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R. H. Gallagher

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A.

Summary

The development of finite element calculational procedures for thin shell in-

stability analysis has involved the definition of appropriate element representa-

tions (i.e. the geometric form of the element and the approximation of displace-

ment and/or stress), constitutive expressions, and computational algorithms.

Among these, the status of thin shell finite element representations remains

unsettled. This paper therefore emphasizes recent developments in the basic

aspects of thin shell finite element analysis and discusses one simplified approach

in more detail. Formulative and computational procedures for elastic instability

analysis are then summarized and numerical results are shown for the simplified

shell element formulation.

1. Introduction

In an earlier review [1] the writer outlined the component features

of the finite element approach to thin shell instability analysis and

observed that many serious developmental challenges remained in

even these basic aspects. For example, the reliability in prediction of

thin shell instability can be no better than in calculation of linear

static shell analysis. Recent developments have shed new light on

features of the latter which have heretofore been poorly understood,

and have indicated more promising avenues of approach. One of these

avenues, that of "generalized potential energy" [2], forms the basis

of the triangular shell element described herein, which has been

extended [3, 4] to deal with a variety of elastic instability phenomena.

This paper begins with a discussion of the linear static formulation

and then progress from there to elastic instability analysis. The route

followed represents a projection of the direct stiffness, assumed dis-

placement procedures that have predominated in finite element analy-

sis to date. vVe comment briefly on alternative routes at the close of the

paper.

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg 1976

Finite Element Representations 41

Three distinct approaches to assumed-displacement finite element ana-

lysis of thin shell structures can be identified: (1) by means of three-

dimensional (solid) elements with curved boundaries, (2) in "faceted"

form with flat elements, and (3) via elements formulated on the basis

of curved shell theory.

An appeal of solid elements is that they stem directly from three-

dimensional theory of elasticity. The curved boundaries are easily

defined through use of "isoparametric" curvilinear coordinates, which

employ the same form of description for both geometry and displace-

ment. Conditions of the Love-Kirchoff type are imposed, but this is

insufficient to achieve economical solutions; it is necessary either to

introduce certain supplementary displacement modes to describe bend-

ing action [0] or to de-emphasize the representation of shear deforma-

tion by approximation (reduced numerical integration) of the shear

strain energy [6]. There has not been sufficient development of the

non-lincar analysis side of this approach to measure its effectiveness in

thin shell stability analysis.

The use of flat plate elements is appealing in its simplicity. Among

the objections to them, however, are the following: (a) they exclude

coupling of stretching and bending within the element, (b) the re-

striction to triangular shapes when general shells are to be handled,

(c) difficulty of treating junctions where all elements meeting at the

point arc co-planar, (d) "discontinuity" bending moments at element

juncture lines, which do not appear in the continuously curved actual

structure, and, for stability analysis, (e) the influence of the geometric

approximation upon the solution for imperfection-sensitive structures.

We might add the problems of definition of displacement fields which

meet interelcment continuity conditions, but these are even more serious

for curved elements.

Straight finite elements represent the behaviour of curved struc-

tures in the limit and the errors due to (a) can be made small by use

of a refined clement nctwork. Nearly all finite element programs suit-

able for stability analysis will contain triangles so that (b) is not a

serious objection.

In item (c), co-planarity, a null stiffness corresponding to rotation

about the axis norlllal to the plane will be present. One may define

coordinate axes in the plane (which is generally at an angle with the

global axes) and eliminate this rotational degree-of-freedom. This may

be awkward in practical application since many different such planes

may appear in the structure. Conversely, for small angles between the

elements, dependence may be placed on this angle to maintain solu-

42 It. H. Gallagher

the elements approach co-planarity. Note that related practical limi-

tations appply to most existing curved shell element formulations, which

admit only constant curvatures or restricted coordinate systems in the

global idealization.

