenly increased

[20]. As presented in Figure 20, once the solar irradiance

Therefore, the input capacitor can be calculated by (16), is at 500 W/m2 and the PV system operates at load_2, the

where the desired ΔV equals to 1% of input voltage [27]: INC technique controls the PV system in order to reach

α the MPP (point B). When the irradiance is increased to

C in ≥ 16 1000 W/m2, load_2 will lead the system to point G in I‐V

8 × F 2 × L × 0 01

characteristic, which matches to point C in P‐V character-

The design of the used boost is presented in Table 2. istic. The INC technique calculates the slope between point

C and point B which is positive. Therefore, the INC algo-

3.2. Problem with the Conventional INC Algorithm. A good rithm will decrease the duty cycle and consequently, the

MPPT algorithm balances between the tracking speed PV panel voltage will be increased. But since the MPP of

and steady-state performance. In accordance with these 1000 W/m2 is at point A, and the slope between point A

requirements, the INC algorithm can be used even if it and C is negative, then the PV panel voltage should have

can fail in some cases [20] and in this study, it will be been decreased in order to reach point A, instead of increase

modiﬁed in order to improve its performance. INC algorithm voltage and recede from point A as made by the conventional

is founded in the fact that slope of P‐V characteristic is zero INC algorithm. In addition, as presented in Figure 6, gener-

at the MPP [28]. Therefore, this algorithm can be modeled as ally when the solar irradiance increases, the MPP moves to

follows: the right and consequently, the same problem will occur.

dP Conversely, this weakness does not happen if the solar

= 0 at MPP, irradiation is decreased. Because as shown in Figure 20, the

dV

slope is positive between point A and D, and also between

dP point B and D.

> 0 lef t to MPP, 17

dV

3.3. Modiﬁed INC Algorithm. Based on the above analysis, it

dP

< 0 right to MPP is noted that when the solar irradiance increases, both the

dV voltage and the current are increased. Therefore, the sudden

Since increase in solar irradiation can be detected, by checking if

the MPP was reached and both the voltage and current are

dP d IV dI

= =V +I 18 increased. Therefore, a permitted error is accepted (22) to

dV dV dV detect that the MPP is reached.

then,

dI I

+ < 0 07 22

dI I dV V

= − at MPP, 19

dV V

The proposed algorithm is presented in Figure 21. So as

dI I shown, the addition is the check if the MPP was reached by

> − lef t to MPP, 20

dV V using (22), then set Var to one. After that, when (22) is

10 International Journal of Photoenergy

Start

Measure V and I

ΔV = V(k) − V(k − 1)

ΔI = I(k) − I(k − 1)

ΔI/ΔV = −I/V ΔI = 0 ΔI = 0

No No

Yes No No Yes

ΔI/ΔV > −I/V ΔI > 0

A Negative slope (28.5–29.8 W), and this can generate a loss in PV energy.

In addition, as presented in Figure 22, by using the

1 conventional algorithm, when solar irradiation is suddenly

ad_

Lo increased, the power diverges with a value greater than

PV power (W)

PV current (A)

1.0 kW/m2 62 W and after that, the conventional INC reverses the

C

E direction and the power diverges with a value lower than

Positive

B slope 56 W; and like that, the system takes a long time to converge

0.5 kW/m2 around MPP that is due to the wrong decision made by the

2

G Load_

H F conventional technique. Also, even if the MPP is reached,

D the power oscillates between (59–61 W). On the other side,

as presented in Figure 23, the proposed technique detects

the fast increase of irradiance and makes a correct decision

PV voltage (V)

in duty cycle. As a result, the power converges to the new

Figure 20: P‐V and I‐V curves for solar irradiation 500 W/m2 MPP from the ﬁrst step and it is maintained at it (60 W). In

and 1000 W/m2. addition, it only needs 0.001 s to reach the MPP. Hence, by

using the proposed INC, the power converges faster

compared with the conventional algorithm which needs

not met and Var is one, the proposed technique checks if more time to reach the MPP.

both voltage and current are increased; in this case, the Table 3 summarizes a comparison of the proposed

duty cycle is increased instead of decreased as made by technique to other improved INC techniques proposed in

the conventional algorithm. Hence, the INC algorithm is the scientiﬁc literature in term of the oscillation level,

modiﬁed to overcome the incorrect decision made by the tracking eﬃciency, the response time during sudden increase

conventional algorithm when the irradiance is increased. in irradiation, and if the technique makes an incorrect

decision under sudden increase of irradiation. As presented,

the proposed technique shows a very fast tracking speed, a

4. Results and Discussions higher eﬃciency, and neglected oscillations around the

MPP compared to other techniques. Thus, only the proposed

The test was made for the conventional and the proposed algorithm and that proposed in [29] make a correct decision

techniques. At ﬁrst, the solar irradiance is suddenly increased under sudden increase of irradiation, contrary to the conven-

from 500 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 at t = 0.11 s, and then it tional technique and those proposed in [30, 31] which make

is decreased from 1000 W/m2 to 500 W/m2 at t = 0.23 s. an incorrect decision.

Figure 22 shows the test result of the conventional tech-

nique, and Figure 23 shows the test result of the proposed 5. Conclusion

technique. Therefore, as shown in these ﬁgures, the steady-

state oscillations are minimized by using the proposed In this paper, PV panel’s parameters are found using Math-

algorithm and admit an error equals to 0.07. Contrary to Works tool (PV array); hence, by using these parameters, a

International Journal of Photoenergy 11

Start

Set Var to 0

Measure V and I

ΔV = V(k) − V(k − 1)

ΔI = I(k) − I(k − 1)

Yes No Yes

Var = 1 ΔV = 0 |ΔI/ΔV + I/V| < 0.07

Yes

No No

Yes Yes

|ΔI/ΔV + I/V| < 0.07 Set Var to 0

ΔV = 0 ΔI = 0

No Yes

Set Var to 1 No

No No

Yes No No Yes ΔI > 0&&ΔV > 0

ΔI/ΔV > −I/V ΔI > 0

Yes

80

1000 W/m2

60

62

40

500 W/m2 500 W/m2

P (W)

60

20

30 58

0

56

28

−20

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

Time (s)

80

1000 W/m2

60

62

40

500 W/m2 500 W/m2

P (W)

60

20

30

58

0

29

56

−20

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

Time (s)

12 International Journal of Photoenergy

Table 3: Comparison of the proposed algorithm with other improved incremental conductance algorithms proposed in scientiﬁc literature.

Technique Oscillation level Eﬃciency (%)

increase in irradiation increase of irradiation

Conventional 2.5 W 96 Slow Yes

[29] 1W 96.40 Fast No

[30] 1.5 W 98.5 Fast Yes

[31] 1W 97.5 Medium Yes

Proposed Neglected 98.8 Very fast No

PV panel and a PV array are modeled, and the results show MPPT: Maximum power point tracking

that the model is in accordance with experimental data of P&O: Perturb and observe

the used panel (MSX-60). In addition, a modiﬁed INC algo- PV: Photovoltaic

rithm which can overcome the confusion faced by the con- STC: Standard test conditions.

ventional INC technique is proposed in this paper. As a

result, the tests show that the modiﬁed technique detects

Conflicts of Interest

the fast increase of irradiation and makes a correct decision,

contrary to the conventional technique. Moreover, by using The authors declare that they have no conﬂicts of interest.

the modiﬁed algorithm, steady-state oscillations are almost

neglected. Hence, the loss of energy is minimized; conse-

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