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CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Presentation Outline:

Introduction

Properties of steam

Losses in steam system

Energy saving measures

Summary

1

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:

Major applications:

Power generation Process heat Space heating

100%

90%

80%

Energy Use (%)

60%

50%

30%

20% 40% 35%

10%

0%

Steam

Food Pulp and Paper Chemicals Petroleum Stone/Clay/Glass Primary Metal-Based Other

Fuel Refining Metals Durables Manufacturing

Electric Industry

2

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:

Major applications:

Type of installation Description

(psig) (lb/hr)

3

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:

Major applications: Steam in Power generation

4

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:

Major applications: Steam in Process Heating

Steam cleaning

5

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:

Major applications: Steam in Process Heating

6

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Introduction:

Major applications: Steam in Space Heating

7

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Properties of Steam:

Phases of pure substances:

8

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Properties of Steam:

Phases of water:

(or subcooled liquid)

State 2 : saturated liquid water

State 3 : saturated liquid-

vapour mixture (wet steam)

State 4 : saturated steam

State 5 : superheated steam 9

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Properties of Steam:

Major steam properties:

Pressure P kPa psi

Temperature T ⁰C ⁰F

Major steam

properties Specific entropy s kJ/kg⋅K Btu/lb⋅R

10

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Properties of Steam:

Terms & definitions:

process irreversibilities (i.e. quality of energy)

temperature of the water

change in temperature

rapidly drops at a given temperature

11

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Steam sub-systems: boiler, distribution, utilisation, condensate return

12

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Major components in steam system:

System Components

fan/blower, boiler drum

Distribution Piping, steam traps, air vents, valves,

pressure reducing stations

End use Steam turbines, heat exchangers, coils,

system jacketed kettles, vacuum breakers

Condensate Flash tanks, condensate pumps, valves,

return pipings

13

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Steam traps:

• Function: to remove condensate and vent non-

condensable gases from steam system

14

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Steam traps:

• Types of steam traps: Thermostatic, Thermodynamic, Mechanical

• Thermostatic:

• Use temperature differential to separate steam & condensate

• Designs: bellows, bimetallic

Bellows Bimetallic

15

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Steam traps:

• Thermodynamic:

• Use difference in kinetic energy

(velocity) of steam & condensate

• Designs: disc, piston, lever, orifice

Disc

16

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Steam traps:

• Mechanical:

• Use difference in density between steam & condensate

• Designs: ball float, float & lever, inverted bucket, open

bucket

Float Inverted bucket

17

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Steam traps:

18

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Steam traps:

• Poor selection/maintenance of steam trap can cause:

• Water hammer • Poor heat transfer

• Steam leak • System corrosion

19

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Steam traps:

• Selection criteria of steam trap:

• Continuous or intermittent removal of condensate

• System temperature & pressure

• Range of load on the trap

• Rate of change of load on the trap

20

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Key operating parameters:

Steam production rate

Make-up water

flow rate

Feedwater

flow rate

21

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Approaches to determine process steam requirement:

Steam consumption table:

Provide quick & rough estimate

Typically provided by steam system manufactures and

industry standards

System mass & energy balances:

Comprehensive mass & energy balances analysis

More elaborate & usually more accurate

Require accurate measurement of steam properties

22

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Steam System:

Approaches to determine process steam requirement:

Steam consumption table: Example

Type of installation Description

(psig) (lb/hr)

Bakeries Dough room, 8 ft long 10 4

Hospitals Sterilizers, per 100 in3 40-50 6

Laundries Steam irons, each 100 4

Plastic moulding Each 12-15 ft2 surface 125 29

Paper mill Wood pulp, per 100 lb 50 372

Tire shops Truck molds, large 100 87

23

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in steam system occur at:

20-25%

Distribution system 40-45% Condensate return system

24

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in steam distribution system:

• Insulation losses:

• Typical surface temperature: 90 – 260ºC

• Typical bare surface losses: 316 – 1800 kJ/hr

• Includes losses at joints, flanges, valves

25

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in steam distribution system:

Steam Temp. Heat loss Heat losses from bare steam lines

Pressure Per hour

(psig) (F) (btu/sqft.hr)

15 250 452

35 280 556

50 298 595

75 320 716

26

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in steam distribution system:

• External leaks:

• Steam leaks to atmosphere

• Usually visible and/or audible

• Internal leaks:

• Steam leaks inside steam

system e.g. valves in

bypasses around steam

traps

• Usually invisible

27

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in steam

distribution system:

steam leaks

28

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in steam distribution system:

• Inactive piping:

