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Master of Business Administration 

Title  
 

Project management 
 

 

ABSTRACT 
As we enter the first decade of the twenty-first century, our perception of project management
has changed. Project management, once considered nice to have, is now recognized as a
necessity.

Project management is concerned with the overall planning and co-ordination of a project from
conception to completion aimed at meeting the stated requirements and ensuring completion on
time, within cost and to required quality standards. Project management is normally reserved for
focused, non-repetitive, time limited activities with some degree of risk and restrictions.

This research was developed based on Project Management Professional’s Book of Knowledge
(PMPBOK) provided by a case study of a successfully constructed project for Qatar Petroleum
Company.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 
The  construction  of  this  thesis  involved  the  assistance  of  numerous  individuals  who  provided 
technical and managerial advises material for the case study and feedback from field, I would 
like  to  thank  every  one  helped  and  supported  to  bring  this  research  to  light.  I  would  like  to 
thank  my  colleague  Mr.  Zainul  abideen  Dawood,  PMP  construction  supervisor  (HVAC)  Qatar 
Petroleum Company, for the valuable advices and constructive criticism for this project 

I  would  like  to  thank  Qatar  petroleum  onshore  projects  construction  and  engineering  teams, 
special recognition is accorded to the following: 

Leonard  Coote  Qatar  Petroleum  lead  construction  supervisor,  Meshal  Elshemary  Qatar 
petroleum  lead  project  engineer  and  Sam  Ananth  PETROSERV  CONTROLS  &  COMM  W.L.L. 
project  manager  for  the  valuable  support  and  help  provided  with  the  case  study. 
 

I would like to thank also the Project Management Institute PMI and the Oregon Department of 
Human Services for the provision of modified templates and guidance forms used in the case 
study.  

 

DEDICATION 
I want to dedicate this thesis to my wife, the one who shared my dreams and was all the time 
the prime motivation and driving force for every success in my life 

Also I want to dedicate the thesis to my children Mohamed, Yousr and Alaiudeen, the candles 
of hope in my life  

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
CHAPTER 1      ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 11 

INTRODUCTION      ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 11 

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 13 

CHAPTER 2      ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 15 

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 15 

DEFINITIONS    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 19 

‐ Project           ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 19 

‐ Program       ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 19 

‐ Portfolio       ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 19 

‐ Project Management Office (PMO)     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 20 

‐ Operation    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 20 

‐ Project sponsor    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 20 

‐ Program manager    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 20 

‐ Stakeholder     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 20 

‐ Project manager     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 21  

‐ Project team     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐21 

‐ Customer    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 21 

‐ Enterprise environmental Factors     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐21 

‐ Organizational structure   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 21 

‐ Organizational process assets    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 22 

CHAPTER 3         ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 23 

METHODOLOGY    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 23 

‐ Project Integration Management        ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 23 

 

‐ Project Scope Management      ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 24 

‐ Project Time Management       ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 25 

‐ Project Cost Management       ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 25 

‐ Project Quality Management   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 26 

‐ Project Human Resources Management   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 26 

‐ Project Communication Management    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 26 

‐ Project Risk Management    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 27 

‐ Project Procurement Management     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 28 

CASE STUDY                   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 55 

‐ Project background    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 55 

‐ Project objectives      ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 55 

‐ Project Initiation        ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 55 

‐ Project planning        ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 55 

‐ Project monitoring and controlling     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 56 

‐ Project closing    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 57 

RESULTS         ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 58  

DISCUSSION         ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 59 

CONCLUSION          ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 61 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 62 

REFERENCES CITED            ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 63 

APPENDICES           ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 64 

‐ Appendix A     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 64 

‐ Appendix B     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 73 

‐ Appendix C     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 215 

 

‐ Appendix D     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 227 

 

LIST OF FIGURES 
Figure 1 Project management process group flow    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 23 

Figure 2 Interaction between Project Management processes and knowledge areas ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 29 

 

LIST OF TABLES 
Table 1 Project Management Process Group and Knowledge Areas mapping    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 30 

Table 2 Develop Project Charter   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 31 

Table 3 Identify Stakeholders   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 32 

Table 4 Develop Project Management Plan   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 32 

Table 5 Collect Requirements   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 33 

Table 6  Define Scope   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 33 

Table 7 Create WBS    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 34 

Table 8 Define Activity   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 34 

Table 9  Sequence Activity   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 35 

Table 10  Estimate Activity Resource   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 35 

Table 11  Estimate Activity Duration    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 36 

Table 12  Develop Schedule    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 36 

Table 13  Estimate Costs   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 37 

Table 14  Determine Budget   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 38 

Table 15  Plan Quality    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 38 

Table 16  Develop Human Resource Plan   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 39 

Table 17  Plan Communication   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 39 

Table 18 Plan Risk Management    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 40 

Table 19  Identify Risks    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 40 

Table 20  Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 41 

Table 21  Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 42 

Table 22 Plan Risk Response    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 42 

Table 23  Plan Procurements   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 43 

Table 24  Direct and Mange Project Execution     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 44 

 

Table 25  Perform Quality Assurance   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 44 

Table 26  Acquire Project Team   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 45 

Table 27  Develop Project Team    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 45 

Table 28  Manage Project Team    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 46 

Table 29  Distribute Information    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 46 

Table 30  Manage Stockholders Expectations     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 47 

Table 31  Conduct Procurements     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 47 

Table 32  Monitor and Control Project Work    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 48 

Table 33  Perform Integrated Change Control     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 48 

Table 34  Verify Scope   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 49 

Table 35  Control Scope   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 49 

Table 36  Control Schedule   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 50 

Table 37  Control Cost     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 50 

Table 38  Perform Quality Control    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 51 

Table 39  Report Performance     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 52 

Table 40  Monitor and Control Risks    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 52 

Table 41  Administer Procurements    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐53 

Table 42  Close Project or Phase    ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 53 

Table 43  Close Procurements     ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 54 

 
10 
Chapter 1 
(1‐1) INTRODUCTION 
Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project
activities to meet project requirements

Project management is accomplished through the application and integration of the project
management processes of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling and closing.

Project management has been practiced since early civilization. Until 1900 civil engineering
projects were generally managed by creative architects and engineers themselves, among those
for example Vitruvius (1st century BC), Christopher Wren (1632–1723) , Thomas Telford (1757-
1834) and Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806–1859) It was in the 1950s that organizations started
to systematically apply project management tools and techniques to complex projects

As a discipline, Project Management developed from several fields of application including


construction, engineering, and defense activity. Two forefathers of project management are
Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, who is famous for his use of
the Gantt chart as a project management tool; and Henri Fayol for his creation of the 5
management functions which form the foundation of the body of knowledge associated with
project and program management. Both Gantt and Fayol were students of Frederick Winslow
Taylor's theories of scientific management. His work is the forerunner to modern project
management tools including work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation.

A project is a temporary endeavor, having a defined beginning and end, usually constrained by
date, but can be by funding or deliverables, undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives,
usually to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands
in contrast to business as usual (or operations) , which are repetitive, permanent or semi-
permanent functional work to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these
two systems is often found to be quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct
technical skills and the adoption of separate management.

 
11 
The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives
while honoring the preconceived project constraints. Typical constraints are scope, time, cost and
quality. The secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation and
integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives.

Project management involves applying knowledge, skills, tools and techniques during the course
of a project to accomplish the project objectives. Project management is a process that includes
initiating for a new project or phase of a project, planning, putting the project plan into action
and measuring progress and performance, it involves identifying the project requirements,
establishing project objectives, balancing constrains and taking the needs and expectation of key
stakeholders into consideration.

