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DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

Casual Conversation Analysis

Ranti Harvi Rahimi (0203516041)

Andini Syita Savitri (0203516069)

ROMBEL 2 REGULER PPS

SEMARANG STATE UNIVERSITY


2017
INTRODUCTION

Language could be considered as a part of a text and every human being must deal
with it in order to fulfill the communication goal. So a text is basically a unit of the language
found in spoken or written language. The text must full of content, meaning, and information
that could be understood by the readers. Based on (Thornbury: ) a text is a continuous piece
of spoken or written language, especially one with a recognizable beginning and ending. The
text appeared around us in every activity that we do in our life. To understand and to learn
about the structure of the text, the grammar, and the purpose of the text whether the text is
spoken or written. This action is called discourse analysis. It used to help people to engage
with the communicative purpose from a certain text related to the real world situation.
Thornbury stated that discourse analysis is the study of such language, and the analysis of the
features and uses of texts or text analysis is an integral component of discourse analysis. He
also mentioned that to differentiate between discourse and text was to think that discourse as
the process and text as the product.

Spoken language is the focus of this paper. It could be described as a language that
produced by sounds and has no written form. The term of spoken language than arose when
all this ‘spoken form of a language’ transcripted into a written form. Certainly, there would
be some different points to analyze between spoken and written language. This paper would
analyze some points that listed on Thornbury’s book called ‘Beyond the Sentence’. There
were six of them, they were; 1) Evidence of Spontaneity (Repetitions and false start; Filled
pause and Common tails-slot fillers; and Formulaic language or chunks), 2) Evidence of
interactivity (Questions; Back-channeling; Interruptions and overlapping turns), 3)
Interpersonal features (Hedging language; Discourse markers; and Evaluative language), 4)
Topic consistency (Lexical repetitions; Referring expressions; Substitutions; and Linkers), 5)
Macrostructures (Adjacency pairs; and Story structure), and 6) Negotiation patterns
(Interpersonal and Logicosemantic). Later, this paper used a 5 minutes casual conversation
that have been recorded before between 2 people.
FINDING AND DISCUSSIONS

a. Transcript

(1) Maryo : Hi sekar, how are you?


