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Per Unit System – Practice Problem Solved For Easy


Let’s understand the concept of per unit system by solving an example. In the one-line diagram below, the impedance of various

components in a power system, typically derived from their nameplates, are presented. The task now is to normalize these values using a

common base.

Figure 1: Oneline Diagram Of A Power System

Now that you have carefully examined the system and its parameters, the equivalent impedance diagram for the above system would

look something like the following.

Figure 2: Impedance Diagram Of A Power System

Resistive impedance for most components have been ignored. Rotating machines have been replaced with a voltage source behind their

internal reactance. Capacitive effects between lines and to ground are ignored as well.

To obtain the new normalized per unit impedances, first we need to figure out the base values (Sbase, Vbase, Zbase) in the power

system. Following steps will lead you through the process.

Step 1: Assume a system base

Assume a system wide of 100MVA. This is a random assumption and chosen to make calculations easy when calculating the

per unit impedances.

So, = 100MVA

Step 2: Identify the voltage base

Voltage base in the system is determined by the transformer. For example, with a 22/220kV voltage rating of T1 transformer,

the on the primary side of T1 is 22kV while the secondary side is 220kV. It does not matter what the voltage rating of the

other components are that are encompassed by the zone.

See figure below for the voltage bases in the system.

Figure 3: Voltage Base In The Power System

Step 3: Calculate the base impedance

The base impedance is calculated using the following formula:

For T-Line 1: = 484 Ohms

For T-Line 2: = 121 Ohms

For 3-phase load: = 1.21 Ohms

Step 4: Calculate the per unit impedance

The per unit impedance is calculated using the following formulas:



The voltage ratio in equation (3) is not equivalent to transformers voltage ratio. It is the ratio of the transformer’s voltage rating on the

primary or secondary side to the system nominal voltage on the same side.

For T-line 1 using equation (2): = 0.1 pu

For T-line 2 using equation (2): = 0.5 pu

For 3-Phase load:

Power Factor:


= 1.1495+j1.53267 Ohms

Per unit impedance of 3-phase load using equation (2)= = 0.95+j1.2667 pu

For generator, the new per unit reactance using equation (3)

= 0.2 pu

For transformer T1: = 0.2 pu

For transformer T2: = 0.15 pu

For transformer T3: = 0.16 pu

For transformer T4: = 0.2 pu

For Motor, = 0.25 pu

The equivalent impedance network with all the impedances normalized to a common system base and the appropriate voltage base is

provided below.

Per Unit Impedance Diagram

To view full load amps due to motor load and inductive load at Bus 2, see this post.
1. Assume a Sbase for the entire system.

2. The Vbase is defined by the transformer and any off-nominal tap setting it may have.

3. Zbase is derived from the Sbase and Vbase.

4. The new per unit impedance is obtained by converting the old per unit impedance on old base values to new ones. See equations

(2) and (3).


TAGGED WITH → base values • per unit • per unit impedances • per unit system • per unit value • Power transformers


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Please can you prove the change of base formula

Home / Technical Articles / How To Calculate and Draw a Single Line Diagram For The Power System

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Single line diagram

This technical article explains how to calculate and draw a single line diagram of the three-phase, 60-Hz system
power system with generators, motors, transformers and lines.
Calculate and Draw a Single Line Diagram For The Power System (Generators, Motors, Transformers & Lines) -
photo credit:

The following components comprise a simplified version of a power system, listed in sequential physical order from
the generator location to the load:

1. Two steam-electric generators, each at 13.2 kV

2. Two step-up transformers, 13.2/66 kV
3. Sending-end, high-voltage bus at 66 kV
4. One long transmission line at 66 kV
5. Receiving-end bus at 66 kV
6. A second 66 kV transmission line with a center-tap bus
7. Step-down transformer at receiving-end bus, 66/12 kV, supplying four 12 kV motors in parallel and
8. A step-down transformer, 66/7.2 kV, off the center-tap bus, supplying a 7.2 kV motor
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Calculation Procedure
1. Identify the Appropriate Symbols
For electric power networks an appropriate selection of graphic symbols is shown in Figure 1 (common power
symbols used in single line diagrams):
Figure 1 – Common power symbols used in single line diagrams

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2. Draw the Required System
The system described in the problem is shown in Figure 2. The oil circuit breakers are added at the appropriate
points for proper isolation of equipment.
Figure 2 – Three-phase power system represented by single line diagram

Related Calculations
It is the general procedure to use single line diagrams for representing three-phase systems. When analysis is done
using symmetrical components, different diagrams may be drawn that will represent the electric circuitry for positive,
negative, and zero-sequence components.

Additionally, it is often necessary to identify the grounding connection, or whether the device is wye- or delta-

This type of notation is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 – Identification for wye-connected generator or motor. (a) Solidly grounded. (b) Grounded through an
inductance. (c) The transformer is identified as being delta-wye, with the wye side solidly grounded.