Organizing, managing and completing a project is subjected to five processes and nine
knowledge areas, the five processes identified by the project management body of knowledge are

Initiation process group: defines and authorizes the project or a phase of a project

Planning process group: defines and refines objectives and plans the course of action required to
attain the objectives and scope that the project was undertaken to address

Executing process group: integrates people and other resources to carry out the project
management plan for the project

Monitoring and controlling process group: regularly measures and monitors progress to identify
variances from the project management plan so that corrective action can be taken when
necessary to meet project objectives

Closing process group: formalizes acceptance of the product, services or result and brings the
project or a project phase to an orderly end

The nine knowledge areas are

Project integration management this includes the processes and activities needed to identify,
define, combine, unify and coordinate the various processes and activities within the project
management process groups.

 
12 
Project scope management is the process required to ensure that the project includes all the work
required, and only work required, to complete the project successfully. Scope management is
primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is and is not included in the project.

Project time management includes the processes required to accomplish timely completion of the
project.

Project cost management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting and
controlling cost so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.

Project quality management includes all the activities of the performing organization that
determine quality policies, objectives and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs
for which it was undertaken.

Project human resources management includes the processes that organize and manage the
project team.

Project communication management is the knowledge area that employs the processes required
to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval and
ultimate disposition of project information.

Project risk management includes the processes concerned with conducting risk management
planning, identification, analysis, responses and monitoring and control on a project.

Project procurement management includes the processes to purchase or acquire the product,
services or results needed from outside the project team to perform the work

(1-2) Objectives of the study


The intention is to provide a simplified configuration to the structure of the (PMPBOK) by
sorting all the processes inputs, tools and techniques and outputs, discussing them and examining
how to implement them for a project

A case study was set as an example in order to demonstrate the application of various processes
and the interaction with knowledge areas could be implemented.

 
13 
Several assumptions were made to facilitate the creation of forms and to give close
understanding about when and how the form will be established

Initiation and Planning sheets were dated 1st of January 2009 to indicate that those sheets to be
created in the beginning stages, closing sheets were dated 1st January 2010 indicating that
creation period will be by the finishing stages of the project.

The case study was prepared from the point of view of an owner representative to a project will
be awarded to a contractor so the Execution processes were not covered in this study.

 
14 
Chapter 2 
(2‐1) PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS 

The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern Project Management era. Project management
became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline (David I.
Cleland, Roland Gareis 2006).

Dr. Harold Kerzner (2003) summarized 16 point for project management maturity as follows:

1- Adopt project management methodology and use it consistently


2- Implement a philosophy that drive the company toward project management maturity and
communicate it to every one
3- Commit to develop effective plans at the beginning of each project
4- Minimize scope changes by committing to realistic objectives
5- Recognize that cost and schedule management are inseparable
6- Select the right person as the project manager
7- Provide executives with project sponsor information, not project management
information
8- Strengthen involvement and support of line management
9- Focus on deliverables rather than resources
10- Cultivate effective communication, cooperation and trust to achieve rapid project
management maturity
11- Shear recognition for project success with the entire project team and line management
12- Eliminate nonproductive meetings
13- Focus on identifying and solving problems early, quickly and cost effectively
14- Measure progress periodically
15- Use project management soft ware as a tool – not as a substitute for effective planning or
interpersonal skills
16- Institute an all-employee training program with periodic updates based upon documented lesson
learned

 
15 
James J. O’Brien and Fredric L. Plotnick (2006) discussed various method of demonstrating the
project schedule and concluded that, the full power and implications of Critical Path Method
(CPM) and Performance Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) have been always
constrained be the limits of the mathematical software and hardware, only recently these
limitations have been overcome and programs which can solve the full set of theorized problems
been made commercially available.

They included also that, the tool of CPM whether by Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM),
(PERT), Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM), or Relation Diagramming Method “certified
standard” (RDCPM) and extensions of SPERT and Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique
GERT are powerful tools, but they are used without the proper knowledge and respect, they
could cause more harm than good.

M.Imran Asghar (2002) discussed control of change order in Engineering, procurement and
construction in (EPC) contracts; he found that to effectively manage costs and to insure
reliability of EPC projects the company must make provision for the change order works in the
bid documents irrespective of the type of contract weather it is a turnkey job, cost plus, fixed fee
or unit price. In order to avoid contingency being used as slope funds, the control of contingency
must be beyond the authority limit of the Project Manager (i.e. under the direct control of senior
management)

He concluded also that, change orders should be handled expeditiously. Procedure and format
fair to both the Owner and Contractor should be included in contract to avoid costly and time-
consuming arbitration claims and mediation. He advised that, a log of all change orders to be
maintained, a study should be done critically on their schedule, status and concurrence in order
to lesson their effect on the master schedule.

Tom Gilb (2005) offered 10 principles for project control as follows:

P1: Critical measures: the critical few product objectives (performance requirements) of the
project need to be stated measurably.

 
16 
P2: Pay for results: the project team must be rewarded to the degree they achieve the critical
product objectives

P3: Architecture for quality: there must be a top-level architecture process that focuses on
finding and specifying appropriate design strategies for enabling the critical product objectives to
be met on time

P4: Clear specifications: project specifications should not be polluted with dozens of defects per
page; there needs to be specification quality control (SQC) with an exit condition set that there
should be less than one remaining major defect per page.

P5: Design must meet the business needs: design review must be based on a “clean”
specification and should be focused on weather the design meet the business needs

P6: Validate strategies early: the high risk strategies need to be validated early or swapped with
better ones

P7: Resources for design: adequate resources need to be allocated to deliver the design strategies

P8: Early value delivery: the stakeholder value should be delivered early and continuously. Then,
if you run out of resources unexpectedly, proven value should already have been delivered

P9: Avoid unnecessary design constraints: the requirements should not include unnecessary
constraints that might impact on the delivery of performance and consequent values

P10: Values before bureaucracy: the project should be free to give priority to value delivery, and
not be constrained by well-intended processes and standards.

Neville Turbit (2005) discussed project quality planning and concluded that, producing a quality
plan involves identifying all the deliverables at the start of the project and deciding how to best
validate their quality. There is an overhead in undertaking quality checks but this is offset by not
having to fix things further down the line. Turbit also concluded that, it essential to have a
mechanism to fix problems and to have followed up processes to allocate fixes to particular
people and ensure that they make the changes

 
17 
To implement such procedure time must be built into the schedule for rework following quality
events.

Allan C. Hamilton (2006) issued a technical paper called “Project execution planning for cost
and schedule managers” where he discussed the role of Project Execution Plan in preparing the
cost estimates, schedules and controls the project. He summarized the essentials to perform the
work in Scope, Basis and Timing

Scope – would include description, specifications, drawings, studies and prior work on this
project. The planning for the scope would emphasize the physical deliverables the project must
create.

Basis – would include the management and organizational plans to accomplish the project, the
location and environment in which the project will be built and the contractual approach.

Timing – the Project Execution Plan PEP should be clear in outlining the specific project
schedule, goals and objectives. The schedule planning should take into account the drivers that
affect the project schedule internal and external.

Hamilton summarized the goals of Project Execution for cost and schedule managers as
following

• Ensure that the estimating, scheduling, controls staff know the project’s strategic goals
and objectives
• Inform the project management team and stakeholders what is to be done, when, by
whom, and how for estimates, schedules, reports, analysis and action items
• Clarify the roles and responsibilities for the owner and contractor staff dealing with costs
and schedules
• Help in identifying and managing issues regards project cost and schedule.

Finally he concluded that Project Execution Plan PEP should not be fixed if there are
fundamental changes in the project scope, basis or timing PEP should be revised and reissued as

 
18 
appropriate. When the project is completed, the PEP could be used as a tool for conducting post-
project appraisal and capturing lesson learned.