The formulation ofthe buckling problem does not involve the bend-

ing moments directly and often the influence of flexure on the distribu-

tion of in-surface forces is small. Thus, one might argue that objection

(d) is not applicablc to the analysis for instability. With respect to

item (e), there is insufficient numerical experience in the related ana-

lysis situation to measure its significance.

In addressing the questions rasied by curved thin shell elements

we assume that the strain-displacement equations of a "consistent"

first-order deep shell theory will be adopted. We also confine attention to

formulations in curvilinear coordinates, taking note of the alternative

of formulations in projectcd rectangular coordinates. The principal

concern is then the selection of displacement fields which meet the

following conditions:

1. Zero strain energy under rigid body motion.

2. Inclusion of constant strain states.

3. Inter-element continuity to the degree required by the variatio-

nal principle employed.

By using trigonometric as well as polynomials for coupled displace-

ment fields it is possible to satisfy the rigid body motion condition.

Such developments often fail to meet the constant strain condition,

however. Ashwell and Sabir [8] satisfy both conditions by first selecting

strain expansions which include the necessary constant terms and then

integrating to produce thc rigid body motion terms. This function fails

to satisfy the interelement continuity condition because of the trig-

onometric tenllS introduced to meet the other two conditions.

The choice of conditions to be met exactly has therefore become a

dilemma confronting those who formulate such elements and numerical

evidence by Fonder and Clough [9] indicates that each alternative is

unsatisfactory in certain cases. A logical alternative is therfore to use

as many terms in a purely polynomial expansion-for which inter-

element continuity and the constant strain condition can generally be

enforced-as are necessary to closely approximate the trigonometric

terms associated with the rigid body motion condition.

To clarify this approach, we first note that the interelement con-

tinuity conditions on flexure demand a polynomial of such high order

in the normal displacement that the approximation of the rigid body

motion condition is usually satisfaetory without additional terms. Under

Finite Element Representations 43

surface displacement components may be required to be of the same

order as the normal displacement to meet strict inter-element con-

tinuity conditions. \Vhere these are not coupled, however, the in-

surface continuity can be achieved with lower order terms than for

flexure. In consequence, the polynomial terms which are employed

above those required for flat element interelement continuity can be

viewed as contributing principally to the satisfaction of the rigid body

motion condition.

There are two differing views regarding the degree of polynomial

representation of the in plane components in comparison with the degree

employed for normal displacement. In conjunction with the above

argument concerning approximate representation of the rigid body

motion condition, Morley [10] shows that when the in-surface displace-

ments are quadratic polynomials a solution of aceeptable aeeul'acy

may require element planform dimensions that are of the same order

as the thickness. This has been eonfirmed by Morris [11, 12]. Thus, at

least a cubic polynomial should be specified and this is at the same

level as the simple normal displaeement assumption to be described

subsequently.

Cowper, et al [13], however, believe that sinee the in-surfaee dis-

plaeements appear in lower-order derivatives in the energy expression

they should be represented by lower order polynomials. The numerieal

evidenee of their work is not necessarily at varianee with the view

above since they also use a eubic polynomial for in-surface components,

but a quintie polynomial for normal displaeements.

To adapt these considerations to an element of minimal formulative

complexity we examine the element shown in Fig. 1. The shell middle

surface corresponds to the orthogonal curvilinear system ex - fJ. All

three displacement components are described by complete cubic poly-

nomials in triangular coordinates

1l = LN J u, v = LN J v, w = LN J w, (1)

Fig. 1. Triangular shell element.

44 R. H. Gallagher

where

(2)

of a complete cubic corresponding to these degrees-of-freedom.

Equation (1) does not permit continuity of the angular displace-

ment across element boundaries and leads to very poor results even

for flat plate flexure. To resolve this, Harvey and Kelsey [2] introduce

the notion of a constraint condition to "restore" continuity. That is,

if A and B are neighbouring elements and the subscript n denotes the

normal direction, the relative angular displacement (¢) of adjacent

edges at their midpoint can be set equal to zero

¢t- B = ¢t - ¢!{ = o. (3)

Differentiation of the displacement field [Eq. (1)] gives ¢A and ¢B in

terms of the joint displacements A. Applying this to each boundary

in each displacement component gives the set of algebraic constraint

equations

(4)

These are handled in the global analysis by use of Lagrange multipliers.

