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High impedance:

In the High impedance differential relay the simple current or voltage based
operated relay can be use as High impedance with the series of stabilizing resistor
and withe parallel connection of metrosil.
in this the setting of stabilizing resistor is based on the required operating voltage in
the relay and metrosil is provided for to avoid the relay to operate from through fault
current.
for a High impedance differential protection we should have same CT ratios, same
Knee point voltage, same class of CT s with same magnetizing current of the ct
should be use. if any changes is there in the CTs causes different burden across the
both end and it makes the change in set operating voltage across the relay.( in the
case of ideal transformers we can go for High impedance).
Low impedance:
in the Low impedance relay nothing but biased differential relay in this we have the
slopes to avoid relay operation from the through fault current and CT saturation
condition also.

LOW IMP. REF HIGH IMP. REF


The input impedance of the low-impedance The input impedance of the high-impedan
REF is very low. REF is very high.
Low-impedance REF protection has low High-impedance REF protection has high
inherent stability against CT saturation for inherent stability against CT saturation for
external faults. external faults.
The operating current of the low-impedance
REF protection is not realized by CT
connection. The relay measures all four CTs The operating current of the High-impeda
necessary to realize the element. REF protection is realized by CT connecti
Choice B/W High And Low Impedance Ref:

If the existing equipment is of such a nature that the same ratios


are not available for both phase and neutral CTs, you should use
low-impedance REF protection, because this type of protection can
handle different CT ratios for phase and neutral CTs. However, if
the same ratios are available for both phase and neutral CTs,
further investigation should reveal whether high-impedance or
low-impedance REF is the most suitable for the application.

REF scheme sensitivity is a problem only on star windings with


resistance earthing, because the fault current is a function of fault
position, phase-to-neutral voltage, and earthing resistance value.
For faults close to neutral, the fault current is very small. The
relay operating current and CT magnetizing current are important
in determining the winding coverage.

In cases where there is always sufficient fault current to operate


the REF relay, the choice between high-impedance and low-
impedance REF is not important. Issues such as available CT
ratios for the phase and neutral CTs may dictate the choice.

For poor-quality CTs that require larger magnetizing current than


a better-quality CT at the same voltage, the lowimpedance REF
element is more sensitive. Where you use good-quality CTs,
however, the high-impedance REF relay is more sensitive.

LOW IMP. REF HIGH IMP. REF


The input impedance of the low-impedance The input impedance of the high-impedance
REF is very low. REF is very high.
Low-impedance REF protection has low High-impedance REF protection has high
inherent stability against CT saturation for inherent stability against CT saturation for
external faults. external faults.
The operating current of the low-impedance
REF protection is not realized by CT
connection. The relay measures all four CTs The operating current of the High-impedance
necessary to realize the element. REF protection is realized by CT connection

The high impedance differential protection relay, in general, is an instantaneous


overcurrent relay. It works on the principle that whenever the differential current thro
the relay is more than the set current, the relay would trip instantaneously. But, there
could be differential currents, even without a genuine internal fault within the protected
zone, due to:

i) CT ratio errors

ii) Differential CT Saturation

iii) Differential CT Saturation due to Aymmetrical Fault Current

iv) Different lead lengths, etc.


As differential protection is employed only for critical equipment in the plant, its tripping
causes panic amongst the operating personnel that something is wrong within the critical
equipment and one cannot put back the equipment into service again, without
conducting an array of tests and ensuring that the equipment is fit to be put in service.
But, this would take time & effort and might cause plnat downtimes. Hence, it is all the
more imperative that the differential protection operates only for genuine internal faults
and does not operate for spurious differential currents (due to any of the above reasons)
or for external faults. Hence, to de-sensitise the differential protective relay, it is
common practice to introduce a stabilising resistor in the relay circuit such that the relay
does not operate for spurious differential currents. As the introduction of the resistance
increases the effective impedance of the relay circuit, this scheme is called the "High
Impedance Differential Protection Scheme".

Whereas, in modern day numerical differential relays, it is possible to introduce some


slope in the relay charectersitics, which takes care of such spurious differntial currents,
without the need for any external resistance. Such a scheme is called "Low Impedance
Differential Protection Scheme".

Trial given, why don't you attend to our training programme on protective relaying?

Details Below

Quote EE65

"The high impedance differential protection relay, in general, is an


instantaneous overcurrent relay. It works on the principle that whenever the
differential current thro the relay is more than the set current, the relay would
trip instantaneously. But, there could be differential currents, even without a
genuine internal fault within the protected zone, due to:

i) CT ratio errors

ii) Differential CT Saturation

iii) Differential CT Saturation due to Aymmetrical Fault Current

iv) Different lead lengths, etc.

As differential protection is employed only for critical equipment in the plant,


its tripping causes panic amongst the operating personnel that something is
wrong within the critical equipment and one cannot put back the equipment
into service again, without conducting an array of tests and ensuring that the
equipment is fit to be put in service. But, this would take time & effort and
might cause plnat downtimes. Hence, it is all the more imperative that the
differential protection operates only for genuine internal faults and does not
operate for spurious differential currents (due to any of the above reasons) or
for external faults. Hence, to de-sensitise the differential protective relay, it is
common practice to introduce a stabilising resistor in the relay circuit such that
the relay does not operate for spurious differential currents. As the introduction
of the resistance increases the effective impedance of the relay circuit, this
scheme is called the "High Impedance Differential Protection Scheme".

Whereas, in modern day numerical differential relays, it is possible to introduce


some slope in the relay charectersitics, which takes care of such spurious
differntial currents, without the need for any external resistance. Such a
scheme is called "Low Impedance Differential Protection Scheme"."