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1) A 5-m-long section of an air heating

system of a house passes through an un-
heated space in the basement. The cross
section of the rectangular duct of the
heating system is 20 cm x 25 cm. Hot air
enters the duct at 100 kPa and 60°C at an
average velocity of 5 m/s. The
temperature of the air in the duct drops to
54°C as a result of heat loss to the cool space in the basement. Determine the rate of heat loss
from the air in the duct to the basement under steady conditions. Also, determine the cost of
this heat loss per hour if the house is heated by a natural gas furnace that has an efficiency of
80 percent, and the cost of the natural gas in that area is $0.60/therm (1 therm = 105,500 kJ).

2) Consider a house that has a floor space of 185.8 m2 and an average height of 2.74 m at 1524 m
elevation where the standard atmospheric pressure is 84.11 kPa. Initially the house is at a
uniform temperature of 10°C. Now the electric
heater is turned on, and the heater runs until
the air temperature in the house rises to an
average value of 21.11°C. Determine the
amount of energy transferred to the air
(a) the house is air-tight and thus no air
escapes during the heating process and
(b) some air escapes through the cracks as the
heated air in the house expands at constant pressure.
Also determine the cost of this heat for each case if the cost of electricity in that area is

3) Consider a person standing in a breezy room at 20°C. Determine the total rate of heat transfer
from this person if the exposed surface area and the average outer surface temperature of the
person are 1.6 m2 and 29°C, respectively, and the convection heat transfer coefficient is 6
W/m2 °C. [The emissivity of a person is ε = 0.95].

4) An exterior wall of a house may be approximated by a 0.1 m layer of common brick (k =

0.7W/m°C) followed by a 0.04m layer of gypsum plaster (k = 0.48 W/m°C). What thickness of
loosely packed rock wool insulation (k = 0.065 W/m°C) should be added to reduce the heat
loss or (gain) through the wall by 80 per cent?

5) Find the heat flow rate through the composite wall as shown in figure. Assume one
dimensional flow.
kA = 150 W/m°C,
kB = 30 W/m°C,
kC = 65 W/m°C, and
kD =5OW/m°C

6) An electric hot plate is maintained at a temperature of 350°C, and is used to keep a solution
boiling at 95°C. The solution is contained in a cast-iron vessel of wall thickness 25 mm, which
is enamelled inside to a thickness of 0.8 mm. The heat transfer coefficient for the boiling
solution is 5.5 kW/m2K, and the thermal conductivities of the cast iron and enamel are 50 and
1.05 W/mK, respectively. Calculate
(i) The overall heat transfer coefficient.
(ii) The rate of heat transfer per unit area. (GATE, 1993)
7) A standard cast iron pipe (inner diameter = 50 mm and outer diameter = 55 mm) is insulated with 85
percent magnesium insulation (k = 0.02W/m°C). Temperature at the interface between the pipe and
insulation is 300°C. The allowable heat loss through the pipe is 600 W/m length of pipe and for the
safety, the temperature of the outside surface of insulation must not exceed 100°C. Determine:
(i) Minimum thickness of insulation required, and
(ii) The temperature of inside surface of the pipe assuming its thermal conductivity 20 W/m°C.

8) A steam pipe of outer diameter 120 mm is covered with two layers of lagging, inside layer 45 mm
thick (k = 0.08W/m°C) and outside layer 30 mm thick (k = 0.12 W/m °C). The pipe conveys steam at a
pressure of 20 bar with 50°C superheat. The outside temperature of lagging is 25°C. If the steam pipe
is 30m long, determine:
(i) Heat lost per hour, and
(ii) interface temperature of lagging.
The thermal resistance of steam pipe may be neglected.
8) Determine the rate of heat flow through a spherical boiler wall which is 2 m in diameter and 2 cm thick
steel (k = 58 W/m K). The outside surface of boiler wall is covered with asbestos (k = 0.116 W/m K) 5mm
thick. The temperature of outer surface and that of fluid inside are 50°C and 300°C respectively. Take inner
film resistance as 0.0023 K/W.

9) Consider a spherical container of inner radius r1 = 8 cm, outer radius r2 = 10 cm, and thermal
conductivity k = 45 W/m °C, as shown in fig. The inner and outer surfaces of the container are
maintained at constant temperatures of T1 = 200°C and T2 = 80°C, respectively, as a result of
some chemical reactions occurring inside. Obtain a general relation for the temperature
distribution inside the shell under steady conditions, and determine the rate of heat loss from
the container.