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DC Motors

Taken from a variety of sources including:


http://electronics.howstuffworks.com ,
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/electrici
ty/generators/index.html
Motors

◼ Electromagnetic direct current (DC)


motors
– Usually runs high speed and low torque
(Gear down)
◼ Electromagnetic alternating current
(AC) motors
– Seldom used in Robots because power
supply is battery
Brief History of DC Motor
◼ The history of DC Motor can be
traced back to the 1830s,when
Michael Faraday did extensive
works on disc type of machine
INTRODUCTION OF DC MOTOR
 A DC Motor is a
machine which
converts electrical
energy into
mechanical energy.
It depends for its
operation on the
force which is known
to exist on conductor
carrying a current
while situated in a
magnetic field.
DC Motors

◼ The most common actuator in mobile


robotics
◼ simple, cheap, and easy to use.
◼ come in a great variety of sizes, to
accommodate different robots and tasks.
Principles of Operation
◼ DC motors convert electrical into mechanical
energy.
◼ They consist of permanent magnets and
loops of wire inside.
◼ When current is applied, the wire loops
generate a magnetic field, which reacts
against the outside field of the static magnets.
◼ The interaction of the fields produces the
movement of the shaft/armature.
◼ Thus, electromagnetic energy becomes
motion.
Working Principle Of DC MOTOR

◼ Whenever a current
carrying conductor is
placed in a magnetic field,
it experienced a force
whose direction is given
by Fleming’s Left Hand
Rule.
◼ It shows the field set up
by the poles
◼ It shows the conductor
field due to flow of current
in the conductor
The Basic Idea
◼ A motor uses magnets to create motion.
◼ The fundamental law of all magnets:
Opposites attract and likes repel.

◼ Inside an electric motor, these attracting and


repelling forces create rotational motion.
How do magnets arise?

◼ There are two main sources of magnetic


fields:
– magnetic fields due to electric currents in
conducting materials.
– fields arising from magnetic materials. In
these, electron motion (orbital or spin)
can lead to a net ‘magnetic moment’ and a
resulting magnetization.
Electromagnets
When a current flows through a conductor, a
magnetic field surrounds the conductor. As current
flow increases, so does the number of lines of force
in the magnetic field

You can see that the field is perpendicular to the wire


and that the field's direction depends on which
direction the current is flowing in the wire.
Andre Ampere (1775-1836) formulated the right hand rule
in the early 1820s. Ampere’s essential contribution was to
show that electricity and magnetism were part of the same
phenomenon.
Coil the Wire
Because the magnetic field around a wire is circular
and perpendicular to the wire, an easy way to amplify
the wire's magnetic field is to coil the wire.

If you wrap wire around a nail


10 times, connect the wire to a
battery, the nail behaves just
like a bar magnet.

Check out this animation


Back to The Motor

A simple motor has 6


parts:
• Armature or rotor
• Commutator
• Brushes
• Axle
• Field magnet
• DC power supply
Construction of DC MOTOR

◼ FIELD POLES- The pole shoe acts as a


support to the field coils and spread out the
flux in the air gap and reduce the
reluctance of magnetic field.
◼ FRAME- The Frame is the stationary part
of a machine in which poles, and rotor are
stationed.
◼ ARMATURE- The armature consist of core
and winding. It is built up of thin lamination
of low loss silicon steel(0.4 to 0.5)
Cont.
 COMMUTATOR- A
commutator converts
alternating voltage to direct
voltage. It is a cylindrical
structure built up of segment
made drawn copper.
 BRUSHES- The use of
brushes is made for
machines designed for large
current at low voltage.
 ARMATURE WINDING- The
winding must be designated
with the most advantages
utilization of the material in
respect to weight and
efficiency
Armature, Commutator and
Brushes
◼ The armature takes the place of the nail in an
electric motor. The armature is an
electromagnet made by coiling thin wire
around two or more poles of a metal core.
◼The "flipping the
electric field" part of an
electric motor is
accomplished by two
parts: the commutator
and the brushes.
Electric and magnetic fields:
Lorentz force
◼ A current-carrying wire in a magnetic field experiences a force.