(2) Sekar : hi mas maryo, i’m fine thanks. How about you?
(3) Maryo : i’m pretty good. Anyway, i heard that you are going to go to purwokerto. Is
that true?
(4) Sekar : that’s true. I’m going to go to there with our classmates next week.
(5) Maryo : really? May I know Who they are?
(6) Sekar : emm, actually there are twelve people who want to go to purwokerto.
There are mba ranti, rahmi, tutik, hani, anis, isti, ari, malinda, yayang, syita,
mba hesty and my self. we want to sleep in anis’ house.
(7) Maryo : oh I see. That’s really great. That’s must be fun. How are you going to go
there?
(8) Sekar : we are going to go there by train. Can you imagine that? It will be the first
time I get on a train.
(9) Maryo : do you?
(10) Sekar : yeah, my hometown has no railway track. It is near a mountain. It is almost
impossible to develop railway track over there,
(11) Maryo : oh I see. But i’ve dream of living in a place like your home. Everything
seems to be nice and very cool over there.
(12) Sekar : it is a really nice, you can imagine living in the semarang, the weather is
really really hot and in my hometown this is really cool, sometimes, you
may come to temanggung. That’s my lovely town.
(13) Maryo : ok. I’ll be glad to do that. By the way, purwokerto seems to be the same
with temanggung. Right? Why do you want to go there?
(14) Sekar : I know that. But there are some beautiful places i want to go there. I have
searched many interesting spots over there. Eee Last week, I and mba ranti
searching in instagram and google about spot eee tourism spot in
purwokerto, i found baturaden and a small world, it is near anis’ house.
(15) Maryo : small world? What is that?
(16) Sekar : eee as I know this is a place but in that place there are a lot of miniature of
(17) Maryo : sculpture?
(18) Sekar : yes yes sculpture
(19) Maryo : i know that. So over there we can see eiffel tower?
(20) Sekar : yes you are right
(21) Maryo : and also liberty statue
(22) Sekar : yes, i really want to go there and i want to take a pictures there.
(23) Maryo : OK, i see, actually i have watched a tourism report about purwokerto from a
TV station. The souvenirs are cool and the food seems to be very yummy.
What do you think?
(24) Sekar : you are right. I’m looking for fried gethuk. Have you heard that before?
(25) Maryo : yes, i have. Is that kind of cake made from cassava?
(26) Sekar : yes, i love that and i can’t stop chewing that. Do you want to order
something mas maryo?
(27) Maryo : no thanks. I have a plan to go to bandung by the end of this month.
(28) Sekar : hey, that will be my next holiday. Why you go to Bandung?
(29) Maryo : i have ever been there three times, but i don’t know why i never get bored to
go to there. I love the scenery, the field, the fresh air, the factory outlets,
and everything around there.
(30) Sekar : have you? My friends reccomended me to go to dusun bamboo and floating
market.
(31) Maryo : yeah, that’s right i’ll be there too, those are new and attracting very much. I
will take some photograps and show you later
(32) Sekar : oke, let me see a later. Anyway, are you planning to visit factory outlets
too?
(33) Maryo : yes, defenitly. I’m searching for a jacket, sleeping bag, and ushanka.
(34) Sekar : pardon, what did you say just now?
(35) Maryo : that’s ushanka, u-s-h-a-n-k-a, that’s russian typical hat. It is usually made
of fur to keep you warmer.
(36) Sekar : is that the one with the longer down to cover our ears? That’s really cool.
(37) Maryo : that’s right. That’s often worn by people when the winter comes.
(38) Sekar : eee by the way, why do you want to buy sleeping bag?
(39) Maryo : actually i love camping and it’s useful when you want to sleep outdoor. So,
it will your sleeping comfortable.
(40) Sekar : so, do you want to mountain climbing, don’t you?
(41) Maryo : yeah. By the way, which one do you like sekar a beach or a mountain?
(42) Sekar : actually I really like beach, you know because i am living around the
mountain, so it’s really nice if I see a beautiful beach.
(43) Maryo : eee what part of the beach that you like? Do you like the sand or sunrises?
(44) Sekar : i love all about beach, i love the seashore, i love the sand, i love the
sunshine, i love the wind, love all about it.
(45) Maryo : do you like collecting the shell in shore beach?
(46) Sekar : what do you mean?
(47) Maryo : a shell
(48) Sekar : oh I see, when i was around seven years, when i go to beach with my older
brother, we search for shell in the shore so we collecting that and we bring
it home, it’s really nice.