TechRepublic (2001) presented project management best practices throughout the following
steps:

- Plan work by utilizing a project definition document


- Create a planning horizon
- Define project management procedures up front
- Look for other warning signs
- Ensure that the sponsor approves scope-change requests
- Guard against scope creep
- Identify risks up front
- Continue to assess potential risks throughout the project
- Resolve issues as quickly as possible

(2-2) Definitions

(2-2-1) Project

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. The
temporary nature indicates a definite beginning and end. Temporary does not generally apply to
the product, service or result created by the project; most projects are undertaken to create a
lasting outcome.

(2-2-2) Program

A program is defined as a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain


benefits and control not available from managing them individually. A project may or may not
be a part of a program but a program will always have projects.

(2-2-3) Portfolio

 
19 
A portfolio refers to a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped
together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives.

(2-2-4) Project Management Office (PMO)

A project management office (PMO) is an organizational body or entity assigned various


responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its
domain. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support
function to actually being responsible for direct management of a project.

(2-2-5) Operation

Operations are an organizational function performing the ongoing execution of activities that
produce the same product or provide a repetitive service. Operations are permanent endeavor that
produce repetitive outputs, with resources assigned to do basically the same set of tasks.

(2-2-6) Project sponsor

Project sponsor is the person or group that provides the financial resources, in cash or in kind, for
the project. The sponsor leads the project through the engagement or selection process until
formally authorized and plays a significant role in the development of the initial scope and
project charter.

(2-2-7) Program manager

Program mangers are responsible for managing related projects in a coordinated way to obtain
benefits and control not available from managing them individually. They interact with each
project manager to provide support and guidance on individual projects.

(2-2-8) Stakeholder

Stakeholders are persons or organizations who are actively involved in the project or whose
interested may be positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of the

 
20 
project. Stakeholders may also exert influence over the project, its deliverables, and the project
team member

Stakeholders might be customers, sponsor, the performing organization, or the public.

(2-2-9) Project manager

Project managers are assigned by performing organization to achieve the project objectives. It
requires flexibility, good judgment, strong leadership and negotiation skills. Also a solid
knowledge of project management practices. The project manager is the lead person responsible
to communicate with all stakeholders, particularly project sponsor, project team and other key
stakeholders.

(2-2-10) Project team

A project team is comprised of project manager, project management team and other team
members who carry out the work but who are not necessarily involved with management of the
project. This team is comprised of individuals from different groups with knowledge of a
specific subject matter or with a specific skill set who carry out the work of the project

(2-2-11) Customer

Customers are the persons or organizations that will use the project’s product, service or result.
Customer could be internal or external to the performing organization.

(2-2-12) Enterprise environmental Factors

Enterprise environmental Factors refer to both internal and external environmental factors that
surround or influence a project success. Enterprise environmental Factors may enhance or
constrain project management options and may have positive or negative influence on the
outcome.

(2-2-13) Organizational structure

 
21 
Organizational structure is enterprises environmental Factor which can affect the availability of
resources and influence how project are conducted. Organizational structure ranges from
functional to projectized wit a variety of matrix structure between them. Types of organizational
structures are

Functional: where project managers have little or no authority, access to resources and they have
a part-time role

Weak matrix: where project managers have limited authority, access to resources and they have a
part-time role

Balanced matrix: where project managers have low to moderate authority, access to resources
and they have a full-time role

Strong matrix: where project managers have moderate to high authority, access to resources and
they have a full-time role

Projectized: where project managers have high to almost total authority, access to resources and
they have a full-time role

(2-2-14) Organizational process assets

Organizational process assets include any or all process related assets, from any or all of the
organizations involved in the project that can be used to influence the project’s success. This
includes formal and informal plans, policies, procedures and guidelines. Process assets also
include the organization’s knowledge bases such as lesson learned and historical information

 
22 
Chapter 3 
(3‐1) METHODOLOGY 
Project management processes group are  

Initiation 

Planning 

Execution 

Monitoring and controlling and 

Closing 

 
Figure 3 Project management process group flow 

Those  processes  could  be  grouped  into  nine  categories  that  is  called  Project  Management 
Knowledge areas; which are 

(3‐1‐1) Project Integration Management  

 
23 
This  includes  the  processes  and  activities  needed  to  identify,  define,  combine,  unify  and 
coordinate  the  various  processes  and  project  management  activities  within  the  group.  In  the 
context,  integration  includes  characteristics  of  unification,  consolidation,  articulation  and 
integrative  actions  that  are  crucial  to  project  completion,  successful  managing  stakeholder 
expectation and meeting requirements 

Project management integration processes include 

(3‐1‐1‐1)  Develop  project  charter  –  the  processes  of  developing  a  document  that  formally 
authorize  a  project  or  a  phase  and  documenting  initial  requirement  that  satisfy  stakeholders’ 
needs and expectation 

(3‐1‐1‐2) Develop project management plan – the process of documenting the action necessary 
to define, prepare, integrate and coordinate all subsidiary plans  

(3‐1‐1‐3) Direct and manage project execution – the process of performing the work defined in 
the project management plan to achieve the project objectives 

(3‐1‐1‐4) Monitor and control project work – the process of tracking, reviewing and regulating 
the process to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan 

(3‐1‐1‐5)  Perform  integrated  change  control  –  the  process  of  reviewing  all  change  requests, 
approving  changes  and  managing  changes  to  the  deliverables,  organizational  process  assets, 
project documents and project management plan 

(3‐1‐1‐6) Close project or phase – the process of finalizing all activities across all of the project 
management process groups to formally complete the project or phase 

(3‐1‐2) Project Scope Management 
Project scope management includes the process required to ensure that project includes all the 
work required, and only the work required, to complete the work successfully.  

Project scope processes include: 

(3‐1‐2‐1) Collect requirements – the process of defining and documenting stakeholders’ needs 
to meet the project objectives 

(3‐1‐2‐2)  Define  scope  –  the  process  of  developing  a  detailed  description  of  the  project  and 
product 

(3‐1‐2‐3)  Create  WBS  –  the  process  of  subdividing  project  deliverables  and  project  work  into 
smaller, more manageable components  

 
24 
(3‐1‐2‐4)  Verify  scope  –  the  process  of  formalizing  acceptance  of  the  completed  project 
deliverables  

(3‐1‐2‐5) Control scope – the process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope 
and managing changes in the scope baseline 

(3‐1‐3) Project Time Management 
Project Time Management includes the processes required to accomplish timely completion of 
the project. This would include the following processes: 

(3‐1‐3‐1)  Define  activity  –  the  process  of  identifying  the  specific  actions  to  be  performed  to 
produce the project deliverables 

(3‐1‐3‐2) Sequence activity – the process of identifying and documenting relationships among 
the project activities 

(3‐1‐3‐3)  Estimate  activity  resource  –  the  process  of  estimating  the  type  and  quantities  of 
material, people, equipment or supplies required to perform each activity  

(3‐1‐3‐4) Estimate activity duration – the process of approximating the number of work periods 
needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources 

(3‐1‐3‐5)  Develop  schedule  –  the  process  of  analyzing  activity  sequences,  durations,  resource 
requirements and schedule constrains to create the project schedule 

(3‐1‐3‐6) Control schedule – the process of monitor the status of the project to update project 
progress and managing changes to schedule baseline 

(3‐1‐4) Project Cost Management 
Project  Cost  Management  includes  the  processes  involved  in  estimating,  budgeting  and 
controlling cost so that project can be completed within the approved budget. 