◼ The magnitude and direction of this force depend on four variables: the
magnitude and direction of the current (I), the length of the wire (L), the
strength and direction of the magnetic field (B), and the angle between
the field and the wire (Θ).

F=ILXB Or in scalar terms: F = I L B SinΘ

When current is in amperes, length in meters, and magnetic field in


teslas, the force is in newtons.

◼ The direction of the force is perpendicular to both the current and the
magnetic field, and is predicted by the right-hand cross-product rule.

◼ Applet Demo
Types of dc motors
◼ The D.C motors are classified depending
upon the way of connecting the field
winding with the armature winding.
D.C motor

D.C
D.C series D.C shunt
compound
motor motor motor

Long shunt Short shunt


A Real DC Motor
D.C series motor


D.C shunt motor


D.C compound motor

Long shunt motor Short shunt motor


◼ ◼
Characteristics of a DC Motor
◼ Torque-Armature current(electrical)
characteristic(T vs Ia)
◼ Speed-Armature current characteristic(N vs I a)
◼ Speed-Armature current characteristic(N vs I a)
Characteristics of a DC Shunt
Motor
Characteristics of a DC Series Motor
Characteristics of a DC
Compound Motor

The compound motors are of two types namely the


cumulative compound of differential compound motors.
DC Motor Applications:
 Shunt motor application
1. printing machinery
2. Paper machines
3. Centrifugal and reciprocating pumps
 Series motor application
1. Electric trains
2. Cranes
3. Hoists
4. Conveyers
 Compound motor application
1. Elevators
2. Punches
3. Shears
4. planers
MERITS DEMERITS

 High starting torque ◼ High initial cost


 Speed control over a wide ◼ Increased operating and
range, both below and maintenance cost
above normal speed because of the
 Accurate seedless speed commutator and brush
control gear
 Quick starting, stopping
APPLICATIONS OF DC MOTORS

MOTORS.. APPLICATIONS…

LATHES , FANS, PUMPS DISC


D.C. SHUNT MOTOR AND BAND SAW DRIVE
REQUIRING MODERATE
TORQUES.

D.C. SERIES MOTOR ELECTRIC TRACTION, HIGH


SPEED TOOLS

ROLLING MILLS AND OTHER


D.C. COMPOUND MOTOR LOADS REQUIRING LARGE
MOMENTARY TORQUES.
Modeling DC Motor
Model Fisik
Parameter Fisik
◼ moment of inertia of the rotor J =0.01 kg m2
◼ damping (friction) of the mechanical system b
=0.1 Nms
◼ (back-)electromotive force constant K =0.01
Nm/A
◼ electric resistance R = 1
◼ electric inductance L = 0.5 H
◼ Input = tegangan (V)
◼ Kecepatan angular (rad/s)
◼ Shaft angle (rad)
System equation

◼ Torka motor berhubungan dengan arus


armatur i dan faktor konstanta K
◼ Electromotive force (emf), Vb, berhubungan
dengan kecepatan angular
Persamaan Berdasar Hk Newton dan
Kirchoff
Transfer Function
◼ Dari (3) dan (4)

◼ Transformasi Laplace dr (6)

◼ Substitusikan (5) sehingga menjadi:


Blok Diagram Motor DC
Transfer Function
◼ Dari pers (8), transfer function dari input
voltage, V (s), ke output sudut, , sbb:

◼ Dari blok diagram Gb. 2, dapat dilihat,


transfer function dari input tegangan, V(s), ke
kecepatan sudut,  , adalah:
Matlab Representation

◼ Fungsi transfer yang telah dibahas


diatas dapat diaplikasikan melalui
Toolbox Matlab.
◼ Contoh : persamaan Polynomial
– A=3s3 + 2s + 10
– Dapat ditulis dalam Matlab sebagai :
– A = [3 0 2 10]
Program Motor DC

◼ Buat m File untuk simulasi motor DC


sbb :
• Masukkan parameter motor sbb :
J=0.01;
b=0.1;
K=0.01;
R=1;
L=0.5;
• Transfer function pada Pers. (9) dapat
dituliskan dengan beberapa cara :
Transfer Function

◼ Ga(s) dapat diekspresikan sebagai Gv(s).1/s .