(49) Maryo : yes, eee what beach eee do you like best and you have visited?
(50) Sekar : I visited parangtritis beach, and then baron beach, eee depok beach,
poktunggal beach and cemara beach and what is the last beach i ever visited
i forget the name but this is really really wonderful scenery there.
(51) Maryo : so all of them are in yogyakarta?
(52) Sekar : yes,
(53) Maryo : most of them
(54) Sekar : yes actually most of them they are in yogyakarta in gunung kidul if i’m not
mistaken.
(55) Maryo : actually eee the last january i went to a beach in yogyakarta with my family
and my neighboors eee that was a baeutiful beach, people call it indrayanti.
Have you ever heard?
(56) Sekar : oh, indrayanti.. i heard that. I just passed the beach, but i never visited that. I
just .. ah you know.
(57) Mario : sometimes you must visit the beach. Because after now is very very
popular. We can see many people upload it. Ah the scenery or the
photography of the beach has been uploaded in insta, in whatsapp or
something.
(58) Sekar : oh really ? maybe tonight I’ll searching about the scenery in indrayanti
beach. Do you know how to get a souvenir if i go to the beach because in
the next holiday i want to go to cilacap. I want to go to the beach. I
confused. What should i buy thre to give to my family at home.
(59) Mario : actually, when we want to buy something, especially in some area, it’s
better for you to ask for the lower price from the .....
(60) Sekar : oh i see
(61) Mario : because they will give you the higher price.
(62) Sekar : so there lots of expensive souvenirs there. So i have to negotiate the price
with the seller thre. Oh i see
(63) Mario : yes. An in jogjakarta, usually go to malioboro.
(64) Sekar : ah malioboro. This is a really nice place.
(65) Mario : but lately, i saw that malioboro is a bit crowded.
(66) Sekar : i agree with you, yes i agree. Because last time i go there with my mom, i
just take a picture with her and the background is lots of people. There are
no, there is no scenery in my picture. There are just lots of people thre.
(67) Mario : and one more thing, when you want to buy something for your neighbours
in your hometown make sure u go the right place. I mean it’s better for you
to go to the real shop. For example you want to buy cakes or crackers for
your neighbours.
(68) Sekar : yes, oh so i have to.. so whre’s the place to buy souvenir there ?
(69) Mario : yeah. Because i have some experience, when i ..... in ... cakes or crackers
from the area, there’s would be......... after i gave it to my neighbours, so it
was shameful for me.
(70) Sekar : maybe the seller sell the expired food. So we have to check the expire date
of the food before we buy it.
(71) Mario : okay. And one more thing, you have to be critical choosing wht are you
going to buy, because in malioboro especially there are many artificialor
imitation tht will make you dissapointed like that.
(72) Sekar : yes, i ever bought a bracelet made from you know skin.
(73) Mario : skin ?
(74) Sekar : yess skin. I bought it for like 2 thousand rupiah but when i ...
(75) Mario : 2 thousand ?
(76) Sekar : yeah 2 thousand rupiah, this is really2 expensive . but when i’m home...
(77) Mario : pardon ? 2 thousand ? really ??
(78) Sekar : yeah this is a really expensive.
(79) Mario : oh okayy... then what happend next ?
(80) Sekar : when i’m arrived at my home, i tried to use the bracelet but it was really...
i’m really dissapointed, because the bracelet, it’s break down . so i just give
my money to the seller, but i can’t ever use the bracelet.
(81) Mario : so you didn’t get what you wanted to have..
(82) Sekar : yeah.. because the next day i told with my friends, and my friends told me
that she bought a bracelet same as me, it’s just 1 thousand and it’s really
nice.
(83) Mario : okay later maybe when, you are in purwokerto, you can ask anis to
accompany you to go to the souvenir shop, so you will not be dissapointed
like that.
(84) Sekar : okay, this is my experience and i never buy something in the market with
what do we called it, it’s not a souvernir market i mean.
(85) Mario : okay. Ehm sekar, may i know wht’s the time ?
(86) Sekar : this is one pm. Do you want to go somewhere ?
(87) Mario : oh i forgot, i want to meet my students to give some excersices.
(88) Sekar : oh i see
(89) Mario : okay maybe we can do the conversation again later or maybe i will call you.
(90) Sekar : okay
(91) Mario : thanks for accompany me. See you sekar.
(92) Sekar : okay you’re welcome, see you.
b. Features of Spoken Language Based on Scott Thornbury