Details of the element formulation are presented in [3].

It is noteworthy that the constraint condition can be directly

incorporated in the variational principle and represented in the dis-

cretized system as a corrective element boundary stiffness matrix.

Kikuchi and Ando [14] refer to this as the "simplified hybrid displace-

ment method" and have recently [15] applied it to thin shell instability

problems.

--; . . .i ___ _

L ,/

..........

I '~-t/I/

o cJplete cubic fields+constroints

• Complete quintic fields

" Flat elements I

1-

I

o 100 200 300 400 500 600

Total number of degrees of freedom

Fig. 2. Linear solution shell roof (E = 3.0 X 106 IbJin2 , jJ = 0, weight = 90 IbJft2).

Finite Element Representations -15

ment fields with improved satisfaction of both rigid body motion and

interelement displacement continuity conditions at the expense of

increased cost of element formulation. One must ask if the cost is

justified by the increased accuracy. Complete quintic fields are em-

ployed for the highly accurate and sophisticated Sheba element [Hi],

but this is not directly comparable with the above due to its use of a

special coordinate system and exact satisfaction of all basic conditions.

Recently, Dawe [17] presented a complete quintic element in curvi-

linear coordinates that is comparable with the above. One comparison

is given for the case of the uniformly-loaded cylindrical shell [18, 19]

in Fig. 2. Although these results suggest that higher sophistication

does not have a corresponding payoff, extensive data on other numeri-

cal analyses in [17] demonstrate that the question is not clearly settled.

The potential energy is a convenient starting point for the definition

of element relationships for instability analysis. For simplicity we

exclude initial strains and displacements, which are otherwise readily

accounted for, and make no specification of the strain-displacement

equations except to note that they are of the Lagrangian type.

The total strain s can be written as the sum of components sL that

are linear in the strain-displacement expressions and components s~

that are non-linear functions of the displacements.

(5)

The potential energy is

Vol Sa

(6)

where E denotes the set of elastic constants, (Val) is the volume of the

structure, Sa is the portion of the structure on which the tractions T

are prescribed, and ~ b are the surface displacements.

If the displacements are discretized by use of element shape func-

tions, in the manner indicated previously, Eq. (1), we can write

(7, 8)

where DL and D~ (~e) result from the application of the linear and

non-linear operators of the strain displacement equations on the

assumed displacement field, ~ lists the element discrete d.o.f. After

substitution of (7,8) into (5) and the result into (6) we have the element

46 R. H. Gallagher

potential energy

:;r = k ij tii tij/2 + nijk tii tij ti /6 +

k

in which k ij , nijk, and nijl,;! are second, third and fourth order tensors,

and are fixed values, and F; is the nodal or generalized force corres-

ponding to tii' After summation of element potential energies we have

the global potential energy

:;r = Kij tii I1j/2 + N ijk 11; tij I1k/6 +

+ NijkzI1il1jl1k l1 d12 - P i l1 i · (10)

Pi denotes the external load in degree-of-freedom i.

The equilibrium state is represented by the solution to the equa-

tions resulting from application of the first necessary condition. Thus

differentiation of (10) with respect to l1i gives

Pi = K ij l1j + Nijkl1jl1k/2 + N;jkZl1jl1kl1z13. (11)

function in all component terms, k ij , nijk, and nijkZ, i.e., a "consistent"

formulation. Economic feasibility of analysis may depend on the use

of simpler displacement fields for nijl.; and nijkZ' Numerical evidence

supports the view that very little accuracy is lost when linear approxi-

mations are made for these terms in the presence of cubic approxima-

tions for k ij and recently Oden, et al. [20] proved theoretically the

validity of this approach for beam elements.

