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A 2.

4 GHz Oscillator
Presentation Outline

u Introduction
u Introduction
u Project Justification ( why 2.4 GHz)
u Design Theory
u Simulation (2.4 GHz)
u Results
u Practical Implementation (90 MHz)
u Simulation Results
u Fabrication
u Practical Results
u Conclusion and Recommendation

u Oscillator-basically a DC to RF convertor consisting of an active

device and a passive frequency determining element.
u Signals generated can be square or sinusoidal.
Ø Clocking function for high speed digital systems.
Ø Frequency up and down conversion as local oscillators.
Ø Provide a reference for system synchronization.
(Project Justification)Why 2.4 GHz ?

A 2.4 GHz oscillator is suitable for ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical)
band applications such as Bluetooth, WLAN, Wi Fi.
Popular to gadget makers as usage of the ISM band.
Design Theory

Design method : Negative Resistance

Drawbacks of Positive Feedback Technique
u Parasitic capacitances and inductances leading to multiple
feedback paths.
u Amplifier and feedback network load each other
at high frequencies.
Negative Resistance

u Current passing through devices and elements decreases with

increase in the circuit’s terminal voltage.
u Exhibited in Gunn diodes, Tunnel diodes, IMPATT diodes, gas
discharge tubes.
u Also be by manipulation of S parameters of an amplifier network.
Design Theory
Simulation- 2.4GHz

u Making amplifier unstable.

Series inductance varied until a suitable (|S11|>0) is obtained.
at 2.4 GHz

Simulation (2.4 GHz)

Simulation (2.4 GHz)

Simulation (2.4 GHz)

Output matching network

2.4 GHz complete simulation.
Results- Simulation
Practical Implementation

u Due to the unavailability of the high frequency transistor 2SC4228

used in simulation, a decision was made to scale down the
frequency of oscillation to 90 MHz but implementation to utilize the
negative resistance concept.
u Amplifier is the locally available 2N3904 BJT silicon transistor with
transition frequency.
Simulation still done in ADS but the PCB circuit designed in Proteus using
the ARES software.
Practical Implementation –
Simulation Results
Practical Implementation-
Practical Results

u It could be said that the objectives of the experiment had been

fairly met. Power output results were however not satisfactory.