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M M. Abbreviation for molar, used to characterize the concentration of a solution. A molar

M

M. Abbreviation for molar, used to characterize the concentration of a solution. A molar solution contains one mole of a substance in one liter of solution.

m.

Abbreviaton for meter.

m-.

(m-). Abbreviation for meta-.

“Mackadet EQ 112 P” [McIntyre].

for pearlized baby shampoo concentrate.

“Mackalene 110” [McIntyre].

TM

TM for co-

camidopropyl dimethylamine lactate. Grade: Cosmetic and industrial. Use: Hair conditioning agent for shampoos and con- ditioners.

M13. A bacteriophage which infects certain

strains of E. coli. The salient feature of this phage is that it packages only a single strand of DNA into its capsid. If the investigator has inserted some hetero- logous DNA into the M13 genome, copious quanti-

ties of single-stranded DNA can subsequently

be

isolated from the phage capsids. M13 is often used to

“Mackamide CMA” [McIntyre].

TM for

cocamide monoethanol amine (MEA). Properties: Low solubility in water. Grade: Flaked and cosmetic. Use: Viscosity builder and foam enhancement.

“Mackine 301” [McIntyre].

idopropyl dimethylamine.

TM for stearam-

generate templates for DNA sequencing. Grade: Flaked, cosmetic, and industrial.

m.

Abbreviation for micrometer.

Use: Hair conditioning agent for shampoos and con- ditioners.

m . Abbreviation for millimicron. MacKinnon, Roderick. (1956– ). An Ameri-

can born in Burlington, MA, who won the Nobel See methylarsenic acid. Prize for chemistry in 2003 for his pioneering work

discovering channels in cell membranes, in particu- Abbreviation for methyl allyl chloride. lar for the structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels. He received a B.A. in biochemistry from

Brandeis University and an M.D. from Tufts Uni- versity School of Medicine. MacKinnon is a mem- ber of the National Academy of Sciences and was awarded the 1999 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Re- search Award.

MAA.

MAC.

MacDiarmid, Alan G.

(1927– ). Awarded

Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2000 jointly with Alan J. Heeger and Hideki Shirakawa for the discovery and

development of conductive polymers. He performs his research at University of Pennsylvania, Philadel- phia.

“Mace” [Mace].

(“Chemical Mace”). TM for

a riot-control gas dispersed as an aerosol.

“Macpearl DR-140V” [McIntyre].

a glycol disterate pearl concentrate.

TM for

See chloroacetophenone. macroanalysis. Analysis of chemicals in gram quantities.

macerate. To soften or break up a fibrous sub- stance by long soaking in water at or near room temperature, often accompanied by mechanical ac-

tion, as in the preparation of paper stock in the beater. In the plastics industry, to comminute a fab- ric so that it can be used as a filler in a plastics

See microanalysis.

macrocyclic.

An organic molecule with a large

ring structure containing over 15 carbon atoms.

macromolecule. A molecule, usually organic,

composition. The term is also used in pharmacy

of atoms. Such giant molecules are generally of two

types. (1) Individual entities (compounds) that can- not be subdivided without losing their chemical identity. Typically these are proteins, many of which

[McIntyre]. TM for shampoo blend. have molecular weights running into the millions.

(2) Combinations of repeating chemical units (mo-

M acid. (1-amino-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid). nomers) linked together into chain or network struc-

C 10 H 5 NH 2 OHSO 3 H. tures called polymers; each monomer has the same

chemical constitution as the polymer, e.g., isoprene

water; soluble in hot water and alcohol. (C 5 H 8 ) and polyisoprene (C 5 H 8 ) n . Synthetic elasto-

Use: Azo dye intermediate. mers (plastics) are typical of this kind of macromol-

774

composed an aggregation of hundreds or thousands

to

describe a method of preparing medicinal composi- tions.

“Machadet EZ-154 High Foam Powder”

Properties: Gray needles. Slightly soluble in cold

775 MAGNESITE, CAUSTIC-CALCINED

ecule; cellulose is the most common example found Use: To destroy submersed aquatic weeds in irriga-

in nature. Most macromolecules are in the colloidal size range. See polymer, high; protein; colloid chemistry.

macrorestriction map.

Map depicting the or-

der of and distance between sites at which restriction enzymes cleave chromosomes.

tion systems.

magnalium.

sium.

An alloy of aluminum and magne-

magnesia.

Magnesium oxide that has been spe-

cially processed. See magnesium oxide.

macrose.

See dextran.

 

magnesia alba.

See magnesium carbonate;

madder.

A natural dyestuff.

magnesium carbonate, basic.

See alizarin; lake; dye, natural.

magnesia-alumina.

MgOAl 2 O 3 . A synthetic

Maddrell’s salts. (IMP). Insoluble sodium spinel. metaphosphate, NaPO 3 -II and NaPO 3 -III.

See sodium metaphosphate.

magnesia, burnt.

burned.

See magnesite, dead-

Madelung synthesis.

Formation of indole de-

rivatives by intramolecular cyclization of an N-(2-

alkylphenyl)alkanamide by a strong base at high calcined. temperature.

magnesia, calcined.

See magnesite, caustic-

“MagClean HSAIO” [Martin Marietta].

magnesia, caustic-calcined.

caustic-calcined.

See magnesite,

TM for a micronized high activity MgO. Use: A scorch retarder in chloraprene and fluorelas- tomers, thickening agents for SMC/BMC acid ac- ceptors in halogenated and chloroprene adhesives.

magenta.

See fuchsin.

magnesia-chromia.

spinel.

MgOCr 2 O 3 . A synthetic

magnesia, dead-burned.

dead-burned.

See magnesite,

magic acid. A superacid containing equal molar concentrations of antimony pentafluoride (SbF 6 ) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSO 2 OH).

magnesia, fused.

Use: As a refractory and to handle electricity at high temperatures.

magic numbers. Atoms whose nuclei have the

magnesia, lightburned.

A special high-purity

number of protons, neutrons, or both with any of the magnesium oxide. values, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126. These elements have a

stability and binding energy that are greater than

magnesite.

(natural magnesium carbonate).

average and have other special properties. CAS: 546-93-0. (MgCO 3 ). The term magnesite is

loosely used as a synonym for magnesia as are also

“Maglite” [Hall]. (magnesium oxide). the terms caustic-calcined magnesite, dead-burned

magnesite, and synthetic magnesite. Hazard: A nuisance particulate. Properties: White, yellowish, grayish-white, or

suppressant. brown crystalline solid. D 3–3.12, Mohs hardness

CAS: 1309-48-4. TM for acid acceptor and stabi- lizer. Use: In rubber, plastic thickener filler, and smoke

3.5–4.5.

mag-lith.

A magnesium-lithium alloy used as a

Occurrence: U.S. (California, Washington, Ne-

structural metal in space vehicles. vada), Austria, Greece.

Use: To make the various grades of magnesium ox-

magma. (1) In medicine, a class of preparations in ide, to produce carbon dioxide, refractory.

which finely divided, freshly precipitated, insoluble, inorganic hydroxides are suspended in water to form a viscous, opaque mixture that may settle out on standing. Magmas of bismuth, magnesium, and iron

are used, commonly called milk of bismuth, milk of burned.

magnesia, etc. (2) In geology, a molten mass within the earth’s

crust (e.g., lava). The source of igneous rock. cined magnesia; calcined magnesite; calcined

(caustic-cal-

Hazard: TLV: 10 mg/m 3 . See magnesium carbonate.

magnesite, burnt.

See magnesite, dead-

magnesite, caustic-calcined.

magnesia. Principally magnesia (magnesium ox- “Magnacide H Herbicide” [Baker ide) MgO). The product obtained by firing mag- Petrolite]. TM for a liquid herbicide. nesite or other substances convertible to magnesia

MAGNESITE, DEAD-BURNED

776

upon heating at some temperature below 1450C so Hazard: (Solid metal) Combustible at 650C. (Pow-

that some carbon dioxide is retained (2–10%) and the magnesium oxide displays adsorptive capacity

or activity. Use: Aluminum alloys for structural parts, die-cast

auto parts, missiles, space vehicles; powder for py- rotechnics and flash photography, production of iron, nickel, zinc, titanium, zirconium; antiknock gasoline additives; magnesium compounds and Gri- gnard syntheses; cathodic protection; reducing agent; desulfurizing iron in steel manufacture; pre-

cision instruments; optical mirrors; dry and wet bat-

der, flakes, etc.) Flammable, dangerous fire hazard. Use dry sand or talc to extinguish.

Grade: Technical, chemical, synthetic rubber, USP (light, medium light, heavy).