Another factor in economic feasibility concerns the elimination of

certain degrees-of-freedom prior to the start of non-linear analysis.

Such "condensations" are facilitated when nijk and nijkZ are formulated

inconsistently and are also possible, if rather more complicated, in a

consistent formulation. The usual practice is to eliminate angular

degrees-of-freedom; the limits of condensation with respect to solution

accuracy are not well understood, however.

The alternative methods of calculation of the load-displacement paths

of finite element representations has recently been reviewed by the wri-

ter [21] for instability problems and by Stricklin and Haisler [22] for

the pre buckling phase. In the following we present the outline only of

the procedures employed in the numerical calculations to be described

subsequently. Four features of the load-displacement path are treated:

(1) general non-linear analysis, (2) limit point calculation, (3) bifurca-

tion, and (4 ) post-buckling.

Finite Element Representations 47

one-step Newton-Raphson (N-R) iteration has been adopted for the

general non-linear analysis. In matrix form the N-R approach is

toi+l = to! - [K~J-l ji, (12)

where di+l and di are the displacement vectors in successive cycles of

iteration and l is the residual (imbalance of load) calculated from the

equilibrium equation evaluated for d i , i.e.

ji = [[KJ + (1/2) [N1J + (1/3) [N~]] to i - P. (13)

In conventional N-R analysis one iterates on Eq. (12) until d i +1 is

arbitrarily close to d i . We see, however, that when the load path is

followed incrementally [KTJ- 1 is available and one cycle of Eq. (12)

can be applied at small additional cost.

[KTJ is singular at the limit point and poorly conditioned in its

vicinity. It is therefore desirable to shift to a scheme of displacement,

rather than load, incrementation. There are many ways of implementing

this approach, the one adopted here being the superposition procedure

described by Zienkiewicz [23].

The method of calculation of the bifurcation load is based on the

zero-determinant condition. The determinant is evaluated at each load

intensity and the intensity for zero determinant is obtained through

Lagrange interpolation. The mode shape is calculated by solution of

the stiffness equations after one degree-of-freedom has been assigned

a reference value. Details are given in [4]. Few situations involving

multiple or closely-spaced roots have yet been analyzed; it would

appear that algorithms which exploit the Sturm-sequence property

(e.g. [24 and 25] have the desired reliability in such cases.

Perturbation methods have a predominant role in analytical studies

of postbuckling behaviour, and numerous studies have attempted to

adapt these ideas to finite element analysis. This work is summarized

in a report by Mau and the writer [26] and by Thompson and Hunt [27].

These demonstrate that the needed basic properties are given by the

terms nijk and nijkl' The mode of combination entails so much compu-

tational effort, however, that perturbation analysis is less effective than

pursuing the load-displacement path as a non-linear analysis problem,

as described above and done in [4, 15, 28]. A different view of this

situation is that finite element analysis has not exploited effectively

the parametric analysis advantages of perturbation procedures.

5. Numerical Results

Numerical solutions for a number of beam, arch, plate and shell in-

stability solutions, covering all of the phenomena described above, have

48 R. H. Gallagher

been given in [], 3, 4, 26]. In each case the results are compared with

alternative analytical or numerical solutions. The problem shown in

Fig. 3 is chosen for presentation here since it represents the full range

15,--------,--------,---------.

·10] 0 Present study i

kg - Leieesteriseries) and Ohatt ifinit~ element)

10

! I

Thickness=3.9154 em

Eo 10 000 kg/em 1

voOJ

Ro100em

adO.9017em

non-zero twisting curvature. It involves a spherical cap with hinged

rectangular boundaries, subjected to a concentrated load at the crown.

The load-displacement response is of the snap-through type with recovery

of stiffness at higher displacements.

The results are shown for an 18-element (3 X 3 grid) representation

of the quadrant. The non-dimensionalized central deflection is plotted

versus the scaled intensity. An 8-term double series solution, based on

potential energy, by Leicester [29] and a "discrete Kirchoff" finite

element solution by Dhatt [30] are given for comparison. Agreement

among the three alternative solutions is very good, up to where a

stiffening behaviour is experienced.