• Dead or unused piping in the steam distribution system

• Need to be isolated e.g. blank-off

Steam Temp. of steam mixed with % air

• Accumulation of air & non- Pressure

condensable gases in distribution (psig) 0% 10% 20% 30%

system: 10 240 234 228 221

as well temperature 50 298 291 283 275

reduces heat transfer 100 338 330 322 312

29

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in steam trapping system:

• Trap flash losses:

• Sensible energy losses through “flashing”

phenomena

• Usually visible and/or audible

• Sensible energy losses through

“flashing” phenomena

• Caused by slow/partial closing or

failure to close

• Usually visible and/or audible

30

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in steam trapping system:

Orifice steam pressure (psig)

diameter

(inches) 15 100 150 300

31

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in steam trapping system:

High-pressure

Condensate Low-pressure steam (psig)

(psig)

50 30 15 5

32

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Losses in condensate return system:

• Condensate return piping:

• Need to be adequately sized and insulated

• Condensate pump:

• Need to be carefully select suitable pump

• Filtration: Strainers to catch particulates

• Cleanup: condensate polishers to remove dissolved

contaminants

33

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

General rules:

* Economy of scale

Produce steam at highest

* To overcome line losses

possible pressure & temperature

* To satisfy highest pressure user

Utilize steam to process use at

* Provide more latent heat available

lowest possible pressure & temp.

for useful work

Expand steam from high to lower

* General rule: pressure drop < 20%

pressure thru most efficient means

of maximum system pressure

Generate maximum steam from

or condensate return temperature

process waste heat recovery

=> 1% increase in efficiency

34

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Some tips:

& condensate return lines should be insulated

35

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Some tips:

Inspect & repair steam traps

trap losses to < 5%

Return condensate to boiler

Can save water, fuel, chemicals

Minimize boiler blowdown

• Typically 4-8% of feedwater flow rate

36

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Some tips:

• Can be used to

Recover heat from blowdown

preheat makeup water

37

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Some tips:

use refrigeration cycle

38

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Some tips:

use compressor

39

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Some tips:

condensate •Attractive when not economical

to return condensate to boiler

Install removable insulation

* Also improve safety

Removable insulation

on valves & fittings

40

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Some tips:

Bakpressure turbine reduces

(PRV) with backpressure

steam pressure & generate work

turbogenerators

Backpressure turbine

41

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Some tips:

Use deaerators O2 < 5 ppb) to prevent corrosion,

partial pressure reduction & temp

42

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Summary:

Steam: cheap, effective & efficient medium of heat transfer

Phases of steam: compressed liquid, saturated liquid, saturated

mixture, saturated vapour, superheated

Major components in steam system: boiler, distribution, end use,

condensate return

Major losses: steam leaks, insulation, flashing, non-condensable

gases

Some energy saving opportunities: leak repair, insulation, steam

trap, waste heat recovery from blowdown, flash steam,

condensate return

43

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Further Readings:

Witte, L.C., Schmidt, P.S., Brown, D.R., Industrial Energy Management and

Utilization, Hemisphere Publishing, 1998

Ibrahim, K., Lalchand, G., Yusof, M.A., Majidi, M.I., Energy Efficiency: A

provate sector initiative, CETREE, 2002

Kennedy, W.J., Turner, W.C., Capehart, B.L., Guide to Energy Management,

The Farmont Press, 1994

Efficient use of process steam, TLV Co. Ltd, 1999

Payne, G.A., Managing energy in commerce and industry, Butterworths,

1984

44

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

ENERGY SAVING IN STEAM &

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Example:

A boiler produces saturated steam at 450 kPa and operates for 5,000

hours per year. A continuous blowdown system removes water at the rate

of 10 kg/min. The maximum temperature at which the blowdown may be

discharged into a drain is 50ºC. Make-up water at 30ºC enters the boiler

system at the rate of 50 kg/min.

If a blowdown heat recovery system with a heat transfer efficiency of 90%

were installed, at what rate would heat be transferred to the make-up

water? What would be the temperature of the make-up water exiting the

heat recovery unit, and what would be the annual energy savings?

Assume that the blowdown and make-up water as saturated water.

45

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

Intro Properties System Losses Measures Summary

Example 2:

with a steam trap. However, steam is found to be leaking continuously

from the steam trap orifice. Given that the steam distribution system

operates at an average of 5000 hours a year, diameter of the steam trap

orifice is ¼ inch, and the steam is generated from a boiler with 82%

efficiency, estimate the annual cost of energy loss due to the leaking

steam trap.

Btu/lb, and fuel price is RM35.5 per million Btu

46

© Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh College of Graduate Studies 44

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