Use: Magnesium oxychloride and oxysulfate ce- ments, 85% magnesia insulation, rubber (reinforc- ing agent, accelerator), uranium processing, chemi- cal processing, rayon, refractories, paper pulp, acid- neutralizing fertilizers, welding-rod coatings,

fillers, glass constituents, abrasives. teries. See magnesium oxide.

magnesium acetate.

CAS:

142-72-3.

(1)

magnesite, dead-burned.

(burnt magnesia;

(2)

Mg(OOCCH 3 ) 2 4H 2 O. Properties: Colorless, crystalline aggregate or mo- noclinic crystals; acetic acid odor. (1) Mp 323C, d 1.42; (2) mp 80C, d 1.45. Soluble in water and dilute alcohol. Derivation: Interaction of magnesium carbonate and

Mg(OOCCH 3 ) 2

or

dead-burned magnesia; refractory magnesia; burnt magnesite; magnesium oxide). MgO. The granular product obtained by burning (firing) mag- nesite or other substances convertible to magnesia upon heating above 1450C long enough to form granules suitable for use as a refractory (ASTM).

Synthetic magnesium hydroxide or chloride is acetic acid.

sometimes used instead of magnesite as a source. Grade: 85–87% (from magnesite ores); 97–99%

(from seawater and brines). Use: Refractories, as grains or basic brick, the

latter

especially in open hearth furnaces for steel, furnaces

nonferrous metal smelting, and in cement and

other kilns. See magnesium oxide.

for

Use: Dye fixative in textile printing, deodorant, disin- fectant, and antiseptic.

magnesium

Mg(C 5 H 7 O 2 ) 2 .

Crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, resis- tant to hydrolysis, a chelating nonionizing com- pound.

acetylacetonate.

magnesium amide.

magnesite,

synthetic.

Mg(NH 2 ) 2 .

Magnesium

Properties: Whitish to gray crystals. D 1.40. Decom- poses when heated. Derivation: Reaction of magnesium with ammonia under elevated pressure.

heated Hazard: A pyrophoric material igniting in air at

room temperature. Evolves ammonia on vigorous

oxide,

MgO, as obtained from seawater, seawater bitterns, or well brines. The preliminary product is usually

magnesium hydroxide or chloride, which is then

heated, or sometimes treated with steam and

in the case of the chloride, to obtain the oxide. Synthetic magnesite constitutes the purer grades of

reaction with water. dead-burned magnesite. Use: Catalyst for polymerization.

magnesium.

CAS: 7439-95-4. Mg. Metallic element of atomic number 12, group IIA of the periodic table, aw 24.305, valence = 2; 3 isotopes. Magnesium is the

central element of the chlorophyll molecule; it is also an important component of red blood cor- puscles.

alkaline-earth

metal; readily fabricated by all standard methods. Lightest of the structural metals; strong reducing agent; electrical conductivity similar to aluminum. D 1.74, mp 650C, bp 1107C. Soluble in acids; insol- uble in water.

Magnesite and dolomite; seawater and

brines. Derivation: (1) Electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride (Dow seawater process); (2) reduction of magnesium oxide with ferrosilicon (Pidgeon process). Available forms: Ingots, bars, fine powder (up to 99.6% pure), sheet and plate, rods, tubing, ribbon,

Source:

Properties: Silvery, moderately hard,

magnesium ammonium arsenate dihydrate.

CAS: 14644-70-3. mf: AsO 4 H 3 NMg2H 2 O. Hazard: A poison by ingestion and skin contact.

magnesium ammonium orthophosphate.

See magnesium ammonium phosphate.

magnesium ammonium phosphate.

(mag-

nesium ammonium orthophosphate). MgNH 4 PO 4 6H 2 O. Properties: White powder. D 1.71, mp (decomposes to magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 O 7 ). Soluble in acids; insoluble in alcohol and water. Derivation: By the interaction of solutions of a mag- nesium salt and ammonium phosphate. Use: Fire retardant for fabrics, fertilizer.

magnesium arsenate.

(arsenic acid, magne-

sium salt). CAS: 10103-50-1. Mg 3 (AsO 4 ) 2 xH 2 O.

flakes. Properties: White powder. When pure it is insoluble

777 MAGNESIUM CHROMATE

in water. Technical material is highly hydrated and made from magnesium carbonate and arsenic acid. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. Use: Insecticide.

magnesium benzoate.

Mg(C 7 H 5 O 2 ) 2 3H 2 O.

Properties: White, crystalline powder. Loses 3H

2 O

at 110C, mp approximately 200C. Soluble in water and alcohol.

magnesium biphosphate.

phosphate, monobasic.

See magnesium

magnesium borate. 3MgOB 2 O 3 (orthoborate) or Mg(BO 2 ) 2 8H 2 O (metaborate). Properties: Transparent, colorless crystals or white powder. Soluble in alcohol, acetic acid, and inorgan- ic acids; slightly soluble in water. Derivation: By heating magnesium oxide, boric an- hydride.

nation of magnesium oxide or Mg(OH) 2 with CO 2 ; (3) reaction of a soluble magnesium salt solution with sodium carbonate or bicarbonate. Grade: Technical, NF, FCC. Use: Magnesium salts, heat insulation and refractory,

rubber reinforcing agent, inks, glass, pharmaceuti-

cals, dentrifice and cosmetics, free-running table salts, antacid, making magnesium citrate, filtering medium. Use: In foods as drying agent, color retention agent, anticaking agent, carrier.

magnesium carbonate, basic.

(magnesia

alba). Various formulas are given and may all be possible because of the method of derivation. A typical formula is Mg(OH) 2 3MgCO 3 3H 2 O. Prop- erties and uses are almost identical with those listed for magnesium carbonate. Derivation: Precipitation from magnesium salt solu- tion.

Use: Preservative, antiseptic, fungicide. See magnesium carbonate.

magnesium borocitrate.

magnesium chlorate.

Mg(BO 2 ) 2 Mg 3 (C 6 H 5 O 7 ) 2 14H 2 O.

Properties: White

scales. Soluble in water. Derivation: By mixing magnesium borate and mag-

powder or small, white, lustrous Properties: White powder; bitter taste. Very hygro-

scopic. D 1.8, mp 35C (decomposes at 120C). Solu-

ble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol. nesium citrate. Hazard: Dangerous fire risk in contact with organic

CAS: 10326-21-3. Mg(ClO ) 6H O.

3

2

2

magnesium boron fluoride.

materials, strong oxidizing agent. Use: Defoilant, desiccant.

Grade: Technical. Hazard: Strong irritant. TLV: 2.5 mg/(F)m 3 . magnesium chloride. Use: Metal flux.

magnesium bromate.

Mg(BrO 3 ) 2 6H 2 O.

Properties: White crystals or crystalline powder. D

(decomposes).

2.29, mp loses 6H 2 O at 200C, bp

Soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol.

Derivation: By adding

magnesium sulfate to a solu-

tion of barium bromate.

Hazard:

Dangerous fire risk in contact with organic

materials.

CAS: 7786-30-3. (1) MgCl 2 , (2) MgCl 2 6H 2 O. Properties: Colorless or white crystals. Deliques- cent, d (1) 2.32, (2) 1.56; mp (1) 708C, (2) loses 2H O at 100C. if heated rapidly melts at 116–118C. Bp (1) 1412C, (2) decomposes to oxychloride. Solu- ble in water and alcohol. Derivation: Action of hydrochloric acid on magne-

sium oxide or hydroxide, especially the latter when precipitated from seawater or brines (Great Salt

2

Use: Analytical reagent, oxidizing agent. Method of purification: Recrystallization.

Grade: Technical (crystals, fused, flakes, granulat- ed), CP. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. Use: Source of magnesium metal, disinfectants, fire

extinguishers, fireproofing wood, magnesium oxy- chloride cement, refrigerating brines, ceramics,

cooling drilling tools, textiles (size, dressing and

Use: Organic syntheses, medicine (sedative). filling of cotton and woolen fabrics, thread lubri-

Derivation: Reaction of hydrobromic acid with nesium oxide and subsequent crystallization.

Lake).

magnesium bromide.

MgBr 2 6H 2 O.

Properties: Colorless, very deliquescent crystals;

bitter taste. D 2.00, mp 172C, mp (anhydrous)

700C.

Soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol.

mag-

magnesium

MgCO 3 . The term

magnesium carbonate is generally reserved for

synthetic, pure variety. The naturally occurring ma- terial is called magnesite.

the

carbonate.

cant, carbonization of wool), paper manufacture, road dust-laying compounds, floor sweeping com- pounds, flocculating agent, catalyst.