6. Concluding Remarks

A principal motivating factor in the continuing development of the

finite element method is its suitability as a basis for the "general pur-

pose" program, i.e. a program which can be used for the analysis of

many different structural forms and behaviour mechanisms. The frame-

work of a general finite element computational procedure for elastic

Finite Element Representations 49

mentation and efficient performance within many, if not all, of the

existing general purpose programs.

As noted in the Introduction, the avenues outlined in this paper

represent a natural projection of the direct stiffness, assumed displace-

ment procedure that have grown up around linear, static finite element

analysis and general purpose programs. It was earlier anticipated that

strict adherence to potential energy concepts would enable "lower

bound" solutions on strain energy to be realized. Due to factors described

earlier, this goal has been difficult to reach in thin shell finite element

analysis. Also, the strain energy is not often a parameter of design

significance. The goal of a bounded solution is significant in bifurcation

analysis, however, since it applies to the intensity of critical load.

Research into admissible approximations and more efficient proce-

dures is therefore of key importance. The suggested alternatives include

mixed variational principles (Reissner, Hu-Washizu, hybrid) and modes

of algebraic formulation (Eulerian, convected coordinate). The formid-

able literature surrounding these attempts is beyond the scope of this

paper. 'Ve observe, however, that these also confront the problem of

integration in general purpose programs.

Comparisons with analytical solutions mainly serve to verify the

basic adequacy of finite element thin shell formulations. These problems

are usually best solved by analytical procedures however. The import-

ance of finite element representations rests with stiffened shells of

complicated geometry under arbitrary load. Careful, appropriate test

data must be obtained to validate the method in these applications.

Acknowledgement

Work described in this paper was supported by NASA under Grant "NGR 33-010-

070. The author wishes to thank the former students who contributed to this

work, but especially to Dr. Gareth Thomas who was responsible for the develop-

ment of the triangular shell element and computational capabilities described

herein.

References

1. Gallagher, R. H.: The Finite Element Method in Shell Stability Analysis.

Computers and Structures 3, 543-557 (1973).

2. Harvey, J. W.; Kelsey, S.: Triangular Plate Bending Element with En-

forced Compatibility. AIAA J. 9, ~o. G, 1023-1026 (1971).

3. Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.: A Triangular Thin Shell Finite Element:

Linear Analysis. ~ASA CR 2482 (1975).

4. Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.: A Triangular Thin Shell Finite Element:

Nonlinear Analysis. NASA CR 2483 (1975).

5. Wilson, E. L. et al.: Incompatible Displacement :Models. In: Numerical and

Computer Methods in Structural Mechanics. New York: Academic Press

1973, pp. 43-57.

50 R. H. Gallagher

in General Analysis of Plates and Shells. Int. J. for Num. Meth. Engrg. 3,

275-290 (1971).

7. Zienkiewicz, O. C.; Parekh, C.: Discussion of paper "Analysis of three-dimen-

sional Thin-Walled Structures". Proc. ASCE, J. of the Struct. Div., No. ST8,

Aug. 1970, pp. 1838-1846.

8. Ashwell, D.; Sabir, A.: A New Cylindrical Shell Finite Element Based on

Simple Independent Strain Functions. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 14,171-183 (1972).

9. Fonder, G.; Clough, R.: Explicit Addition of Rigid-Body Motions in Curved

Finite Elements. AIAA J. 11, No.3, 305-312 (1973).

10. Morley, L. S. D.: Polynomial Stress States in First Approximation Theory of

Circular Cylindrical Shells. Quart. J. Mech. and Applied Math. V. XXV, Part

I (1972).

11. Morris, A. J.: A Deficiency in Current Finite Elements for Thin Shell Appli-

cations. Int. J. Solids Struct. 9, 331-346 (1973).