This would include the following: 

(3‐1‐4‐1)  Estimate  costs  –  the  process  of  developing  an  approximation  of  the  monetary 
resources needed to complete project activities 

(3‐1‐4‐2)  Determine  budget  –  the  process  of  aggregating  the  estimated  cost  of  individual 
activities or work package to establish an authorized cost baseline 

(3‐1‐4‐3)  Control  cost  –  the  process  of  monitoring  the  status  of  the  project  to  update  the 
project budget and managing changes to cost baseline 

 
25 
(3‐1‐5) Project Quality Management 
Project  Quality  Management  includes  the  processes  and  activities  of  the  performing 
organization that determine quality policies, objectives and responsibilities so that the project 
will  satisfy  the  needs  of  for  which  it  was  undertaken  by  implementing  quality  management 
system. 

Project Quality Management processes include: 

(3‐1‐5‐1) Plan quality – the process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the 
project and product and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance  

(3‐1‐5‐2) Perform quality assurance – the process of auditing the quality requirements and the 
results  from  quality  control  measurements  to  ensure  appropriate  quality  standards  and 
operational definitions are used 

(3‐1‐5‐3) Perform quality control – the process of monitoring and recording results of executing 
the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes 

(3‐1‐6) Project Human Resources Management 
Project Human Resources Management includes the processes that organize, manage and lead 
the  project  team.  Project  team  is  the  people  with  assigned  roles  and  responsibilities  for 
completing the project. 

 Project Human Resources Management processes include: 

(3‐1‐6‐1)  Develop  human  resource  plan  –  the  process  of  identifying  and  documenting  project 
roles,  responsibilities,  required  skills,  reporting  relationships  and  creating  the  staffing 
management plan 

 (3‐1‐6‐2)  Acquire  project  team  –  the  process  of  confirming  human  resource  availability  and 
obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments 

(3‐1‐6‐3) Develop project team – the process of improving the competencies, team interaction 
and the overall team environment to enhance project performance  

(3‐1‐6‐4) Manage project team – the process of tracking team member performance, provide 
feedback, resolving issues and managing changes to optimize project performance 

(3‐1‐7) Project Communication Management 

 
26 
Project  Communication  Management  includes  the  processes  required  to  ensure  timely  and 
appropriate  generation,  collection,  distribution,  storage,  retrieval  and  ultimate  disposition  of 
project information. 

Project Procurement Management processes include: 

(3‐1‐7‐1) Identify stakeholders – the process of identifying all people or organizations impacted 
by  the  project  and  documenting  relevant  information  regarding  their  interests,  involvement 
and impact on project success 

(3‐1‐7‐2) Plan Communication – the process of determining the project stakeholder information 
needs and define a communication approach 

(3‐1‐7‐3)  Distribute  information  –  the  process  of  making  relevant  information  available  to 
project stakeholders as planned 

(3‐1‐7‐4) Manage stockholders expectations – the process of communicating and working with 
stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur  

(3‐1‐7‐5)  Report  performance  –  the  process  of  collecting  and  distributing  performance 
information, including status reports, progress measurements and forecasts 

(3‐1‐8) Project Risk Management 
Project  Risk  Management  includes  the  processes  of  conducting  risk  management  planning, 
identification,  analysis,  response  planning  and  monitoring  and  controlling  on  a  project  to 
increase the probability of positive events and decrease the probability of negative events 

Project Risk Management processes include: 

(3‐1‐8‐1)  Plan  risk  management  –  the  process  of  defining  how  to  conduct  risk  management 
activities for a project 

(3‐1‐8‐2)  Identify  risk  –  the  process  of  determining  which  risk  may  affect  the  project  and 
documenting their characteristics 

(3‐1‐8‐3) Perform qualitative risk analysis – the process of prioritizing risks for further analysis 
or action by assessing or combining their probability of occurrence and impact  

(3‐1‐8‐4) Perform quantitative risk analysis – the process of numerically analyzing the effect of 
identified risks on overall project objectives 

(3‐1‐8‐5)  Plan  risk  response  –  the  process  of  developing  options  and  actions  to  enhance 
opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives 

 
27 
(3‐1‐8‐6) Monitor and control risks – the process of implementing risk response plans, tracking 
identified  risks,  monitoring  residual  risks,  identifying  new  risk  and  evaluating  the  risk  process 
through the project 

(3‐1‐9) Project Procurement Management 
Project  Procurement  Management  includes  the  processes  necessary  to  purchase  or  acquire 
products, services or results needed from outside the project team to perform the work also it 
include  the  process  to  develop  and  administer  contracts  or  purchase  orders  issued  by 
authorized project team members 

Project Procurement Management processes include: 

(3‐1‐9‐1)  Plan  procurements  –  the  process  of  documenting  project  purchasing  decisions, 
specifying the approach and identifying potential sellers 

(3‐1‐9‐2) Conduct procurements – the process of obtaining seller response, selecting sellers and 
awarding a contract 

(3‐1‐9‐3)  Administer  procurements  –  the  process  of  managing  procurement  relationships, 


monitoring contract performance and making changes and corrections as needed 

(3‐1‐9‐4) Close procurements – the process of completing each project procurement 

Those  groupings  of  forty  two  processes  are  having  characteristics  in  common  and  those 
processes  categorized  under  each  knowledge  area  does  not  belong  to  the  same  project 
management Process group 

 
28 
 
Figure 4 Interaction between Project Management processes and knowledge areas 

Taking a closer look at the forty two activities in relation to each process and knowledge area in 
the following table: 

 
29 
Table 44 Project Management Process Group and Knowledge Areas mapping 

Process 

knowledge area  Monitoring 
Initiation  Planning  Execution  and  Closing 
controlling 

Monitor and 
Develop 
direct and  control project 
Integration  Develop  project  close project or 
mange project  work, perform 
Management  project charter   management  phase 
execution  integrated 
plan 
change control 

Collect 
requirements,  verify scope, 
Scope Management       
define scope,  control scope  
create WBS 

Define activity, 
sequence 
activity, 
estimate 
activity 
control 
Time Management    resource,     
schedule  
estimate 
activity 
duration, 
develop 
schedule 

Estimate costs, 
Cost Management    determine    control cost    
budget 

perform quality  perform quality 
Quality Management    plan Quality    
assurance  control 

acquire project 
Develop  team, develop 
Human Resources 
  human  project team,     
Management 
resource plan  manage project 
team 

Communication  Identify  plan  distribute  report 


 
Management  stakeholders  communication  information,  performance 
manage 

 
30 
stockholders 
expectations 

Plan risk 
management, 
identify risk, 
perform 
qualitative risk 
monitor and 
Risk Management    analysis,     
control risks 
perform 
quantitative 
risk analysis, 
plan risk 
response 

Procurement  Plan  conduct  administer  close 


 
Management  procurements  procurements  procurements  procurements 

The  above  processes  could  be  categorized  according  to  Inputs,  Tools  and  Techniques  and 
Outputs  of  each  Project  Management  Process  according  to  the  Project  Management  Process 
Group as following: 

Table 45 Develop Project Charter 

Process name  Inputs  Tools and techniques Outputs Knowledge area

Develop project  Project statement of  Expert judgment Project charter  Integration 


charter  work  

  Business case 

  Contract  

 
Enterprise 
  environmental 
factors 
 
Organizational 
  process assets 

 
31 
Table 46 Identify Stakeholders 

Process name  Inputs  Tools and techniques Outputs Knowledge area

Identify  Project charter  Stakeholder analysis Stakeholder  Communication


stakeholders  register 

Procurement  Expert judgment  Stakeholder 


documents  management 
strategy 
Enterprise 
environmental 
factors 

Organizational 
process assets 

Table 47 Develop Project Management Plan 

Process name  Inputs  Tools and techniques Outputs Knowledge area

Develop  project  Project charter  Expert judgment Project  Integration 


management plan  management 
Outputs  from  plan 
planning 
processes 

Enterprise 
environmental 
factors 

Organizational 
process assets 

 
32 
Table 48 Collect Requirements 

Process name  Inputs  Tools and techniques Outputs Knowledge area

Collect  Project Charter  Interviews Requirements  Scope 


requirements  documentation 

Stakeholder  Focus groups Requirements 


register  management 
plan 

Facilitated workshops Requirements 
traceability 
Group  creativity  matrix 
techniques 

