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YEAST IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY: Outline

Overview and Current Development


• History, development and application of
yeast
• Technological function of yeast and yeast
preparation
Lilis Nuraida • Yeast starter culture
• Production Process of Baker’s Yeast
Southeast Asian Food and Agriculture Science & Technology Center
and • Yeast Derived Products: Type, function
Departement of Food Science and Technology
Bogor Agricultural University - Indonesia
and production
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HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF YEAST Saccharomyces yeasts


First approved genetically engineered wine yeast,
brewer’s yeast, baker’s yeast
S. cerevisiae’s genome was the first eukaryote genome
End 20th and 1st • Mankind’s oldest domesticated
ys 21st Century
fully sequenced microorganism
Improvement of industrial yeast strain
Yeast taxonomy study Late 1900s • Considered to be the best studied and
most used yeast:
Yeast observed in Late 1800s Isolation of single yeast and
malt, named employement of pure yeast – 30 million tons of wine p.a.
Saccharomyces starter cultures for beer and wine
cerevisiae Early 1800s – 60 million tons of beer p.a.
Late 1600s Microscopic appearance of yeast (van Leeuwenhoek, 1685) – 600,000 tons of baker yeast p.a.
2000-6000 Fortuitous use of yeast in wine making (Caucasia), beer brewing – 800,000 tons of single cell protein p.a.
BC (Sumeria, Babylonia) and dough leavening (Egypt)
Verstrepen et al. 2006
Verstrepen et al. 2006
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The road of discovery and application of yeast
Technological Function of Yeast
Synthetic Biology • Prospect of the
synthesis of entire
genomes for

Systems Biology
construction of
“ideal” industrial • Dough Leavening (baker’s yeast)
yeast
• Brewing (brewer’s yeast)
• Exploitation of biological complexity
Molecular Biology of yeast strain improvement for • Distilled alcohol beverages fermentation
example to optimise yeast cell
process. (distiller’s yeast)
Genetics
• Metabolic engineering of yeast by directed genetic
modifications and reconstruction to improve • Wine fermentation (wine yeast)
performance of industrial strains
Biochemistry
• Genetics engineering of yeast by gene cloning and
• Other alcoholic fermentation (ragi)
trnasformation of specific genes for a new desirav=ble
characteristics
– Indonesia: tape, brem
Microbiology
• Genetics breeding • Dairy fermentation (kefir grain)
• Mutagenesis and selection
• Clonal selection • Soy fermentation (soy sauce, tauco)
• Isolation and Identification Adapted from Verstrepen et al. 2006
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Desirable properties of Baker’s Yeast Desirable properties of Brewer’s


Yeast
• S. cerevisiae:
– Rapid maltose fermenting ability • Bottom fermentation process (ale)
(lean dough yeast)
– Improved osmotolerance (sweet – S.cerevisiae
dough yeast) • Top fermentation process (lager)
– Rapid fermentation kinetics – S. uvarum
– Freeze/thaw tolerance
• Carbohydrate utilization
– Substrate metabolism:
• Melibiose utilising ability (beet – Increase metabolism of maltose and
molasses as substrate) maltotriose in malt wort
• Lactose utilising ability (whey as – Ferment dextrin and starch
substrate) • Efficiency and low calorie (light) beer
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Desirable properties of Distiller’s
Wine Yeast
Yeast
• Controlled fermentation started in 20th century
• Natural fermentation: any number of • Natural fermentation involves different yeast
species may be involved species such grow succesively at initial.
• Controlled fermentation: S.cerevisiae – In the most active fermentation stage to end
of fermentation: Saccharomyces cerevisiae
– Very alcoholic tolerant and gives a good yield
– Ferments rapidly • Desirable characteristics:
– Good flavor production – Rapid fermentation rate
– Tolerance to SO2

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Yeast Preparation based on Yeast Starter Culture Preparation


Activity
• Yeast Cream (18-20% solid) Perishable, kept
• Yeasts are available in several forms, and • Compressed yeast (27-32% solid) refrigerated
are classified on the basis of their activity.
– Active yeasts include: • Dry yeast (8% moisture) Shelf-life up to 2 y
– Active Dry Yeast in suitable
• Baker’s yeast
– Instant Dry Yeast packaging
• Brewer’s yeast
• Yeasts for alcoholic beverages
• Traditional dry yeast (ragi)
– Inactive yeasts, such as: • Kefir grain
• Dried brewer’s yeast
• Primary- grown yeasts

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Storage Stability of Active Dry Baker’s Yeast Ragi and Kefir grain
in Variuos Atmosphere
Atmosphere Residual Activity (%)*)
• Ragi • Kefir grain
Nitrogen 79.5
– Mixed yeast culture – Mixed yeast culture
Carbon dioxide 81.9
– Present together with – Present together
Carbon monoxide 85.2
amylolytic molds with lactic acid
Argon 80.7
bacteria
Hydrogen 88.9
Air 43.3
Vacuum 70.3
*) after storage for 3 d at 55oC
Hill, 1987