Properties: Light, bulky, white powder. Bulk d ap- magnesium chromate. MgCrO 4 5H 2 O.

proximately 4 lb/ft 3 , d 3.0, decomposes 350C, refr index about 1.52. Soluble in acids; very slightly soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol. Noncombust- ible. Derivation: (1) Mined as natural material; (2) carbo-

Properties: Small, readily soluble, yellow crystals. Use: Since it does not produce a fusible alkaline residue when thermally decomposed, it is used as a corrosion inhibitor in the water coolant of gas tur- bine engines. Insoluble basic magnesium chromates

MAGNESIUM CITRATE

778

also are available. Their potential applications are in the treatment of light metal surfaces. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion.

Derivation: Magnesia or magnesium carbonate dis- solved in gluconic acid. Grade: Pharmaceutical. Use: Medicine, vitamin tablets.

magnesium citrate, dibasic.

(acid magne-

sium citrate). MgHC 6 H 5 O 7 5H 2 O. Properties: White or slightly yellowgranules or powder; odorless. Soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol.

Derivation: Reaction of citric acid and magnesium soluble in alcohol. Combustible.

magnesium glycerophosphate.

(magnesium

glycerinophosphate). CH 2 (OH)CH(OH)CH 2 OP(O)O 2 Mg. Properties: Colorless powder. Soluble in water; in-

hydroxide or carbonate.

Derivation: Action of glycerophosphoric acid on

Use: Laxative, dietary supplement. magnesium hydroxide. Use: Food additive; plasticizer.

magnesium dichromate.

MgCr 2 6H 2 O.

Properties: Characterized by high solubility in wa-

magnesium hydrogen phosphate.

See

ter. It is an orange-red, deliquescent, crystalline hy- magnesium phosphate, dibasic.

drate. Use: Potential applications are in formulations for corrosion prevention and metal treatment. Noncom- bustible.

magnesium dioxide.

oxide.

See magnesium per-

magnesium hydroxide.

(magnesium hydrate

in aqueous suspension; milk of magnesia; magnesia magma). CAS: 1309-42-8. Mg(OH) 2 . Properties: White powder; odorless. D 2.36, mp decomposes at 350C. Soluble in solution of ammo-

nium salts and dilute acids; almost insoluble in water

magnesium fluoride.

CAS: 7783-40-6. MgF 2 .

(magnesium flux). Derivation: Precipitation from a solution of a mag-

nesium salt by sodium hydroxide, precipitation from seawater with lime. It occurs naturally as brucite. Grade: Technical, NF, FCC. Use: Intermediate for obtaining magnesium metal, sugar refining, medicine (antacid, laxative), residual fuel oil additive, sulfite pulp, uranium processing, dentrifrices, in foods as drying agent, color retention agent, frozen desserts.

Noncombustible. Derivation: By adding sodium fluoride or

fluoric acid to a solution of magnesium salt. Grade: Technical, CP, single crystals. Hazard: Strong irritant. TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m 3 .

Use: Ceramics, glass, single crystals for polarizing prisms, lenses and windows. magnesium lauryl sulfate.

Mg(OSO 3 C 12 H 25 ) 2 . Properties: Pale yellow liquid; mild odor. Soluble in methanol, acetone, and water; insoluble in kerosene. Combustible. Derivation: Sulfonation of lauryl alcohol and inter- action with a magnesium salt. Use: Surfactant and anionic detergent, foaming, wet- ting, and emulsifying agent.

Grade: Technical (crystals, solution). Hazard: Strong irritant. TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m 3 . magnesium lime. Same as magnesium lime- Use: Ceramics, concrete hardeners, waterproofing, stone.

fluoride). CAS: 18972-56-0. MgSiF 6 6H 2 O. Properties: White, efflorescent, crystalline powder. D 1.788, decomposes 120C. Soluble in water. Derivation: By treating magnesium hydroxide or carbonate with hydrofluosilicic acid.

and alcohol. Noncombustible.

Properties: White crystals. D 3.15, mp 1263C, bp

2239C. Exhibits fluorescence by electric light. Solu-

ble in nitric

acid; insoluble in alcohol and water.

hydro-

magnesium fluosilicate.

(magnesium silico-

mothproofing, laundry sour, magnesium casting. See limestone.

See magnesium fluoride.

magnesium limestone.

See limestone.

magnesium flux. magnesium formate.

Mg(CHO 2 ) 2 2H 2 O.

magnesium methoxide.

(magnesium methyl-

Properties: Colorless crystals. Soluble in water; in- ate). (CH 3 O) 2 Mg.

Properties: Colorless, crystalline solid. Decomposes

Derivation: Action of formic acid on magnesium on warming.

Derivation: Reaction of magnesium and methanol.

Use: Analytical chemistry. Use: Dielectric coating, cross-linking agent to form stable gels, catalyst.

soluble in alcohol and ether. Combustible.

oxide.

magnesium gluconate.

Mg(C 6 H 11 O 7 ) 2 2H 2 O.

Properties: White powder or fine needles; odorless; almost tasteless. Soluble in water. Combustible.

magnesium methylate.

thoxide.

See magnesium me-

779

MAGNESIUM PEROXIDE

magnesium molybdate.

MgMoO 4 .

magnesium oxychloride cement.

(Sorel

cement). A mixture of magnesium chloride and

Properties: Crystalline powder. Absolute d 2.8, mp

approximately 1060C. Soluble in water. magnesium oxide that reacts with water to form a Use: Electronic and optical applications. solid mass, presumed to be magnesium oxychloride. Fillers such as wood flour, sawdust, sand, powdered

stone, talc, etc., are usually present. A variety of proprietary mixtures are available. Strength ranges from 7000 to 10,000 psi. Copper powder minimizes water solubility.

magnesium nitrate.

CAS: 10377-60-3. Mg(NO 3 ) 2 2H 2 O. Properties: White crystals. D 1.45, mp 95–100C, decomposes at 330C. Soluble in water and alcohol; deliquescent. Derivation: Action of nitric acid on magnesium ox- ide with subsequent crystallization.

Hazard: Dangerous fire and explosion risk in contact

magnesium palmitate.

Mg(C 16 H 31 O 2 ) 2 .

Properties: Crystalline needles or white lumps. Mp 121.5C; insoluble in water and alcohol. Combus- tible.

Use: Varnish drier, lubricant for plastics.

with organic

materials, strong oxidizing agent.

Use: Pyrotechnics.

magnesium oleate.

Mg(C 18 H 33 O 2 ) 2 .

Properties: Yellowish mass. Soluble in linseed oil, hydrocarbons, alcohol, and ether; insoluble in water.

Combustible.

Interaction of magnesium chloride and

sodium oleate. Use: Varnish driers, in dry-cleaning solvents (to pre- vent spontaneous ignition), emulsifying agent, lu-

Derivation:

bricant for plasticizers.

magnesium perborate.

Mg(BO 3 ) 2 7H 2 O.

Properties: White powder. Sparingly soluble in wa- ter; decomposes with evolution of oxygen. Derivation: Action of peroxide or electrolytic oxida- tion of borate solutions. Hazard: Moderate fire risk in contact with organic materials. Use: Driers, bleaching, antiseptic (tooth powders).

magnesium perchlorate.

magnesium orthophosphate.

See magne-

CAS: 10034-81-8. (1) Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 ;

Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 6H 2 O.

(2)

sium phosphate. Properties: White crystals. Deliquescent; very solu-

ble in water and alcohol. (1) D 2.21 (18C), decom-

magnesium oxide. (magnesia). poses at 251C (2) d 1.98, decomposes at 185–190C.

CAS: 1309-48-4. MgO. Two forms are produced,

one a light, fluffy material prepared by a relatively perchloric acid.

low-temperature dehydration of the hydroxide, the

other a dense material made by high-temperature with organic materials.

Derivation: Reaction of magnesium hydroxide and

Hazard: Dangerous fire and explosion risk in contact

furnacing of the oxide after it has been formed from the carbonate or hydroxide. See periclase. Properties: White powder, either light or heavy de- pending upon whether it is prepared by heating mag- nesium carbonate or the basic magnesium carbon- ate. D approximately 0.36 (varies), mp 2800C, bp

acids

and ammonium salt solutions. Noncombustible.

Derivation: (1) By calcining magnesium

carbonate

or magnesium hydroxide, (2) by treating magne-

sium chloride with lime and heating or by heating it in air, (3) from seawater via the hydroxide. magnesium peroxide. (magnesium dioxide). Grade: Technical, CP, USS, FCC, 99.5%, fused, low CAS: 14452-57-4. MgO 2 . boron, rubber, semiconductor, single crystals. Properties: White, powder; tasteless; odorless. De-

Hazard: Toxic by inhalation of fume. TLV: 10

mg(Mg)/m 3 (fume). in dilute acids with formation of hydrogen peroxide.

composes above 100C. Insoluble in water; soluble

Mg(MnO 4 ) 2 6H 2 O. Properties: Bluish-black, friable, deliquescent crys- tals. D 2.18, mp (decomposes). Soluble in water. Hazard: Fire hazard in contact with organic materi- als. Powerful oxidizer. Use: Polymerization catalyst, antiseptic.

