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ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Presentation Outline:
Introduction
Properties of steam
Losses in steam system
Energy saving measures
Summary

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:
Major applications:
Power generation Process heat Space heating

100%
90%
80%

70% 47% 60% 43%


Energy Use (%)

60%
50%

40% 61% 85% 69%


30%
20% 40% 35%

10%

0%
Steam
Food Pulp and Paper Chemicals Petroleum Stone/Clay/Glass Primary Metal-Based Other
Fuel Refining Metals Durables Manufacturing
Electric Industry
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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:
Major applications:

Typical pressure Steam consumption


Type of installation Description
(psig) (lb/hr)

Bakeries Dough room, 8 ft long 10 4

Hospitals Sterilizers, per 100 in3 40-50 6

Laundries Steam irons, each 100 4

Plastic moulding Each 12-15 ft2 surface 125 29

Paper mill Wood pulp, per 100 lb 50 372

Tire shops Truck molds, large 100 87


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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:
Major applications: Steam in Power generation

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:
Major applications: Steam in Process Heating

Steam cleaning

Essential Oil Extraction Process

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:
Major applications: Steam in Process Heating

Palm oil mill

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:
Major applications: Steam in Space Heating

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Properties of Steam:
Phases of pure substances:

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Properties of Steam:
Phases of water:

State 1 : compressed liquid water


(or subcooled liquid)
State 2 : saturated liquid water
State 3 : saturated liquid-
vapour mixture (wet steam)
State 4 : saturated steam
State 5 : superheated steam 9
© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Properties of Steam:
Major steam properties:
Pressure P kPa psi

Temperature T ⁰C ⁰F

Specific enthalpy h kJ/kg Btu/lb

Specific internal energy u kJ/kg Btu/lb

Specific volume v m3/kg ft3/lb


Major steam
properties Specific entropy s kJ/kg⋅K Btu/lb⋅R

Saturation Temperature Tsat ⁰C ⁰F

Enthalpy of sat. vapour hg kJ/kg Btu/lb

Enthalpy of sat. liquid hf kJ/kg Btu/lb

Enthalpy of evaporation hfg kJ/kg Btu/lb


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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Properties of Steam:
Terms & definitions:

Enthalpy (h) Energy content of a flowing medium

Entropy (s) Thermodynamic property that accounts for


process irreversibilities (i.e. quality of energy)

Condensate Liquid produced when steam condenses

Sensible heat Heat that gives rise in the measurable


temperature of the water

Latent heat Heat that changes phase of water without


change in temperature

Flash steam Steam generated when condensate pressure


rapidly drops at a given temperature

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Steam sub-systems: boiler, distribution, utilisation, condensate return

Typical Steam System

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Major components in steam system:

System Components

Boiler plant Boiler, furnace, air preheater, economiser,


fan/blower, boiler drum
Distribution Piping, steam traps, air vents, valves,
pressure reducing stations
End use Steam turbines, heat exchangers, coils,
system jacketed kettles, vacuum breakers
Condensate Flash tanks, condensate pumps, valves,
return pipings

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Steam traps:
• Function: to remove condensate and vent non-
condensable gases from steam system

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Steam traps:
• Types of steam traps: Thermostatic, Thermodynamic, Mechanical
• Thermostatic:
• Use temperature differential to separate steam & condensate
• Designs: bellows, bimetallic

Bellows Bimetallic

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Steam traps:
• Thermodynamic:
• Use difference in kinetic energy
(velocity) of steam & condensate
• Designs: disc, piston, lever, orifice
Disc

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Steam traps:
• Mechanical:
• Use difference in density between steam & condensate
• Designs: ball float, float & lever, inverted bucket, open
bucket
Float Inverted bucket

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Steam traps:

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Steam traps:
• Poor selection/maintenance of steam trap can cause:
• Water hammer • Poor heat transfer
• Steam leak • System corrosion

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Steam traps:
• Selection criteria of steam trap:
• Continuous or intermittent removal of condensate
• System temperature & pressure
• Range of load on the trap
• Rate of change of load on the trap

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Key operating parameters:
Steam production rate