Persamaan tersebut ditulis dalam Matlab
sebagai :
aux = tf(K,conv([L R],[J b]))
Gv = feedback(aux,K);
Ga = tf(1,[1 0])*Gv;
◼ Fungsi feedback digunakan untuk membuat
hubungan feedback dari 2 transfer fuction.
◼ Operator perkalian *,merupakan overloaded
oleh class LTI dari Control System Toolbox
Transfer Function 2

◼ Selain menggunakan konvolusi,


perintah pertama dari ketiga perintah
diatas dapat diganti dengan perkalian
dua transfer function :
aux = tf(K,[L R])*tf(1,[J b]);
Transfer Function 3

◼ Cara yang ketiga adalah dengan


mendefinisikan transfer function secara
symbolis.
◼ Pertama system direpresentasikan
dalam operator Laplace dan kemudian
masukkan fungsi sebagai ekspresi
aljabar.
s = tf([1 0],1);
Gv = K/((L*s + R)*(J*s + b) + Kˆ2);
Ga = Gv/s;
Masukkan Label Input dan Output

Gv.InputName = ’Voltage’;
Gv.OutputName = ’Velocity’;
Ga.InputName = ’Voltage’;
Ga.OutputName = ’Angle’;
◼ Untuk menjalankan, simpan dan beri
nama file motor.m dan pangil dari
command window
Menampilkan respon
◼ Grafik respon kecepatan (velocity) dan sudut
(angle), 2 transfer function dapat digabung
menjadi satu dengan satu input, dan dua
output (velocity dan angle).
G = [Gv; Ga];
◼ Cara lain adalah mengkonversikan Ga
kedalam bentuk state space dan
menambahkan satu extra output yang sama
dengan state kedua (velocity)
G = ss(Ga);
set(G,’c’,[0 1 0; 0
01],’d’,[0;0],’OutputName’,{’Velocity’;’Angle’});
Manampilkan Grafik

◼ Sekarang, kita dapat menampilkan


grafik step, impulse, dan respon
frekuensi dari model motor dengan
perintah berikut:
figure(1); step(G);
figure(2); impulse(G);
figure(3); bode(G);
Step Respon
Impulse Respon
Bode Diagram
Control Design
◼ PID feedback controller untuk mengendalikan motor
DC
◼ Transfer Function untuk PID controller sbb:

◼ u adalah controller output (voltage V ), e = uc − y


merupakan controller input (the control error), dan
Kp, Kd, Ki adalah gain dr proportional, derivative dan
integral,
Blok diagram
Proportional Control

◼ Pertama, kita coba proportional


controller sederhana dengan beberapa
gain, misal diestimasikan 100.
◼ Untuk menghitung closed loop transfer
function, digunakan perintah feedback.
◼ Tambahkan baris berikut ke m-file”
Kp = 100;
Gc = feedback(Gv*Kp,1);
Gc.InputName = ’Desired velocity’;
Proportional Control

◼ Untuk mendapatkan step respon dari


sistem close loop, tuliskan :
figure(4); step(Gc,0:0.01:2);
◼ Jalankan Kembali program anda
◼ Hasilkan lihat gambar berikut
Kontrol PID

Kp = 1;
Ki = 0.8;
Kd = 0.3;
C = tf([Kd Kp Ki],[1 0]);
rlocus(Ga*C);
Kp = rlocfind(Ga*C);
Gc = feedback(Ga*C*Kp,1);
figure(9); step(Gc,0:0.01:5)
Penjelasan program

◼ Fungsi rlocus dan rlocfind digunakan untuk


memilih overall gain dari PID controller,
◼ Yaitu keadaan kontroler yang stabil dan
lokasi kutup yang diinginkan (dengan
mendefinisikan rasio konstanta Kp, Ki, dan
Kd)
◼ Jika desain tidak memuaskan, ratio dapat
diubah.
◼ Lihat hasilnya setelah program dijalankan.
Simulink Representation
Simulink PID Controller