Use: (1) As a regenerable drying agent for gases and (2) oxidizing agent.

magnesium permanganate.

3600C. Slightly soluble in water; soluble in

Use: Refractories, especially for steel furnace lin- ings, polycrystalline ceramic for aircraft wind- shields, electrical insulation, pharmaceuticals and

Available oxygen 28.4%. Keep cool and dry. A powerful oxidizing material. Derivation: From sodium or barium peroxide with

cosmetics, inorganic rubber accelerator, oxychlo- magnesium sulfate in a concentrated solution.

ride and oxysulfate cements, paper manufacture, fertilizers, removal of sulfur dioxide from stack

gases, adsorption and catalysis, semiconductors, reacts with acidic materials and moisture. pharmaceuticals, food and feed additive. Use: Bleaching and oxidizing agent, medicine (ant-

Grade: Technical, 15, 25, and 50%. Hazard: Powerful oxidizer and dangerous fire risk,

See “Maglite” [Hall].

acid).

MAGNESIUM PHOSPHATE

780

magnesium phosphate.

(magnesium ortho-

phosphate).

magnesium

phosphate, monobasic; magnesium phosphate, tri- basic.

See

magnesium

phosphate,

dibasic;

magnesium ricinoleate.

Mg(OOCC 17 H 32 OH) 2 .

Properties: Coarse, yellow granules; faint fatty acid odor. Mp 98C, d 1.03 (25/25C). Combustible. Use: Cosmetics.

magnesium salicylate.

Mg(C 7 H 5 O 3 ) 2 4H 2 O.

magnesium phosphate, dibasic. (dimagne- Properties: Colorless, efflorescent, crystalline pow-

sium orthophosphate; dimagnesium phosphate; magnesium phosphate, secondary; magnesium hydrogen phosphate). CAS: 7782-75-4. MgHPO 4 3H 2 O. Properties: White, crystalline powder. D 2.13, loses

water at 205C, decomposes at 550–650C, decom- magnesium silicate. 3MgSiO 3 5H 2 O (vari-

able). The FCC specifies a ratio of 2MgO:5SiO 2 . See magnesium trisilicate; serpentine; talc. Properties: Fine, white powder. Insoluble in water or alcohol. An absorbent. Noncombustible.

Grade: Technical, FCC. Derivation: Interaction of a magnesium salt and a Use: Stabilizer for plastics, food additive, medicine soluble silicate.

(laxative).

Grade: Technical, FCC. Hazard: Toxic by inhalation, use in foods restricted to 2%.

nesium biphosphate; acid magnesium phosphate; Use: Rubber filler; ceramics, glass, refractories; ab-

sorbent for crude oil spills; manufacture of perma-

MgH 4 (PO 4 ) 2 2H 2 O. nently dry resins and resinous compositions; paints,

varnishes, and paper (filler); animal and vegetable oils (bleaching agent); odor absorbent; filter medi- um; catalyst and catalyst carrier; anticaking agent in foods.

magnesium tetrahydrogen phosphate).

magnesium phosphate, monobasic.

der. Soluble in water and alcohol. Derivation: Action of salicylic acid on magnesium hydroxide. Use: Medicine (antiinfective).

poses to pyrophosphate on heating. Soluble in dilute acids; slightly soluble in water. Nonflammable. Derivation: Action of orthophosphoric acid on mag- nesium oxide.

(mag-

Properties: White, hygroscopic, crystalline powder. Decomposes to metaphosphate on heating. Soluble in water and acids; insoluble in alcohol. Nonflamm- able.

Derivation: Action of orthophosphoric acid on mag- See asbestos. nesium hydroxide. Use: Fireproofing wood, stabilizer for plastics. magnesium silicide. Mg 2 Si.

Properties: Bluish crystals. Mp 1085C, d 1.9, de- magnesium phosphate, neutral. See mag- composes on heating above 500C, also by water and nesium phosphate, tribasic. hydrochloric acid. Derivation: By heating magnesium powder with sili-

con in ratio of 20:6. Use: Semiconductor technology, electrical equip- ment.

magnesium phosphate, secondary.

magnesium phosphate, dibasic.

See

magnesium phosphate, tribasic.

(Magne-

sium phosphate, neutral; trimagnesium phos- phate). Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 8H 2 O or 4H 2 O. Properties: Soft, bulky, white powder; odorless; tas- teless. Loses all water at 400C. Soluble in acids;

magnesium silicofluoride.

fluosilicate.

See magnesium

magnesium stannate.

MgSnO 3 3H 2 O.

insoluble in water. Nonflammable. Properties: White, crystalline powder. Decomposes

Derivation: Reaction of magnesium oxide and phos- at 340C. Soluble in water.

phoric acid at high temperatures. Grade: Technical, reagent, NF (5 H 2 O variety), FCC (4, 5, or 8 H 2 O).

Use: Dentifrice polishing agent, pharmaceutical ant- magnesium stannide. Mg 2 Sn.

Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. TLV: 2 mg(Sn)/m 3 . Use: Additive in ceramic capacitors.

acid, adsorbent, stabilizer for plastics, food additive

and dietary supplement.

Properties: Blue-white crystals. Mp 775C. Soluble

in water and dilute hydrochloric acid. Has electrical and magnetic properties. sulfate. Use: Semiconductor technology, magnetochemistry,

magnesium potassium

CAS: 13826-56-7. mf: O 12 S 3 2K2Mg. thermoelectric research.

Hazard: Moderately toxic by inhalation. Low toxici- ty by ingestion. magnesium stearate. (octadecanoic acid,

magnesium salt). magnesium pyrophosphate. Mg 2 P 2 O 7 3H 2 O. CAS: 557-04-0. Mg(C 18 H 35 O 2 ) 2 or with one H 2 O.

Technical grade contains small amounts of the ole- ate and 7% magnesium oxide, MgO.

insoluble in alcohol and water. Properties: Soft, white, light powder; tasteless;

Properties: White powder. D 2.56, loses water at 100C, mp (anhydrous) 1383C. Soluble in acids;

781

MAGNETOCHEMISTRY

odorless. D 1.028, mp 88.5C (pure), 132C (techni-

cal). Insoluble in water and alcohol. Nonflammable. sulfate and ammonium tungstate.

Derivation: Interaction of solutions of magnesium

Grade: Technical, USP FCC. Hazard: TLV: TWA 10 mg/m 3 . Use: Dusting powder, lubricant in making tablets,

Use: Fluorescent screens for X rays, luminescent paint.

drier in paints and varnishes, a flatting agent, stabi- magnesium zirconate. MgO,ZrO 2 .

lizer and lubricant for plastics, an emulsifying agent in cosmetics, a dietary supplement, and in medi- cines.

MgZrSiO 5 ,

or MgOZrO 2 SiO 2 . Properties: White solid. Mp 1760C, d 80 lb/ft 3 . In- soluble in water and alkalies; slightly soluble in acids. Noncombustible. Use: Electrical resistor, ceramics, glaze opacifier.

poses at 1124C, (2) loses 6H 2 O at 150C, loses water at 200C. Soluble in glycerol; very soluble in water; Magnesol [Dallas]. TM for a synthetic,

sparingly soluble in alcohol. Noncombustible. amorphous, adsorptive magnesium silicate.

Properties: Powder. D 4.23, mp 2060C. Use: Electronics.

magnesium zirconium silicate.

magnesium sulfate.

CAS: 7587-88-9. (1) MgSO 4 , (2) (epsom salts) MgSO 4 7H 2 O. Properties: Colorless crystals; saline bitter taste. Neutral to litmus. D (1) 2.65, (2) 1.678. (1) Decom-

Derivation: (1) Action of sulfuric acid on magne- Use: Solvent purification, clarification, and recov-

sium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate, (2) mined in a high degree of purity. Grade: Technical, CP, USP, FCC. Use: Fireproofing, textiles (warp-sizing and loading cotton goods, weighting silk, dyeing and calico printing), mineral waters, catalyst carrier, ceramics,

and

ery; oil refining and recovery; deoderizing and de- colorizing oils and fats; chill-proofing fruit and veg-

etable-based

beverages;

anticaking;

flavor

fragrance carrier.

magnetic double refraction.

See Cotton-

fertilizers, paper (sizing), cosmetic lotions, dietary Mouton effect.

supplement.

