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Shop Practice with Electrical Code:

Voltage Drop and Short Circuit


Calculation Residential Single
Phase System
Jayson Bryan E. Mutuc, REE, RME
BSEE-PUP
MSEE, Major in Power Systems -MIT (candidate)
Voltage Drop

2.10.2.1 (a) (1) FPN No. 4: To


provide reasonable efficiency
of operation of electrical
equipment, branch-circuit
conductors should be sized to
prevent a voltage drop not to
exceed three percent. In
addition, the maximum total
voltage drop on both feeders
and branch circuits should
not exceed five percent.
Voltage Drop Calculation

Voltage Drop Calculation:

IR
%VD = x100%
Voltage Supply (Vs )
where:
I – line current, amperes
R – line ac resistance, ohms
Purpose of Short Circuit Calculation

The purpose of short circuit calculation is to know the rating the


interrupting capacity of the overcurrent protective device

In circuit breaker there are 3 important parameters when it comes to


residential design, ampere trip, ampere frame and interrupting rating

Ampere trip – the current rating the circuit breaker set to trip
Ampere frame – insulation housing for maximum long time current
available in physical
Interrupting Rating – the highest current at rated voltage that a device
is intended to interrupt under standard test conditions.
Analogies to Short Circuit Condition
Normal Current Operation

Short Circuit Condition with Inadequate


Interrupting Rating
Analogies to Short Circuit Condition

Short Circuit with Adequate


Interrupting Rating
Calculation of Short Circuit Currents

Basic Short Circuit Calculation Formula


Procedure
𝐊𝐕𝐀 𝐱 𝟏𝟎𝟎
Step 1: Determine transformer 𝟏 ∅ 𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐧𝐬𝐟. 𝐈𝐅𝐋𝐀 =
𝐄𝐋−𝐋
full-load amperes from
either:
EL-L = Line to Line Voltage
a) Name plate
b) Table
c) Formula
𝟏𝟎𝟎
Step 2: Find the transformer 𝐌𝐮𝐥𝐭𝐢𝐩𝐥𝐢𝐞𝐫 =
multiplier 𝐓𝐫𝐚𝐧𝐬𝐟. % 𝐙

Note: most % Z of xformer is multiplied by .9


Calculation of Short Circuit Currents

Formula
𝐈𝐋−𝐋 = 𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐧𝐬.𝐅𝐋𝐀 𝐱 𝐦𝐮𝐥𝐭𝐢𝐩𝐥𝐢𝐞𝐫
Step 3: Determine transformer
let-through short-circuit
current 𝟐 𝐱 𝐋 𝐱 𝐈𝐋−𝐋
1Φ line-to-line 𝐟=
𝐂 𝐱 𝐧 𝐱 𝐄𝐋−𝐋
Step 4: Calculate “f” factor (L-L) faults

Note: 1 Φ line-to-neutral 𝐟=
𝟐 𝐱 𝐋 𝐱 𝐈𝐋−𝑵
𝐂 𝐱 𝐧 𝐱 𝐄𝐋−𝑵
IL-N = 1.5 x IL-L at transformer (L-N) faults
terminals
L – length (feet) of conduit to the fault.
C – conduit constant (table B)
Subscript L-L means Line to Line n – number of conductors per phase
Subscript L-N means Line to Neutral I – available short circuit current in amperes at
beginning of the circuit.
Calculation of Short Circuit Currents

Step 5: Calculate “M” or take Formula


𝟏
𝐌=
𝟏+𝐟
Step 6: Compute the available
short circuit current (RMS 𝐈𝐒𝐂𝐀 = 𝐈(𝐋−𝐋 𝐨𝐫 𝐋−𝐍) 𝐱 𝐌
symmetrical)
Short Circuit Sample Computation

Fault #1 All faults are line to line single


Step 1 phase fault
KVA x 100 50 x 1000
IFLA = = = 208.33 A
EL−L 240
Step 2
100 100
Multiplier = = = 55.55
Transf.% Z .9(2)
Step 3
IL−L = trans.FLA x multiplier
= 208.33 x 55.55 = 11572.92 A
Single phase short circuit current at
Transformer Secondary
Step 4
2 x L x IL−L 2 𝑥20 𝑥 11572.92
f= =
C x n x EL−L 22185 𝑥 2 𝑥 240

= 0.04347125185
Short Circuit Sample Computation

Step 5 All faults are line to line single phase


1 1
M= = = 0.958 fault
1+f 1 + 0.043
Step 6
ISCA = I(L−L or L−N) x M = 11572.92 x 0.958
= 11090.7863 A

Fault #2 (Use ISCA at Fault #1 to calculate)


Step 4
2 x L x IL−L 2 𝑥20 𝑥 11090.7863
f= =
C x n x EL−L 5907 𝑥 2 𝑥 240
= 0.156
Step 5
1 1
M= = = 0.864
1+f 1 + 0.156
Step 6 Use Circuit Breaker with 10 KAIC
ISCA = I(L−L or L−N) x M rating
= 11090.7863 x 0.864 = 9590.257 A
Table A. Short – Currents Available Table B. “C” Values for
from Various Size Transformers Conductors

mm2(AWG) Three Single Conductors


600V
Voltage % Short
Full Load Impedance 2.0 (14 AWG) 389
and KVA Circuits
Amps 3.5 (12 AWG) 617
Phase (nameplate) Amps
5.5 (10 AWG) 981
8.0 (8 AWG) 1557

25 104 1.5 12175 14 (6 AWG) 2425

37.5 156 1.5 18018 22 (4 AWG) 3806


30 (2 AWG) 5907
50 208 1.5 23706
120/240 75 313 1.5 34639
38 (1 AWG) 7293
50 (1/0 AWG) 8925
1ph** 100 417 1.6 42472
60 (2/0 AWG) 10755
167 696 1.6 666644 80 (3/0 AWG) 12844
100 (4/0 AWG) 15082
125 (250 MCM) 16483
150 (300 MCM) 18177
175 (325 MCM) 19704
200 (400 MCM) 20566
250 (500 MCM) 22185
300 (600 MCM) 22965
375 (725 MCM) 24137
500 (1000 MCM) 25278