Make-up water
flow rate

Feedwater
flow rate

Fuel flow rate

Blowdown flow rate Chemical input flow rate


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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Approaches to determine process steam requirement:
Steam consumption table:
Provide quick & rough estimate
Typically provided by steam system manufactures and
industry standards
System mass & energy balances:
Comprehensive mass & energy balances analysis
More elaborate & usually more accurate
Require accurate measurement of steam properties

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:
Approaches to determine process steam requirement:
Steam consumption table: Example

Typical pressure Steam consumption


Type of installation Description
(psig) (lb/hr)
Bakeries Dough room, 8 ft long 10 4
Hospitals Sterilizers, per 100 in3 40-50 6
Laundries Steam irons, each 100 4
Plastic moulding Each 12-15 ft2 surface 125 29
Paper mill Wood pulp, per 100 lb 50 372
Tire shops Truck molds, large 100 87

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in Steam System:


Losses in steam system occur at:

Boiler system 20-25% Trapping system


20-25%
Distribution system 40-45% Condensate return system

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in Steam System:


Losses in steam distribution system:
• Insulation losses:
• Typical surface temperature: 90 – 260ºC
• Typical bare surface losses: 316 – 1800 kJ/hr
• Includes losses at joints, flanges, valves

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in Steam System:


Losses in steam distribution system:

Steam Temp. Heat loss Heat losses from bare steam lines
Pressure Per hour
(psig) (F) (btu/sqft.hr)

15 250 452

35 280 556

50 298 595

75 320 716

100 338 805

125 353 864

150 355 876

175 377 989

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in Steam System:


Losses in steam distribution system:
• External leaks:
• Steam leaks to atmosphere
• Usually visible and/or audible

• Internal leaks:
• Steam leaks inside steam
system e.g. valves in
bypasses around steam
traps
• Usually invisible

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in Steam System:


Losses in steam
distribution system:

Heat loss from


steam leaks

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in Steam System:


Losses in steam distribution system:
• Inactive piping:
• Dead or unused piping in the steam distribution system
• Need to be isolated e.g. blank-off
Steam Temp. of steam mixed with % air
• Accumulation of air & non- Pressure
condensable gases in distribution (psig) 0% 10% 20% 30%
system: 10 240 234 228 221

• It reduces steam partial pressure 25 267 261 254 246


as well temperature 50 298 291 283 275

• It also forms insulation barrier => 75 320 313 305 295


reduces heat transfer 100 338 330 322 312

• May also block steam flow


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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in Steam System:


Losses in steam trapping system:
• Trap flash losses:
• Sensible energy losses through “flashing”
phenomena
• Usually visible and/or audible

• Steam trap leak:


• Sensible energy losses through
“flashing” phenomena
• Caused by slow/partial closing or
failure to close
• Usually visible and/or audible
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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in Steam System:


Losses in steam trapping system:

Trap Steam loss (lbs/hr) for a given


Orifice steam pressure (psig)
diameter
(inches) 15 100 150 300

1/32 0.85 3.3 4.8 -

1/16 3.4 13.2 18.9 36.2

1/8 13.7 52.8 75.8 145

3/16 30.7 119 170 326

1/4 54.7 211 303 579

3/8 123 475 682 1303


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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in Steam System:


Losses in steam trapping system:

Percent of condensate flashed, lb steam/lb condensate


High-pressure
Condensate Low-pressure steam (psig)
(psig)
50 30 15 5

200 10.4 12.8 15.2 17.3

150 7.8 10.3 12.7 14.9

100 4.6 7.1 9.6 11.8

75 2.5 5.1 7.6 9.9

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in Steam System:


Losses in condensate return system:
• Condensate return piping:
• Need to be adequately sized and insulated

• Condensate pump:
• Need to be carefully select suitable pump

• Filtration & cleanup:


• Filtration: Strainers to catch particulates
• Cleanup: condensate polishers to remove dissolved
contaminants

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Energy Saving Measures:


General rules:
* Economy of scale
Produce steam at highest
* To overcome line losses
possible pressure & temperature
* To satisfy highest pressure user