Use of a magnetic field

magnesium sulfide. MgS. to remove unwanted magnetic particulates from sol-

id or liquid mixtures of nonmagnetic materials, e.g., removal of impurities from clays, bauxite, glass sands, and mineral processing. Low-gradient fields are suitable for separation of strongly magnetic ma-

magnesium sulfite. MgSO 3 6H 2 O. terials, whereas high-gradient fields can separate

particles of materials that are weakly magnetic, such as coliform bacteria from municipal wastes and sul- fur from coal. Removal of magnetic impurities from industrial wastewater is called magnetic filtration, e.g., reconditioning of boiler water and regeneration of condensate in power plants. See electromagnetic separation; mass spectrometry.

magnesium tetrahydrogen phosphate.

magnetic separation.

Properties: Red-brown, crystalline solid. D 2.84. Decomposes above 2000C; decomposes in water. Use: Source of hydrogen sulfide, laboratory reagent.

Properties: White, crystalline powder. D 1.725, mp loses 6H 2 O at 200C, bp (decomposes). Slightly solu- ble in water; insoluble in alcohol. Derivation: Action of sulfurous acid on magnesium hydroxide. Use: Manufacture of paper pulp (as bisulfite).

See magnesium phosphate, monobasic.

magnetite.

(lodestone; iron ore, magnetic).

magnesium trisilicate.

USP specifies not less

Fe 3 O 4 often with titanium or magnesium. A component of taconite.

than 20% magnesium oxide and 45% SiO 2 , similar Properties: Black mineral, black streak, submetallic

to the FCC requirements for magnesium silicate. See talc. Properties: Fine, white; odorless; tasteless powder; free from grittiness. Insoluble in water and alcohol; readily decomposed by mineral acids. Noncombust- ible.

Derivation: By reaction of soluble magnesium salts with soluble silicates. magnetochemistry. A subdivision of chemistry

Grade: Technical, USP. concerned with the effect of magnetic fields on

Use: Industrial odor absorbent, decolorizing agent,

chemical compounds; analysis and measurement of

antioxidant, medicine (antacid). these effects, (e.g., magnetic moment and magnetic

susceptibility) are important tools in crystallograph-

magnesium tungstate. (magnesium wolfra- ic research and determination of molecular struc- mate). MgWO 4 . tures. Substances that are repelled by a magnetic

field are diamagnetic (water, benzene); those that are attracted are paramagnetic (oxygen, transition

or dull to metallic luster. Contains 72.4% iron. Readily recognized by strong attraction by magnet. Soluble in powder form in hydrochloric acid. De- composes at 1538C to ferric oxide Fe 2 O 3 , d 4.95.2, hardness 5.5–6.5. See iron oxide, black.

Properties: White crystals. D 5.66. Soluble in acids; insoluble in water and alcohol. Noncombustible.

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS

782

element compounds). Diamagnetic materials have only induced magnetic moment; paramagnetic ma- terials have permanent magnetic moment. Magneto- chemistry has been useful in detection of free radi- cals, elucidation of molecular configurations of highly complex compounds, and in its application to

catalytic and chemisorption phenomena. with periodic acid.

Malachite Green G. Malaprade reaction.

See Brilliant Green.

Compounds containing

two hydroxyl groups or a hydroxyl and an amino group attached to adjacent carbon atoms undergo cleavage of the carbon-to-carbon bond when treated

See nuclear magnetic resonance.

malathion.

(S-[1,2-bis(ethoxyc arbonyl)ethyl]-

magnetohydrodynamics.

(MHD). The be-

O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate). CAS: 121-75-5. (CH 3 O) 2 P(S)SCH(COOC 2 H 5 )CH 2 COOC 2 H 5 . Properties: Yellow, high-boiling liquid. Bp 156–157C under 0.7 mm Hg with slight decomposi- tion), mp 3.0C, refr index 1.4985 (25C), d 1.2315

a (25C), vap press (20C) approximately 0.00004 mm Hg. Miscible with most polar organic solvents; slightly soluble in water. Combustible. Derivation: From diethyl maleate and dimethyldi- thiophosphoric acid. Grade: Technical grade is 95+% pure. Hazard: Absorbed by skin, cholinesterase inhibitor.

TLV: TWA 10 mg/m 3 (skin); not classifiable as a human carcinogen. Use: Insecticide; has been used effectively on the Mediterranean fruit fly.

havior of high-temperature ionized gases passed through a magnetic field. A power-generating meth- od using MHD involves an open cycle in which hot

combustible gases from coal, seeded with cerium

potassium to increase electrical conductivity, con-

stitute the working fluid. These are sent through

nozzle surrounded by a magnet; the electricity in-

duced by movement of the ionized gas through

magnetic field is passed to electrodes and the gas sent to a steam generator. Efficiency is rated at

50–60% compared with 40% for conventional

fuel plants and 33% for plants using nuclear fuels.

Two-phase liquid-metal systems are being

as auxiliary units for a number of energy converters. MHD is an important field of expansion of research activity on new sources of energy; its high efficiency

studied

fossil

the

or

and low pollution factor indicate that it may have a significant future in electric power supply. See plasma (2).

malathion-fenitrothion mixture.

trothion-malathion mixture.

See feni-

“Magnifloc” [Cytec].

TM for water soluble

polymers for flocculation, coagulation, dispersion, and viscosification.

Available forms: Emulsion, dry and liquid forms,

broad

range of molecular weights and chemistries. Use: Liquid and solid separation applications.

cationic, anionic and nonionic charges, and a

Maillard reaction.

See browning reaction.

“Maintain” [Aqualon]. TM for a line of prod-

ucts for cleaning, inhibiting corrosion,

architectural copper, brass, and bronze.

and coating

maitotoxin.

CAS: 59392-53-9. mf: C 164 H 256 O 68 S 2 2Na. Hazard: A poison. Source: Natural product.

malaxate. To soften and mix dry materials in the presence of water or other liquid by rubbing, knead- ing, or rolling, thus producing a soft plastic mass. This term is used by one manufacturer, the Fitzpa- trick Co., 832 Industrial Drive, Elmhurst, IL 60126, to describe a machine designed for this purpose, it provides continuous mixing of dry solids with one or more liquids by means of single or double screw- type agitators rotating in a channel.

maleic acid.

acid).

CAS: 110-16-7.

(maleinic acid; cis-butenedioic

acid). CAS: 110-16-7. (maleinic acid; cis -butenedioic Malachite Green. (Benzaldehyde Green; CI Properties:

Malachite Green. (Benzaldehyde Green; CI Properties: Colorless crystals; repulsive astringent 42,000; Victoria Green). taste; faint odor. D 1.59, mp 130–131C. Soluble in CAS: 569-64-2. C 23 H 25 ClN 2 . water, alcohol and acetone; very slightly soluble in

benzene. At temperatures slightly higher than its

methyl, and amyl alcohol. melting point, it is converted partly to fumaric acid.

Combustible. Derivation: Same as for maleic anhydride with spe-

Properties: Green crystals. Soluble in water; ethyl,

Derivation: Condensation of benzaldehyde with N,N-dimethylaniline, oxidation of the phenylmeth-

ane product, and reaction with hydrochloric acid. It cial recovery conditions.

may be formed as a double salt of zinc chloride.

Grade: Technical, reagent.

Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion.

Use: Dyeing textiles, either directly or with mordant;

Use: Organic synthesis (malic, succinic, aspartic, tar-

plant fungicide, staining bacteria, antiseptic. taric, propionic, lactic, malonic and acrylic acids);

783 MALONIC ESTER SYNTHESIS

dyeing and finishing of cotton, wool and silk; pre- malic acid. (hydroxysuccinic acid; apple

servative for oils and fats.

acid). CAS: 6915-15-7. COOHCH 2 CH(OH)COOH Note: Do not confuse with maleic acid. Properties: Colorless crystals; sour taste. D (dl- form) 1.601, (d- or l- form) 1.595 (20/4C); mp (dl) 128C, (d- or l-) 100C; bp (dl) 150C (decomposes), (d- or l-) 140C (decomposes). Very soluble in water and alcohol; slightly soluble in ether. Combustible. Derivation: Occurs naturally in unripe apples and other fruits. Made synthetically by catalytic oxida- tion of benzene to maleic acid, which is converted to malic acid by heating with steam under pressure. Grade: Technical, active, and inactive; FCC. The natural material is levorotatory but the synthetic material is inactive. Use: Manufacture of various esters and salts, wine manufacture, chelating agent, food acidulant, fla- voring.

malloside.

CAS: 17489-40-6.

mf: C 29 H 44 O 9 .

Hazard: A poison. Source: Natural product.

maleic anhydride.

CAS: 108-31-6.