Group  decision  making 


techniques 

Questionnaires  and 
surveys 

Observations

Prototypes

Table 49  Define Scope 

Process name  Inputs  Tools and techniques Outputs Knowledge area

Define scope  Project Charter  Expert judgment Project  scope  Scope 


statement 

Requirements  Product analysis Project 


documentation  documents 
update 
Organizational  Alternative identification
process assets 
Facilitated workshops

 
33 
Table 50 Create WBS 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Create WBS  Project  scope  Decomposition WBS Scope 


statement 

Requirements  WBS dictionary 
documentation 

Organizational  Scope baseline 
process assets 
Project 
documents 
updates 

Table 51 Define Activity 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Define activity  Scope baseline  Decomposition Activity list Time 

Enterprise  Rolling  wave  Activity attributes


environmental  planning 
factors 

Organizational  Templates Milestone list


process assets 
Expert judgment

 
34 
Table 52  Sequence Activity 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Sequence activity  Activity list  Precedence  Project  schedule  Time 


diagramming  network diagrams 
method (PDM) 

Activity attributes  Dependency  Project  documents 


determination  updates 

Milestone list  Applying  leads  and 


lags 

Project  scope  Schedule  network 


statement  templates 

Organizational 
process assets 

Table 53  Estimate Activity Resource 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Estimate  activity  Activity list  Expert judgment Activity  resource  Time 


resource  requirements 

Activity attributes  Alternatives analysis Resource 


breakdown 
structure 

Resource calendars  Published estimating  Project  documents 


data  updates 

Enterprise  Bottom‐up 
environmental  estimating 
factors 

Organizational  Project 
process assets  management 
software 

 
35 
Table 54  Estimate Activity Duration 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Estimate  activity  Activity list  Expert judgment Activity  duration  Time 


duration  estimates 
Activity attributes 

Activity  resource  Analogous  Project  documents 


requirements  estimating  updates 

Resource calendars 

Project  scope  Parametric 


statement  estimating 

Enterprise  Three  points 


environmental  estimating 
factors 

Organizational  Reserve analysis
process assets 

Table 55  Develop Schedule 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Develop schedule  Activity list  Schedule  network  Project schedule Time 


analysis 

Activity attributes  Critical path method

Project  schedule  Critical  chain  Schedule baseline


network diagram  method 

Activity  resource  Resource leveling


requirements 

Resource calendars  What‐if  scenario  Schedule data


analysis 

Activity  duration  Applying  leads  and 


estimates  lags 

Project  scope  Schedule  Project  documents 


statement  compression  updates 

 
36 
Enterprise  Scheduling tools
environmental 
factors 

Organizational 
process assets 

Table 56  Estimate Costs 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Estimate costs  Scope baseline  Expert judgment Activity  cost  Cost 


estimates 

Project schedule  Analogous  Basis of estimates


estimating 

Human  resource  Parametric  Project  documents 


plan  estimating  updates 

Enterprise  Bottom‐up 
environmental  estimating 
factors 
Three‐points 
estimating 

Organizational  Reserve analysis
process assets 
Cost of quality

Project 
management 
estimating software 

Vendor bid analysis

 
37 
Table 57  Determine Budget 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Determine budget  Activity  cost  Cost aggregation Cost  performance  Cost 


estimates  baseline 

Basis of estimates  Reserve analysis Project  funding 


requirements 

Scope baseline  Expert judgment Project  documents 


updates 
Project schedule  Historical 
relationships 
Resource calendars 

Contracts  Funding  limits 


reconciliation 
Organizational 
process assets 

Table 58  Plan Quality 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Plan Quality  Scope baseline  Cost‐benefit analysis Quality  Quality 


management plan 

Stakeholder register  Cost of quality Quality metrics

Cost  performance  Control charts Quality checklists


baseline 

Schedule baseline  benchmarking Process 


improvement plan 

Risk register  Design  of  Project  documents 


experiments  updates 

Enterprise  Statistical sampling
environmental 
factors 

Organizational  Flowcharting

 
38 
process assets  Proprietary  quality 
management 
methodologies 

Additional  quality 
planning tools 

Table 59  Develop Human Resource Plan 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Develop  human  Activity  resource  Organization  chart  Human  resource  Human resources


resource plan  requirements  and  position  plan 
descriptions 

Enterprise  Networking
environmental 
factors 

Organizational  Organizational 
process assets  theory 

Table 60  Plan Communication 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Plan communication  Stakeholder register  Communication  Communication communication


requirements  management plan 
analysis 

Stakeholder  Communication 
management  technology 
strategy 

Enterprise  Communication  Project  document 


environmental  model  updates 
factors 

Organizational  Communication 
process assets  methods 

 
39 
Table 61 Plan Risk Management 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Plan  risk  Project  scope  Planning  meetings  Risk  management  Risk 


management  statement  and analysis  plan 

Cost  management 
plan 

Schedule 
management plan 

Communication 
management plan 

Enterprise 
environmental 
factors 

Organizational 
process assets 

Table 62  Identify Risks 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Identify risks  Risk  management  Documentation  Risk register Risk 


plan  review 

Activity  cost  Information 


estimating  gathering 
techniques 

Activity  duration  Checklist analysis


estimating 

Scope baseline  Assumption analysis

Stakeholder register  Diagramming 
techniques 

 
40 
Cost  management  SWOT analysis
plan 

Schedule  Expert judgment
management plan 

Quality 
management plan 

Project documents 

Enterprise 
environmental 
factors 

Organizational 
process assets 

Table 63  Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Perform  qualitative  Risk register  Risk  probability  and  Risk register updates  Risk 


risk analysis  impact assessment 

Risk  management  Probability  and 


plan  impact matrix 

Project  scope  Risk  data  quality 


statement  assessment 

Organizational  Risk categorization
process assets 
Risk  urgency 
assessment 

Expert judgment

 
41 
Table 64  Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Perform  Risk register  Data  gathering  and  Risk register updates  Risk 


quantitative  risk  representation 
analysis  techniques 

Risk  management  Quantitative  risk 


plan  analysis  and 
modeling 
techniques 

Cost  management  Expert judgment


plan 

Schedule 
management plan 

Organizational 
process assets 

Table 65 Plan Risk Response 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Plan risk response  Risk register  Strategy  for  Risk register updates  Risk 


negative  risks  or 
threats 

Risk  management  Strategy  for  positive  Risk‐ related 


plan  risk or opportunities  contract decisions 

Contingent response  Project 
strategies  management  plan 
updates 

Expert judgment Project  documents 


updates 

 
42 
 

Table 66  Plan Procurements 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Plan procurements  Scope baseline  Make  or  buy  Procurement  Procurement


analysis  management plan 

Requirements  Expert judgment Procurement 


documentation  statements of work 

Teaming agreement  Contract type Make  or  buy 


decision 

Risk‐related contract  Procurement 
decision  documents 

Activity  resource  Source  selection 


requirements  criteria 

Project schedule  Change requests

Activity  cost 
estimates 

Cost  performance 
baseline 

Enterprise 
environmental 
factors 

Organizational 
process assets 

 
43 
Table 67  Direct and Mange Project Execution 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Direct  and  mange  Project  Expert judgment Deliverables Integration 


project execution  management plan 

Approved  change  Project  Work  performance 


requests  management  information 
information system 
Enterprise  Change requests
environmental 
factors  Project 
management  plan 
updates 