* Less flash steam loss


Utilize steam to process use at
* Provide more latent heat available
lowest possible pressure & temp.
for useful work

* Use pressure reducing valves


Expand steam from high to lower
* General rule: pressure drop < 20%
pressure thru most efficient means
of maximum system pressure

* 11⁰F increase in feedwater input


Generate maximum steam from
or condensate return temperature
process waste heat recovery
=> 1% increase in efficiency
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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Energy Saving Measures:


Some tips:

Insulate steam distribution General rule: any surface over 120⁰F


& condensate return lines should be insulated

Insulated steam distribution line Hot water tanks


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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Energy Saving Measures:


Some tips:

Regular maintenance reduces


Inspect & repair steam traps
trap losses to < 5%

Can contain >10% of total energy


Return condensate to boiler
Can save water, fuel, chemicals

• Saves energy, water and chemicals


Minimize boiler blowdown
• Typically 4-8% of feedwater flow rate
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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Energy Saving Measures:


Some tips:
• Can be used to
Recover heat from blowdown
preheat makeup water

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Energy Saving Measures:


Some tips:

Utilise waste steam for other Example: vapour absorption


use refrigeration cycle

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Energy Saving Measures:


Some tips:

Utilise waste steam for other Example: as steam driven


use compressor

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Energy Saving Measures:


Some tips:

Flash high-pressure •Get low-pressure steam


condensate •Attractive when not economical
to return condensate to boiler

* On uninsulated valves & fittings


Install removable insulation
* Also improve safety

Removable insulation
on valves & fittings

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Energy Saving Measures:


Some tips:

Replace pressure relief valve


Bakpressure turbine reduces
(PRV) with backpressure
steam pressure & generate work
turbogenerators

Backpressure turbine

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Energy Saving Measures:


Some tips:

To remove dissolved gases (e.g.


Use deaerators O2 < 5 ppb) to prevent corrosion,
partial pressure reduction & temp

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Summary:
Steam: cheap, effective & efficient medium of heat transfer
Phases of steam: compressed liquid, saturated liquid, saturated
mixture, saturated vapour, superheated
Major components in steam system: boiler, distribution, end use,
condensate return
Major losses: steam leaks, insulation, flashing, non-condensable
gases
Some energy saving opportunities: leak repair, insulation, steam
trap, waste heat recovery from blowdown, flash steam,
condensate return

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Further Readings:
Witte, L.C., Schmidt, P.S., Brown, D.R., Industrial Energy Management and
Utilization, Hemisphere Publishing, 1998
Ibrahim, K., Lalchand, G., Yusof, M.A., Majidi, M.I., Energy Efficiency: A
provate sector initiative, CETREE, 2002
Kennedy, W.J., Turner, W.C., Capehart, B.L., Guide to Energy Management,
The Farmont Press, 1994
Efficient use of process steam, TLV Co. Ltd, 1999
Payne, G.A., Managing energy in commerce and industry, Butterworths,
1984

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44
ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &
CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Example:

A boiler produces saturated steam at 450 kPa and operates for 5,000
hours per year. A continuous blowdown system removes water at the rate
of 10 kg/min. The maximum temperature at which the blowdown may be
discharged into a drain is 50ºC. Make-up water at 30ºC enters the boiler
system at the rate of 50 kg/min.
If a blowdown heat recovery system with a heat transfer efficiency of 90%
were installed, at what rate would heat be transferred to the make-up
water? What would be the temperature of the make-up water exiting the
heat recovery unit, and what would be the annual energy savings?
Assume that the blowdown and make-up water as saturated water.

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &


CONDENSATE SYSTEM
Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Example 2:

A steam distribution system with a working pressure of 10 psig is fitted


with a steam trap. However, steam is found to be leaking continuously
from the steam trap orifice. Given that the steam distribution system
operates at an average of 5000 hours a year, diameter of the steam trap
orifice is ¼ inch, and the steam is generated from a boiler with 82%
efficiency, estimate the annual cost of energy loss due to the leaking
steam trap.

Atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi, latent heat of steam at 10 psig is 952.2


Btu/lb, and fuel price is RM35.5 per million Btu

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© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44