(2,5-furandione).

product. maleic anhydride. CAS: 108-31-6. (2,5-furandione). Properties: Colorless needles. D 0.934 (20/4C), mp 53C, bp

Properties: Colorless needles. D 0.934 (20/4C), mp 53C, bp 200C, flash p 218F (103C), autoign temp

and

dioxane; partially soluble in chloroform and ben- zene. Derivation: (1) Vapor-phase oxidation of benzene

at

400C. (2) Under development is a fixed-bed process involving oxidation of butane with undisclosed cat- alyst. Grade: Technical; rods, flakes, lumps, briquettes, and molten. Hazard: Irritant to tissue. TLV: 0.25 ppm. Use: Polyester resins, alkyd coating resins, fumaric and tartaric acid manufacture, pesticides, preserva- tive for oils and fats, permanent-press resins (tex-

890F (476C). Soluble in water, acetone, alcohol,

with atmospheric oxygen with V 2 O 5 catalyst

malonamide. (carboxamidoacetamide; malonic acid diamide). CAS: 108-13-4. mf: C 3 H 6 N 2 O 2 Properties: Dimorphous, tetragonal or monoclinic.

tiles), Diels-Alder reactions. Mw: 102.11, mp: 170C. Soluble in water @ 8C;

maleic hydrazide.

(1,2-dihydro-3,6-pyridazi-

insoluble in EtOH and Et 2 O; insoluble in ether. Hazard: Mildly toxic by ingestion.

nedione).

CAS: 108-31-6.

HC :CHC(O)NHNH C(O). A plant growth regulator.

soluble in

hot alcohol; more soluble in hot water. Derivation: By treating maleic anhydride with hy- drazine hydrate. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. Use: Systemic herbicide, treatment of tobacco plants, postharvest sprouting inhibitor, weed control, sugar content stabilizer in beets.

Properties: Crystals. Mp 297C. Slightly

malonamide nitrile. See cyanoacetamide.

malonic acid.

(methanedicarbonic acid).

CAS: 141-82-2. CH 2 (COOH) 2 .

Properties: White crystals. Mp 132–134C, bp (de- composes), d 1.63. Soluble in water, alcohol and ether. Derivation: From monochloroacetic acid by reaction with potassium cyanide followed by hydrolysis. Hazard: Strong irritant.

Use: Intermediate for barbiturates and pharmaceu- ticals.

maleimide.

(pyrrole-2,5-dione).

CAS: 541-59-3. mf: C 4 H NO

3

2

Properties: Plates. Mw:

Hazard: A poison.

97.08, mp: 93C.

maleinic acid.

See maleic acid.

malonic acid diamide.

malonic dinitrile.

See malonamide.

(malononitrile).

CAS: 109-77-3. CH 2 (CN) 2 . Properties: Colored crystals. Mp 32.1C, bp 220C. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. Use: Organic synthesis, leaching agent for gold.

maleo-pimaric acid. Reaction product of ma- leic anhydride and l-pimaric acid; derived from pine gum. Properties: Crystalline solid. Mp approximately 225C. Soluble in most organic solvents; insoluble in

malonic ester.

malonic ester synthesis.

See ethyl malonate.

Syntheses based on

the strongly activated methylene group of malonic esters which on reaction with sodium ethoxide form

water or aliphatic hydrocarbons. a resonance-stabilized ion that can be alkylated and

Use: Resins. acylated. After hydrolysis, the free alkylmalonic

MALONIC ETHYL ESTER

784

acids readily decarboxylate to mono- or disubsti- tuted monocarboxylic acids.

Grade: FCC. Use: Flavoring agent in bakery products.

malonic ethyl ester nitrile.

See ethyl cyan-

maltose.

(malt sugar; maltobiose).

oacetate.

reducing disaccharide, composed of two molecules of glucose. Found in starch and glycogen.

cyanoacetate. Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 102–103C. Solu-

CAS: 69-79-4. C 12 H 22 O 11 H 2 O. The most common

malonic methyl ester nitrile.

See methyl

malonic mononitrile.

See cyanoacetic acid.

ble in water; insoluble in ether; slightly soluble in alcohol. Combustible. Derivation: By the enzymatic action of diastase

malononitrile.

See malonic dinitrile.

(usually obtained from malt extract) on starch.

malonylurea.

See barbituric acid.

Use: Nutrient, sweetener, culture media, stabilizer for polysulfides, brewing.

malt.

Yellowish or amber-colored grains of bar-

malt syrup.

ley that have been partially germinated by artificial Properties: Derived from barley (Hordeum vulgare means. It contains dextrin, maltose, and amylase; L.). Brown liquid; sweet taste. Sol in water.

characteristic odor and taste. Black malt is grain that Use:

has been scorched in the drying process.

Abbreviation for mannose, also for methya-

Food additive.

Use: Brewing, malted milk and similar food prod- ucts, extract of malt (with 10% glycerol).

maltase.

(glucase; -glucosidase). An enzyme

Man.

crylonitrile.

mandarin oil.

See citrus peel oils.

that hydrolyzes maltose to glucose. Occurs in the small intestine, in yeast, molds, and malt; usually

associated with the enzyme amylase. Properties: From expression of peel of Citrus reticu- lata Blanco var. Mandarin. Clear orange to brown-

orange liquid; orange odor. D: 0.846. Sol in fixed oils, mineral oil; slt sol in propylene glycol; insol in glycerin. Use: Food additive.

sugars; soluble in cold water but more readily solu-

ble in warm

tains dextrin, maltose, a little glucose, and an amylo- lytic enzyme. It is capable of converting not less than five times its weight of starch into water-soluble

mandarin oil, coldpressed.

malt extract.

(maltine).

Properties: Light-brown, sweet, viscous liquid;

con-

mandelic acid.

(phenylglycolic acid; -phe-

water, d greater than 1.350 and less than

1.430 (25C). Derivation: By infusing malt with water at 60C, concentrating the expressed liquid below 60C, and

adding 10% by weight of glycerol. form. Use: Nutrient, emulsifying agent.

nylhydroxyacetic acid; benzoglycolic acid,

known also as amygdalic acid). CAS: 90-64-2. C 6 H 5 CH 2 OCOOH. Exists in stereoi- someric forms. The properties are those of the dl-

someric forms. The properties are those of the dl - maltha. A black, viscous, natural bitumen

maltha. A black, viscous, natural bitumen con- sisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Its viscosity and rheological properties lie between

those of crude oil and semisolid asphalt. It is the chief component of Athabaska oil sands. Properties: Large, white crystals or powder; faint odor. D 1.30, mp 117–119C, darkens on exposure to

light. Soluble in ether; slightly soluble in water and

alcohol. maltodextrin. Derivation: Hydrolysis of the cyanohydrin formed

from benzaldehyde, sodium bisulfite, and sodium

cyanide. Can be obtained from amygdalin. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. Use: Organic synthesis, medicine (urinary anti- septic).

malthenes.

See petrolenes.

CAS: 9050-36-6. mf: (C

6 H 10 O 5 ) n

Properties: White powder or solution from partial

hydrolysis of wheat or corn starch. Use: Food additive.

maltol.

(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone).

CAS: 118-71-8. CH 3 C 5 H 2 O(O)(OH). mandelonitrile. (benzaldehyde cyanohydrin;

Properties: White, crystalline powder; characteristic caramel-butterscotch odor and suggestive of a frui-

“Laetrile”). CAS: 532-28-5. C 6 H 5 CH(OH)CN.

ty-strawberry aroma in dilute solution. Melting Properties: Oily, yellow liquid. D 1.1165 (20/4C), fp

10C, bp 170C (decomposes). Soluble in alcohol,

soluble in alcohol and propylene glycol. chloroform, ether; nearly insoluble in water.

range 160–164C. Slightly soluble in water; more

785 MANGANESE CARBONYL

mandelyltropeine.

maneb.

(generic

See homotropine.

name for manganese ethylen-

ebisdithiocarbamate). CAS: 12427-38-2. (SSCNCH 2 CH 2 NHCSS)Mn.

heating.

Partially soluble in water; soluble in chloroform. Derivation: Reaction of disodium ethylenebisdithio-

Properties: Brown powder. Decomposes on

carbamate and a manganese salt.

Use: Fungicide for foliage.

See zineb.

manganese.

CAS: 7439-96-5. Mn. Metallic element of atomic number 25, group VIIB of periodic table, aw

manganese ammonium sulfate.

(manga-

nous ammonium sulfate). MnSO (NH ) SO 6H O. Properties: Light-red crystals. D 1.83. Soluble in water.

4

4

2

4

2

manganese arsenate.

nate.

manganese binoxide.

oxide.

See manganous arse-

See manganese di-

manganese, bis(2-benzoylbenzoato)bis(3-(1-

methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)pyridine)-,

trihydrate.