Per-unit method of solving of 3-phase problems

For the system shown in Figure 4, draw the electric circuit or reactance diagram, with all reactances marked in
per-unit (p.u.) values, and find the generator terminal voltage assuming both motors operating at 12 kV, three-
quarters load, and unity power factor.

Generator Transformers Motor A Motor B Transmission

(each) Line

13.8kV 25,000 kVA 15,000 kVA 10,000 kVA –

25,000 kVA 3-phase 13.2/69 kV 13.0 kV 13.0 kV –

X” = 15 percent XL = 15 percent X” = 15 percent X” = 15 percent X = 65 Ω

Figure 4 – Single line diagram of electric-power system supplying motor loads. Specifications are given in above

Calculation Procedure in 8 steps

1. Establish Base Voltage through the System
By observation of the magnitude of the components in the system, a base value of apparent power S is chosen. It
should be of the general magnitude of the components, and the choice is arbitrary. In this problem, 25,000 kVA is
chosen as the base S, and simultaneously, at the generator end 13.8 kV is selected as a base voltage V base.

The base voltage of the transmission line is then determined by the turns ratio of the connecting transformer:
(13.8 kV)(69 kV / 13.2 kV) = 72.136 kV

The base voltage of the motors is determined likewise but with the 72.136 kV value, thus:
(72.136 kV)(13.2 kV / 69 kV) = 13.8 kV
The selected base S value remains constant throughout the system, but the base voltage is 13.8 kV at the
generator and at the motors, and 72.136 kV on the transmission line.
2. Calculate the Generator Reactance
No calculation is necessary for correcting the value of the generator reactance because it is given as 0.15 p.u. (15
percent), based on 25,000 kVA and 13.8 kV. If a different S base were used in this problem, then a correction
would be necessary as shown for the transmission line, electric motors, and power transformers.

3. Calculate the Transformer Reactance

It is necessary to make a correction when the transformer nameplate reactance is used because the calculated
operation is at a different voltage, 13.8 kV / 72.136 kV instead of 13.2 kV / 69 kV.

Use the equation for correction: per-unit reactance:

(nameplate per-unit reactance) (base kVA/nameplate kVA) (nameplate kV/base kV) 2 =

(0.11) (25,000/25,000) (13.2/13.8)2 = 0.101 p.u.
This applies to each transformer.

4. Calculate the Transmission-Line Reactance

Use the equation:

 Xper unit = (ohms reactance)(base kVA)/(1000)(base kV)2 =

 Xper unit = (65) (25,000)/(1000)(72.1) 2 = 0.313 p.u.

5. Calculate the Reactance of the Motors

Corrections need to be made in the nameplate ratings of both motors because of differences of ratings in kVA and
kV as compared with those selected for calculations in this problem. Use the correcting equation from Step 3,

For motor A:
X”A = (0.15 p.u.) (25,000 kVA / 15,000 kVA) (13.0 kV / 13.8 kV) 2 = 0.222 p.u.

For motor B:
X”B = (0.15 p.u.)(25,000 kVA /10,000 kVA)(13.0 kV / 13.8 kV)2 = 0.333 p.u.

6. Draw the Reactance Diagram

The completed reactance diagram is shown in Figure 5:
Figure 5 – Single line reactance circuit diagram (reactances shown on a per-unit basis)

7. Calculate Operating Conditions of the Motors

If the motors are operating at 12 kV, this represents 12 kV/13.8 kV = 0.87 per-unit voltage. At unity power factor,
the load is given as three-quarters or 0.75 p.u.

Thus, expressed in per unit, the combined motor current is obtained by using the equation:
Iper unit = per-unit power/per-unit voltage = 0.75/0.87 = 0.862 ∠0° p.u.

8. Calculate the Generator Terminal Voltage

The voltage at the generator terminals is:

 VG = Vmotor + the voltage drop through transformers and transmission line

 VG = 0.87∠0° + 0.862 ∠0°(j0.101 + j0.313 + j0.101)
 VG = 0.87 + j0.444 = 0.977 ∠27.03° p.u.
In order to obtain the actual voltage, multiply the per-unit voltage by the base voltage at the generator. Thus,

 VG = (0.977 ∠27.03°) (13.8 kV) = 13.48 ∠27.03° kV

Related Calculations
In the solution of these problems, the selection of base voltage and apparent power are arbitrary. However, the
base voltage in each section of the circuit must be related in accordance with transformer turns ratios.

The base impedance may be calculated from the equation:

Zbase = (base kV)2 (1000) / (base kVA).

For the transmission line section in this problem, Z base = (72.136)2 (1000) / (25,000) = 208.1
Thus the per-unit reactance of the transmission line equals (actual ohms) / (base ohms) = 65 / 208.1 = 0.313 p.u.

66kv substation control room introduction

Reference // Handbook of el. power calculations by H. Wayne Beaty (Get hardcover from Amazon)