Organizational  Project  document 


processes assets  updates 

Table 68  Perform Quality Assurance 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Perform  quality  Project  Plan  quality  and  Organizational  Quality 


assurance  management plan  perform  quality  process  assets 
control  tools  and  updates 
techniques 
Quality metrics  Change requests

Work  performance  Quality audits Project 


information  management  plan 
updates 

Quality  control  Process analysis Project  document 


measurements  updates 

 
44 
Table 69  Acquire Project Team 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Acquire  project  Project  Pre‐assignment Project  staff  Human resources


team  management plan  assignments 

Enterprise  Negotiation Resource calendars 


environmental 
factors 

Organizational  Acquisition Project 


processes assets  management  plan 
Virtual teams updates 

Table 70  Develop Project Team 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Develop  project  Project  staff  Interpersonal skills Team  performance  Human resources


team  assignments  assessments 

Project  Training Enterprise 


management plan  environmental 
factors updates 
Resource calendars  Team‐building 
activities 

Ground rules

Co‐location

Recognition  and 
rewards 

 
45 
Table 71  Manage Project Team 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Manage  project  Project  staff  Observation  and  Enterprise   


team  assignments  conversation  environmental 
factors updates 

Project  Project  performance  Organizational 


management plan  appraisals  process  assets 
updates 

Team  performance  Conflict  Change requests


assessments  management 

Performance reports  Issue log Project 


management  plan 
Organizational  Interpersonal skills updates 
processes assets 

Table 72  Distribute Information 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Distribute  Project  Communication  Organizational   


information  management plan  methods  process  assets 
updates 
Performance reports  Information 
distribution tools 
Organizational 
processes assets 

 
46 
Table 73  Manage Stockholders Expectations 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Manage  Stakeholder register  Communication  Organizational   


stockholders  methods  process  assets 
expectations  updates 

Stakeholder  Interpersonal skills Change requests


management 
strategy 

Project  Management skills Project 


management plan  management  plan 
updates 

Issue log  Project  document 


updates 
Change log 

Organizational 
processes assets 

Table 74  Conduct Procurements 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Conduct  Project  Bidder conference Selected sellers Procurement


procurements  management plan 

Procurement  Proposal  evaluation  Procurement 


documents  techniques  contract award 

Source  selection  Independent  Resource calendars 


criteria  estimates 

Qualified seller list  Expert judgment Change requests

Seller proposals  Advertising Project 


management  plan 
updates 

Project documents  Internet search Project  document 

 
47 
Make  or  buy  Procurement  updates
decisions  negotiations  

Teaming 
agreements 

Organizational 
processes assets 

Table 75  Monitor and Control Project Work 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Monitor  and  control  Project  Expert judgment Change requests Integration 


project work  management plan 

Performance reports  Project 
management  plan 
updates 

Enterprise  Project  documents 


environmental  updates 
factors 

Organizational 
processes assets 

Table 76  Perform Integrated Change Control 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Perform  integrated  Project  Expert judgment Change  requests  Integration 


change control  management plan  status updates 

Work  performance  Change  control  Project 


information  meetings  management  plan 
updates 
Enterprise 
environmental 
factors 

Organizational  Project  documents 


process assets  updates 

 
48 
Table 77  Verify Scope 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Verify scope  Project  Inspection Accepted  Scope 


management plan  deliverables 

Requirements  Change requests
documentation 

Requirements  Project  documents 


traceability matrix  updates 

Validated 
deliverables 

Table 78  Control Scope 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Control scope  Project  Variance analysis Work  performance  Scope 


management plan  measurements 

Work  performance  Organizational 


information  process  assets 
updates 

Requirements  Change requests
documentation 

Requirements  Project 
traceability matrix  management  plan 
updates 

Organizational  Project  documents 


process assets  updates 

 
49 
Table 79  Control Schedule 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Control schedule  Project  Performance  Work  performance  Time 


management plan  reviews  measurements 

Variance analysis

Project schedule  Project  Organizational 


management  process  assets 
software  updates 

Resource leveling

Work  performance  What‐if  scenario  Change requests


information  analysis 

Adjusting  leads  and  Project 


lags  management 
updates 

Organizational  Schedule  Project  documents 


process assets  compression  updates 

Scheduling tools

Table 80  Control Cost 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Control cost  Project  Earned  value  Work  performance  Cost 


management plan  management  measurements 

Project  funding  Forecasting Budget forecasts


requirements 

Work  performance  To‐complete  Organizational 


information  performance  index  process  assets 
(TCPI)  updates 

Organizational  Performance  Change requests


process assets  reviews 

 
50 
Variance analysis Project 
management  plans 
updates 

Project  Project  documents 


management  updates 
software 

Table 81  Perform Quality Control 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Perform  quality  Project  Cause  and  effect  Quality  control  Quality 


control  management plan  diagram  measurements 

Quality metrics  Control charts Validated changes 

Quality checklists  Flowcharts Validated 


deliverables 

Work  performance  Histograms Organizational 


measurements  process  assets 
updates 

Approved  change  Pareto charts Change requests


requests 

Deliverables  Run charts Project 


management  plans 
updates 

Organizational  Scatter diagrams Project  documents 


process assets  updates 
Inspection

Approved  change 
requests review 

 
51 
Table 82  Report Performance 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Report performance  Project  Variance analysis Performance reports  Communication


management plan 

Work  performance  Forecasting  Organizational 


information  methods  process  assets 
updates 

Work  performance  Communication  Change requests


measurements  methods 

Budget forecasts  Reporting system

Organizational 
process assets 

Table 83  Monitor and Control Risks 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Monitor  and  control  Risk register  Risk assessment Risk register updates  Risk 


risks 
Project  Risk audits Organizational 
management plan  process  assets 
updates 

Work  performance  Variance  and  trend  Change requests


information  analysis 

Performance reports  Technical  Project 


performance  management  plans 
measurements  updates 

Reserve analysis Project  documents 


updates 
Status meetings

 
52 
Table 84  Administer Procurements 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Administer  Procurement  Contract  change  Procurement  Procurement


procurements  documents  control system  documentation 

Project  Procurement  Organizational 


management plan  performance  process  assets 
reviews  updates 

Contract   Inspections  and  Change requests


audits 

Performance reports  Performance  Project 


reporting  management  plans 
updates 
Approved  change  Payment systems
requests 

Work  performance  Claims 


information  administration 

Records 
management 
system 

Table 85  Close Project or Phase 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Close  project  or  Project  Expert judgment Final  product,  Integration 


phase  management plan  service  or  result 
transition  

Accepted  Organizational 
deliverables  processes  assets 
updates 
Organizational 
processes assets 

 
53 
Table 86  Close Procurements 

Process name  Inputs  Tools  and  Outputs Knowledge area


techniques 

Close procurements  Project  Procurement audits Closed  procurement


management plan  procurements 

Procurement  Negotiation  Organizational 


documentation  settlements  processes  assets 
updates 
Records 
management 
system 

 
54 
(3‐2) Case study 
An  implementation  will  be  done  on  a  project  awarded  in  Dukhan  area,  State  of  Qatar.  The 
project  sponsor  is  Qatar  Petroleum  Company.  The  project  was  awarded  to  a  contractor  to 
carryout work activities.     

(3‐2‐1) Project background 

Dukhan  Township  is  located  on  the  west  coast  of  the  state  of  Qatar,  comprises  an  area  of 
approximately  368  hectares  accommodating  Qatar  Petroleum  staff,  housing  units,  support 
facilities  and  infrastructure  services  including  schools,  medical  centre,  recreation  and  sport 
facilities.  