1. Evidence of Spontaneity
a. Repetitions and False Start
(66) Sekar : ...... background is lots of people. There are no, there is no scenery in
my picture.....
(68) Sekar : yes, oh so i have to.. so whre’s the place to buy souvenir there ?
(80) Sekar : .... tried to use the bracelet but it was really... i’m really
dissapointed...

b. Filled Pauses and Common Tail-Slot-Fillers


(5) Maryo : really? May I know Who they are?
(6) Sekar : emm, actually there are twelve people ....
(7) Maryo : oh I see. That’s really great. That’s must be fun. ....
(12) Sekar : it is a really nice, you can imagine .... this is really cool, ....
(14) Sekar : ... Eee Last week, I and mba ranti searching in instagram ...
(16) Sekar : eee as I know this is a place but ....
(22) Sekar : yes, i really want to go there and ....
(43) Maryo : eee what part of the beach that you like? ...
(49) Maryo : yes, eee what beach eee do you like best and ...
(50) Sekar : .... and then baron beach, eee depok beach, ...
(55) Maryo : actually eee the last january i went to a beach in ....
(59) Maryo : Actually, when we want to buy something,.....
(64) Sekar : ah, Malioboro.. This is really nice place.
(77) Maryo : Pardon ? 2 thousand ? Really ?
(78) Sekar : Yeah this is a really expensive.
(80) Sekar : ...to use the bracelet but it was really... i’m really dissapointed...
(82) Sekar : ... just 1 thousand and it’s really nice.
(85) Maryo : okay. Ehm sekar, may i know wht’s the time ?

c. Formulaic Language (Chunks)


(1) Maryo : Hi sekar, how are you?
(2) Sekar : hi mas maryo, i’m fine thanks. How about you?
(9) Maryo : do you?
(23) Maryo : ..... seems to be very yummy. What do you think?
(26) Sekar : ..... chewing that. Do you want to order something mas maryo?
(43) Maryo : ...... that you like? Do you like the sand or sunrises?
(55) Maryo : ...... people call it indrayanti. Have you ever heard?
(56) Sekar : ..... oh, indrayanti.. i heard that. I just passed the beach..
(58) Sekar : .... the scenery in indrayanti beach. Do you know how to get .....
(60) Sekar : oh i see.
(62) Sekar : .... the price with the seller thre. Oh i see
(72) Sekar : yes, i ever bought a bracelet made from you know...
(84) Sekar : ... the market with what do we called it, it’s not a souvernir...
(86) Sekar : this is one pm. Do you want to go somewhere ?
(91) Maryo : thanks for accompany me. See you sekar.
(92) Sekar : okay you’re welcome, see you.

2. Evidence of Interactivity
a. Questions
(1) Maryo : Hi sekar, how are you?
(2) Sekar : hi mas maryo, i’m fine thanks. How about you?
(3) Maryo : .... go to purwokerto. Is that true?
(5) Maryo : really? May I know Who they are?
(7) Maryo : .... That’s must be fun. How are you going to go there?
(15) Maryo : small world? What is that?
(28) Sekar : hey, that will be my next holiday. Why you go to Bandung?
(32) Sekar : .... Anyway, are you planning to visit factory outlets too?
(34) Sekar : pardon, what did you say just now?
(45) Maryo : do you like collecting the shell in shore beach?
(46) Sekar : what do you mean?
(55) Maryo : ...... people call it indrayanti. Have you ever heard?
(58) Sekar : ... Do you know how to get .....
(68) Sekar : .... so whre’s the place to buy souvenir there ?
(79) Maryo : .... oh okayy... then what happend next ?
(85) Maryo : ... okay. Ehm sekar, may i know wht’s the time ?
(86) Sekar : this is one pm. Do you want to go somewhere ?

b. Back Channeling
(i)
(10) Sekar : yeah, my hometown has no railway track... (response to (9) )
(63) Maryo : yes. An in jogjakarta, usually go to malioboro. ( response to (62) )
Utterances number (18), (20), (22), (25), (26), (31), (41), (49),(42),(54), (66), (68),
(69), (72) and (82) were also used the same chunk “yes” or “yeah” as a response to
the previous utterances.
(ii)
(58) Sekar : oh really ? maybe tonight I’ll searching....
(71) Maryo : okay. And one more thing, you have to be..... ( response to (70) )
Utterances number (13), (23), (32), (83), (84), (85), (89), (90) and (92) were also
used “okay” as a response to the previous utterances.
(iii)
For the utterances number (1) up to (6),(7) till (10), (12) to (20), (36) to (54), then
(73) until (79) were the interactivity utterances, since both speakers kept responding
to each other questions and answers.

c. Interruptions and Overlapping turns


(i)
(59) Mario : actually, when we want to buy something, especially in some area,
it’s better for you to ask for the lower price from the .....