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Production Process of Baker’s


Yeast Biomass Yeast
Raw Materials
FILTRATION
FERMENTATION STAGES
• Baker’s Yeast
Used for food Flask fermentation BLENDING
• Brewer’s Yeast Pure culture fermentation
Used in food is limited DRYING:
• Single Cell Protein EXTRUSION AND tunnel, fluid
Mainly for feed Intermediate fermentation
CUTTING bed
Stock fermentation

Pitch fermentation Compressed Yeast Dried Yeast

Trade fermentation
PACKAGING

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Baker’s yeast fermentation Processing aids and additives to
improve activity of Dry Yeast
• Added to yeast cream or press cake prior
• Substrate: to drying:
– Molasses: beet and/or cane – Swelling agent:
– Other: whey • Methyl cellulose or carboxymethyl cellulose (1-2%
of yeast solid) (Langejan, 1980)
• Fermentation condition:
– To reduce solid leaching
– Aerobic • Monoglycerides, soya lecithin, glycerol polyesters
and sorbitan esters (Hill, 1987)
– To improve storage in air:
• Addition antioxidant

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Yeast-Derived Products Yeast Extract Components

Contains guanosine 5’-


• Amino acids
• Yeast Extract monophosphate (GMP), • Peptides
ionosine 5’-
• Yeast Autolysates monophosphate (IMP), • Nucleotides
• Proteins
• Application:
– Flavoring agent in soup, sauces, gravies, • Carbohydrates
stew, snack food etc. • Vitamins
– Main component of savoury spreads:
Vegemite and Marmite
• Flavor compounds
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Product definition Product definition
• Yeast Extract: • Yeast Autolysates/Autolysed yeast:
– Yeast extract comprises the water soluble – Autolysed yeast is the concentrated, not
components of the yeast cell, the composiiton extracted, partially soluble digest obtained
of which is primarily amino-acids, peptides, from food-grade yeast. Solubilisation is
carbohydrates and salts. Yeast extract is accomplisehd by enzyme hydrolysis or
produced through the hydrolyses of peptide autolysis of yeast cells. Autolysed yeast
bonds by the naturally occurring enzymes contains both soluble and insoluble
present in edible yeast or by the addition of components derived from the whole yeast
food grade enzymes cells.
The Food Chemical Codex The Food Chemical Codex

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Composition Preparation of Yeast Extract


Yeast Extract Yeast Autolysate
• Requires disruption of cell walls:
• Protein content: 50- • Protein content: 50- – Autolysis by endogenous enzymes*)
75% 69% – Plasmolysis: modified autolyses in the
• Total carbohydrate: 4- • Total carbohydrate presence of accelerator, i.e. salt or organic
13% content: 15-25% solvent
• Lipid content: very • Lipid content: 3-10% – Mechanical desruption
little – Hydrolysis by acid or by exogenous enzymes

*)practical on industrial scale

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Production Process of Yeast
Source of yeast cream
Extract Absent in
production of
Yeast cream Clarification yeast • Conventional:
autolysate
– Baker’s Yeast
Plasmolyses Concentration – Brewer’s Yeast
• Alternative:
Liquid: 50-65% dry matters • Candida utilis
Autolyses Paste: 70-80% dry matters
• Kluyveromyces marxianus

Packed in Spray, roller


Pasteurisation
pails, drums drying
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Common problem encountered in yeast


Condition for Yeast Extract Production
extract production
Problem Solution
Steps Condition
Enzyme not working Ensure no direct heat
Autolyses and 55 oC for 24 h, pH 5.5 Low yield autolysis Check pH and temperature of slurry at
each stage
Plasmolyses
Extend autolyses time
Pasteurisation 1st : 70oC for 15 h Add protease
2nd: 70-75oC for 2-5 h Over heat Add protease
(after clarification) Clarification problems caused Add glucanase
by insoluble glucans
Concentration Temperature <55oC Burnt flavor Keep final temperature <55oC during
final evaporation
Adapted from Biocatalyst Ltd Adapted from Biocatalyst Ltd

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Other yeast-derived products
• Colorants
– Pigmented yeasts such as Rhodotorula, Thank you
Phodospondium, Cryptococcus,
Sporidiobolus, Sporobolomyces
• Yeast Polysaccharides:
– Food application and nutraceutical potential
– Potential species S. cerevisiae, Pichia holstii,
Hansenula sp, Candidia, Rhodotorula Further information:
lilis@seafast.org
• Yeast Enzymes Http://www.seafast.ipb.ac.id

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