12. Morris, A. J.: A Summary of Appropriate Governing Equations and Func-

tionals in the Finite Element Analysis of Thin Shells. Conf. in Finite Ele-

ment Thin Shell Analysis. New York: J. Wiley (in Press).

13. Cowper, G. R.; Lindberg, G. M.; Olson, M. D.: Comparison of Two High-

Precision Triangular Finite Elements for Arbitrary Deep Shells. Proc. of

Third Air Force Conf. on Matrix Methods in Structural Mechanics. AFFDL

TR-71-160, 277-304 (1971).

14_ Kikuchi, F.; Ando, Y.: Some Finite Element Solutions for Plate Bending

Problems by Simplified Hybrid Displacement Method. Nuc!. Engrg. Des.

23,155-173 (1972).

15. Kikuchi, F.; Ando, Y.: Application of Simplified Hybrid Displacement

Method to Plate and Shell Problems. Proc. of 2nd Int. Conf. on Struct.

Mech. in ReactoI' Technology. Berlin, Sept. 1973, Vol. M, Paper M5/5.

16. Argyris, J. H.; Lochner, N.: On the Application of the SHEBA Shell Ele-

ment. Compo Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engrg. 1,317-347 (1972).

17. Dawe, D.: Some Higher-Order Elements for Arches and Shells. Conf. in

Finite Element Thin Shell Analysis. New York: J. Wiley (in Press).

18. Scordelis, A. C.; Lo, K. S.: Computer Analysis of Cylindrcal Shells. ACI J.

61,539-561 (1964).

19. Forsberg, K.; Hartung, K.: An Evaluation of Finite Difference and Finite

Element Techniques for Analysis of General Shells. Proc. IUTAM Symposium

on High-Speed Computing of Elastic Structures. Tome 2, pp. 837 -859.

20. Oden, J. T.; Akay, H. U.; Johnson, C. P.: Effect of Higher Order Terms in

Certain Nonlinear Finite Element Models. AIAA J. 11,1589-1590 (1973).

21. Gallagher, R. H.: Finite Element Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear

Problems. In: Theory and Practice in Finite Element Structural Analysis.

Y. Yamada and R. Gallagher, Eds., Univ. of Tokyo Press 1973, pp. 109-123.

22. Stricklin, J.; Haisler, W. E.: Survey of Solution Procedures for Nonlinear

Static and Dynamic Analyses. Proc. of SAE Internat. Conf. on Vehicle

Structural Mechanics. Detroit: Mich. Mar. 1974, pp. 1-17.

23_ Zienkiewicz, O. C.: Incremental Displacement in Nonlinear Analysis. Int.

J. Num. Method in Engrg. 3, No.4, 587-588 (1971)_

24. Gupta, K. K.: Recent Advances in Numerical Analysis of Structural Eigen-

values. In: Theory and Practice in Finite Element Structural Analysis.

Y. Yamada and R. Gallagher, Eds. Univ. of Tokyo Press, 1973, pp. 249-272.

Finite Element Representations 51

Natural Frequencies of Elastic Structures. Quart. J. of Mech. and Applied

Math. XXIV, 263-284 (1964).

26. Mau, S. T.; Gallagher, R. H.: A Finite Element Procedure for Nonlinear

Prebuckling and Initial Postbuckling Analysis. NASA CR-1936, Jan. 1972.

27. Thompson, J. M. T.; Hunt, G. W.: General Theory of Elastic Stability.

London: J. Wiley 1973.

28. Batoz, J.; Dhatt, G.: Buckling of Deep Shells. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Struct.

Mech. in Reactor Technology. Berlin, Sept. 1973, Vol. M, Paper M5/7.

29. Leicester, R. H.: Finite Deformations of Shallow Shells. Proc. ASCE, J. of

the Engrg. Mech. Div., 94, No. EM6, 1409-1421 (1968).

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Symp. for Folded Plates and Prismatic Structures. Vienna 1970.

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