(60) Sekar : Oh, I see (interruptions)

(ii)
(74) Sekar : ..... for like 2 thousand rupiah but when i ...

(75) Mario : 2 thousand ? (interruptions)


(76) Sekar : ....really2 expensive . but when i’m home...

(77) Mario : pardon ? 2 thousand ? really ??


(interruptions)
3. Interpersonal features
a. Hedging Language
(i)
(56) Sekar : ... i heard that. I just passed the beach, but i never visited that. same
as me, it’s just 1 thousand and it’s really I just .. ah you know.
(58) Sekar : ... oh really ? maybe tonight I’ll searching about the scenery....
Utterances number (70) and (89) also used the same term “maybe” to make the
sentences less direct.
(ii)
(11) Maryo : oh I see. But i’ve dream of living in a place like your home.
(65) Maryo : but lately, i saw that malioboro is a bit crowded.
Utterances number (14), (29), (74), (76) and (80) also used the same term “but” in
order to blunt the force or disagreement.
(iii)
(82) Sekar : ... same as me, it’s just 1 thousand and it’s really nice.
Utterances number (80) also used the same term “just” in order to blunt the force.

b. Discourse Markers
(i)
(57) Maryo : .... Ah the scenery or the photography of the beach....
(56) Sekar : oh, indrayanti.. i heard that. I just passed.....
Utterances number (7), (11), (48), (58), (62), (68), (87) and (88) also used the same
term “oh”.
(ii)
(10) Sekar : yeah, my hometown has no railway track. It is near a mountain.
(69) Maryo : yeah. Because i have some experience, when....
Utterances number (31), (41), (76), (78), and (82) also used the same term “yeah” to
show they were agree with the previous utterances.
(iii)
(71) Maryo : okay. And one more thing, you have....
Utterances number (13), (23), (32), (79), (83), (84), (85), (89) and (92) also used the
same term “okay”.
(iv)
(72) Sekar : yes, i ever bought a bracelet made from you know skin.

c. Evaluative Language
(3) Maryo : i’m pretty good. Anyway .....
(7) Maryo : oh I see. That’s really great. That’s must be fun. ....
(58) Sekar : .... I want to go to the beach. I confused. What should....
(69) Maryo : .... to my neighbours, so it was shameful for me.
(80) Sekar : ... but it was really... i’m really dissapointed, because the..

4. Topic Consistency
a. Lexical Repetitions
Train (2x), Hometown (2x), Temanggung (2x), Purwokerto (3x), Mountain (4x),
Bandung (2x), Ushanka (3x), Beach (19x), Souvenirs (4x), Malioboro (4x), Bracelet
(5x), Jogjakarta (4x)
b. Referring Expressions

This transcript mostly used referring expressions such as it, there, they, we, you and
this. For example, it could be found in number (8),(10),(55) for ‘it’, (48) and (57) for
‘we’, (5) and (61) for ‘they’, (12) and (64) for ‘this’, then (6), (14), (66) for ‘there’,
and (1), (2), (3), (71) for ‘you’.

c. Substitutions
(8) Sekar : we are going to go there by train. Can you imagine that? ...
(56) Sekar : ... I just passed the beach, but i never visited that. I just .. ah..
(83) Maryo : ... so you will not be dissapointed like that.
Utterance number (13), (14), (15), (19), (71) also used the same term “like that”.

d. Linkers
This transcript mostly used linkers such as and, because, but, so and for example. It
could be found in number (12), (14), (66) for ‘and’, (69) for ‘because’, (14), (76) for
‘but’, (40), (51), (81) for ‘so’, (67) for ‘for example’.

5. Macrostructures
a. Adjacency Pairs
(i)
(3) Maryo : ..... you are going to go to purwokerto. Is that true?
(4) Sekar : that’s true. I’m going to go to there with our classmates next week.
(55) Maryo : .... people call it indrayanti. Have you ever heard?
(56) Sekar : oh, indrayanti.. i heard that. I just passed the beach, but i never
visited that. I just .. ah you know.
(ii)
The conversation in the transcript from number (1) up to (6),(7) till (10), (12) to (20),
(36) to (54), (73) until (80) indicated some questions and answer from both
interlocutors. Also, number (85) until (87) when the other speaker asked about the
time to the second speaker.
b. Story Structure
In the transcript it happened in utterances number (14), the second speaker said that
her friend and herself searched about the tourism places in Purwokerto on Instagram
as a reference from them before they went there. Here the second speaker used a
present tense when she supposed to use past. All the participants were clear but she
used the wrong temporal location that simply in the past.
Moreover the utterence (65) until (66), when the first speaker told that Malioboro was
so crowded, the second speaker shared her experience with her mom when they
visited Malioboro. The location was true, the participants, and the sequence of events.
But unfortunately, when the second speaker uttered this, she did not say it in the past
form, even though it happened a long time ago, she kept using present form. It seemed
that the second speaker always failed to perform a correct temporal location.
The other number was (68) until (69) when the first speaker said he bought an expired
food as souvenirs to his neighbors. He said it in the exact temporal location which
was in the past, the location was clear and also the participant.

6. Negotiation Patterns
a. Interpersonal Negotiation
In the transcript, it could be found in number (13) and (14), the first speaker asked
the reason why the second speaker want to go to Purwokerto although that town is
similar with her hometown, Temanggung. Then in number (55) and (56) when the
first speaker asked whether the second speaker ever heard Indrayanti beach or not.
Then the second speaker replied that she heard it before but she never went there.
There was another too in number (58) and (59) when the second speaker asked
where to buy souvenirs, then the first speaker explained about where to buy it and
suggested her to bargain the price whenever she wanted to buy one.

b. Logicosemantic Negotiation
In the transcript, it could be found in number (33) up to (37), the first speaker told
about what things that he want to buy, one of the place is ushanka, but the second
speaker did not understand what ushanka is. Then in number (72) until (78) when the
second speaker said something about bought a ‘skin’ bracelet, the first speaker then
repeated the word ‘skin’ cause it sounded weird (the second speaker should have use
leather instead of skin). Then the first speaker asked again about the price. The last
could be found in number (85) until (87) when the first speaker asked about the time,
then the second speaker replied it by telling him the time. Where the second speaker
asked why, the first answered that he need to go somewhere. This types of
conversation basically needed a confirmation of information or messages that the
other speaker uttered with no long explanation.

c. Features of Spoken Language Pie Chart

1.1 Pie chart for Evidence of Spontaneity

Evidence of Spontaneity

Maryo
42%
Sekar
58%

In spontaneity, based on Thornbury’s book, that most speech is produced ‘on-line’


which means that it was real time and sometimes people doesn’t have enough time to prepare
or use too much forward planning in communication. From this chart, we could see that
Sekar gained more percent in spontaneity. Even though in the conversation, Sekar used so
many repetitions and a false start, while Maryo didn’t. It means that she hesitated herself very
often, for 3 times by kept repeating words and started with the wrong words or phrases. For
filled pauses and common tails slot, both of them used such as eee, really, and actually. Sekar
used about 10 turns for this while Maryo only took 8 turns.

Meanwhile, for chunks, the second speaker used lots of them such as do you want, do
you like, do you know, I see and etc. While Maryo used do you, have you heard, what do you
think and etc, but only for 6 turns.
1.2 Pie chart for Evidance of Interactivity

Evidence of Interactivity

Maryo Sekar
46% 54%

From this chart, we could see that Sekar still dominate the points of evidence in casual
conversation analysis. In interactivity, the conversation was categorized as interactive if the
speaker interact by taking turns to speak, keep silent when others are speaking, interrupting at
times and signaling their agreement or amusement by grunts, laughs and chuckles.