The  estimated  current  consumption  of  irrigation  water  in  Dukhan  is  4,000  m3/day,  which  is 
anticipated to increase to 5,500m3/day when all of the planting and landscape projects in the 
area are commissioned.  

In order to achieve the best utilization of available water resources, it was proposed to design 
and install a distribution irrigation pipeline system complete with pumps and control system to 
transfer  Treated  Sewage  Effluent  (TSE)  from  an  existing  sewage  treatment  plant  to  irrigation 
water storage tanks situated in Dukhan Township.  

(3‐2‐2) Project objectives 

The  main  objective  is  to  transfer  TSE  from  Sewage  Treatment  Plant  by  pipeline  feeding  the 
irrigation network in Dukhan Township      

(3‐2‐3) Project Initiation 
(3‐2‐3‐1) Develop project charter 

(3‐2‐3‐2) Identify stakeholders 

Project  charter,  stakeholder  register  and  stakeholder  management  strategy  are  attached  in 
Appendix A 

 (3‐2‐4) Project planning 
(3‐2‐4‐1) Develop project management plan 

 (3‐2‐4‐2) Collect requirements 

 (3‐2‐4‐3) Define scope 

 
55 
 (3‐2‐4‐4) Create WBS 

 (3‐2‐4‐5) Define activities 

 (3‐2‐4‐6) Sequence activities 

 (3‐2‐4‐7) Estimate activity resources 

 (3‐2‐4‐8) Estimate activity durations 

 (3‐2‐4‐9) Develop schedule 

 (3‐2‐4‐10) Estimate costs 

 (3‐2‐4‐11) Determine budget  

(3‐2‐4‐12) Plan quality 

 (3‐2‐4‐13) Develop human resources plan 

 (3‐2‐4‐14) Plan communication 

 (3‐2‐4‐15) Plan risk management 

 (3‐2‐4‐16) Identify risks 

 (3‐2‐4‐17) Perform qualitative risk analysis 

 (3‐2‐4‐18) Perform quantitative risk analysis 

 (3‐2‐4‐19) Plan risk responses 

(3‐2‐4‐20) Plan procurement 

Project  management  plan,  requirement  documentation,  requirement  traceability  matrix, 


stakeholders  analysis  matrix,  project  scope  statement,  Assumptions  and  constrains  log,  WBS, 
WBS dictionary, activity list, activity attributes, mile stone list,  activity resource requirements, 
roles  and  responsibilities,  activity  duration  estimates,  duration  estimates  work  sheet,  project 
schedule,  activity  cost  estimates,  bottom  –  up  estimates,  cost  estimate  work  sheets,  quality 
management  plan,  quality  metrics,  process  improvement  plan,  human  resources  plan, 
communication  management  plan,  risk  management  plan,  risk  data  sheets,  risk  register, 
probability and  impact  assessment,  probability  and  impact  matrix,  procurement management 
plan, configuration management plan and source selection criteria are attached in Appendix B 

 (3‐2‐5) Project monitoring and controlling 

 
56 
(3‐2‐5‐1) Monitor and control project work 

(3‐2‐5‐2) Perform integrated change control 

 (3‐2‐5‐3) Verify scope 

 (3‐2‐5‐4) Control scope 

(3‐2‐5‐5) Control schedule 

 (3‐2‐5‐6) Control costs 

 (3‐2‐5‐7) Perform quality control 

(3‐2‐5‐8) report performance 

 (3‐2‐5‐9) Monitor and control risks 

 (3‐2‐5‐10) Administer procurements 

Change  management  plan,  earned  value  status  report,  variance  analysis,  risk  audit, 
procurement audit, and performance report are attached in Appendix C  

 (3‐2‐6) Project closing 
(3‐2‐6‐1) Close project  

(3‐2‐6‐2) Close procurements 

Lesson learned, product acceptance, contract _close out, and project _close out are attached in 
Appendix D 

 
57 
RESULTS 
The  previous  attempt  showed  a  successful  implementation  to  the  PMPBOK  processes  and 
knowledge area for the project given. 

Although the project was managed according to Qatar Petroleum organizational process assets 
and their internal roles and regulation but the study showed that the project could be in lined 
with PMPBOK with a room for more improvement in fields of collecting requirements, defining 
scope,  plan  quality,  perform  integrated  change  control,  perform  quality  control,  monitor  and 
control risks and lesson learned    

 
58 
DESCUSSION 
Corrective  and  preventive  actions  taken  during  the  construction  phase  did  not  affect  the 
project baseline; only affected the performance against the base line 

The bar chart used to illustrate the project schedule was relatively easy to read in management 
presentations 

Cost  estimations  were  made  using  Parametric,  Analogous,  Three‐point  and  Bottom‐up 
estimating method. Bottom‐up estimating method "detailed cost rolled up to higher levels" was 
found to be the most accurate method of calculations 

Precision  and  Accuracy  are  not  equivalent.  Precision  means  the  values  of  repeated 
measurements  are  clustered  and  have  little  scatter.  Accuracy  is  the  measured  value  is  very 
close to the true value 

Meeting  the  quality  requirements  benefitted  the  performance  of  the  project  by  less  rework, 
higher productivity, lower cost and increased stakeholder satisfaction 

Comparing  actual  and  planned  project  practices  to  those  of  comparable  projects 
(Benchmarking) helped to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement and provide 
a basis for measuring performance 

Implementing a reward strategy based on progress achieved such as turning progress reports 
on time showed high productivity with motivation reinforcement while employee of the month 
showed low morals for the team members resulting from low team cohesiveness.  

Successful  conflict  management  resulted  in  greater  productivity  and  positive  working 
relationships; however negative conflicts were initially the responsibility for the team members 
to  resolve  and  whenever  conflicts  escalated  the  project  manager  was  helping  to  facilitate  a 
satisfactory resolution  

Confronting  (problem  solving)  and  Collaborating  were  the  most  effective  methods  of  conflict 
resolution during the project life cycle 

Stakeholder analysis was  conducted by identifying all project stakeholders, interviewing them 
and identifying the potential impact or support each stakeholder could generate the use of the 
previous helped to identify project threats and opportunities, increase the likelihood of project 
acceptance and clearing and resolving issues that have been identified very effectively 

 
59 
In order to ensure a common understanding by all participants on any specific topic Interactive 
communication  method  was  used,  for  safety  and  quality  statistics  and  general  instructions  a 
push communication method was used  

Verify  the  quality  of  information  collected;  determine  variance,  comparing  the  actual 
information with the project baseline, noting all differences both favorable and unfavorable to 
the  project  outcome  and  determining  the  impact  of  the  variances  in  the  project  cost  and 
schedule were the process for variance analysis (after ‐ the ‐ fact look) 

Assigning  a  facilitator  to  lead  the  generation  of  ideas  about  project  risks  and  using  a 
questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project risks resulted in proper information 
gathering outcome throughout brainstorming and Delphi technique 

Some  of  the  project  weaknesses  were  overcome  by  examining  and  analyzing  the  degree  to 
which organizational strength offset threats and opportunities 

Performing Quality risk analysis was a cost‐effective and rapid mean of establishing priority for 
plan risk response and laid the foundation for Quantitative risk analysis performance  

Project risks were transferred to the seller via implementing a fixed price contract, however risk 
mitigation  techniques  were  used  to  reduce  the  probability  and  impact  of  adverse  risk  events 
such  as  adopting  less  complex  processes,  conducting  more  tests  and  choosing  more  suitable 
suppliers. 