See nicotine, compounded with

manganese(ii) o-benzoyl benzoate.

64.9380, valences = 2, 3, 4, 6, 7; no stable isotopes; four artificial radioisotopes. manganese black. See manganese dioxide. Properties: There are four allotropic forms of which

is most important. Brittle silvery metal, d 7.44, Mohs hardness 5, mp 1245C, bp 2097C, decom-

poses water. Readily dissolves in dilute mineral water.

manganese borate.

MnB 4 O 7 .

Properties: Reddish-white powder. Insoluble

in

acids. Pure manganese cannot be fabricated. Man- ganese is considered essential for plant and animal life. Occurrence: Usually associated with iron ores in submarginal concentration. Important ores of man- ganese are pyrolusite, manganite, psilomelane, rho- dochrosite. An important source of manganese is

In-

dia, South Africa, Gabon, Ghana, Zaire, Montana;

90% of U.S. consumption is imported. So-called

Derivation: By the action of boric acid on manga- nese hydroxide. Grade: Technical. Use: Varnish and oil drier.

manganese-boron. An alloy of manganese and boron used in making brass, bronze, and other alloys.

manganese bromide.

See manganous bro-

manganese bronze.

Alloy of 55–60% copper,

38–42% zinc, up to 3.5% manganese with or without

small amounts of iron, aluminum, tin or lead.

manganese caprylate.

Use: Food additive.

open-hearth slags. Ores occur chiefly in Brazil,

nodules rich in manganese and containing also co- mide. balt, nickel, and copper have been found in huge

floor

of the Pacific south of Hawaii. Such nodules have been located in other areas such as in Lake Mich-

quantities (estimated at 1.5 trillion tons) on the

igan. Derivation: Reduction of the oxide with

aluminum

or carbon. Pure manganese is obtained electrolyti-

cally from sulfate or chloride solution.

Grade: Technical, pure or electrolytic, powdered. Hazard: Dust or powder is flammable. Use dry

mg/

m 3 ; (metal and most compounds): ceiling 5 mg/m 3 .

al-

loys (improved corrosion resistance and hardness),

high-purity salt for various chemical uses, purifying

production, manufac-

Use: Ferroalloys (steel manufacture), nonferrous

chemical to extinguish. Toxic. TLV: (fume) 1

and scavenging agent in metal

ture of aluminum by Toth process.

manganese acetate. (acetic acid manga-

nese(2+) salt). CAS: 638-38-0. Mn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 4H 2 O.

manganese carbonate.

(manganous carbon-

ate; rhodocrosite). MnCO . Properties: Rose-colored crystals, almost white when precipitated. D 3.125, mp (decomposes). Sol- uble in dilute inorganic acids; almost insoluble in common organic acids; both concentrated and di- lute, insoluble in water. Derivation: (1) A precipitate from the addition of sodium carbonate to a solution of a manganese salt; (2) hydrometallurgical treatment of manganiferrous iron ore. Grade: Chemical (46% manganese).

3

Properties: Pale-red crystals. D 1.59, mp 80C. Solu- manganese carbonyl. Mn 2 (CO) 10 . ble in water and alcohol. Combustible. Properties: Yellow crystals. Mp 154C. Decomposi-

Derivation: Action of acetic acid on manganese hy- droxide.

Use: Textile dyeing, oxidation catalyst, paint and Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: ceiling of 5 mg(Mn)/ varnish (drier, boiled oil manufacture), fertilizers, m 3 . food packaging, feed additive. Use: Antiknock gasoline, catalyst.

tion begins at 110C in absence of CO, d 1.75. Insolu- ble in water; soluble in most organic solvents.

MANGANESE CHLORIDE

786

manganese chloride.

ride.

manganese chromate.

mate.

manganese citrate.

See manganous chlo-

See manganous chro-

(manganous citrate).

Mn 3 (C 6 H 5 O 7 ) 2 . Properties: White powder. Soluble in water in pres- ence of sodium citrate. Combustible. Derivation: Action of citric acid on manganese hy- droxide. Use: Feed additive, food additive, and dietary supple- ment.

manganese glycerophosphate.

CH 2 OHCH 2 OCH 2 OP(O)O 2 Mn. Properties: Yellow-white or pinkish powder; odorless. Nearly tasteless. Soluble in water in pres- ence of citric acid; insoluble in alcohol. Derivation: Action of glycerophosphoric acid on manganese hydroxide. Grade: Technical, FCC. Use: Food additive and dietary supplement.

manganese green.

See barium manganate.

manganese hydrate.

See manganic hydrox-

ide, manganous hydroxide.

manganese cyclopentadienyl

tricarbonyl.

CAS: 12079-65-1. C 5 H 4 Mn(CO) 3 . Hazard: Toxic material absorbed by skin. TLV: 0.1 ppm(Mn). Use: Antiknock agent.

manganese hydrogen phosphate.

See

manganous phosphate, acid.

manganese hydroxide.

See manganic hy-

droxide, manganous hydroxide.

manganese dioxide.

(manganese binoxide;

manganese hypophosphite.

CAS: 10043-84-2. Mn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 H 2 O. Properties: Pink crystals or powder; odorless; tas- teless. Soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol. Derivation: Interaction of manganese sulfate and calcium hypophosphite. Grade: Technical, FCC. Hazard: Dangerous fire and explosion risk when heated (evolves phosphine) or in presence of strong oxidizing agents. Use: Food additive and dietary supplement.

manganese iodide.

manganese linoleate.

See manganous iodide.

Mn(C 18 H 31 O 2 ) 2 .

manganese black; battery manganese; manga- nese peroxide). CAS: 1313-13-9. MnO 2 . Properties: Black crystals or powder. D 5.026,

mp

(decomposes). Soluble in hydrochloric acid; insolu- ble in water.

special

African ore of different atomic structure used exclu-

sively for the battery grade; (2) by electrolysis; (3)

oxygen;

(4) by decomposition of manganese nitrate. Grade: Technical, CP, Battery. Hazard: Oxidizing agent, may ignite organic mate- rials. Use: Oxidizing agent, depolarizer in dry cell batteries (African and synthetic types only), pyrotechnics,

Derivation: (1) Natural as pyrolusite and as a

by heating manganese oxide in presence of

Properties: Dark-brown, plasterlike mass. Soluble

matches, etc., catalyst, laboratory reagent, scaven- in linseed oil. Combustible.

ger and decolorizer, textile dyeing, source of metal-

lic manganese (as pyrolusite). linoleate, and water. Use: Paint and varnish drier, pharmaceutical prepara-

Derivation: By boiling a manganese salt, sodium

manganese dithionate.

MnS 2 O 6 .

tions.

Properties: Crystals. D 1.76. Soluble in water. manganese monoxide. See manganous

manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate.

See maneb.

oxide.

manganese naphthenate.

manganese ethylhexoate. See manganese Properties: Hard, brown, resinous mass. It is a pale

buff in color when precipitated in the cold, but dark- ens immediately in solution. Mp approximately

manganese fluoride. See manganous fluo- 130–140C, commercial solution contains 6% man-

ganese. Soluble in mineral spirits. Hardens on expo- sure to air. Combustible. Derivation: Precipitation from a mixture of soluble manganese salts and aqueous sodium naphthenate solution. Hazard: Solution is flammable. Use: Paint and varnish drier.

octoate.

ride.

manganese gluconate.

Mn(C 6 H 11 O 7 ) 2 2H 2 O.

Properties: Light-pinkish powder or coarse, pink

granules. Soluble in

water; insoluble in alcohol and

benzene. Combustible. Grade: Pharmaceutical, FCC. Use: Feed additive, food additive and dietary supple- ment, vitamin tablets.

manganese nitrate.

See manganous nitrate.

787 MANGANOUS AMMONIUM

manganese octoate. (manganese ethylhe- manganese tallate. Manganese salts of tall oil

fatty acids. Marketed as a solution containing 6% manganese. Combustible.

xoate). Mn(OOCC 6 H 13 [C 2 H 5 ]) 2 . Commercially formed from 2-ethylhexoic acid and manganous hy-

droxide. Sold as a clear brown solution in a petrole- Use: Drier.

um solvent containing 6% manganese. Hazard: Solution is flammable. Use: Primarily as drier for paints, enamels, varnishes, and printing inks.

manganese oleate.

Mn(C 18 H 33 O 2 ) 2 .

Properties: Brown, granular mass.

Soluble in oleic

acid and ether; insoluble in water.