Here, Sekar used 8 turns in questioning Maryo and 15 turns in back channeling. While
Maryo himself used 9 turns in questioning and 11 turns for back channeling. We could
conclude that Sekar was way more interactive than Maryo since she asked more questions
than him. She also let him talk more often since she used so many back channeling words
such as yeah, yes, okay and oh really. She let him take the floor in speaking by not giving
herself turns to speak or to interrupt him.

On the other hand, Maryo was the one who interrupted the conversation a lot, about 2
turns, while Sekar only once. They seemed to have a different point of view or something
was not clear for Maryo towards Sekar utterances, that was why he interrupted her twice to
have a better explanation about it.
1.3 Pie chart for Interpersonal Features

Interpersonal Features

Maryo Sekar
43% 57%

In communication, both of the speakers doesn’t always exchange information but also
interpersonal function. This function serves trust and solidarity between both speakers. Even
though if one of the speaker doesn’t agree to other’s statement, they tend to do it in a smooth
way in order not to threat other’s face. There are some strategies to achieve the goal of
interpersonal function such as laughter, chuckles, using hedges words, vague language or
evaluative language.

From the chart above, Sekar dominated in using all the three interpersonal features,
such as hedging words, vague and evaluative language. She used the discourse markers a lot
such as yeah, okay, oh and you know for 15 turns. While Maryo’s turn for discourse markers
were 13 times. Meanwhile, for hedging words, Sekar made in 7 turns while Maryo 4 turns.
The hedging words that mostly used is but, just, and maybe.
1.4 Pie Chart for Topic Consistency

Topic Consistency

Maryo
47% Sekar
53%

To maintain a good conversation, both speakers need to consistent to the topic they
were talking about. They need to be relevant it means that each other’s utterances both relate
to a mutually agreed topic and follow on from one another. Both of them could repeat some
words that mark the topic of the speaking. On the conversation, both speakers repeat some
words very often such beach (19x), bracelets (5x), souvenirs (4x), Jogjakarta (4x), Malioboro
(4x), and mountain (4x). It stated that the topic of the conversation was mostly about holiday
and tourism places in Malioboro, Jogjakarta. Both speakers also talked a lot about buying
souvenirs from the tourism places and the second speaker said that she bought the bracelet in
Malioboro but it didn’t quite like what she expected. This was the reason why bracelet kept
mention for 5 times.
1.5 Negotiation Patterns Pie Chart

Negotiation Patterns

Maryo Sekar
50% 50%

In a good communication that people do in their daily lives, they don’t talk to each
other like they talk to the bank cashier, or when they want to deliver things to the post office.
That kind of talk is a one-way communication where the other person only answers and give
the short answer depends on where both of the people are. This kind of talk called
Logicosemantic negotiation. While Interpersonal negotiation happens in the market when you
meet someone you knew and talked for a long time with different topics, or when parents and
children talk at dinner time. This conversation mostly a two-way communication with lots of
different topics and taking-giving turns between speaker.

Based on the chart above, both speakers delivered the same function in negotiation
patterns both interpersonal and logicosemantic. It means that both speakers did their job fairly
in a good communication. Even though in some parts, the first speaker didn’t catch the exact
meaning from the second speaker and asked a question for clarification. But the conversation
kept going smoothly until the end.
CONCLUSION

Analyzing a spoken text is interesting since people could do so many different ways
and strategies in delivering their messages within the communication. With the help of
Thornbury’s book, we could see that there are 6 point’s in analyzing a spoken text. All these
6 points could be a base pillar for creating a good communication between 2 or more people.
Based on the result of this paper, both of the speakers did communicate good but the second
speaker holds the most percentage in 6 points, while for the last point, negotiation patterns,
both of the speaker got the same percentage.

No matter how different the result was, the good communication should be build
based on the same topic that both speakers understand, the relevance to each other, various
strategies in taking-giving turns, use various discourse markers and so on. Hopefully that this
paper could help others to understand and to learn the structures or the patterns that occurred
in spoken text.