The  procurement  statement  of  work  (SOW)  was  developed  from  the  project  scope  base  line, 
information  included  were;  specifications,  quality  desired,  quality  levels,  performance  data, 
period of performance and work location  

In  order  to  insure  that  all  prospective  sellers  had  clear  and  common  understanding  of  the 
contract and no bidders received preferential treatment, a contractor conference was held in 
Dukhan headquarters meeting room  

An alternative dispute resolution (ADR) procedure was established to resolve any claims all the 
parties  did  not  resolve,  generally  as  per  the  corporate  management  policy  any  potential 
constructive changes or requested changes had to reach to an agreement about 

In  order  to  identify  successes  and  failures  that  warrant  recognition  in  the  preparation  or 
administration  of  other  procurement  contracts  on  the  project  procurement  audits  were 
conducted  

  

 
60 
CONCLUSION 
The  increasing  acceptance  for  project  management  skills  indicates  that  the  application  of 
appropriate knowledge, processes, skills, tools and techniques can have a significant impact on 
the project success.  

Practices described by the PMPBOK are practical for most of the projects most of the time, and 
there is a value and use for their applications to enhance the chances of success over a wide 
range of projects and an opportunity for improvement for the performing organization. 

 
61 
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 
More intensive research could be conducted for project execution phase and the interaction of 
planning,  execution  and  monitoring  and  control  processes  and  their  impact  on  the  overall 
success of the project. 

A study on how to improve, enhance and facilitate the inter‐link among the three processes in 
order to result in a successful project.  

 
62 
REFERENCES CITED 
Global project management handbook. McGraw‐Hill Professional David I. Cleland, Roland Gareis (2006) 

Project Management Body Of Knowledge 4th Edition 2008 

Project  management,  a  system  approach  to  planning,  schduling  and  controlling,  eighth  edition,  Dr. 
Harold Kerzner (2003) 

CPM in construction management, sixth edition, James J. O’Brien and Fredric L. Plotnick (2006)   

Evaluation and control of change orders in Engineering, Procurement and construction of (EPC) 
contracts. Engn. M.Imran Asghar (2002) national Industrial Gases Company (GAS), Saudi Arabia  

Project failure prevention, 10 principals for project control. Tom Gilb (2005)  

Project quality planning. Neville Turbit (2005) 

Project execution planning for cost and schedule managers. ‐ Allan C Hamilton (2006)  

Project management best practices. ‐ TechRepublic (2001) 

 
63 
APPENDICES 

Appendix A 

 
Project charter, stakeholder register and stakeholder management strategy 

 
64 
Project charter 

 
 
65 
 
 
66 
 

 
67 
Stakeholder register  

 
68 
 

 
69 
 

 
70 
Stakeholder management strategy 

 
 
71 
 

 
72 
 

Appendix B 

 
Project  management  plan,  requirement  documentation,  requirement  traceability  matrix, 
stakeholders  analysis  matrix,  project  scope  statement,  Assumptions  and  constrains  log,  WBS, 
WBS dictionary, activity list, activity attributes, mile stone list,  activity resource requirements, 
roles and responsibilities activity duration estimates, project schedule, activity cost estimates, 
quality  management  plan,  quality  metrics,  process  improvement  plan,  human  resources  plan, 
communication management plan, risk management plan, risk register, probability and impact 
assessment,  probability  and  impact  matrix  procurement  management  plan,  configuration 
management plan and source selection criteria 

 
73 
Project management plan 

 
74 
 
 

 
75 
 
 

 
76 
Requirement documentation 

 
77 
 

 
78 
 

 
79 
Requirement traceability matrix 

 
80 
 

 
81 
Stakeholders’ analysis matrix 

 
82 
Project scope statement 

 
83 
 
 

 
84 
Assumptions and constrains log 

 
85 
 

 
86 
WBS 

 
87 
WBS dictionary 

 
 

 
88 
 

 
89 
 

 
90 
 

 
91 
 

 
92 
 

 
93 
 

 
94 
 

 
95 
 

 
96 
 

 
97 
 

 
98 
 

 
99 
 

 
100 
 

 
101 
 

 
102 
 

 
103 
 

 
104 
Activity list 

 
105 
 
 

 
106 
 
 

 
107 
 
 

 
108 
Activity attributes 

 
 

 
109 
 

 
110 
 

 
111 
 

 
112 
 

 
113 
 

 
114 
 

 
115 
 

 
116 
 

 
117 
 

 
118 
 

 
119 
Mile stone list 

 
120 
Activity resource requirements 

 
121 
 
 

 
122 
 
 

 
123 
 
 

 
124 
 
 

 
125 
 
 

 
126 
 
 

 
127 
 
 

 
128 
 
 

 
129 
 
 

 
130 
 
 

 
131 
 
 

 
132 
 
 

 
133 
Roles and responsibilities 

 
134 
 
 

 
135 
 
 

 
136 
 
 

 
137 
 
 

 
138 
 
 

 
139 
 
 

 
140 
 
 

 
141 
 
 

 
142 
Activity duration estimates 

 
143 
 
 

 
144 
 
 

 
145 
Duration estimation work sheets 

 
146 
 
 

 
147 
 
 

 
148 
 
 

 
149 
 
 

 
150 
 
 

 
151 
 
 

 
152 
 
 

 
153 
 
 

 
154 
Project schedule 

January 09 /January 10 
Ser.  Activity 
1 2 3 4 5 6  7  8  9  10 11 12 1
1  Structural work                            
2  Road and fencing works    
3  Electrical works                               
4  Pipe laying activities       
5  Construction of chambers                      
6  Construction of pump station                                  
7  Construction of Booster pump station A06                                     
8  Construction of Booster pump station Z051                                     
9  Construction of Booster pump station Z061                                     
10  Final commissioning                            
11  Handing over             
                                            
 

 
155 
Activity cost estimates 

 
156 
 

 
157 
 

 
158 
 

 
159 
 

 
160 
 

 
161 
 

 
162 
 

 
163 
 

 
164 
Bottom – up cost estimation 

 
165 
 

 
166 
 

 
167 
 

 
168 
 

 
169 
 

 
170 
 

 
171 
 

 
172 
 

 
173 
Cost estimates work sheet 

 
174 
 
 

 
175 
 
 

 
176 
 
 

 
177 
 
 

 
178 
 
 

 
179 
 
 

 
180 
 
 

 
181 
 
 

 
182 
Quality management plan 

 
183 
Quality metrics 

 
184 
 
 

 
185 
Process improvement plan 

 
186 
Human resources plan 

 
187 
 
 

 
188 
 
 

 
189 
Communication management plan 

 
190 
 

 
191 
Risk management plan 

 
192 
 
 

 
193 
 
 

 
194 
Risk data sheets 

 
195 
 

 
196 
 

 
197 
 

 
198 
 

 
199 
 

 
200 
 

 
201 
 

 
202 
 

 
203 
Risk register 

 
204 
 

 
205 
 

 
206 
Probability and impact assessment 

 
 

 
207 
 
 

 
208 
Probability and impact matrix 

 
209 
Procurement management plan 

 
210 
 
 

 
211 
Configuration management plan 

 
212 
 
 

 
213 
Source selection criteria 

 
214 
 

Appendix C 

 
Change  management  plan,  earned  value  status  report,  variance  analysis,  risk  audit, 
procurement audit, and performance report 

 
215 
Change management plan 

 
216 
 
 

 
217 
Earned value status report 

 
218 
Variance analysis 

 
219 
Risk audit 

 
220 
 
 

 
221 
 
 

 
222 
Procurement audit 

 
223 
 
 

 
224 
Performance report 

 
225 
 
 

 
226 
 

Appendix D 

 
Product acceptance, contract _close out, project _close out and Lesson learned 

 
227 
Product acceptance 

 
 

 
228 
Contract _close out 

 
 

 
229 
 
 

 
230 
Project _close out 

 
231 
 

 
232 
Lesson learned 

 
233 
 

 
234 
 

 
235