Derivation: By

oleate, and water. Hazard: Solution is flammable. Use: Paint and varnish drier.

boiling manganese chloride, sodium

manganese tetroxide. (manganese oxide; tri- manganese tetroxide). CAS: 1317-35-7. Mn 3 O 4 . Properties: A brownish-powder. Mw 228.79, d 4.876, mp 1564C. Insoluble in water; soluble in hydrochloric acid with evolution of chlorine. Occurrence: Generated in the pouring and casting of molten ferromanganese. Hazard: Chronic manganese poisoning and pulmi- nary effects. TLV: 1 mg/m 3 .

manganese oxalate.

MnC 2 O 4 2H 2 O.

Properties: White, crystalline powder. D 2.453,

acids; very

slightly soluble in water. Combustible. Derivation: By adding sodium oxalate to manganese

chloride. Use: Paint and varnish drier.

loses 2H 2 O at 100C. Soluble in dilute

manganese peroxide.

oxide.

See manganese di-

manganese phosphate.

See manganous

manganese-titanium.

An alloy containing

manganese, titanium, aluminum, iron, silicon. Properties: (Regular) Mp 1454C, (special) mp

1332C.

Use: (Regular) Deoxidizer in high grade steel; (spe- cial) nonferrous alloys deoxidizer.

manganic acetylacetonate.

Mn[OC(CH 3 ):CHCO(CH 3 )] 3 . Properties: Brown, crystalline solid. Mp 172C. Combustible. Derivation: Reaction of a manganese salt with ace- tylacetone and sodium carbonate.

phosphate; manganous phosphate, acid. manganic fluoride. MnF 3 .

manganese phosphate, dibasic.

ganous phosphate, acid.

See man-

manganese protoxide.

oxide.

See manganous

Properties: Red, crystalline solid. D 3.54. Decom- posed by water and by heat. Soluble in acids. At- tacks glass when hot. Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m 3 . Use: Fluorinating agent.

manganic hydroxide.

(manganese hydrox-

manganese pyrophosphate. See manganous ide; hydrated manganic oxide). Mn(OH) 3 ; rapid-

ly loses water to form MnO(OH). Properties: Brown powder. D 4.2–4.4, mp (decom- poses). Decomposes in acids. Insoluble in water. Derivation: By the action of oxygen on precipitated manganous hydroxide. Use: Pigment for fabrics, ceramics.

pyrophosphate.

manganese resinate.

Mn(C 20 H 29 O 2 ) 2 .

Properties: Dark, brownish-black mass or flesh-col- ored powder. Soluble in hot linseed oil; insoluble in water. Derivation: By boiling manganese hydroxide, rosin oil, and water. Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk.

Use: Varnish and oil drier.

manganic oxide.

Mn 2 O 3

(manganese sesquioxide).

. In nature as manganite, a manganese ore.

Properties: Black, lustrous powder, sometimes tinged brown. Very hard. D 4.5, decomposes at 1080C. Soluble in cold hydrochloric acid; not solu- ble in nitric acid (decomposes), hot sulfuric acid; insoluble in water. Noncombustible. Hazard: Flammable in finely divided form. Toxic by

manganese sesquioxide.

oxide.

manganese silicate.

See manganic

See manganous silicate.

inhalation of dust.

manganese sulfate.

manganese sulfide.

manganese sulfite.

See manganous sulfate.

See manganous sulfide.

See manganous sulfite.

manganic oxide, hydrated.

hydroxide.

See manganic

manganous ammonium sulfate.

ganese ammonium sulfate.

See man-

MANGANOUS ARSENATE

788

manganous arsenate.

(manganese arsenate;

manganous arsenate, acid). MnHAsO 4 . Properties: Reddish-white powder. Hygroscopic.

Derivation: Action of hydriodic acid on manganous hydroxide.

Soluble in acids;

slightly soluble in water.

manganous nitrate.

(manganese nitrate).

CAS: 10377-66-9. Mn(NO 3 ) 2 6H 2 O. Properties: Pink crystals. D 1.82, bp 129C, mp 26C.

manganous bromide. (manganese bromide). Very soluble in water; deliquescent; soluble in al-

Hazard: Highly toxic.

MnBr 2 4H 2 O.

cohol.

Properties: Red crystals. Loses water at 64C. Very Hazard: Fire and explosion risk in contact with or-

soluble in water; deliquescent. Noncombustible.

ganic materials.

Derivation: Action of hydrobromic acid with man- Use: Ceramics, intermediates, catalyst, manganese

ganous carbonate or manganous hydroxide. Hazard: Irritant.

dioxide.

manganous carbonate.

bonate.

See manganese car-

manganous orthophosphate.

nous phosphate.

See manga-

manganous chloride.

(manganese chloride).

CAS: 7773-01-5. (1) MnCl 2 , (2) MnCl 2 4H 2 O.

manganous oxide.

(manganese protoxide;

manganese monoxide). CAS: 1317-35-7. MnO.

Properties: Rose-colored crystals; deliquescent. D Properties: Grass-green powder. D 5.45, mp 1650C,

(1) 2.98, (2) 1.913; mp (1) 650C, (2) 87.5C; bp (1) 1190C. Very soluble in water; soluble in alcohol;

insoluble in ether. Noncombustible. Derivation: (1) By reduction of the dioxide in hydro-

gen, (2) by heating the carbonate with exclusion of air. Grade: Technical. Use: Textile printing, analytical chemistry, catalyst

supplement. in manufacture of allyl alcohol, ceramics, paints, colored glass, bleaching tallow, animal feeds, fertil-

but converted to Mn 3 O 4 if heated in air. Soluble in acids; insoluble in water. Noncombustible.

Grade: CP, anhydrous. Use: Catalyst in the chlorination of organic com- pounds, paint drier, dyeing, pharmaceutical prepara- tions, fertilizer compositions, feed additive, dietary

manganous chromate.

(manganese chro-

izers, food additive and dietary supplement.

mate; manganous chromate, basic). 2MnOCrO 3 2H 2 O. Properties: Brown powder. Slightly soluble in water with hydrolysis.

Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. Properties: Reddish-white powder. Soluble in min- eral acids; insoluble in water.

citrate. See manganese citrate. Derivation: By the action of orthophosphoric acid on manganous hydroxide.

Use: Conversion coating of steels, aluminum, and other metals.

Properties: Reddish powder. D 3.98, mp 856C. Sol- uble in acids; insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether. manganous phosphate, acid. (manganese Noncombustible. hydrogen phosphate; manganous phosphate, sec-

Derivation: Action of hydrogen fluoride on manga- nous hydroxide.

Grade: Technical. Properties: Pink powder, contains some tribasic

Hazard: TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m 3 .

phosphate. Soluble in acids; slightly soluble in water. Use: Feed additive.

ide). Mn(OH) 2 . Occurs naturally as pyrochroite. Properties: White to pink crystals. D 3.258, Mohs

manganous phosphate.

(manganese phos-

phate; manganous orthophosphate). Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 7H 2 O.

manganous

manganous fluoride.

MnF 2 .

(manganese fluoride).

ondary; manganese phosphate, dibasic). MnHPO 4 3H 2 O.

manganous hydroxide.

(manganese hydrox-

manganous pyrophosphate.

(manganese

hardness 2.5, decomposes with heat. Insoluble in

water and alkali; soluble in acids and ammonium Properties: White powder. D (1) 3.71, mp 1196C.

Soluble in solutions of potassium or sodium pyro- phosphate; insoluble in water.

salts.

pyrophosphate). (1) Mn 2 P 2 O 7 , (2) Mn 2 P 2 O 7 3H 2 O.

manganous iodide. (manganese iodide). (1) MnI 2 , (2) MnI 2 4H 2 O. Properties: (1) White, deliquescent, crystalline mass; (2) rose crystals. D (1) 5.01, mp (1) 638C (in vacuum), bp (1) 1061C. Soluble in water with grad-

manganous silicate.

(manganese silicate).

MnSiO 3 . Occurs naturally as rhodonite. Properties: Red crystals or yellowish-red powder. D

3.72, mp 1323C. Insoluble in water. Noncombust-

ual decompostion; soluble in alcohol. ible.

789

MAPP

Derivation: Interaction of manganous salts with so- mannitol. (manna sugar; mannite).

dium silicate.

CAS: 69-65-8. C 6 H 8 (OH) 6 . A straight-chain hexahy-

Use: Colorant for glass and ceramic glazes. dric alcohol.

manganous sulfate.

(manganese sulfate).

dric alcohol. manganous sulfate. (manganese sulfate). CAS: 7785-87-7. MnSO 4 • 4H 2 O. Properties:

CAS: 7785-87-7. MnSO 4 4H 2 O. Properties: Translucent, pale-rose-red, efflorescent prisms. D 2.107, mp 30C, anhydrous mp 700C, decomposes at 850C. Soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol. Derivation: By-product of production of hydroqui- none, or by the action of sulfuric acid on manganous hydroxide or carbonate. Grade: